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Module 1—Discovering Psychology
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. Module One is introduced with a discussion of autism and test anxiety. In doing so, the
author of your textbook is suggesting:
a. that psychology attempts to answer questions about complex problems
b. the importance of accurate diagnoses
c. that a careful definition of maladaptive behavior is important
d. that psychology’s main focus is on abnormal behaviors
Answer: A
2. Which of the following people is most likely to be diagnosed with autism?
a. Ryan, a five-year-old who is retarded but has a special ability to relate well with others
b. Paul, a two-year-old who avoids people and spends long periods of time flipping his
fingers
c. Ben, a six-year-old who has a history of depression
d. Anne, a ten-year-old who just recently has begun to withdraw from others
Answer: B
3. According to Module One, some parents blame ____ for their child’s autism.
a. prenatal viruses
b. diet
c. vaccinations during childhood
d. brain injury during childbirth
Answer: C
4. The disorder characterized by impaired development in social interactions, communication,
and ritualistic behavior is:
a. childhood depression
b. attention deficit disorder
c. autism
d. Down syndrome
Answer: C
5. Who is most likely to be diagnosed with autism and why?
a. Perry—autism is more likely to affect firstborn children

b. Daleesha—autism affects 10 times as many African Americans than other ethnic groups
c. Mi—autism affects 2 times as many girls than boys
d. Ryan—autism affects 3 to 4 times as many boys than girls
Answer: D
6. The local theater group is putting on a play depicting the struggles of a 16-year old autistic
male. Since the director wants the acting to be as realistic as possible, he should tell the actor
portraying the autistic child to:
a. “show normal social behavior on stage”
b. “display moody behavior”
c. “demonstrate purposeful behavior”
d. “act disinterested in the other actors on stage”
Answer: D
7. You’ve just read a case history of an individual. This person has a difficult time relating to
other people, has very serious problems in communication, and spends a lot of his time
rocking back and forth. Which of the following is the most appropriate title for this case
history?
a. “Autism: A Serious Developmental Disorder”
b. “Mental Retardation: Lower Than Average Intelligence”
c. “A Case History of Munchausen Syndrome”
d. “The Effects of Avoidance Disorder”
Answer: A
8. While doing an internship at a group home for those with mental and physical disabilities,
you meet a resident who can tell you what day any date fell on for the past 100 years. This
person is probably:
a. a shaman
b. a savant
c. suffering from schizophrenia
d. very good at critical thinking
Answer: B
9. You are on a game show that awards one million dollars to successful contestants. One of
the questions asks you for the term given to an autistic individual who possesses a special
memory or artistic skill. If you want to win the money, you should say:
a. a savant
b. a person with Type II schizophrenia

c. a humanist
d. an individual with fragile X syndrome
Answer: A
10. Researchers working on the causes of autism have recently found:
a. a virus is involved
b. toxins in groundwater play a role
c. several genetic factors are involved
d. poor health care is involved
Answer: C
11. Dr. Myerson, a noted authority on autism, argues that science is getting closer to
understanding the cause of the disorder. Which of the following suspected causes is among
the most promising?
a. unconscious conflicts
b. parenting styles
c. genetic links
d. childhood vaccinations
Answer: C
12. With only a couple of moments left in class, your professor says, “In the next class
meeting, we will discuss a condition found in very few autistic people where they possess
some unusual ability.” Since you keep up on the textbook reading, you know that the
professor is referring to:
a. metacognition
b. savants
c. ritual behavior
d. ADHD
Answer: B
13. The prevalence of autism in the last 20 years has:
a. stayed about the same
b. increased slightly
c. decreased to a moderate degree
d. increased significantly
Answer: D

14. You are trying to convince your friend who is the mother of an autistic child that
psychology is a worthwhile field of study. Which statement would be most effective?
a. Introduction to Psychology is a required course.
b. Most employers expect a class in psychology.
c. Psychology can provide insights into the causes of complex behavior.
d. The unconscious mind is the focus of study in psychology.
Answer: C
15. The increase in autism is most probably due to:
a. the breakdown of the family
b. increased air and water pollution
c. childhood vaccinations
d. better awareness by parents and doctors
Answer: D
16. The definition of psychology presented in your textbook is:
a. the systematic, scientific study of behaviors and mental processes.
b. the study of abnormal behaviors and ways to psychoanalyze individuals.
c. the systematic application of science to helping people who are mentally disturbed.
d. the systematic, scientific study of human behavior.
Answer: A
17. Who is least likely to have taken a psychology course?
a. Kevin believes that behavior refers to observable actions.
b. Kyle argues that thinking and dreaming are examples of behaviors.
c. Karen says, “Psychology is the systematic, scientific study of behaviors and mental
processes.”
d. Kesha believes that mental processes are not directly observable.
Answer: B
18. Inez was attempting to recite the definition of psychology she read in her psychology
textbook. She said that psychology is the systematic study of behavior and mental processes.
What important word did she omit?
a. rigorous
b. controlled
c. psychoanalytical

