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Chapter 1 The Birth of Civilization MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The earliest period of human culture, the Paleolithic Age, dates from the ____________. A. earliest use of stone tools B. earliest use of fire C. establishment of settled agriculture D. earliest use of bronze Answer: A 2. The earliest Neolithic societies appeared in ____________. A. the Near East B. China C. India D. Africa Answer: A 3. The first civilization arose in ____________. A. China B. Mesopotamia C. India D. Egypt Answer: B 4. The first empire in history was established by the ____________. A. Akkadians B. Sumerians C. Assyrians D. Egyptians Answer: A 5. The common form of slavery in Mesopotamia was ____________. A. racial slavery B. chattel slavery C. indentured servitude D. debt slavery Answer: D 6. Amunemhet I was credited with ____________. A. dividing Upper and Lower Egypt B. moving the old capital near Memphis to Thebes C. destroying the nome structure of governance D. establishing a co-regency system Answer: D 7. Royal Egyptian women, particularly during the Eighteenth Dynasty, ____________. A. wielded considerable influence B. were never depicted in Egyptian art C. were drawn larger than their husbands and sons in art works D. wielded little to no influence Answer: A 8. The Akkadian Empire was the first in history having a heartland, provinces, and a(n) ____________. A. prince B. aristocratic council C. absolute ruler D. monarch Answer: C 9. About 2125 B.C.E. Sumerian ____________ poems were composed, glorifying the deeds of the kings of Ur’s ancestors. A. religious B. epic C. lyric D. elegy Answer: B 10. After one century, the kingdom of Ur disintegrated due to ____________ and invasion. A. famine B. flooding C. disease D. earthquakes Answer: A 11. The Sumerians invented the writing system known as ____________. A. Coptic B. hieroglyphic C. script D. cuneiform Answer: D 12. What ancient Near Eastern empire established a strong centralized government with its capital at Hattusas? A. the Hittites B. the Assyrians C. the Akkadians D. the Egyptians Answer: A 13. Shortly before 1500, the process of smelting ____________ was discovered. A. steel B. bronze C. copper D. iron Answer: D 14. Archaeologists refer to the period after 1100 B.C.E. as the ____________. A. Bronze Age B. Steel Age C. Iron Age D. Copper Age Answer: C 15. The city of Assur had first been a center for trade, but then became a(n) ____________ power during the fourteenth century B.C.E. A. political B. agricultural C. mining D. military Answer: A 16. The ____________ and the Medes attacked Assyria so thoroughly in 612 B.C.E. that Assyria never recovered. A. Israelites B. Mitannians C. Hittites D. Babylonians Answer: D 17. The great Persian Empire arose in the region that is now modern ____________. A. Iraq B. Saudi Arabia C. Iran D. Israel Answer: C 18. In 550 B.C.E., which king captured the capital at Ecbatana and united the Medes and Persians under his rule? A. Herodotus B. Cyrus I C. Cambyses D. Cyrus II Answer: D 19. Around 1000 to 600 B.C.E., a Mede named ____________ changed the traditional Aryan worship. A. Ahura Mazda B. Zarathushtra C. Ahriman D. Vedic Answer: B 20. What became the chief religion of the Persians by the middle of the sixth century B.C.E.? A. Hinduism B. Islam C. Zoroastrianism D. Buddhism Answer: C 21. Which three religions trace their origins to the people who arrived in Palestine a little before 1200 B.C.E.? A. Judaism, Buddhism, and Islam B. Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism C. Judaism, Christianity, and Islam D. Islam, Buddhism, and Sikhism Answer: C 22. The Israelites lost to history became known as the ____________. A. twenty lost tribes B. ten lost tribes C. scattered groups D. lost groups Answer: B 23. The standard form of government in the Mideast was a(n) ____________. A. republic B. parliament C. monarchy D. oligarchy Answer: C 24. The Hebrews, Babylonians, and Egyptians differed in certain specifics, but all held the general idea that cosmic order, human survival, and ____________ all depended on divine will. A. advancement B. profitability C. liberty D. justice Answer: D 25. The Greek school of medicine, led by ____________, attempted to understand, diagnose, and cure disease without any attention to supernatural forces. A. Hippocrates B. Socrates C. Thucydides D. Demosthenes Answer: A 26. The ____________ gets its name from advances in stone tool technology. A. Paleolithic Age B. Neolithic Age C. Chalcolithic Age D. Bronze Age Answer: B 27. The archaeological findings at Neolithic Jericho and Çatal Höyük suggest that the ____________. A. settlement patterns of this period were characterized by upheaval B. settlement patterns of this period were markedly similar C. use of fortifications was widespread D. settlement patterns of this period may be more complicated than previously inferred Answer: D 28. What was revealed in the Code of Hammurabi? A. the King’s plans to conquer the Hurrians B. a code of honorable