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This Document Contains Chapters 16 to 17 Chapter 16 Cognitive Development in Adolescence Multiple Choice Questions 1. Bethany solves a physics problem by developing and testing several hypotheses. According to Piaget, this is an example of the _____________ stage of cognitive development. A. sensorimotor B. preoperational C. formal operational D. concrete operational Answer: C. formal operational 2. Morgan is reading Robert Frost's The Road Not Taken for the fourth time since elementary school, but she only now understands what the poem means in terms of her life and the decisions she will make. Morgan is showing signs of _____________. A. centration B. formal operations C. egocentrism D. apparent hypocrisy Answer: B. formal operations 3. What distinguishes Piaget's stage of formal operations from his earlier stages? A. Ability to decenter B. Conservation abilities C. Ability to think abstractly D. All of these Answer: C. Ability to think abstractly 4. Individuals in the _____________ stage of cognitive development are able to deal effectively with hypothetical situations. A. sensorimotor B. preoperational C. concrete operational D. formal operational Answer: D. formal operational 5. A classic Piagetian test of formal reasoning is the _____________. A. pendulum problem B. mountain task C. conservation task D. moral dilemma Answer: A. pendulum problem 6. Stuart is 15 and likes "brain teaser" puzzles and word problems. He thinks about all possible alternatives and tries to eliminate them logically, one by one. This is an example of _____________ reasoning. A. transductive-inductive B. hypothetical-deductive C. preconventional-deductive D. postconventional-inductive Answer: B. hypothetical-deductive 7. David's automotive teacher enters him in a troubleshooting competition. He will be given a car that will not start and then has to find the problem and repair the car as quickly as possible. The day of the competition, David goes right to the car and tries to start it. When the engine turns over, but does not start up, his mind lights up with a list of potential problems and the diagnostic procedures to verify them. David is demonstrating _____________. A. transductive interference B. hypothetical-deductive reasoning C. centration D. situational fixation Answer: B. hypothetical-deductive reasoning 8. Mary Jane's question "What if . . . ?" when she approaches a task or a puzzle is a sign of _____________. A. egocentrism B. the personal fable C. imaginary audience D. hypothetical-deductive reasoning Answer: D. hypothetical-deductive reasoning 9. Piaget's formal reasoning tasks are significant in assessing cognitive development because finding a solution requires _____________. A. varying one factor at a time while holding the rest constant B. seeing the situation from someone else's point of view C. internalizing standards established by others D. choosing from conflicting standards by exercising one's own judgment Answer: A. varying one factor at a time while holding the rest constant 10. Which of the following is NOT a problem with Piaget's conception of formal operations? A. It fails to consider growth in metacognition. B. It overestimates older children's abilities. C. It overemphasizes writing and language abilities. D. It deemphasizes the influence of the situation and culture. Answer: C. It overemphasizes writing and language abilities. 11. Regarding Piaget's conception of cognitive development, many critics maintain that Piaget _____________ the abilities of younger children and _____________ the abilities of older children. A. underestimated; overestimated B. overestimated; underestimated C. emphasized; ignored D. ignored; emphasized Answer: A. underestimated; overestimated 12. Which of the following is considered a drawback of Piaget's theory? A. Piaget overestimated some older children's abilities. B. Piaget focused too heavily on individual differences. C. Piaget focused too heavily on cultural and social influences. D. Piaget focused too heavily on metacognition. Answer: A. Piaget overestimated some older children's abilities. 13. According to Elkind, adolescents find fault with their parents because _____________. A. their cognitive development allows them to think about ideals, and they see how their parents fall short B. they need to separate emotionally from their parents in order to leave home C. they are too self-centered to recognize their parents' good qualities D. they feel the need to rebel against parental authority Answer: A. their cognitive development allows them to think about ideals, and they see how their parents fall short 14. Dinnertime conversations at the Watts' house have not been peaceful since Bryden turned 15. Which of the following reflects Bryden's desire to try out, and show off, his newfound formal reasoning abilities? A. Argumentativeness B. Personal fable C. Apparent hypocrisy D. Conventional moral reasoning Answer: A. Argumentativeness 15. With regard to adolescents' thinking, indecisiveness refers to the _____________. A. inability to make up one's mind even about simple matters B. failure to decide what is interesting to oneself as opposed to what is interesting to others C. inability to solve the pendulum problem, as a result of delayed attainment of formal operations D. inability to decide on a solution to a moral dilemma problem, as a result of being at the preconventional level of moral reasoning Answer: A. inability to make up one's mind even about simple matters 16. Doug recently took part in a demonstration for homeless people. When his mother asked him to let her take some of his older clothing to the Salvation Army, Doug said "I haven't outgrown them! You're always picking on me anyway, and now you want to take the clothes off my back!" This is a clear reflection of A. idealism and criticalness. B. argumentativeness. C. indecisiveness. D. apparent hypocrisy. Answer: D. apparent hypocrisy. 