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Chapter 08 Psychosocial Development during the First Three Years Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following is NOT one of the foundations of psychosocial development? A. Early human interactions B. Temperament C. Thought D. Fine motor skills Answer: D. Fine motor skills 2. Emotions are _____________ reactions to experiences that are associated with physiological and behavioral changes. A. operantly conditioned B. genetically dictated C. set D. subjective Answer: D. subjective 3. Which of the following statements regarding infant emotions is FALSE? A. When babies want or need something, they cry. B. When babies feel sociable, they smile. C. At first, crying signifies physical discomfort; later, it signals psychological distress. D. Babies display their first social smile within minutes of birth. Answer: D. Babies display their first social smile within minutes of birth. 4. Two-week-old Jamie is lying quietly in her bassinet. Suddenly, she utters a loud, piercing cry and holds her breath. She is probably A. hungry. B. angry. C. in pain. D. frustrated. Answer: C. in pain. 5. The most developmentally sound approach to comforting a distressed baby is to A. ignore the baby if possible. B. let the baby cry for a considerable time before responding. C. prevent distress, so there will be less need for soothing. D. respond immediately each time the infant cries. Answer: C. prevent distress, so there will be less need for soothing. 6. The best way to respond to an infant who is crying is to A. ignore the cries to avoid spoiling the baby. B. let the baby cry for a considerable time before responding. C. respond regularly with tender, soothing care. D. respond immediately each time the infant cries. Answer: C. respond regularly with tender, soothing care. 7. Connor, a 3-week-old infant, is crying. His cry began suddenly, is very loud, and was not preceded by moaning. According to Wolff, Conner is exhibiting a(n) A. angry cry. B. cry of pain. C. hunger cry. D. cry of anxiety. Answer: B. cry of pain. 8. The earliest smile, a reflex smile, appears A. shortly after birth. B. when a baby is about 2 weeks old. C. when a baby is about 4 weeks old. D. when a baby is about 6 weeks old. Answer: A. shortly after birth. 9. Kendrick has been awake in his crib for a long time. He produces two or three drawn-out cries with no prolonged breath-holding. He is probably A. hungry. B. frustrated. C. angry. D. in pain. Answer: B. frustrated. 10. Margo and her husband Frank love watching little Tina smile when they come into the room. Which of the following statements about infants' smiles is correct? A. Smiles appear soon after birth, generally when the infant is wide awake. B. The "social smile" is seen by 1 week of age. C. Smiles become social at around 8 months of age. D. During the second month of life, infants begin to smile selectively at people they recognize. Answer: D. During the second month of life, infants begin to smile selectively at people they recognize. 11. Infants generally begin to laugh out loud at about the _____________ month of life. A. first B. second C. fourth D. sixth Answer: C. fourth 12. The Powers are new parents who want to do everything just right. In reading up on ways to limit the distress in their new baby's life, they are likely to encounter which of the following statements about infants' emotions? A. It is easy to tell when newborns are happy. B. Normal, healthy newborns use facial expressions rather than crying to communicate their needs. C. Researchers agree that a baby's facial expressions indicate the feelings that the baby experiences. D. The meaning of infants' emotional signals remains constant over the first two years of life. Answer: C. Researchers agree that a baby's facial expressions indicate the feelings that the baby experiences. 13. Smiling is an important social behavior in infants because it A. is one of the ways that babies can encourage adults to respond to them. B. paves the way for the development of an emotional vocabulary. C. relieves the infant's distress more effectively than crying does. D. signifies happiness as early as the first week of life. Answer: A. is one of the ways that babies can encourage adults to respond to them. 14. Sometimes laughter helps babies discharge tension, such as A. sadness. B. fear. C. anger. D. disgust. Answer: B. fear. 15. Which of the following statements about infants and emotions is FALSE? A. Infants cannot express emotions for about the first month. B. Infants show facial expressions that are similar to adults'. C. One of the earliest emotional expressions shown by infants is unhappiness. D. Infants and adults both share the same basic emotions. Answer: A. Infants cannot express emotions for about the first month. 16. Soon after birth, an infant can show all the following emotions EXCEPT A. contentment. B. anger. C. interest. D. distress. Answer: B. anger. 17. Which of the following emotions is NOT yet present in an 8-month-old infant? A. Anger B. Shame C. Sadness D. Disgust Answer: B. Shame 18. Infants' cognitive understanding that they are functioning beings, separate from the rest of their world, is referred to as A. self-recognition. B. self-awareness. C. self-conceptualization. D. self-evaluation. Answer: B. self-awareness. 19. Emotions such as empathy and envy A. are often present at birth. B. are not present until age 3. C. develop soon after the primary emotions. D. are related to the development of self-awareness. Answer: D. are related to the development of self-awareness. 