d. scientific
Answer: D
19. Based upon Module One, for a phenomenon to be studied in psychology, it must be:
a. a behavior or a mental process
b. an abnormal behavior or abnormal mental process
c. an unconscious mental process
d. approved by the American Psychological Association
Answer: A
20. In the definition of psychology presented in your text, the term behavior refers to:
a. mental processes
b. observable actions or responses
c. thinking
d. actions performed only by human beings
Answer: B
21. Professor Yates is lecturing on the definition of psychology. Which example of
“behavior” should he use to most effectively communicate the definition?
a. “Behavior consists of activities such as thinking, forgetting, and problem-solving.”
b. “Acts such as eating, walking, and running are examples of behavior.”
c. “Behavior is synonymous with internal processes like memory and learning.”
d. “We make no distinction between the observable and the unobservable—anything that a
person does is behavior.”
Answer: B
22. Mental processes are described in your textbook as:
a. directly observable
b. observable actions
c. not directly observable
d. only behaviors performed by human beings
Answer: C
23. As Professor Gilpin is lecturing on the definition of psychology, he asks a student, Rita, to
think about an example of a mental process. After thinking about it, Rita is still confused by
the term mental processes. To clarify the term, Professor Gilpin should:
a. ask a brighter student to define mental processes

b. point out to Rita that mental processes are emphasized by the learning approach
c. suggest that Rita use the SQ3R approach described in her text
d. suggest that Rita, in her attempt to think about mental processes, was in fact giving an
example of a mental process
Answer: D
24. The definition of psychology has evolved over time:
a. without much dissent or discussion
b. from specific to more broad
c. from broad to more specific
d. from a focus on humans to a focus on animals
Answer: B
25. Behavior is to mental processes as ____ is (are) to ____.
a. thinking; dreaming
b. thoughts; actions
c. observable; not directly observable
d. not directly observable; observable
Answer: C
26. The four goals of psychology are to describe, explain, predict, and:
a. test
b. interact
c. observe
d. control
Answer: D
27. People smile. This statement best illustrates the ____ goal of psychology.
a. describe
b. analyze
c. explain
d. summarize
Answer: A
28. People smile because they are happy. This statement best illustrates the ____ goal of
psychology.

a. describe
b. analyze
c. explain
d. summarize
Answer: C
29. The statement, “I bet you will smile when you hear good news,” best illustrates the ____
goal of psychology.
a. predict
b. analyze
c. explain
d. summarize
Answer: A
30. An outdated idea of autism is that it was caused by cold and rejecting parents. This idea is
most closely related to which goal of psychology?
a. describe
b. explain
c. predict
d. control
Answer: B
31. Joseph said that several years ago in a long food line in the Soviet Union, an elderly
woman fell to the ground and died of a heart attack. No one helped her. He added that this
lack of helping is probably due to a social psychological concept called “diffusion of
responsibility.” Joseph is fulfilling which goal of psychology?
a. to explain behavior
b. to predict behavior
c. to control behavior
d. to influence behavior
Answer: A
32. In a documentary on TV, you hear of juvenile delinquents who have a hard time
managing their anger. A psychologist has taught these troubled youths to think of how other
people feel when they lose their temper so that they can reduce their anger episodes. This
application of psychology illustrates which goal?
a. to explain behavior

b. to predict behavior
c. to control behavior
d. to influence behavior
Answer: C
33. A 4th grade teacher says to one of his students, “The next time you get away from your
desk, I am going to take away 5 minutes from your recess time.” This example best illustrates
the ____ goal of psychology.
a. describe
b. explain
c. predict
d. control
Answer: D
34. Select the option that best illustrates an attempt to control behavior.
a. Mrs. Quinn, a third-grade teacher, is planning a new approach to reduce inattention in some
of her students.
b. Short-term memory holds about seven pieces of information.
c. The brain structure called the thalamus relays sensory information to other parts of the
brain.
d. Most people are likely to obey an authority figure.
Answer: A
35. When someone is presenting their focus or perspective in understanding behavior, their
_______ is being described.
a. goal
b. structuralism
c. approach
d. correlation
Answer: C
36. Professor Wrastler is presenting modern approaches to psychology. As a well-prepared
student, you notice an error Professor Wrastler makes in his lecture. What was the error you
noticed?
a. He says, “The different approaches have different perspectives.”
b. He writes on the chalkboard, “Different approaches, same research methods.”

c. He says, “All of the modern approaches in psychology look at the same psychological
phenomenon from different viewpoints.”
d. He says and writes on the chalkboard, “The seven common approaches include biological,
cognitive, behavioral, psychoanalytic, humanistic, cross-cultural, and evolutionary.”
Answer: B
37. The ____ approach studies how our genes, hormones, and nervous system interact with
the environment to influence a variety of mental processes and behaviors.
a. biological
b. cognitive
c. behavioral
d. psychoanalytic
Answer: A
38. In her research, Dr. Zhing has found abnormalities in parts of the brains of many autistic
children. Dr. Zhing most likely uses the ____ approach.
a. behavioral
b. evolutionary
c. biological
d. psychoanalytic
Answer: C
39. Which of the following brain areas seem to process both objects and human faces in
autistic individuals?
a. basal ganglia
b. cerebellum
c. fusiform gyrus
d. inferior temporal gyrus
Answer: D
40. Based on the research presented in the textbook, why would autistic individuals have
difficulty distinguishing objects from human faces?
a. The autistic brain uses the inferior temporal gyrus to process objects and the fusiform gyrus
to process faces.
b. The autistic brain uses the same brain area to process objects and faces.
c. Autistic children have shortages of certain proteins in their brains.
d. The basal ganglia appears to be larger than normal in the autistic brain.