17. Delia, 14, often becomes self-conscious because she believes other people are watching and talking about her. This happens at church, school, and family gatherings. Delia is experiencing _____________. A. shyness B. paranoia C. an imaginary audience D. a personal fable Answer: C. an imaginary audience 18. When 13-year-old Andre comes out of the locker room in his gym shorts, he hears some girls laughing nearby and assumes they are laughing at the way his legs look. According to Elkind, Andre's thinking reflects the operation of _____________. A. an imaginary audience B. the personal fable C. paranoia D. argumentativeness Answer: A. an imaginary audience 19. Lana spends hours rewriting and perfecting English papers in case they are selected to be read in front of the class. Which of the following is the best explanation for the imaginary audience in adolescents' thought? A. Delayed attainment of formal operations B. Delayed attainment of postconventional moral reasoning C. Failure to realize that everyone is subject to the consequences of his or her actions D. Inability to distinguish what interests oneself from what interests others Answer: D. Inability to distinguish what interests oneself from what interests others 20. When getting ready for school in the morning, Roberto spends a great deal of time choosing his clothes and fixing his hair. He is very concerned about fitting in with the other kids at school. His great concern with his appearance suggests that Roberto is dealing with _____________. A. a personal fable B. an imaginary audience C. apparent hypocrisy D. concrete-operations Answer: B. an imaginary audience 21. Jennifer recognizes that AIDS is a serious health risk, yet she sometimes engages in unprotected sex. She believes that bad things can happen to others but will never happen to her. Jennifer is exhibiting which of the following phenomena? A. Imaginary audience B. Egocentric thought C. Personal fable D. Preoperational thought Answer: C. Personal fable 22. Roland's belief that harm might come to others but not to himself is called _____________. A. the personal fable B. apparent hypocrisy C. conventional thinking D. the imaginary audience Answer: A. the personal fable 23. Eduardo is 17 and loves mountain biking. He pays no attention to warnings about closed trails and often comments "Nothing will happen to me." Eduardo exemplifies which aspect of adolescent thinking? A. Argumentativeness B. Postconventional reasoning C. Personal fable D. Hypothetical-deductive reasoning Answer: C. Personal fable 24. Elkind's notions of the imaginary audience and the personal fable _____________. A. are linked with the emergence of the ability to take an outsider's perspective B. are universal features of cognitive development in adolescence C. are unrelated to specific social experiences D. can be characteristic of youngsters who are experiencing difficulties in adjustment Answer: D. can be characteristic of youngsters who are experiencing difficulties in adjustment 25. Jacob has begun to understand that the language he uses when he hangs out with his friends and the language he uses when he is at work has to be different. Jacob is gaining an understanding of _____________. A. formal operations B. syntax C. social perspective taking D. symbols Answer: C. social perspective taking 26. Thomas works part-time at a department store. His managers often express how pleased they are that he is able to understand the customer's point of view. This is a result of Thomas' _____________. A. understanding of abstract vocabulary B. social perspective taking C. pubilect D. use of puns, irony, and metaphors Answer: B. social perspective taking 27. Henri is asked which twentieth-century artist became famous for painting pictures of soup cans and celebrities. He correctly answers "Andy Warhol." This recall of information can best be described as _____________ knowledge. A. conceptual B. declarative C. procedural D. structural Answer: B. declarative 28. Frieda, age 16, is a boating enthusiast who can tie 20 different kinds of knots. This type of knowledge is most aptly described as _____________ knowledge. A. conceptual B. declarative C. procedural D. functional Answer: C. procedural 29. _____________ studied moral development by presenting hypothetical dilemmas to subjects to determine what they would recommend as a course of action. A. Fowler B. Erikson C. Marcia D. Kohlberg Answer: D. Kohlberg 30. Kohlberg's view of the relationship between cognitive development and moral development was that _____________. A. advances in cognitive development are necessary for advances in moral development B. advanced cognitive development guarantees advanced moral development C. advanced cognitive development impedes moral development because it suppresses intuitive, emotional responses D. moral development proceeds independently of cognitive development Answer: A. advances in cognitive development are necessary for advances