military actions C. a listing of King Hammurabi’s secrets D. a society divided by class Answer: D 29. The Sumerians developed the first known system for writing, made up of thousands of characters that represented both words and ____________. A. numbers B. sounds C. units of measure D. animals Answer: B 30. Which of the following sums up the Mesopotamian perception of the afterworld? A. The Mesopotamian afterworld was a vague and gloomy place. B. The Mesopotamians believed in an afterworld that was divided by class. C. Entrance into the Mesopotamian afterworld meant rebirth into a more pleasant setting. D. The Mesopotamians did not believe in the existence of an afterworld. Answer: A 31. The largest group of laws in the Code of Hammurabi, showing Hammurabi’s main focus, was on ____________. A. family B. land tenure C. commerce D. religious practice Answer: A 32. According to Hammurabi’s laws, polygamy was based on ____________. A. wealth B. slave owning C. race D. necessity Answer: D 33. Chattel slaves were considered luxuries during most of Mesopotamian history because, unlike debt slaves, chattel slaves had to be ____________. A. inherited B. purchased C. freed D. educated Answer: B 34. Although slaves were considered property and had few legal rights, they could ____________. A. marry free men or women, and their children would usually be free B. disobey their owners’ orders if they were deemed too dangerous C. take paid vacations after working for their masters for one full year D. choose a job in their favorite field Answer: A 35. When the Nile floodwaters receded each year, they left ____________. A. devastated communities in their wake B. miles of ruined farm lands C. a rich layer of organically fertile silt D. an abundance of dead fish on the shore Answer: C 36. The Nile River was considered to be a major highway, primarily because it connected ____________. A. fishers to the Mediterranean Sea B. herdsmen and hunters to the desert C. swamps to inlets D. Upper and Lower Egypt Answer: D 37. What factor contributed most to the success of the Second Assyrian Empire? A. the establishment of a non-centralized government B. the policy of accepting and adopting conquered cultures C. the creation of a large, well-disciplined army D. the creation of a formidable navy Answer: C 38. What was one of the key reasons that tens of thousands of people were forced from their homes and made to resettle close to the Assyrian Empire? A. to create a large Assyrian capital city around the empire B. to ensure a large number of laborers near the empire C. to punish people for not having made tributes to the kings D. to increase population density in certain areas of the empire Answer: D 39. The last few years before Assyria was destroyed are obscure, but the country was, apparently, divided by ____________. A. poverty B. civil war C. religious strife D. racial disharmony Answer: B 40. What is one reason why many Babylonians may have welcomed the Persians who arrived to conquer them in 539 B.C.E.? A. The people were experiencing a severe shortage of food. B. The military refused to allow people to leave the city. C. The king of Babylon had been forcing people to move from their homes. D. The king of Babylon had been forcing them to honor the Moon-god above all other gods. Answer: D 41. What decision associated with the smelting of iron was made in northern Anatolia around 1100 B.C.E.? A. to use iron rather than copper or bronze to manufacture weapons and tools B. to use iron for framing windows C. to use iron in building ships D. to invent a special machine for smelting iron Answer: A 42. Which of these describes the cultural relationship between the Medes and Persians? A. The two groups prayed to different gods, yet had the same religious philosophy. B. The two groups were allies under the Babylonians and continued to be so. C. The two groups were so similar in language and customs that the Greeks used both names interchangeably. D. The two groups were of the same size and were formed at exactly the same time. Answer: C 43. What significant change occurred in the status of the Medes and the Persians when Cyrus II united them under his own rule in 550 B.C.E.? A. Both groups, formerly rich and successful, became poor. B. Both groups, formerly poor and needy, became rich. C. The Medes became rich and successful while the Persians became needy. D. The Persians, formerly subordinate to the Medes, became the dominant group. Answer: D 44. Which of the following best describes the role of the Persian Shahanshah? A. He was appointed by the people and ruled on their behalf. B. His rule was divinely sanctioned, and required tribute and service. C. He was a modest individual who not only ruled his people but was also one of them. D. He was a general who led his people to victory on the battlefield. Answer: B 45. The Persians learned and borrowed from those they encountered and conquered, especially from ____________. A. Greece and Rome B. Mesopotamia and Egypt C. Syria D. Mesopotamia and the Israelites Answer: B 