Answer: B
41. If there was some dysfunction in mirror neurons, what deficiency might we see in a
person?
a. Alzheimer’s disease
b. memory problems
c. linking action and thought
d. understanding emotions in other people
Answer: D
42. The research finding that autism is linked to defects in genes provides support for which
modern approach?
a. biological
b. cognitive
c. behavioral
d. psychoanalytic
Answer: A
43. According to the biological approach, why do autistic children often fail to understand the
nonverbal behavior of others?
a. there is less activity in mirror neurons which are involved in empathy
b. brain injury during childbirth
c. some unconscious conflict prevents them from experiencing empathy
d. these children never learned how to correctly read nonverbal behavior
Answer: A
44. A biological perspective of a mental disorder may suggest that:
a. a mental disorder is the result of traumatic experiences
b. distorted perception is the main cause of mental disorders
c. mental disorders can often be traced to brain dysfunction
d. poor stress management techniques are the main cause of most mental disorders
Answer: C
45. Dr. Walsh is a psychobiologist and has published her work in several scientific journals.
Of the following, which is the most likely journal to accept her papers?
a. Journal of Behavior and Brain
b. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology

c. Journal of Cognitive Psychology
d. Psychometrics in Education
Answer: A
46. Stacey believes that, ultimately, the causes of all types of mental disorders will be traced
to imbalances in brain chemicals. This statement best represents which psychological
perspective?
a. humanistic
b. cognitive
c. evolutionary
d. biological
Answer: D
47. Of the following activities, which is most likely to increase palmar sweating?
a. public speaking
b. crossing out all the “t’s” in a newspaper article
c. watching a boring movie
d. sitting in a warm sauna
Answer: A
48. You shake hands with a person right before she speaks to a large audience. You notice that
her hands are sweaty. Assuming that she is nervous, her moist hands are called:
a. hypertrophism
b. empathetic sweating
c. palmar sweating
d. hypotrophism
Answer: C
49. One of the best measures of the emotional component of test anxiety is:
a. excessive worrying
b. procrastination
c. attributing success to external causes
d. palmar sweating
Answer: D
50. A cognitive psychologist may study the way we memorize a telephone number by:

a. investigating how we process and store the number in memory
b. analyzing the rewards available for successful memorization
c. researching the extent to which good memory skills are common in a family
d. interviewing to determine what unconscious motives may be associated with certain
telephone numbers that a person has memorized
Answer: A
51. Jerry is interested in discovering how people process, store, and use information. His
interests reflect which psychological perspective?
a. Biological
b. Humanistic
c. Cognitive
d. Evolutionary
Answer: C
52. Which set of words best fits with the cognitive perspective?
a. cerebellum, brain, biology
b. reinforcement, punishment, learning
c. process, learn, remember
d. unconscious, fears, guilty
Answer: C
53. As the professor hands him the exam, Andre thinks to himself, “Oh, if I don’t do well on
this exam, I’ll lose my scholarship. And if I lose my scholarship ...” Andre is clearly worrying
about his performance. This is an example of the ____ component of test anxiety.
a. biological
b. cognitive
c. behavioral
d. psychoanalytic
Answer: B
54. In your psychology class tomorrow, a guest lecturer will present her research on
identifying the areas of the brain that regulate planning leisure activities. She must specialize
in:
a. cognitive neuroscience
b. clinical psychology

c. functionalism
d. structuralism
Answer: A
55. ____ studies cognitive skills by identifying the corresponding areas in the brain.
a. Gestalt psychology
b. Humanistic psychology
c. Cognitive neuroscience
d. Psychoanalysis
Answer: C
56. While a person with autism is listening to a conversation, what area of the brain is
primarily used?
a. cortex
b. right side of the brain
c. medulla
d. temporal lobe
Answer: B
57. Why might autistic individuals have problems with language and communication skills?
a. The right and left side of the brain do not communicate with each other.
b. They tend to process language in both sides of the brain
c. They tend to process language in the right side of the brain.
d. The temporal lobe does not effectively share information with the frontal lobe.
Answer: C
58. If you had to write a book that describes the basic principle of behaviorism, which title
would be best to select?
a. Your Genes Are Your Friends
b. The Inner World
c. Studying the Unconscious
d. Rewards and Punishments
Answer: D
59. The rules that Donna, the autistic individual described in Module One, devised to control
her unwanted behavior, best illustrate the ____ approach.