in moral development 31. Kohlberg asked subjects to respond to moral dilemmas because he wanted to _____________. A. determine the prevailing values among different age groups B. determine the shortcomings in the moral education of Americans C. understand and measure the moral reasoning behind people's solutions of moral dilemmas D. demonstrate gender differences in moral reasoning Answer: C. understand and measure the moral reasoning behind people's solutions of moral dilemmas 32. The study on which Kohlberg based his theory of moral reasoning was a _____________. A. cross-sectional study of American males of all ages B. longitudinal study of a group of males, beginning at ages 10 to 16 C. longitudinal cross-cultural study of males and females, beginning at ages 10 to 16 D. longitudinal cross-cultural study of males of all ages Answer: B. longitudinal study of a group of males, beginning at ages 10 to 16 33. Austin, age 6, is angry when his 2-year-old sister disturbs his toy trains. Asked why he should not hit her, he says, "Because Mommy will spank me." In Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning, Austin's response is typical of _____________. A. preconventional morality B. morality of autonomous moral principles C. conventional morality D. morality of conscience Answer: A. preconventional morality 34. Kristin believes that a person should always tell the truth because that is what a good girl or boy does. She seeks to please others. This type of moral reasoning is characteristic of Kohlberg's level of _____________. A. instrumental purpose and exchange B. morality of conventional role conformity C. morality of universal ethical principles D. autonomous moral principles Answer: B. morality of conventional role conformity 35. Gene has just been paid cash for some small home repairs. Gene is displeased with the government's spending priorities and, therefore, is hesitant to report the income on his tax return. He eventually decides to report the money because he feels that obeying the law is essential to the well-being of society. This reflects which level of moral reasoning? A. Preconventional B. Conventional C. Postconventional D. Transition to level II Answer: B. Conventional 36. Diane disagrees with the government's rules on voter registration. She realizes that the law is written with good intentions, but she disagrees with it and is working to get it changed. Diane falls within Kohlberg's _____________ stage of moral development. A. preconventional B. conventional C. postconventional D. transition to level II Answer: C. postconventional 37. Preconventional morality is characteristic of _____________. A. young children B. some adolescents C. some adults D. all of the above Answer: D. all of the above 38. Kohlberg suggested that the majority of adolescents and adults are at which level of moral reasoning? A. Preconventional B. Conventional role conformity C. Autonomous moral principles D. None of these; adolescents and adults are fairly evenly distributed at all levels. Answer: B. Conventional role conformity 39. What is the distinguishing feature of autonomous moral principles? A. Thinking of morality in terms of pleasing others or obeying the law B. Internalizing the standards of others C. Recognizing conflicts between moral standards and making one's own judgment based on principles of fairness and justice D. Acting under external controls and influences Answer: C. Recognizing conflicts between moral standards and making one's own judgment based on principles of fairness and justice 40. Three teenagers are talking about euthanasia and give the following responses. Which one demonstrates preconventional moral reasoning? A. Andrea says, "I think it's right, because nothing justifies making people suffer when there is no hope of recovery." B. Christian says, "I'd never kill anyone, not even to end dreadful pain, because I would probably be caught and sentenced to death or life imprisonment." C. Caroline says, "It's absolutely wrong, obviously, because it's against the law." D. All of the above demonstrate preconventional morality. Answer: B. Christian says, "I'd never kill anyone, not even to end dreadful pain, because I would probably be caught and sentenced to death or life imprisonment." 41. Ian, a high school junior, is studying day and night in the hope of being admitted to the prestigious university from which his mother graduated. When his friends ask him why he works so hard, Ian responds, "I'd just as soon go to a community college, but it will make my mother really happy if I go to her school." Ian is demonstrating _____________ moral reasoning. A. preconventional B. conventional C. postconventional D. formal operational Answer: B. conventional 42. Three teenagers are asked why they do not use drugs. Which statement demonstrates conventional moral reasoning? A. "I couldn't let my parents down by getting into trouble because of drugs." B. "I'm afraid of getting arrested or thrown out of school." C. "Actually, I think drugs should be legalized, but I don't take drugs because I think people have a responsibility to keep their minds and bodies in good shape." D. All of these demonstrate conventional moral reasoning. Answer: A. "I couldn't let my parents down by getting into trouble because of drugs." 