20. Self-awareness usually emerges by about _____________ months. A. 6 B. 9 C. 12 D. 18 Answer: D. 18 21. When they develop _____________, children can evaluate their own thoughts, plans, and desires according to what is considered socially appropriate. A. self-recognition B. self-awareness C. self-conceptualization D. self-evaluation Answer: D. self-evaluation 22. The emergence of evaluative emotions takes place around the age of _____________. A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 Answer: C. 3 23. Which of the following is NOT a self-evaluative emotion? A. Love B. Pride C. Shame D. Guilt Answer: A. Love 24. Which of the following statements regarding the relationship between brain development and emotional development is FALSE? A. In the first three months, the cerebral cortex becomes functional, and cognitive perceptions come into play. B. Around 9 or 10 months, the connections between the frontal cortex and the limbic system may facilitate the relationship between cognition and emotion. C. In the second year, infants develop self-awareness and self-conscious emotions and a greater capacity for self-regulation. D. In the third year, maturation of the sympathetic system provides the mechanisms to control the parasympathetic system, which prepares the body for action. Answer: D. In the third year, maturation of the sympathetic system provides the mechanisms to control the parasympathetic system, which prepares the body for action. 25. Marcus started crying because his friend Timothy was crying. This is a sign that he is developing empathy. Empathy depends on A. self-consciousness. B. self-awareness. C. social cognition. D. self-evaluation. Answer: C. social cognition. 26. Temperament is A. an innate, non-linguistic form of communication. B. another term for self-awareness. C. the learning of behaviors deemed appropriate by one's culture. D. one's style of approaching people and situations. Answer: D. one's style of approaching people and situations. 27. According to the New York Longitudinal Study, 40% of children exhibit a temperamental pattern described as A. difficult. B. slow-to-warm-up. C. easy. D. mixed. Answer: C. easy. 28. Which of the following statements about temperament is correct? A. Temperament appears to be largely determined by a person's biological makeup. B. Temperament is learned. C. Temperament, once set, rarely changes. D. Second-born children are likely to have easier temperaments than firstborns. Answer: A. Temperament appears to be largely determined by a person's biological makeup. 29. According to the New York Longitudinal Study, all the following are components of temperament EXCEPT A. adaptability. B. attention span. C. level of aggression. D. distractibility. Answer: C. level of aggression. 30. The New York Longitudinal Study of Temperament found that A. all children fit into a clear temperamental category. B. about one in every three children has a mixed temperament pattern. C. children are evenly distributed among the basic temperamental categories. D. the largest temperamental group was slow-to-warm-up. Answer: B. about one in every three children has a mixed temperament pattern. 31. Which of the following statements about the temperament categories identified in the New York Longitudinal Study is correct? A. Approximately 90% of the children in the study sample fell into one of three categories. B. Nearly 40% of the children in the sample fell into the difficult category. C. Roughly 35% of the children in the sample did not fit neatly into any of the three categories. D. Situational variation in the nine components of temperament is unusual. Answer: C. Roughly 35% of the children in the sample did not fit neatly into any of the three categories. 32. Baby Elise is irritable, does not follow regular patterns of eating and sleeping, and has intense reactions to what goes on in her environment. Elise's temperament can be characterized as A. easy. B. difficult. C. slow-to-warm-up. D. mixed. Answer: B. difficult. 33. Lucy is a quiet infant who is mild in her responses, both positive and negative. She shows a distinct dislike for new situations, but eventually adjusts and enjoys new things. Thomas and Chess would classify Lucy as a(n) _____________ child. A. slow-to-warm-up B. difficult C. easy D. ambivalent Answer: A. slow-to-warm-up 34. Baby Ellen is suspicious of strangers, has frequent tantrums, has an irregular pattern of waking and sleeping, and laughs and cries loudly. Ellen's temperament can be classified as A. easy. B. hyperactive. C. difficult. D. slow-to-warm-up. Answer: C. difficult. 35. Baby Benjamin sleeps and eats irregularly, adjusts slowly to new routines, and is suspicious of strangers. Which of the temperamental patterns described by Thomas and Chess does Benjamin fit? A. Easy B. Difficult C. Low reactive D. Mixed Answer: B. Difficult 36. Mrs. Pilky's newborn son Danny is quiet, adjusts only gradually to new situations, and has moderately predictable biological cycles. Which kind of temperament does he have? A. Easy B. Slow-to-warm-up C. Timid D. Difficult Answer: B. Slow-to-warm-up 37. Baby Eddy's schedules are predictable. He adapts easily, is pleasant, and responds well to change. Which kind of temperament does he have? A. Easy B. Difficult C. Slow-to-warm-up D. Placid Answer: A. Easy 38. Ratings of infants' temperament are A. typically based on objective observations in laboratory settings. B. often based on parental ratings. C. unaffected by mothers' psychological characteristics. D. predictive of later behavior only when the initial ratings are positive. Answer: B. often based on parental ratings. 39. Which of the following was NOT used as an indicator of temperament according to the Rothbart Infant Behavior Questionnaire? A. Eating habits B. Activity level C. Fear and frustration D. Positive emotion Answer: A. Eating habits 40. "Goodness of fit" implies that parents should deal with children's behavior problems by A. trying to change their child's temperament to match their own. B. letting their child's temperament create the family atmosphere and patterns. C. helping a difficult child fit into the environment. D. helping their child make some adaptions but essentially accepting their child's temperament. Answer: D. helping their child make some adaptions but essentially accepting their child's temperament. 41. Pedro is quiet and extremely shy, often requiring a great deal of time to warm up to new people. Pedro's temperament A. might be substantially modified by environmental factors. B. cannot be modified. C. is strongly affected by birth order. D. is not affected by cultural differences. Answer: A. might be substantially modified by environmental factors. 