a. behavioral
b. psychoanalytic
c. cross-cultural
d. humanistic
Answer: A
60. You hear a motivational speaker who suggests that people need to modify their
environment to change behavior. You probably detect a hint of the ____ perspective in the
speech.
a. cognitive
b. behavioral
c. psychoanalytic
d. cross-cultural
Answer: B
61. Psychologists adopting a behavioral perspective to the study of psychology look for
explanations in:
a. the hereditary background of a person
b. the person’s environment
c. idiosyncrasies of the brain
d. unique physical characteristics that may influence thinking
Answer: B
62. Rob has taught his dog to roll over on command by rewarding the dog with food
whenever she exhibits the appropriate action. Rob’s approach to teaching his dog tricks is
similar to which psychological perspective?
a. biological
b. behavioral
c. cognitive
d. psychoanalytic
Answer: B
63. The behavioral approach was influenced greatly by the work of ____, who stressed the
study of observable behavior and reinforcement and punishment.
a. Sigmund Freud
b. Abraham Maslow

c. Erik Erikson
d. B. F. Skinner
Answer: D
64. “All that really matters in our study is how environmental reinforcers influence
observable behavior. Forget about mental processes.” Who might have said this?
a. Sigmund Freud—the social cognitive theorist
b. Abraham Maslow—the strict behaviorist
c. B. F. Skinner—the strict behaviorist
d. Albert Bandura—the social cognitive theorist
Answer: C
65. A revised approach to behaviorism, which examines mental or cognitive processes as well
as observable behaviors, is called the ____ approach.
a. psychoanalytic
b. cognitive
c. social cognitive
d. structuralism
Answer: C
66. “Our understanding of behavior must include an understanding of observable behavior as
well as cognitive processes.” Which theorist might have said that?
a. Albert Bandura
b. Sigmund Freud
c. Abraham Maslow
d. Carl Rogers
Answer: A
67. Albert Bandura believed that our behaviors could be influenced by:
a. observations, imitation, and thought processes in addition to the environment
b. understanding our reflexive actions
c. introspection
d. dream analysis
Answer: A
68. Select the set of words that are most closely related to the psychoanalytic approach?

a. cerebellum, palmar sweating, serotonin
b. personal growth, freedom, potential
c. unconscious, dream interpretation, anxiety
d. reinforcement, punishment, behavior
Answer: C
69. Sigmund Freud developed which of the following modern approaches?
a. behavioral
b. cognitive
c. humanistic
d. psychoanalytic
Answer: D
70. Seth claims that Juan’s anxiety originates from unresolved sexual conflicts residing in his
unconscious. Seth’s observation about Juan is most consistent with the ____ perspective.
a. behavioral
b. cognitive
c. humanistic
d. psychoanalytic
Answer: D
71. If Mark has thoughts that make him feel fearful and guilty, Freud would say these
thoughts would be:
a. classically conditioned
b. totally normal and have no effect on Mark’s actual behavior
c. pushed into Mark’s unconscious
d. reinforced by negative thoughts
Answer: C
72. According to the psychoanalytic perspective, when is the most critical time of life in the
development of personality traits?
a. early childhood
b. early adolescence
c. late adolescence
d. young adulthood

Answer: A
73. Which of the following schools of thought believes that our dreams could be interpreted
to reveal unconscious fears?
a. structuralism
b. functionalism
c. behaviorism
d. psychoanalytic
Answer: D
74. Consider this: It is the early 20th century and you are Freud’s personal assistant. As you
listen to him speak, you can anticipate what he is about to say. One time, Freud is saying,
“Anxiety, fear, and psychological problems are caused by ...” and he pauses as he thinks. You
suddenly say to him what would ultimately become a key concept in psychoanalytic thought.
What did you say?
a. “... unfulfilled human potential!”
b. “... an imbalance in brain chemicals like serotonin!”
c. “... unconscious conflicts and feelings!”
d. “... excessive rewards and punishments!”
Answer: C
75. Karen believes that her boyfriend is afraid of making commitments because of an
unconscious hatred for his mother. Her belief is closest to which psychological perspective?
a. humanistic
b. psychoanalytic
c. cross-cultural
d. cognitive
Answer: B
76. In Freud’s theory, unconscious, threatening thoughts and feelings lead to:
a. unresolved sexual conflicts
b. anxiety, fear, and psychological problems
c. changes in the cerebellum
d. an inability to self-actualize
Answer: B
77. What personality traits may underlie test anxiety?

a. procrastination and depression
b. neuroticism and interpersonal conflict
c. neuroticism and external locus of control
d. susceptibility and external locus of control
Answer: C
78. Research on test anxiety from the ____ perspective focuses on the unconscious reason for
____.
a. psychoanalytic; procrastination
b. cognitive; gender differences
c. humanistic; cultural differences
d. psychoanalytic; differing explanations
Answer: A
79. Working from the psychoanalytic perspective, a psychologist examining a student’s
procrastination would focus on:
a. brain chemical imbalance
b. unconscious personality problems
c. poor planning skills
d. how procrastination is reinforced
Answer: B
80. Which school of thought discusses behavior in terms of a person’s potential for growth
and self-fulfillment?
a. psychoanalytical
b. behavioral
c. cognitive
d. humanistic
Answer: D
81. Professor Kaufman is showing a film describing the modern approaches to psychology.
The video is operating, but the sound is not. On the screen you see an individual named
Abraham Maslow. If the sound was turned on, which of the following words would you
probably hear from Maslow as he describes his views?
a. “... potential for self-fulfillment is important ...”
b. “... their environment determines their behaviors ...”