46. Modern scholars view the Hebrew Bible as ____________. A. the definitive source of the history of the Israelites B. a piece of literature to be totally ignored with regard to history C. only one book in a seemingly infinitesimal number of accounts of the Israelites D. a source to be taken seriously, while considering its historical claims with caution Answer: D 47. The Jews conceived of their god as ____________. A. human B. supernatural C. human in shape but not nature D. a force of nature Answer: B 48. Civilizations of the Mideast tend to have which of the following features in common? A. Reason is not employed independent of religion. B. The standard form of government is a republic. C. Religion and politics are separate. D. Individual freedom is important. Answer: A 49. For people of the Mideast, humanity as a group was viewed as ____________. A. able to control nature B. needing to serve themselves C. having been the cause of most disasters D. inseparable from and unable to understand nature Answer: D 50. By the fifth century B.C.E., most Greeks believed that laws should be obeyed because they are ____________. A. divinely established and obedience would appease the gods B. made by humans and represented the consent of the citizens C. made by humans and represented the will of the gods D. established by humans to appease supernatural forces Answer: B 51. What two factors led to the downfall of the kingdom of Ur? A. invasion and inflation B. inflation and famine C. famine and invasion D. invasion and civil war Answer: C 52. Assyrian rulers relied on a system that used governors and military governors because of their empire’s ____________. A. use of slavery B. instability C. oppressive tax system D. vast size Answer: D 53. What does the ancient Persian system of writing reveal about their art and culture? A. The Persians learned much from the people they conquered and adapted it for their own use. B. The Persians were unwilling to adopt cultural practices that were not specifically Persian. C. The Persians adopted the Greek alphabet because they admired Greek culture. D. The Persians imposed their culture on the people they conquered. Answer: A 54. With reference to the Mideast worldview, how would the people of the region most likely have viewed the destruction of a capital city by an army? A. as well deserved B. as the personification of the inherent evil in all of mankind C. as a random misfortune D. as the product of divine will Answer: D 55. What was one major way in which the Hebrew god differed from Babylonian deities? A. The Hebrew god was not open to persuasion. B. The Hebrew god was not powerful and wrathful. C. The Hebrew god was represented by the king. D. The Hebrew god was more predictable. Answer: D Short Answer 56. ____________ may be defined as the ways of living built by a group and passed on from one generation to the next. Answer: Culture 57. The discovery of combining tin and copper to make a stronger and more useful material signified the beginning of the ____________ Age. Answer: Bronze 58. The Babylonian King ____________ is best known for the collection of laws he created that bears his name. Answer: Hammurabi 59. ____________ Egypt referred to the broad triangular area that was formed by the Nile as it branched out to empty into the Mediterranean. Answer: Lower 60. Egyptian history is traditionally divided into thirty-one royal dynasties, starting with that of Menes and ending with the one established by ____________. Answer: Alexander the Great 61. During the Old Kingdom from 2700 to 2200 B.C.E., a pharaoh was king and was also considered a ____________. Answer: god 62. The Assyrians spoke a ____________ language closely related to Babylonian. Answer: Semitic 63. By the early seventh century B.C.E., under the leadership of ____________, the Medes and Babylonians successfully destroyed the Assyrian Empire. Answer: Nebuchadnezzar 64. The greatest achievement of Cambyses was the conquest of Egypt, establishing it as a ____________, or province. Answer: satrapy 65. The Persians adopted ____________ as their official language, the most common language of Middle Eastern commerce. Answer: Aramaic 66. Before the Israelites arrived in Palestine, the land was inhabited by groups of people speaking a Semitic language called ____________. Answer: Canaanite 67. The most famous colony founded by the Phoenicians was that of ____________, near modern Tunis in North Africa. Answer: Carthage 68. ____________ is the belief in one universal God, the creator and ruler of the universe. Answer: Monotheism 69. Through his prophet ____________, the Hebrew god provided humans with regulations that would enable them to live in peace and justice. Answer: Moses 70. The Greek historian ____________ analyzed and explained human behavior completely in terms of human nature and chance, leaving no place for the gods or supernatural forces. Answer: Thucydides ESSAY 71. Throughout the Paleolithic Age, the human population had been small and relatively stable. With the shift from food