42. Which of the following children is probably NOT experiencing a problem of "fit" between temperament and environment? A. Aaron is a quiet and fairly inactive child. He lives in a small apartment with his older parents. B. Brian likes to sit quietly and play alone. He spends most days with ten other children at a day care center. C. Carolyn enjoys trying out musical instruments and experimenting with arts and crafts materials. Her mother likes the house to be quiet and neat. D. Debby is hesitant and quiet. Her father pushes her to experience new situations. Answer: A. Aaron is a quiet and fairly inactive child. He lives in a small apartment with his older parents. 43. The best synonym for Kagan's "inhibition to the unfamiliar" is A. fear. B. resentment. C. shyness. D. laziness. Answer: C. shyness. 44. Studies of behavioral inhibition suggest that this aspect of temperament A. is largely the result of a child's prenatal experience. B. cannot be evaluated until around 6 months of age. C. is associated with certain biological characteristics. D. emerges toward the end of the third year. Answer: C. is associated with certain biological characteristics. 45. Erikson's first psycho-social challenge is A. autonomy versus shame and doubt. B. initiative versus guilt. C. basic trust versus basic mistrust. D. generativity versus stagnation. Answer: C. basic trust versus basic mistrust. 46. Two-year-old Hanna believes that her needs in life will be fulfilled and that she can obtain what she desires. According to Erikson, Hanna has successfully resolved the challenge of A. basic trust versus basic mistrust. B. autonomy versus shame and doubt. C. industry versus inferiority. D. generativity versus guilt. Answer: A. basic trust versus basic mistrust. 47. During Erikson's basic sense of trust versus mistrust stage, children A. determine whether or not the world can be relied on. B. strive for independence. C. object to their mothers leaving the room. D. are often filled with doubt. Answer: A. determine whether or not the world can be relied on. 48. According to Erikson, a child who develops a sense basic trust will have the characteristic of A. hope. B. caring. C. intimacy. D. love. Answer: A. hope. 49. Jessica's parents work hard to make sure that she has everything that she needs to be healthy and happy. They consistently work to give her quality care and love. From Erikson's perspective, she will resolve her first crisis in favor of A. mistrust. B. trust. C. autonomy. D. industry. Answer: B. trust. 50. Kora did not learn sufficient trust during the first stage of development. In her adult years, one might expect her to display A. excessive anger. B. a lack of self-regulation. C. difficulty forming close relationships. D. a tendency toward negativism. Answer: C. difficulty forming close relationships. 51. The establishment of basic sense of trust versus mistrust in a child's personality occurs between _____________ of age. A. birth and 3 months B. 1 and 6 months C. birth and 18 months D. 1 and 2 years Answer: C. birth and 18 months 52. The development of basic sense of trust versus mistrust occurs through the infant's interactions with A. strangers encountered during infancy. B. the child's immediate social circle. C. the physical environment. D. other infants. Answer: B. the child's immediate social circle. 53. Gretta and her mother have a reciprocal, enduring emotional tie. This emotional tie between an infant and a caregiver is called A. bonding. B. trust. C. attachment. D. goodness of fit. Answer: C. attachment. 54. _____________ devised the laboratory technique known as the "Strange Situation," which is commonly used to study attachment in children. A. John Bowlby B. Harry and Margaret Harlow C. Mary Ainsworth D. Stella Chess Answer: C. Mary Ainsworth 55. Which of the following is NOT a pattern of attachment during infancy identified by Ainsworth? A. Ambivalence B. Autonomy C. Avoidance D. Security Answer: B. Autonomy 56. Dr. Lakivani is doing research on childhood attachment using Ainsworth's "Strange Situation," whereby a baby is observed in a room with A. the mother and a stranger in different combinations. B. only a stranger. C. only the mother. D. the father and the mother. Answer: A. the mother and a stranger in different combinations. 57. Peter, age 1, rarely cries when his mother leaves him with a babysitter. When his mother returns, he seems angry and refuses to let her hold him. Peter's pattern of attachment would best be classified as A. ambivalent. B. avoidant. C. disorganized-disoriented. D. secure. Answer: B. avoidant. 58. Roberto and his mother are at the house of a cousin whom they rarely visit. Roberto stays with his mother when they first arrive but then begins to explore his new surroundings and discovers a playroom. Even though he appears to be comfortable, he still checks back with his mother periodically and then returns to his play. What type of attachment is Roberto demonstrating? A. Ambivalant B. Avoidant C. Disorganized-disoriented D. Secure Answer: D. Secure 59. Beth readily leaves her mother to explore her surroundings, occasionally looking toward or touching her mother. Beth appears to be A. securely attached. B. disorganized-disoriented. C. ambivalent. D. avoidant. Answer: A. securely attached. 60. During the "Strange Situation," Tony rarely cries when his mother leaves and is not eager to greet her when she returns. He appears to be A. securely attached. B. disorganized-disoriented. C. ambivalent. D. avoidant. Answer: D. avoidant. 61. Daniel begins crying before his mother leaves during the "Strange Situation." When she returns, he leans toward her but kicks and squirms when she picks him up. Daniel appears to be A. securely attached. B. disorganized-disoriented. C. ambivalent. D. avoidant. Answer: C. ambivalent. 