c. “... the biology of the brain is critical for understanding ...”
d. “... importance of personal freedom and unconscious motives ...”
Answer: A
82. This year’s graduation speaker spoke of the graduates’ ability to control their future by
becoming anything that they wished. The speaker has most probably been influenced by
which psychological perspective?
a. behavioral
b. cognitive
c. humanistic
d. psychoanalytic
Answer: C
83. Eric is trying to encourage himself to develop his full potential as a human being by
learning that he is in control of his fate. What psychological perspective has Eric adopted?
a. humanistic
b. psychoanalytic
c. behavioral
d. cross-cultural
Answer: A
84. There are many behaviorists who argue that the humanistic approach is more of a
philosophy of life rather than a science of human behavior because humanists:
a. fail to use rigorous experimental methods
b. emphasize environmental effects on behavior
c. focus on genetic predisposition to temperament
d. do not believe that people have intrinsic worth
Answer: A
85. Miranda, a very good student, received an “A” on an exceptionally hard math exam. Her
friend Thomas asked, “Why did you get such a good grade?” According to the research cited
in the textbook, Miranda is most likely to reply:
a. “The instructor likes me.”
b. “I guess it’s just luck.”
c. “I worked hard and I didn’t procrastinate.”
d. “The test was too easy.”

Answer: C
86. With your knowledge of the existing research on how students explain their exam
performance, what piece of advice would you give to new teachers?
a. Set strict rules for classroom behavior
b. Try to ignore failure and recognize achievement
c. Be blunt and to the point about the future of students who do not do well in school
d. Be supportive and encourage those who perform poorly on tests to reach their highest
potential.
Answer: D
87. An implication of the humanistic perspective for teachers is to:
a. reinforce appropriate behavior and punish inappropriate behavior
b. help students to develop more faith in their subjective feelings
c. help students identify unconscious motives for their procrastination
d. help students to explain success in terms of luck
Answer: B
88. About 70 years ago, a prevailing explanation of autism was:
a. cold parents
b. threatening unconscious feelings
c. biological causes
d. a lack of reinforcement in the child’s school setting
Answer: A
89. Jared is a 12-year-old boy with autism. At what age was he most likely to have been
diagnosed with autism?
a. 6 months old
b. 1 year old
c. 30 months old
d. 6 years old
Answer: C
90. Why is an autistic child likely to receive a diagnosis of reactive attachment disorder in
South Korea?
a. There is no governmental money for treatment for autism.
b. It is a subtle message to parents about their role in the disorder.

c. Physicians lack the training to make a diagnosis of autism.
d. Autism is a very stigmatizing diagnosis.
Answer: D
91. The sociocultural approach adds a valuable dimension to psychology in suggesting that:
a. in order to be a fully developed person, you must spend some time living with other groups
b. anthropology explains behavior better than psychology does
c. the culture in which you grow up affects your thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
d. what psychology learns about one race is probably not true about other races
Answer: C
92. A young inexperienced teacher from the rural Midwest is hired to teach in an inner-city
public school. In her class, there are a number of cultures and races represented. She is
confused by the differences between students in regard to achievement and behavior. Which
of the following approaches would most likely provide insights into differences among her
students?
a. sociocultural
b. behavioral
c. ethological
d. psychoanalytic
Answer: A
93. American students experience test anxiety through ________ symptoms, but Indian
students experience it through ________ symptoms.
a. behavioral; emotional
b. cognitive; emotional
c. cognitive; physical
d. physical; emotional
Answer: C
94. The evolutionary approach explains behavior and mental processes by focusing on:
a. unconscious factors
b. adaptation and natural selection
c. learned behavior
d. biological influences
Answer: B

95. Which of the following approaches to the study of psychology do you think would be
considered the most wide-reaching?
a. biopsychosocial
b. structural
c. cognitive
d. developmental
Answer: A
96. The term “integrative” is probably most applicable to which of the following approaches
to psychology?
a. neurocognitive
b. Gestalt
c. biopsychosocial
d. developmental
Answer: C
97. Given the historical changes in the definition of psychology, which of the following
definitions would have been more likely to be used in the early years of psychology?
a. Psychology is the study of observable behavior.
b. Psychology is the study of behaviors and mental processes.
c. Psychology is the study of the basic elements of sensation and perception.
d. Psychology is the study of observable actions and cognitive functions.
Answer: C
98. Structuralists focused on ____, whereas functionalists focused on ____.
a. elements of the mind; adaptability of the mind
b. objective measurements; subjects’ self-reports
c. adaptability of the mind; introspection
d. the continuous flow of mental activity; breaking down mental structures into smaller units
Answer: A
99. Structuralism required subjects to introspect in order to:
a. report on the basic elements of their mental processes
b. complete objective measures of mental functioning
c. assemble sensations into meaningful perceptions