gathering to food production, however, populations grew exponentially over a period of time. As modern humanity continues to exploit the environment with more efficient methods of agriculture and other means of food production, are we in danger of overpopulating the earth? Will we once again be subject to the same ecological and natural constraints that balanced the Paleolithic population? Apply the chief characteristics of the Neolithic Revolution to modern-day society and decide whether or not the aforementioned scenarios are plausible. Answer: The shift from food gathering to food production during the Neolithic Revolution indeed led to exponential population growth, fueled by increased food security and surplus. Similarly, modern humanity has experienced significant population growth due to advancements in agriculture and technology, allowing for more efficient food production and distribution. However, concerns about overpopulation and ecological strain persist. While modern innovations have mitigated some ecological constraints, such as increasing agricultural yields and expanding into previously uninhabitable regions, they have also introduced new challenges. Chief characteristics of the Neolithic Revolution, including sedentism, domestication of plants and animals, and specialization of labor, are mirrored in modern society's reliance on industrial agriculture, urbanization, and technological advancement. These advancements have enabled unprecedented population growth and economic development but have also led to environmental degradation, resource depletion, habitat loss, and climate change. Therefore, the scenario of overpopulating the earth and facing similar ecological constraints as in the Paleolithic Age is plausible. Modern society must address these challenges through sustainable practices, conservation efforts, renewable energy sources, and population management strategies to ensure long-term environmental stability and human well-being. Failure to do so could lead to detrimental consequences for future generations, highlighting the importance of balancing human needs with environmental sustainability. 72. The civilizations of the ancient Near East were almost exclusively located next to rivers such as the Tigris, the Euphrates, and the Nile. In what way was this geographical factor important? How was it important to the environment and meaningful to the governmental development of societies? Answer: The geographical factor of being located next to rivers like the Tigris, Euphrates, and Nile was crucial for ancient Near Eastern civilizations in several ways. Firstly, rivers provided a reliable source of water for agriculture, enabling societies to develop irrigation systems and cultivate fertile floodplains. This agricultural productivity supported population growth, urbanization, and economic prosperity. Additionally, rivers facilitated trade and transportation, serving as natural highways for the exchange of goods, ideas, and technologies among civilizations. Geographically, river valleys offered natural defenses against invasion and provided fertile land for settlement and development. Furthermore, the dependence on rivers influenced governmental development by necessitating centralized bureaucracies responsible for managing irrigation, taxation, and public works. Thus, rivers were integral to the environmental sustainability, economic development, and political organization of ancient Near Eastern societies. 73. Around 2125 B.C.E. the Sumerian city of Ur rose to dominance. It remained that way for approximately a century. In what ways did the Sumerian culture and literature flourish during this time? What finally ended this period of dominance? Answer: During its period of dominance around 2125 B.C.E., the Sumerian city of Ur experienced significant cultural and literary flourishing. Sumerian culture and literature thrived, producing epic poems, hymns, myths, and legal texts, showcasing the sophistication of Sumerian civilization. The era witnessed the composition of literary works such as the Epic of Gilgamesh and the Code of Ur-Nammu, reflecting Sumerian values, beliefs, and legal norms. Additionally, advancements in architecture, arts, and craftsmanship characterized Ur's cultural achievements. However, the period of Sumerian dominance came to an end due to several factors. Internal strife, external invasion, and environmental challenges, such as drought and agricultural decline, weakened Ur's power and eventually led to its downfall. Additionally, geopolitical shifts and conflicts with neighboring powers may have contributed to Ur's decline. These challenges ultimately disrupted the stability and prosperity that characterized Ur's period of dominance, marking the end of its hegemony in the region. 