62. _____________ attachment is the least secure pattern. A. Disorganized-disoriented B. Passive-aggressive C. Avoidant D. Ambivalent Answer: A. Disorganized-disoriented 63. Marcella smiles and greets her mother when she returns from a shopping trip but then looks away fearfully. She also seems afraid much of the time. Marcella's attachment pattern suggests that she is A. securely attached. B. disorganized-disoriented. C. ambivalent. D. avoidant. Answer: B. disorganized-disoriented. 64. According to Bowlby and Ainsworth, attachment forms primarily as a result of A. the total time spent with the mother. B. consistency of responsiveness by the mother. C. the mother speaking frequently to the child. D. the mother's socioeconomic level. Answer: B. consistency of responsiveness by the mother. 65. According to attachment theory, A. early caregiving has a negligible influence on the development of attachment. B. babies build a "working model" based on their interactions with caregivers. C. attachment patterns cannot be changed after the age of 12 months. D. a baby's attachment is distinct from Erikson's concept of trust. Answer: B. babies build a "working model" based on their interactions with caregivers. 66. Which of the following has NOT been a criticism of the "Strange Situation" technique? A. It asks mothers to refrain from initiating interaction with their babies. B. It provides a measure of mother-infant interaction in non-stressful situations, but it sheds little light on how well mothers and infants function under stress. C. It may be especially inappropriate for children of employed mothers who are used to routine separations from their mothers and the presence of other caregivers. D. It may not be valid in all cultures. Answer: B. It provides a measure of mother-infant interaction in non-stressful situations, but it sheds little light on how well mothers and infants function under stress. 67. Which of the following research tools measures attachment by asking raters to sort descriptive words or phrases into categories ranging from most to least characteristic of the child? A. Bayley Scales of Infant Development B. Attachment Q-set (AQS) C. Dyadic Quality Measure (DQM) D. Preschool Assessment of Attachment (PAA) Answer: B. Attachment Q-set (AQS) 68. Sandra is going through a list of descriptive statements such as "likes to be held" and "cries a lot." She classifies the statements from most to least descriptive of her child. Sandra is completing the A. Strange Situation. B. Temperament Sorter. C. Attachment Q-set. D. Bayley Scales. Answer: C. Attachment Q-set. 69. A recent cross-cultural study of attachment in China, Colombia, Germany, Israel, Japan, Norway, and the United States found that A. the tendency to use the mother as a secure base is universal, although it may take somewhat varied forms. B. children in some countries used their mother as a secure base, but others avoided her. C. ratings across cultures were more similar than ratings within cultures. D. mothers' preferences for "ideal" attachment behavior varied greatly. Answer: A. the tendency to use the mother as a secure base is universal, although it may take somewhat varied forms. 70. Which of the following best describes young infants' contribution to the mother-child attachment relationship? A. In the first few months, infants can influence attachment only in the breast-feeding situation. B. Infants' attachment behaviors in the first few months are limited to a few expressions of emotion, such as smiling and crying. C. Virtually any activity on the part of an infant that leads to a response from adults is an attachment behavior. D. Until they can communicate through a variety of sounds and gestures, infants are passive recipients of adults' initiatives and cannot directly influence attachment. Answer: C. Virtually any activity on the part of an infant that leads to a response from adults is an attachment behavior. 71. Around 8 or 9 months, babies often show discomfort and wariness around individuals they do not see on a regular basis. This behavior is called A. separation anxiety. B. stranger anxiety. C. disorganised attachment. D. imprinting. Answer: B. stranger anxiety. 72. The Parkers have an 8-month-old infant, Tara, who cries when she first meets her mother's cousin. Tara is exhibiting A. anxious attachment. B. mistrust. C. stranger anxiety. D. separation anxiety. Answer: C. stranger anxiety. 73. A 9-month-old infant who cries when her mother leaves is exhibiting A. separation anxiety. B. stranger anxiety. C. anxious attachment. D. overdependence. Answer: A. separation anxiety. 74. When 1-year-old Tommy's grandmother comes to his house to take care of him while his parents go out, Tommy starts to fuss and cry as his mother gets ready to leave. Tommy is demonstrating A. imprinting. B. separation anxiety. C. stranger anxiety. D. anxious attachment. Answer: B. separation anxiety. 75. A baby's reaction to a stranger is LEAST likely to be influenced by the baby's A. memory for faces. B. recollection of previous situations in which he has been left with strangers. C. temperament. D. gender. Answer: D. gender. 76. Leah cries every time her mother leaves the house. Leah's distress when a familiar caregiver leaves is called A. attachment. B. separation anxiety. C. stranger anxiety. D. basic mistrust. Answer: B. separation anxiety. 77. Infants who show wariness of unfamiliar people from about age 6 months to 1 year are A. anxiously attached. B. demonstrating stranger anxiety. C. demonstrating basic mistrust. D. using social referencing. Answer: B. demonstrating stranger anxiety. 78. Which of the following is a preferred way to measure attachment between a mother and a baby? A. The strength of separation anxiety when the mother leaves B. The strength of stranger anxiety in the absence of the mother C. The reaction of the baby when the mother returns D. The strength of the baby's reaction when she is taken from the mother Answer: C. The reaction of the baby when the mother returns 79. The more secure a child's attachment to a nurturing adult, the A. more dependent the child will be. B. more anxious the child will be. C. less interest the child will have in exploring his surroundings. D. more engaged she is when exploring her surroundings. Answer: D. more engaged she is when exploring her surroundings. 