43. Georgia works part-time in an office where nearly all of the other workers take office supplies home with them. Georgia does not because, even though she is unlikely to get in trouble and no one else seems to think it is wrong, she feels she owes it to her employer and to herself not to cheat. "I'm better than that," Georgia reasons. Which level of morality best describes Georgia? A. Postconventional B. Conventional C. Preconventional D. None of these; Georgia's thinking does not fit into any of Kohlberg's categories. Answer: A. Postconventional 44. Chandra is asked whether or not it is okay for a police officer to take the life of a man who is threatening the lives of many others. She responds by saying that it is the officer's duty to take the man's life because he was hired for the purpose of protecting innocent people. Chandra is most likely at which stage of Kohlberg's moral reasoning? A. Stage 2 B. Stage 3 C. Stage 4 D. Stage 5 Answer: B. Stage 3 45. Research on Kohlberg's theory indicates that a person's stage of moral development _____________. A. correlates positively with socioeconomic status B. does not correlate with age C. is inversely related to IQ D. is unrelated to education Answer: A. correlates positively with socioeconomic status 46. Which of the following is a motivator of moral activity? A. Empathy B. Guilt C. Internalization of prosocial norms D. All of these Answer: D. All of these 47. Carol Gilligan has criticized Kohlberg's description of moral development because his theory _____________. A. focuses on Western European moral values B. proposes too many stages of development C. emphasizes cognitive development rather than emotional development D. emphasizes values more important to males rather than to females Answer: D. emphasizes values more important to males rather than to females 48. According to Carol Gilligan, males emphasize _____________ in moral judgments, whereas females focus on _____________. A. justice; responsibility to others B. responsibility to others; justice C. maintaining friendships; not getting into trouble D. the good of the few; the good of the many Answer: A. justice; responsibility to others 49. Regarding Kohlberg's and Gilligan's perspectives on moral development, which of the following statements is FALSE? A. Kohlberg emphasized a justice perspective and Gilligan emphasized a care perspective. B. Kohlberg's theory is regarded as more accurate than Gilligan's. C. Gilligan's theory was based more on female responses than on male responses. D. Research reveals no gender differences in moral reasoning. Answer: D. Research reveals no gender differences in moral reasoning. 50. Which of the following statements regarding cross-cultural studies of Kohlberg's theories is correct? A. Cross-cultural studies fully support Kohlberg's theory. B. Cross-cultural studies have failed to support the beginning stages of Kohlberg's theory. C. Cross-cultural studies support Kohlberg's sequence of stages, up to a point. D. Cross-cultural studies have failed to support any aspect of Kohlberg's theory. Answer: C. Cross-cultural studies support Kohlberg's sequence of stages, up to a point. 51. About _____________ percent of adolescents engage in some sort of community service or volunteering activity. A. 25 B. 33 C. 50 D. 66 Answer: C. 50 52. Which of the following factors influences school achievement? A. Socioeconomic status B. Students' beliefs in their ability to succeed C. Peer influence D. All of the above Answer: D. All of the above 53. A student with high self-efficacy would be expected to do all of the following EXCEPT _____________. A. set challenging academic goals B. persist in the face of difficulties C. become easily frustrated D. seek help when necessary Answer: C. become easily frustrated 54. In a study examining students' perceived self-efficacy and their social studies grades, high self-efficacy was related to the grade _____________. A. the student hoped for B. expected C. actually achieved D. all of these Answer: D. all of these 55. The Paulings want their children to grow up with a strong sense of self-efficacy. Which of the following would you recommend? A. Parents should reward their children when they get good grades. B. Parents should set high expectations for their children's level of accomplishment. C. Parents should help children have learning experiences that build a belief in their ability to succeed. D. All of these above are recommended. Answer: C. Parents should help children have learning experiences that build a belief in their ability to succeed. 56. Joy's parents allow her to participate in family discussions, they listen to her viewpoints on issues, and encourage her to achieve. When Joy's grades are poor, they encourage her to try harder and make suggestions about how she can better manage her homework time. In Baumrind's terminology, Joy's parents use a(n) _____________ parenting style. A. authoritative B. authoritarian C. permissive D. inconsistent Answer: A. authoritative 57. Nadine's parents tell her what is right and wrong and expect her to conform to their wishes. They encourage Nadine to do well in school and to obey all the rules. If she does not, she is grounded. Nadine's parents use a(n) _____________ parenting style. A. authoritative B. authoritarian C. permissive D. inconsistent Answer: B. authoritarian 58. Ron's parents feel that he should be responsible for his own behavior and his grades. They make few rules and allow Ron to solve his own problems. They care about their son but choose not to get involved in his school activities. Baumrind would describe this parenting style as _____________. A. authoritative B. authoritarian C. permissive D. inconsistent Answer: C. permissive 59. _____________ parenting is positively associated with academic achievement. A. Authoritative B. Authoritarian C. Permissive D. Inconsistent Answer: A. Authoritative 60. Research suggests that, in the majority culture, children of authoritative parents _____________ than children raised by authoritarian or permissive parents. A. maintain better academic achievement B. demonstrate fewer behavioral problems C. are more socially competent D. All of the above are correct. Answer: D. All of the above are correct. 