74. In the approximately 400-year period of prosperity known as the Old Kingdom, pyramids were erected as tombs for the pharaohs. Describe details about these pyramids. What did they represent? What technical skill did they demonstrate? How were the items left inside the pyramids meaningful for the afterlife? Answer: During the Old Kingdom, which lasted roughly from 2686 to 2181 BCE, pyramids were monumental structures constructed primarily as tombs for the pharaohs, the divine rulers of ancient Egypt. These pyramids, such as the famous ones at Giza, represented the pinnacle of ancient Egyptian architectural and engineering prowess. They were not just tombs but also symbols of the pharaoh's power, divine connection, and immortality. The construction of these pyramids demonstrated remarkable technical skill, particularly in quarrying, transporting, and positioning massive stone blocks. The builders used sophisticated engineering techniques to ensure precise alignment and stability, such as the use of inclined planes, ramps, and levers. The sheer scale and precision of these structures continue to awe modern observers. Inside the pyramids, various items were placed to accompany the pharaoh in the afterlife. These items included furniture, food, jewelry, weapons, and other personal belongings, as well as elaborate burial goods like shabti figurines and funerary texts, such as the Pyramid Texts or the Book of the Dead. These offerings were believed to provide the pharaoh with everything they would need in the afterlife, ensuring their eternal comfort and sustenance. The careful preparation and placement of these items reflected the ancient Egyptians' beliefs in the continuity of life after death and the importance of ensuring the well-being of the deceased in the afterlife. 75. The collapse of the Old Kingdom in about 2200 B.C.E. resulted in the First Intermediate Period. This was followed by the Second Intermediate Period in approximately 1630 B.C.E.—a time of imperial glory. Compare and contrast these two periods. Answer: The First Intermediate Period (c. 2181–2055 BCE) and the Second Intermediate Period (c. 1650–1550 BCE) were both characterized by political instability and fragmentation in ancient Egypt, but they differed significantly in their causes, consequences, and eventual outcomes. During the First Intermediate Period, the collapse of central authority led to a breakdown of the traditional political order established during the Old Kingdom. This resulted in the emergence of regional power struggles, with provincial governors (nomarchs) asserting greater autonomy and competing for control. The country was divided into rival factions, leading to a period of decentralization and weakened central authority. Cultural and artistic production declined, and administrative systems faltered as the once-unified state fragmented. In contrast, the Second Intermediate Period saw the rise of foreign powers, particularly the Hyksos, who invaded and conquered parts of Egypt. The Hyksos, believed to have originated from the Levant, established their capital at Avaris in the Nile Delta and ruled over Lower Egypt for several generations. Unlike the First Intermediate Period, which was characterized by internal strife and regional disunity, the Second Intermediate Period saw foreign domination and the imposition of a new ruling elite. However, it also witnessed significant cultural exchange and technological transfer between Egypt and its foreign conquerors. Both periods marked significant disruptions in Egypt's political and social order, but they also laid the groundwork for subsequent periods of renewal and resurgence. The First Intermediate Period, despite its chaos, paved the way for the reunification of Egypt under the Middle Kingdom, while the Second Intermediate Period eventually culminated in the expulsion of the Hyksos and the establishment of the New Kingdom, a time of imperial glory and renewed centralization under powerful pharaohs. 76. Egyptian religious views were varied and often included contradictions. Solar cults developed in a mostly rain-free area. The afterlife was considered to be full of danger, which could be overcome with spells listed in the Book of the Dead. Explain how these factors caused contradictory religious beliefs during this time period. Answer: The diverse religious beliefs in ancient Egypt often reflected the complex interplay of geography, culture, and evolving theological concepts. The development of solar cults in a predominantly arid region like Egypt, where rainfall was scarce, highlights the importance of the sun as a life-giving force and a symbol of divine power and renewal. However, this emphasis on solar deities and celestial cycles coexisted with other religious traditions, such as the worship of fertility goddesses like Isis and Osiris, which emphasized themes of resurrection and rebirth associated with the annual flooding of the Nile. The concept of the afterlife in ancient Egypt was multifaceted and dynamic, reflecting both the hope for eternal life and the fear of dangers lurking in the realm of the dead. The belief in a perilous journey through the underworld, fraught with challenges and obstacles, necessitated careful preparation and ritual protection to ensure a successful transition to the afterlife. This belief gave rise to texts like the Book of the Dead, which contained spells, prayers, and instructions to guide the deceased through the trials of the afterlife and secure their place among the blessed dead. The coexistence of solar cults, fertility rituals, and funerary beliefs in ancient Egypt led to a rich tapestry of religious practices and beliefs that could sometimes appear contradictory. However, these apparent contradictions also reflected the multifaceted nature of Egyptian religion, which encompassed a diverse array of cults, myths, and rituals, each serving different functions and addressing various aspects of human experience and the divine realm. 