80. Securely attached infants, when studied between ages 3 and 5, tend to be _____________ than insecurely attached infants. A. more dependent B. less cooperative C. more curious D. less persistent Answer: C. more curious 81. Marina is a 3-year-old who is securely attached to her parents. Which of the following characteristics would she likely exhibit? A. Shyness B. Self-confidence C. Fearfulness toward strangers D. Exceptional intelligence Answer: B. Self-confidence 82. Joey and Jake were part of a longitudinal research study that began when they were infants. They were labeled as securely attached. As preschoolers, Joey and Jake were likely A. sociable. B. inhibited. C. dependent on the teacher. D. less curious than other children. Answer: A. sociable. 83. A securely attached child generally grows up to be A. dependent on parents. B. dependent on a mate. C. independent. D. controlling. Answer: C. independent. 84. Research on intergenerational transmission of attachment patterns has shown that A. the way adults recall their early experiences with their own parents affects the way they treat their own children. B. mothers who grow up with a working model of themselves as unlovable are especially attuned and sensitive to their babies' needs. C. the attachment relationship that forms between a mother and her baby cannot be predicted until after birth. D. the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) is not valid for women whose early attachment relationships were negative. Answer: A. the way adults recall their early experiences with their own parents affects the way they treat their own children. 85. According to the concept of mutual regulation, infants whose mothers are depressed are likely to A. find another caregiver with whom to establish a secure attachment. B. react positively in an attempt to cheer her up. C. have inherited a difficult temperament. D. feel powerless to elicit a positive response. Answer: D. feel powerless to elicit a positive response. 86. According to the concept of mutual regulation, A. parental actions determine an infant's emotional state until about 9 months of age. B. babies as young as 3 months regulate their own emotional state to some degree. C. low-birth-weight babies require extra stimulation for proper emotional development. D. emotional states of the mother do not affect the infant. Answer: B. babies as young as 3 months regulate their own emotional state to some degree. 87. Which of the following statements regarding studies of mutual regulation and emotional communication is FALSE? A. Infants as young as 3 months of age take an active part in regulating their emotional state. B. The ability to decipher other people's emotions and adjust one's own behavior accordingly develops after the first year of life. C. The still-face paradigm is used to measure mutual regulation. D. Infants feel emotional distress when their mothers do not use facial expressions to respond to them. Answer: B. The ability to decipher other people's emotions and adjust one's own behavior accordingly develops after the first year of life. 88. Mutual regulation refers to A. babies' active participation in controlling their emotional states. B. babies becoming less dependent on caregivers' emotional states. C. babies becoming self-regulated rather than other-regulated. D. the absence of a "still-face" effect. Answer: A. babies' active participation in controlling their emotional states. 89. When a baby "reads" the expression of a caregiver for a clue as to how to act in an ambiguous situation, it is referred to as A. social facilitation. B. separation anxiety. C. situational compliance. D. social referencing. Answer: D. social referencing. 90. James is playing with his toys when a stranger comes into the house. He feels uneasy about this stranger until he notices that his mother is smiling and talking to her. James then offers the stranger one of his toys. James is engaging in A. socializing. B. social learning. C. social referencing. D. imprinting. Answer: C. social referencing. 91. When an unfamiliar child takes away 1-year-old Marla's toy, she looks questionably at her mother. This is an example of A. stranger anxiety. B. attachment. C. mutual regulation. D. social referencing. Answer: D. social referencing. 92. A study of 1-year-olds who were presented with new, strange objects (like jiggling toys, for example) revealed that A. babies almost always reached for the new objects. B. babies almost never reached for the new objects. C. the mothers' facial expressions influenced whether or not the babies touched the objects. D. unless they were accompanied by spoken encouragement or warnings, mothers' facial expressions had no influence on the babies' behavior. Answer: C. the mothers' facial expressions influenced whether or not the babies touched the objects. 93. Josephina is 18 months old. Which of the following would NOT be an aspect of her personality that is emerging at this time? A. Sense of self B. Gains in autonomy C. Internalization of behavioral standards D. Understanding of reciprocal friendship Answer: D. Understanding of reciprocal friendship 94. Our image of ourselves is called our A. self-efficacy. B. self-concept. C. id. D. ideal self. Answer: B. self-concept. 95. A child's sense of being a physical whole within boundaries is called A. self-efficacy. B. self-esteem. C. self-confidence. D. self-coherence. Answer: D. self-coherence. 96. Dabbing children's noses with rouge to see how they react when placed in front of a mirror is a test of A. self-recognition. B. self-description. C. self-negativism. D. self-control. Answer: A. self-recognition. 