61. Asian American students tend to do well in school and tend to have parents who employ a(n) _____________ parenting style. A. authoritarian B. authoritative C. neglectful D. permissive Answer: A. authoritarian 62. The Archers are looking at different high schools for their daughter Kendra. Good high schools have all but which of the following characteristics? A. Orderly atmosphere B. High expectations for achievement C. Mandatory extracurricular involvement D. Teacher involvement in decision making Answer: C. Mandatory extracurricular involvement 63. Which of the following family characteristics increases the probability of becoming a school dropout? A. Low income B. Single-parent or remarried household C. Member of a minority group D. All of these Answer: D. All of these 64. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for why students drop out of high school? A. Overly involved parents who put too much pressure on the student B. Overly high teacher expectations C. Students' overconfidence, which causes them to study insufficiently D. Students' lack of active engagement in schooling Answer: D. Students' lack of active engagement in schooling 65. The most important factor in whether or not a student finishes school is the student's _____________. A. familial socioeconomic status B. level of active engagement C. number of friends D. gender Answer: B. level of active engagement 66. The factors that promote active engagement in school include all the following EXCEPT _____________. A. family encouragement B. small class sizes C. a warm, supportive school environment D. working part-time Answer: D. working part-time 67. Which of the following statements regarding gender differences in the sciences is FALSE? A. More boys than girls plan careers in math and the sciences. B. More boys than girls take engineering courses. C. More girls than boys take teaching courses. D. More boys than girls take computer science. Answer: A. More boys than girls plan careers in math and the sciences. 68. Some students' vocational aspirations may be hindered by the educational system itself because _____________. A. many schools value and cultivate only a narrow range of abilities B. students who are able to memorize and analyze tend to do best on intelligence and achievement tests, and high scores on these tests give access to particular vocations C. students who perform well on tests tend to become high achievers D. all of the above. Answer: D. all of the above. 69. The most successful school-to-work programs offer instruction in all of the following EXCEPT _____________. A. peer support and counseling B. basic skills and apprenticeship C. first aid and first response D. job placement and mentoring Answer: C. first aid and first response 70. According to your textbook, what is the major shortcoming of vocational counseling in high school? A. Counselors are trained to help students primarily in male-dominated vocations. B. Vocational counseling helps only those students who seek low-level, entry positions. C. Most counseling is aimed at college-bound students. D. Parents are not encouraged to take part in the vocational planning process. Answer: C. Most counseling is aimed at college-bound students. 71. Which of the following statements is a criticism of vocational training programs in the United States? A. The programs are not comprehensive. B. Few programs exist to teach students about the job market. C. The programs are not tied to the needs of business and industry. D. All of the above are correct. Answer: D. All of the above are correct. 72. Maria is 16 years old and has an after-school job in a supermarket. She works an average of 25 hours per week. If she meets the typical criteria suggested by the textbook, she may find that _____________. A. her grades in school will improve B. she will learn many skills that translate well to skills needed in school C. this experience will help her plan her career D. she is less likely to do drugs than other teens Answer: D. she is less likely to do drugs than other teens 73. Which statement is true of adolescents in the workplace? A. An estimated 80 to 90 percent of adolescents are employed at some time during high school. B. Students referred to as "accelerators" work over 20 hours and may use drugs or alcohol earlier as a result of their exposure to adult life. C. Research suggesting that taking a paid job during high school is detrimental is inconclusive. D. All of the above are true. Answer: D. All of the above are true. Essay Questions 74. High school English teachers know that assignments can be relatively complex because of the level of thinking that students develop during this time. Explain the relationship between formal operations, abstract thinking, and hypothetical-deductive reasoning. How might students' cognitive development affect their performance on writing assignments? Answer: High school students often develop formal operations, enabling abstract thinking and hypothetical-deductive reasoning. This cognitive development allows them to understand and manipulate abstract concepts, formulate hypotheses, and systematically test ideas. As a result, students can engage in more sophisticated analysis and argumentation, enhancing their performance on complex writing assignments. 