77. Ancient historians tended to focus on particular aspects of civilization when compiling their histories. If you were to write the history of one of the ancient Near Eastern Empires, what would be your primary focus? Would it be architecture, religion, or political structures? Explain the reasoning behind your answer. Answer: If I were to write the history of an ancient Near Eastern empire, my primary focus would likely be on political structures. Political systems and institutions played a central role in shaping the dynamics of ancient societies, influencing everything from governance and administration to social hierarchies and international relations. Studying political structures provides insights into the exercise of power, the organization of society, and the mechanisms of statecraft employed by ancient rulers and elites. By examining the evolution of political institutions, the distribution of authority, and the role of rulership in maintaining social order and stability, one can gain a deeper understanding of the underlying dynamics driving historical events and societal changes within the empire. While architecture and religion are undoubtedly important aspects of ancient civilizations, they often intersect with and are influenced by political factors. For example, monumental architecture, such as temples and palaces, served not only religious and ceremonial functions but also conveyed political messages of authority and legitimacy. Similarly, religious beliefs and practices often intersected with political ideologies, as rulers sought to align themselves with divine forces and harness religious authority to bolster their rule. By focusing on political structures, one can unravel the complexities of governance, power dynamics, and statecraft within ancient empires, shedding light on the mechanisms through which societies were organized, governed, and maintained. This approach allows for a comprehensive exploration of the political history of the empire, illuminating the interplay between rulers, institutions, and subjects that shaped its rise and fall. 78. Discuss the administration of the Persian Empire. What factors do you believe contributed to the establishment of this form of administration? Answer: The administration of the Persian Empire was characterized by a highly centralized and efficient bureaucratic system that enabled the governance of a vast and diverse territory spanning from Anatolia to the Indus Valley. Several factors contributed to the establishment of this form of administration: 1. Satrapies: The Persian Empire was divided into provinces called satrapies, each governed by a satrap appointed by the king. Satraps were responsible for collecting taxes, maintaining order, and administering justice within their respective provinces. However, they were also closely monitored by royal inspectors to prevent abuse of power. 2. Royal Road: The Persian Empire developed an extensive network of roads, including the famous Royal Road, which facilitated communication, trade, and the rapid movement of troops across the empire. This infrastructure was crucial for maintaining political control and facilitating administrative efficiency. 3. Imperial Bureaucracy: The Persian administration relied on a complex bureaucracy composed of scribes, administrators, and royal officials who managed the day-to-day affairs of the empire. Records were meticulously kept, documenting everything from tax revenues to land ownership, allowing for effective governance and resource management. 4. Cyrus the Great's Policies: The administrative policies implemented by Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire, laid the groundwork for the efficient governance of the Persian Empire. Cyrus famously practiced tolerance towards conquered peoples, allowing them to retain their cultural and religious practices, which helped to maintain stability and loyalty within the empire. 5. Standardized Coinage: The introduction of standardized coinage, such as the daric and the siglos, facilitated economic transactions and promoted trade within the empire. This centralized monetary system helped to unify the diverse regions of the empire under Persian control. Overall, the establishment of a centralized bureaucracy, efficient communication networks, and policies of tolerance and integration were key factors that contributed to the successful administration of the Persian Empire. 