d. be psychoanalyzed
Answer: A
100. If Wilhelm Wundt asked you to report your sensations and perceptions by looking
inward, you would be engaging in:
a. Functionalism
b. Introspection
c. Psychoanalysis
d. Psychometrics
Answer: B
101. Introspection was later criticized as a research method because it:
a. required too many behavioral observations
b. focused solely on objective measurements and not on self-reports
c. was only useful with psychologically disturbed patients
d. was unscientific since it did not use objective measurement, but rather used only selfreports
Answer: D
102. Functionalism focused on:
a. having subjects look inward and report on the workings of their minds
b. the fact that perception was more than the sum of its parts
c. how the mind helped the organism to adapt to its surroundings
d. the objective, scientific analysis of observable behaviors
Answer: C
103. Wundt was to structuralism as:
a. Freud was to experimentation
b. James was to psychoanalysis
c. Skinner was to ethology
d. James was to functionalism
Answer: D
104. An article entitled, “The Mind: Goals and Purposes” would be most likely written by
someone who identifies with:
a. Wundt and structuralism

b. James and functionalism
c. Wertheimer and Gestalt psychology
d. Watson and structuralism
Answer: B
105. What important book did William James publish in 1890?
a. Principles of Psychology
b. Introduction to Psychology
c. Psychology as a Behaviorist Views It
d. The Structure of Psychological Thought
Answer: A
106. The father of modern psychology is considered to be:
a. Sigmund Freud
b. George Sanchez
c. William James
d. B.F. Skinner
Answer: C
107. The term Gestalt refers to:
a. structuralism
b. observable behaviors
c. introspection
d. the whole pattern
Answer: D
108. The ____ approach emphasizes looking at the whole, rather than the sum of its parts.
a. behavioral
b. functionalism
c. Gestalt
d. psychoanalytic
Answer: C
109. The phi phenomenon was explained by the Gestalt approach as the result of:
a. analyzing its basic structures

b. adding the two lights together
c. unresolved childhood conflicts
d. analyzing the whole pattern
Answer: D
110. Gestalt psychologists study how sensations are:
a. experienced by the sensory organs
b. assembled into meaningful perceptual experiences
c. observed and recorded
d. composed of smaller elements
Answer: B
111. Of the following phenomena, which would be of the greatest interest to Max
Wertheimer?
a. cultural differences in body language
b. how diseases of the brain affect behavior
c. seeing a light as moving when in fact individual lights are going on and off
d. a child being toilet trained
Answer: C
112. If Max Wertheimer’s gravestone had an epitaph written on it, which of the following
would be most appropriate given his contributions to psychology?
a. “The function of life is to adapt to the environment.”
b. “He took a dozen healthy infants and made them great. What a guy!”
c. “His life was more than the sum of its parts.”
d. “Even he had unresolved childhood conflicts!”
Answer: C
113. John Watson rejected structuralism and stated that psychology should study:
a. observable behaviors
b. unconscious fears and behaviors
c. sensations and perceptions
d. introspection
Answer: A

114. Simon, who is a TV producer, has an idea for a new TV show. It will ask contestants
about John Watson and award money for correct answers. What is the most likely title of this
show?
a. Leipzig 90214
b. I Love Cognition
c. Who Wants to Be a Behaviorist?
d. Who Wants to Be a Gestalt?
Answer: C
115. Noelle refuses to study mental processes, and focuses her research solely on the
objective, scientific analysis of observable behaviors. Noelle is a:
a. structuralist
b. functionalist
c. Gestalt psychologist
d. behavioral psychologist
Answer: D
116. What did John B. Watson’s famous quote regarding taking a dozen healthy infants really
mean?
a. development of personality starts at an early age
b. manipulation of the environment causes changes in behavior
c. only well-trained professionals like psychologists should raise children
d. early training can unleash unconscious predispositions
Answer: B
117. If John B. Watson was alive today and had a website, which of the following would he
select as his website address?
a. www.gestalt.edu
b. www.biology.edu
c. www.behavior.edu
d. www.superego.edu
Answer: C
118. Which approach has surpassed the popularity of behaviorism in the modern era?
a. functionalism
b. Gestalt

c. psychoanalytic
d. cognitive
Answer: D
119. Mary Calkins was denied a Ph.D. in psychology because:
a. she failed to complete her requirements
b. the administration at Harvard University declined to grant a Ph.D. to a woman
c. her professors did not like her work
d. she was a structuralist
Answer: B
120. ____ was the first African-American woman to earn a Ph.D. in the United States.
a. Inez Prosser
b. Mary Calkins
c. Margaret Washburn
d. Beatrice Collins
Answer: A
121. Who conducted pioneering work on the cultural bias of intelligence tests?
a. William James
b. Mary Calkins
c. Margaret Washburn
d. George Sanchez
Answer: D
122. To remedy past discrimination in psychology and in higher education:
a. standards for program completion are lowered for minority students
b. the American Psychological Association actively recruits minority members
c. the American Psychological Association formed special interest groups for white males
d. membership fees for minorities in all professional associations have been lowered
Answer: B
123. Because minorities are underrepresented in psychology departments in colleges and
universities, the American Psychologist Association:
a. advocates a quota system
b. assists departments in providing salaries for minority faculty members