97. If Claire is like most babies, she will develop physical self-recognition and self-awareness by the age of _____________ months. A. 6 B. 9 C. 12 D. 18 Answer: D. 18 98. Brenda has accidentally marked her cheek with a crayon. When she later sees herself in a mirror, she touches the mark on her cheek. Approximately how old would you guess Brenda to be? A. 18 months B. 12 months C. 9 months D. 6 months Answer: A. 18 months 99. When Billy is asked, "What are you like?" he replies, "I am a good boy with brown hair." Two weeks earlier, Billy did not apply such labels to himself. Approximately how old would you guess Billy to be? A. At least 13 months B. At least 20 months C. At least 4 years D. At least 6 years Answer: B. At least 20 months 100. According to Erikson, which conflict occurs during toddlerhood? A. Basic trust versus basic mistrust B. Initiative versus guilt C. Identity versus role confusion D. Autonomy versus shame and doubt Answer: D. Autonomy versus shame and doubt 101. Toddlers who favorably resolve Erikson's stage of autonomy versus shame and doubt develop A. control over the superego. B. the characteristic of hope. C. the characteristic of will. D. an easy temperament. Answer: C. the characteristic of will. 102. At age 2, a healthy, normal child is likely to be A. docile. B. dependent. C. willful. D. passive. Answer: C. willful. 103. According to Erikson, which characteristic develops during the crisis of autonomy versus shame and doubt? A. Hope B. Will C. Caring D. Love Answer: B. Will 104. According to Erikson, shame and doubt: A. fills toddlers with inhibitions and undermines self-esteem. B. need to be balanced with autonomy. C. can interfere with the learning of self-regulation and self-restraint. D. should be replaced by unrestrained freedom. Answer: B. need to be balanced with autonomy. 105. Two-year-old Cameron rejects his parents' offers of assistance and shows high levels of negativism. According to Erikson's theory, Cameron is A. a temperamentally difficult child. B. an anxiously attached child. C. expressing the need for autonomy. D. developing the capacity for symbolic representation. Answer: C. expressing the need for autonomy. 106. Two-year-old Shoji insists on dressing herself even if her clothes do not match and are put on backwards. Shoji is in Erikson's stage of A. basic trust versus basic mistrust. B. identity versus role confusion. C. autonomy versus shame and doubt. D. initiative versus guilt. Answer: C. autonomy versus shame and doubt. 107. Leroy has settled into the habit of saying "no" even when he may mean "yes." His parents explain that he has hit the "terrible twos," a normal manifestation of A. self-regulation. B. basic mistrust. C. shame and doubt. D. the need for autonomy. Answer: D. the need for autonomy. 108. Negativism is typically a(n) A. early sign of self-doubt. B. sign of childhood depression. C. sign of self-regulation. D. expression of the need for autonomy. Answer: D. expression of the need for autonomy. 109. To minimize conflict and increase a 2-year-old's sense of competence, parents should A. avoid removing a child or themselves from a problematic situation until the conflict has been resolved. B. make a point of interrupting the child's activities from time to time to help the child develop patience. C. give the child choices. D. try to minimize conflict by teasing the child. Answer: C. give the child choices. 110. _____________ is the process by which children develop the habits, skills, values, and motives that make them responsible, productive members of a society. A. Self-actualization B. Socialization C. Selective regulation D. Auto-didacticism Answer: B. Socialization 111. Socialization depends on the _____________ of societal standards of conduct. A. rejection B. reciprocation C. internalization D. replication Answer: C. internalization 112. Development of self-regulation is fundamentally based on children's ability to A. quiet themselves. B. obey the caregiver. C. form their own rules. D. think and remember. Answer: D. think and remember. 113. Self-regulation is A. the control of a child's own behavior to conform to social expectations. B. a manifestation of goodness of fit. C. usually fully developed by the age of 2. D. rarely acquired before the age of 4. Answer: A. the control of a child's own behavior to conform to social expectations. 114. Nancy, age 16 months, is about to touch an electric outlet, but then says, "No!" and pulls her finger back. Nancy is demonstrating A. negativism. B. shame and doubt. C. basic mistrust. D. the beginnings of self-regulation. Answer: D. the beginnings of self-regulation. 115. Which of the following is the foundation for socialization? A. Self-awareness B. Self-description C. Self-regulation D. Self-recognition Answer: C. Self-regulation 116. Chinmay starts to get into his father's toolbox, even though his father has told him not to do so. As he reaches for the toolbox, Chinmay begins to feel guilty and decides to leave the tools alone. Chinmay has developed A. situational compliance. B. negativism. C. social referencing. D. a conscience. Answer: D. a conscience. 117. Kochanska's studies of the origins of conscience in children ages 26 to 41 months indicated that A. children whose mothers characterized them as having internalized the household rules showed the most committed compliance. B. children whose compliance was only situational were just as likely as children with committed compliance to have internalized the rules of their household. C. internalization grows out of situational compliance. D. there was little continuity in committed compliance from the initial observation in toddlerhood to a follow-up observation in early childhood. Answer: A. children whose mothers characterized them as having internalized the household rules showed the most committed compliance. 118. Which of the following is the most advanced form of socialization? A. Receptive cooperation B. Committed compliance C. Social referencing D. Self-recognition Answer: A. Receptive cooperation 119. Philippe is a model child as long as an adult oversees his activities. When no adult is present, he tends to do inappropriate things. Which of the following terms would best explain this behavior? A. Committed compliance B. Situational compliance C. Self-regulation D. Self-efficacy Answer: B. Situational compliance 120. Which of the following gender differences is supported by research? A. Boys are taller and heavier than girls. B. Boys are physically more vulnerable than girls. C. Boy's brains are larger than girls at birth. D. All of the above are true. Answer: D. All of the above are true. 121. _____________ is the significance of being male or female. A. Sex B. Gender C. Genotype D. Type Answer: B. Gender 122. One of the earliest behavioral differences between boys and girls is a preference for A. certain toys and play activities. B. the same-sex parent. C. female preschool teachers. D. male role models. Answer: A. certain toys and play activities. 