75. Create an example that demonstrates understanding of each of the following thought patterns from Elkind's work on adolescence: idealism and criticalness, apparent hypocrisy, self-consciousness, and an assumption of specialness and invulnerability. Do NOT use an example that was given in class or in the text. Answer: Idealism and criticalness: A teen criticizes their parents for not being more environmentally conscious while advocating passionately for climate change action. Apparent hypocrisy: A student advocates for honesty but gets caught cheating on a test. Self-consciousness: A teenager feels everyone is staring at a small pimple on their face. Assumption of specialness and invulnerability: A teen believes they can drive recklessly without risking an accident. 76. Describe imaginary audiences and personal fables in the context of Elkind's work, and explain their connection to adolescent egocentrism. Answer: Imaginary audiences refer to adolescents' belief that they are constantly being watched and judged by others, leading to heightened self-consciousness. Personal fables involve a sense of uniqueness and invulnerability, where teens believe their experiences and feelings are unlike anyone else's. Both concepts stem from adolescent egocentrism, where the focus on self leads to exaggerated perceptions of others' attention and their own specialness. 77. Describe Kohlberg's three levels of moral reasoning, and explain how they are linked to intellectual development. Answer: Kohlberg's three levels of moral reasoning are: 1. Preconventional: Behavior driven by avoiding punishment and seeking rewards. 2. Conventional: Upholding laws and social rules to gain approval and maintain social order. 3. Postconventional: Adherence to universal ethical principles and personal moral beliefs. These levels are linked to intellectual development as they reflect the individual's growing capacity for abstract thinking, perspective-taking, and understanding complex ethical concepts. 78. Kohlberg developed a theory of moral development that was followed by Gilligan's work in the same area of study. Explain the differences between the work of Kohlberg and Gilligan. Answer: Kohlberg's theory focuses on justice-oriented moral reasoning, emphasizing universal ethical principles. Gilligan criticized this approach, arguing that it overlooked a care-oriented perspective more prevalent in women. She proposed an alternative model that emphasizes relationships, compassion, and care, highlighting gender differences in moral development. 79. Discuss individual differences in prosocial behaviors such as volunteering. Answer: Individual differences in prosocial behaviors like volunteering can be influenced by personality traits (e.g., empathy, altruism), social and cultural background, upbringing, and personal experiences. Additionally, factors such as perceived social norms, moral values, and opportunities for engagement can affect one's likelihood to participate in prosocial activities. 80. What factors can affect the level of success achieved in secondary school, and what are some of the factors associated with student dropouts? Answer: Factors affecting success in secondary school include quality of teaching, parental involvement, socioeconomic status, and individual motivation. Factors associated with student dropouts include low academic performance, disengagement, lack of support, economic hardship, and family issues. 81. List some of the gender stereotypes that exist in educational and vocational planning. Answer: Gender stereotypes in educational and vocational planning include the belief that boys are better suited for STEM fields while girls excel in the humanities, that males should pursue high-paying, competitive careers, and that females should choose nurturing or supportive roles. These stereotypes can limit opportunities and influence career aspirations. 82. The community plays an important role in the education of its children. Explain how neighbourhood influences contribute to school success. Answer: Neighbourhood influences contribute to school success by providing access to resources such as libraries, safe recreational areas, and community centers. Strong community support and engagement can foster a positive learning environment, while social networks offer additional support for students and families. Positive role models and local investment in schools also enhance educational outcomes. 