79. The greatest contribution of the Jews is the development of monotheism—the belief in one universal God, the creator and ruler of the universe. Juxtapose monotheism with the more common practice of polytheism—the worship of many gods. What are the perceived “advantages” of monotheism? What are the “disadvantages”? Explain. Answer: Monotheism, as exemplified by the religion of Judaism, contrasts with the more widespread practice of polytheism, where multiple gods or deities are worshipped. There are perceived advantages and disadvantages to both belief systems: Advantages of Monotheism: - Unity and Cohesion: Monotheism promotes a sense of unity and cohesion among believers, as they worship a single, all-powerful deity who is seen as the source of morality, justice, and truth. - Moral Accountability: Belief in a single God who is omniscient and omnipotent fosters a sense of moral accountability, as individuals are held responsible for their actions by a divine authority. - Simplicity and Clarity: Monotheism offers a simpler and more coherent worldview compared to polytheism, as there is a single divine being to whom all phenomena and events can be attributed. Disadvantages of Monotheism: - Intolerance: Monotheistic religions have historically been associated with religious exclusivism and intolerance towards other faiths, as believers may view their own religion as the sole source of truth and salvation. - Dogmatism: Monotheistic belief systems can sometimes lead to dogmatism and rigid adherence to religious doctrines, stifling intellectual inquiry and dissent within religious communities. - Existential Anxiety: The concept of a single, all-powerful God can provoke existential anxiety and feelings of insignificance among believers, as they grapple with the mystery of divine will and the purpose of human existence. Overall, monotheism offers a sense of unity, moral accountability, and clarity of belief, but it can also lead to intolerance, dogmatism, and existential challenges for believers. 80. The civilizations of the Mideast differed greatly from those of the Greeks in religion, philosophy, science, law, politics, and government. Discuss these views and what effect these views had on the lives of the people in the Mideast. Answer: The civilizations of the Middle East, encompassing ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Persia, differed significantly from those of the Greeks in various aspects of religion, philosophy, science, law, politics, and government: - Religion: The religions of the Middle East, such as ancient Mesopotamian polytheism, Egyptian mythology, and Zoroastrianism in Persia, often revolved around elaborate pantheons of gods and goddesses, with rituals and ceremonies dedicated to appeasing divine forces. In contrast, Greek religion emphasized anthropomorphic gods and mythical narratives that influenced art, literature, and civic life. - Philosophy: While the Greeks are renowned for their philosophical inquiries into the nature of existence, ethics, and knowledge, the civilizations of the Middle East focused more on practical wisdom, ethical codes, and religious teachings handed down through oral tradition and sacred texts. - Science: Ancient Mesopotamia made significant contributions to astronomy, mathematics, and medicine, while Egypt excelled in engineering, architecture, and agriculture. Persia, under the Achaemenid Empire, fostered intellectual exchange and patronized scholars and scientists from diverse cultural backgrounds. - Law: The Code of Hammurabi in Mesopotamia and the legal codes of ancient Egypt provided guidelines for social conduct and justice, often reflecting the authority of rulers and divine mandates. In Greece, legal systems evolved through democratic processes and deliberative assemblies, such as the Athenian democracy. - Politics and Government: The civilizations of the Middle East developed centralized bureaucratic systems of governance, with divine kingship and imperial administration playing significant roles in maintaining order and stability. In contrast, Greek city-states experimented with various forms of government, including democracy, oligarchy, and tyranny, each reflecting different conceptions of political authority and civic participation. These differences in religion, philosophy, science, law, politics, and government had profound effects on the lives of the people in the Middle East, shaping their worldview, cultural practices, social organization, and interactions with neighboring civilizations. While the Greeks valued individual autonomy, rational inquiry, and democratic ideals, the civilizations of the Middle East emphasized tradition, divine authority, and collective identity, contributing to the diversity and richness of ancient Near Eastern cultures. Test Bank for The Western Heritage : Combined Volume Donald M. Kagan, Steven Ozment, Frank M. Turner, Alison Frank, Gregory Francis Viggiano 9780205896318, 9780134104102

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