c. offers full scholarships to any minority student who wishes to major in psychology
d. visits high schools to tell students about careers in psychology
Answer: D
124. Even while more women earned Ph.D.’s in psychology than men, women:
a. earn less money
b. are still stuck in teaching jobs at women’s colleges
c. are still barred from teaching in the most the elite university training programs
d. are more likely to only teach part-time in universities
Answer: A
125. Of the following subject groups, which did not appear in the study on taking lecture
notes described in your textbook?
a. note-taking plus preview
b. note-taking plus review
c. note-taking plus answering questions about notes
d. note-taking plus writing a summary of notes
Answer: A
125. The group that used ____ scored significantly higher than any other group in a study of
note-taking methods.
a. note-taking plus preview
b. note-taking plus review
c. note-taking plus answering questions about notes
d. note-taking plus concept maps
Answer: C
126. In general, a psychologist is someone who:
a. specializes in assessing the physical causes of mental problems
b. prescribes drugs
c. works in secondary school settings
d. holds a doctorate in psychology
Answer: D
127. Barb, a college sophomore, is having relationship problems with her boyfriend. The best
person for Barb to consult would be a(n):

a. clinical psychologist
b. counseling psychologist
c. cognitive psychologist
d. psychiatrist
Answer: B
128. Dr. Falzal assesses a patient’s neurological functioning and finds that she is suffering
from epilepsy. Dr. Falzal is most likely a(n):
a. clinical psychologist
b. experimental psychologist
c. cognitive psychologist
d. psychiatrist
Answer: D
129. Franklin suffers from schizophrenia and requires medication. The best person for
Franklin to consult would be a(n):
a. clinical psychologist
b. experimental psychologist
c. cognitive psychologist
d. psychiatrist
Answer: D
130. Dr. Beenken spends most of his workday at a local clinic. He does individual therapy
and tests patients for psychological problems. Which of the following titles is Dr. Beenken
most likely to have?
a. clinical psychologist
b. experimental psychologist
c. cognitive psychologist
d. social psychologist
Answer: A
131. Under what conditions can a psychologist prescribe drugs?
a. only in certain states and with specialized training
b. only when psychotherapy proves to be ineffective
c. only when the patient suffers from severe depression
d. there are no conditions—psychologists do not prescribe drugs

Answer: A
132. Given the percentages presented in your textbook, which of the following settings would
be most likely to employ psychologists?
a. a school district
b. a mental health clinic
c. a public university
d. a large automobile manufacturer
Answer: B
133. The largest percentage of psychologists work in:
a. academic settings of universities and colleges
b. industrial settings
c. private practice or therapy settings
d. secondary schools
Answer: C
134. Dr. Ivers works in a school district as a psychologist. What is she most likely to do in her
work?
a. increase production
b. improve job satisfaction among the staff
c. conduct academic and career testing
d. conduct therapy for those suffering from major psychological problems
Answer: C
135. A seventh grader in the United States wants to be a psychologist. She tells her mother
about the career choice. The girl says that “it’ll take a long time to become one.” She needs to
realize that “a long time” may mean:
a. two to three years after high school
b. about five years after earning an undergraduate degree
c. five years in medical school
d. four years of college
Answer: B
136. The research area of psychology most likely to study stereotypes, group behavior, and
aggression is:
a. social psychology

b. psychometrics
c. clinical psychology
d. developmental psychology
Answer: A
137. Dr. Klees has her graduate students pretend to faint while in a subway car to see how
many people come to their aid. What type of psychologist is Dr. Klees?
a. clinical
b. social
c. developmental
d. industrial
Answer: B
138. Changes in self-esteem through puberty and adolescence would be studied by what type
of psychologist?
a. clinical
b. experimental
c. developmental
d. social
Answer: C
139. If you wanted to learn more about the social, emotional, and cognitive changes over the
entire lifespan, in which class should you enroll?
a. PY 300 Biological Psychology
b. PY 250 Clinical Psychology
c. PY 220 Developmental Psychology
d. PY 210 Social Psychology
Answer: C
140. Dr. Yates studies motivation and perception. He is most likely which type of
psychologist?
a. industrial
b. experimental
c. social
d. psychobiological
Answer: B