123. In terms of gender differences, parents A. have higher expectations of boys. B. view boys and girls as equal. C. want boys and girls to be more similar. D. have higher expectations of girls. Answer: A. have higher expectations of boys. 124. The process by which children learn behaviors or roles that their culture considers appropriate for each sex is called gender A. naming. B. typing. C. identity. D. preferences. Answer: B. typing. 125. The longest-lasting relationship a person will likely have is with his or her A. parents. B. siblings. C. children. D. spouse. Answer: B. siblings. 126. Young children's relationships with their siblings are usually A. characterized by rivalry. B. characterized by affection and attachment. C. stressful for later-borns. D. important from birth. Answer: B. characterized by affection and attachment. 127. Research on sibling relationships in infancy indicates that A. babies do not generally begin to interact with their older siblings until they are at least 1 year old. B. the quality of each child's attachment to the parents predicts the quality of the sibling relationship. C. babies become attached to their adult caregivers but not to their siblings. D. 1-year-olds spend more time with their older siblings than with their mothers. Answer: B. the quality of each child's attachment to the parents predicts the quality of the sibling relationship. 128. Constructive conflict between siblings A. can be an opportunity for growth. B. becomes less common after the younger sibling starts school. C. usually leads to an escalation of the original conflict. D. interferes with children's ability to learn how to fight, disagree, and compromise. Answer: A. can be an opportunity for growth. 129. Which of the following statements about babies' interest in other children is correct? A. Their interest increases steadily throughout the first two years of life. B. Their interest increases until about 1 year of age, then falls off (evidently because of preoccupation with motor skills), and then increases again at about 18 months. C. Their interest is low until about 1 year of age, then increases dramatically (evidently because of growing communication skills), and then decreases again until the "terrible twos." D. Their interest is initially high but then decreases steadily throughout the first two years of life and tends not to reappear again until about age 3. Answer: B. Their interest increases until about 1 year of age, then falls off (evidently because of preoccupation with motor skills), and then increases again at about 18 months. 130. Differences in sociability among very young children A. appear to be entirely due to hereditary factors. B. are associated with the amount of time babies spend with other babies. C. tend to reflect the sociability of the fathers. D. is unrelated to the amount of early contact with nonfamily members. Answer: B. are associated with the amount of time babies spend with other babies. 131. By 9 months of age, about _____________ percent of U.S. infants are in some form of nonparental child care arrangement. A. 20 B. 35 C. 55 D. 70 Answer: C. 55 Essay Questions 132. Define emotion. Explain the concept of the self, and explain why emotions such as pride, shame, and guilt develop late in infancy and toddlerhood. Answer: Emotion refers to a complex psychological state involving physiological arousal, subjective feelings, and behavioral expressions. The self encompasses a person's identity, self-awareness, and understanding of their own existence and relation to others. Emotions like pride, shame, and guilt develop late in infancy and toddlerhood as children gain cognitive and social abilities, including self-awareness and understanding of societal norms. These emotions require a level of cognitive development where children can reflect on their own actions, perceive others' reactions, and consider social expectations, which typically emerge around 18-24 months of age. 133. Describe the Thomas and Chess New York Longitudinal Study. In your description, include the three categories of temperament and the outcomes of the research. Answer: The Thomas and Chess New York Longitudinal Study examined children's temperament, identifying three categories: easy, difficult, and slow-to-warm-up. "Easy" children adapt well to new situations, "difficult" children are more irritable and have irregular routines, and "slow-to-warm-up" children are initially cautious but gradually adapt. The study found that temperament is stable over time and can influence later behavior and personality development. 134. Explain how Erikson's conflict of trust versus mistrust contributes to early personality development. Answer: Erikson's conflict of trust versus mistrust occurs during infancy (0-1 year). If caregivers consistently provide reliable care, affection, and meet the infant's needs, the child develops a sense of trust in the world and feels secure. Conversely, inconsistent or neglectful care leads to mistrust, fostering fear and suspicion. This stage sets the foundation for future relationships and the child's overall sense of safety and reliability in their environment. 135. Define attachment. Describe the Ainsworth "Strange Situation," and differentiate the four types of attachment. What are the current critiques of this study? Answer: Attachment is the emotional bond between a child and caregiver. The Ainsworth "Strange Situation" assesses this by observing a child's reactions to separations and reunions with their caregiver. The four types are secure, anxious-ambivalent, anxious-avoidant, and disorganized attachment. Current critiques include cultural bias, limited scope, and the influence of situational variables on attachment behaviors. 