141. ____ psychology studies such areas as sensation, perception, and emotion.
a. Experimental
b. Social
c. Cognitive
d. Industrial/Organizational
Answer: A
142. Psychobiological psychologists investigate:
a. how we process, store, and retrieve information
b. development across the lifespan
c. how our genetic makeup interacts with our environment
d. which measures best assess behavior and abilities
Answer: C
143. Dr. Odland conducts studies on what brain pathways are most affected by alcohol
consumption. What type of psychologist is Dr. Odland?
a. psychobiological
b. social
c. clinical
d. developmental
Answer: A
144. Your friend attends a speech at the local university. She hears about the research of a
psychologist. The research centers on special techniques that are designed to increase
creativity and problem solving. More than likely, your friend was listening to a(n):
a. cognitive psychologist
b. psychiatrist
c. experimental psychologist
d. psychobiologist
Answer: A
145. Your research paper is on the thinking styles of college students. Which professor is
probably the most useful resource?
a. Dr. Campbell—a psychometrician
b. Dr. Buckbee—a clinical psychologist
c. Dr. Karweick—a cognitive psychologist

d. Dr. Cole—a psychiatrist
Answer: C
146. While working on his Ph.D., James developed a test to evaluate intelligence in children.
James is probably studying:
a. clinical psychology
b. psychobiology
c. humanistic psychology
d. psychometrics
Answer: D
147. Larry is interested in studying how businesses can select and train the best employees.
What type of psychology should Larry explore?
a. social
b. experimental
c. industrial/organizational
d. developmental
Answer: C
148. Which of the following journals would be of most interest to an industrial/organizational
psychologist?
a. Journal of Disorders in Childhood
b. Journal of Behavior and Brain
c. Intelligence Testing
d. Personnel Selection and Testing
Answer: D
149. Abdul is a poor judge of what he thinks he knows. According to the textbook, Abdul is
most likely to:
a. set too specific performance goals that are inflexible
b. be a victim of poor time management
c. base judgments on general knowledge rather than on specific knowledge
d. base judgments on specific knowledge rather than on general knowledge
Answer: C
150. In order to judge how prepared you are for an exam, you should:
a. ask yourself specific questions

b. re-read the book two or three times
c. ask yourself how well you think you know the material
d. spend time reviewing your notes
Answer: A
151. The three goals discussed in the textbook with regard to studying are:
a. time goal, specific goal, general performance goal
b. cognitive goal, specific goal, specific time goal
c. time goal, general goal, specific performance goal
d. rewarded goal, concrete goal, time goal
Answer: C
152. Tanner did very well on his final exam in his psychology course. Tanner probably:
a. set a time goal
b. set a general goal
c. set a specific performance goal
d. cheated
Answer: C
153. According to research cited in Module One, what is the relationship between how well
students think they know the class material and their exam performance?
a. almost none
b. weak
c. moderate
d. very strong
Answer: A
154. What is the best way to study based on the research described in Module One?
a. Study in one long session.
b. Study in two sessions with time between them.
c. Study in two sessions with no time between them.
d. Procrastinate and wait until the last moment to study.
Answer: B
155. What is not good advice to tell a college freshman to improve note-taking?
a. write down everything the instructor says

b. write down lecture material in your own words
c. use headings or an outline
d. ask yourself specific questions about the material
Answer: A
156. The best lecture notes:
a. include everything the professor has said
b. include terms or concepts that you don’t understand
c. are in your own words and associated with information you already know
d. list terms that should be learned through sheer memorization
Answer: C
157. Of the following, which is not a good thing to do to stop procrastination?
a. get organized
b. set specific goals
c. reward yourself
d. think of the final goal
Answer: D
158. You’ve been assigned a major research paper in one of your classes. You feel
overwhelmed. But then you recall what you learned in psychology, and the task seems less
overwhelming. What did you remember?
a. thinking about the final goal of handing the paper in to your professor
b. reminding yourself about other papers and assignments
c. breaking down the assignment into smaller goals
d. visualizing getting an “A” on the paper
Answer: C
TRUE/FALSE
1. There is strong evidence for the role of childhood vaccinations in autism.
Answer: False
2. Psychology is defined as the study of mental disorders.
Answer: False
3. Palmar sweating occurs when the individual is experiencing excessive body warmth.
Answer: False

4. The cognitive approach focuses on how information is stored, learned, and remembered.
Answer: True
5. Research has found that autism is related to more activity in brain cells involved in
empathy.
Answer: False
6. Rewards and punishment play an important role in the psychoanalytic approach.
Answer: False
7. Freud argued that people have great freedom in determining the future and have much
potential for personal growth.
Answer: False
8. Test anxiety from the humanistic perspective is seen as being related to problems in
developing potential.
Answer: True
9. The evolutionary approach is the most recent of the approaches presented in Module One.
Answer: True
10. Structuralism studied the basic elements of conscious mental experiences.
Answer: True
11. Introspection was criticized for being too scientific.
Answer: False
12. William James saw mental activities as serving some adaptive function.
Answer: True
13. Freud is considered to be the father of modern psychology.
Answer: False
14. The Gestalt psychologists were interested in how biology and behavior interact.
Answer: False
15. The behavioral approach focused on mental processes.
Answer: False
16. Inez Prosser played an important role in the development of psychoanalysis serving as
Freud’s secretary.
Answer: False
17. Most psychologists work in private practice or therapy settings.
Answer: True

18. A psychologist and a psychiatrist have the same training.
Answer: False
19. Experimental psychology examines development throughout the lifetime.
Answer: False
20. Students have a good sense of how well they know class material.
Answer: False
21. An effective way to stop procrastination is to focus on the final goal.
Answer: False

Test Bank for Introduction to Psychology
Rod Plotnik, Haig Kouyoumdjian
9781133939535, 9781305008113, 9781285061306

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