136. How do infants and caregivers read each other's nonverbal signs? In your explanation, include the terms mutual regulation, still-face paradigm, and social referencing. Answer: Infants and caregivers read each other's nonverbal signs through mutual regulation, where both parties adjust their behaviors in response to each other. The still-face paradigm demonstrates infants' distress when caregivers suddenly stop responding emotionally. Social referencing occurs when infants look to caregivers for cues on how to react in unfamiliar situations. 137. When does the sense of self arise, and what contributes to its development? Answer: The sense of self typically arises around 18-24 months of age. It develops through self-recognition, language acquisition, social interactions, and caregivers' feedback, which help infants differentiate themselves from others and understand their own identity. 138. How does Erikson's crisis of autonomy versus shame and doubt influence a child's personality development? In your explanation, include the terms negativism and self-regulation. Answer: Erikson's crisis of autonomy versus shame and doubt influences a child's personality development by fostering independence and self-regulation. Successful resolution leads to a sense of autonomy, while failure results in shame and doubt. Negativism, where children assert their independence through defiance, is part of this stage. 139. Imagine that you are the parent to twins, Desmond and Mila. What kind of behavioral differences do you expect to see in them based on your knowledge of gender development? How will your parenting style contribute your children's gender development? Answer: You might see behavioral differences where Desmond exhibits more physical and assertive behaviors, while Mila might show more nurturing and cooperative behaviors, influenced by societal gender norms. Your parenting style, such as encouraging both children to explore diverse activities and avoiding gender stereotypes, will contribute to more balanced and equitable gender development for both. 140. Describe sibling relationships during the period of infancy and toddlerhood. In your description, include parental influences on sibling relationships. Answer: During infancy and toddlerhood, sibling relationships are characterized by both affectionate interactions and rivalry. Parental influences, such as modeling positive behavior, mediating conflicts, and ensuring fair attention and resources, play a crucial role in shaping the quality of these relationships. 141. What are some important factors that parents must keep in mind when choosing day care for their children? Answer: Parents should consider the caregiver-to-child ratio, the qualifications and experience of the staff, the cleanliness and safety of the facility, and the overall program quality, including activities that promote development. Additionally, they should look for a nurturing environment and positive caregiver interactions with children. True/False Questions 142. Babies begin to communicate emotions more clearly and show moods and ambivalence around 6 months of age. Answer: False 143. The first sign of emotions is smiling. Answer: False 144. Picking up crying infants spoils babies. Answer: False 145. Baby Ibrahim often shares trains with other toddlers when playing at the train table in the bookstore. This indicates that he has developed a sense of empathy. Answer: True 146. Baby Marshall is a happy baby that sleeps and eats regularly but is not overly thrilled with new situations and people. According to Thomas and Chess's classification system, he would be described as slow-to-warm-up. Answer: True 147. Baby Aubrey is presented with a new toy and she pumps her arms and legs and arches her back. According to Kagan, she is high in behavioral inhibition. Answer: True 148. Studies of functional MRI's indicate that mother's brains are activated when they see their baby smile or cry. They also show that the brain reacts the same way regardless of if it is their baby or someone else's. Answer: False 149. A baby's attachment style is best characterized by how a mother soothes an upset baby rather than how that child acts when she is not around. Answer: True 150. Delaney and her mother are participating in the Strange Situation, When her mother leaves the room, Delaney fusses and when her mother returns, she remains upset for some time and even backs away from comfort. Ainsworth would classify her as avoidantly attached. Answer: False 151. The style of attachment most commonly found in abused or neglected children is disorganized/disoriented. Answer: True 152. Mothers who respond sensitively to their infants end up with babies that fall asleep faster, sleep longer, and wake less often. Answer: True 153. When babies are down on the ground, they respond more negatively to tall strangers than short strangers. Answer: True 154. Baby Tempest is on a new playground with her mother when she approaches a seesaw; based on her mother's facial cues, she avoids the apparatus. This is an example of mutual regulation. Answer: False 155. Self-awareness and an understanding that others think things that you know are not true is related to lying in children. Answer: True 156. The first stage of Erikson's psychosocial development is trust vs. mistrust. Answer: True 157. Some researchers argue that young children are increasingly experiencing hurt feelings as a result of competition with computers and smartphones. Answer: True 158. Your gender is what you are biologically, male or female. Answer: False 159. Six-month-olds respond differently to male and female voices. Answer: True 160. Most siblings are competitive and do not get along well. Answer: False 161. Research indicates that there are negative effects on cognitive development at 15 months to 3 years when mothers work more than 30 hours a week. Answer: True Test Bank for A Child's World: Infancy Through Adolescence Diane E. Papalia, Gabriela Martorell, Ruth Duskin Feldman 9780078035432

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