83. Some students have to work both to help support their families and to provide themselves with needed materials and clothes. Others work so that they can have a better lifestyle that includes recreation opportunities, cars, and stereo and computer equipment. What effect does part-time work have on education? Answer: Part-time work can have both positive and negative effects on education. It teaches responsibility and time management but may lead to fatigue and reduced academic performance. Balancing work and school can enhance real-world skills yet potentially detract from study time and extracurricular involvement crucial for holistic development. True/False Questions 84. Piaget's final stage is the preoperational stage of cognitive development. Answer: True 85. Hypothetical deductive reasoning is the ability to think about what could be as well as what is. Answer: True 86. Piaget focused on individual differences in the formal operational stage. Answer: False 87. According to Elkind, in formal operations, adolescents gain new cognitive abilities but they are unsure how to use them. Answer: True 88. Elkind's personal fable is the idea that everyone is looking at you. Answer: False 89. Research has shown that liberals are more creative than conservatives. Answer: True 90. Functional changes in the brains of adolescents lead to gains in information-processing capacity and amount of knowledge in long-term memory. Answer: False 91. The order of Kohlberg's stages of moral development in order from lowest to highest is: preconventional, conventional, and autonomous. Answer: True 92. According to research, many adults and teens are at level 3 of Kohlberg's moral development. Answer: False 93. Moral reasoning is positively correlated with IQ. Answer: True 94. According to Fowlers theory of faith development, most adolescents are in the stage of conventional faith. Answer: True 95. One criticism of Kohlberg's stages of moral development is that some of the cross-cultural research fails to support. Answer: True 96. Gilligan argues that Kohlberg underestimates caring by focusing on justice. Answer: True 97. Prosocial behavior starts to increase in adolescence, particularly among boys. Answer: False 98. Internationally, data shows that girls are better readers than boys. Answer: True 99. Authoritarian parents seem to raise teens for greater academic success. Answer: False 100. Dropout rates are highest among teens from low-SES families. Answer: True 101. Students learn more when asked to read materials in a hard-to-read font. Answer: True 102. Vocational programs for non-college-bound students are strong in the United States. Answer: False 103. Long-term effects of teens working suggests that they should not work long hours. Answer: True Chapter 17 Psychosocial Development in Adolescence Multiple Choice Questions 1. The search for identity begins in adolescence and ends when A. a theory of self has been achieved. B. intimacy is achieved. C. a person reaches adulthood. D. none of these; the search for identity is lifelong. Answer: D. none of these; the search for identity is lifelong. 2. According to Erik Erikson, the primary risk of adolescence is A. illness. B. identity confusion. C. cliquish behavior. D. premature sexual activity. Answer: B. identity confusion. 3. According to Erikson, the conflict of adolescence is A. industry versus inferiority. B. identity versus identity confusion. C. identity versus inferiority. D. industry versus identity confusion. Answer: B. identity versus identity confusion. 4. Thirteen-year-old Latrell is pondering his own talents, interests, and needs, as well as his place in society. According to Erikson, this struggle represents the psychosocial crisis of A. autonomy versus shame and doubt. B. industry versus inferiority. C. identity versus identity confusion. D. intimacy versus isolation. Answer: C. identity versus identity confusion. 5. Teenagers' cliquish behavior and intolerance of differences represents what Erikson refers to as A. defenses against identity confusion. B. forms of regression. C. defensive behavior. D. signs of the "virtue of fidelity." Answer: A. defenses against identity confusion. 6. Twenty-eight-year-old Mary has worked at the same bookstore since she was 19 and has now begun to question both her choice of occupation and the direction of her life. According to Erikson, this appears to be a manifestation of A. retrenchment. B. identity confusion. C. regression. D. ego inferiority. Answer: B. identity confusion. 7. The theoretical concept of the search for identity as a healthy part of normal human development can be attributed to A. Sigmund Freud. B. Erik Erikson. C. James Marcia. D. David Elkind. Answer: B. Erik Erikson. 8. Which of the following items is NOT one of the major issues to be resolved in forming an identity? A. Occupation B. Values C. Sexual identity D. Physical health Answer: D. Physical health 9. The psychological moratorium is what Erikson referred to as a A. time-out period during which adolescents search for commitments. B. period comparable to Freud's latency period. C. cooling-off period in the generational conflict between adolescents and their parents. D. period during which adolescents develop mature intimacy. Answer: A. time-out period during which adolescents search for commitments. 10. Which of the following statements about adolescent males' development of identity and intimacy most closely reflects Erikson's theory? A. Mature intimacy cannot occur until after the development of a stable identity. B. Typically, identity development precedes mature intimacy, but the reverse also occurs fairly frequently. C. Mature intimacy and identity development occur at the same time for males. D. The development of identity and mature intimacy are separate processes; the timing of one has no relationship to the timing of the other. Answer: A. Mature intimacy cannot occur until after the development of a stable identity. 11. Which of the following most closely matches Erikson's concept of fidelity? A. Loyalty B. Acceptance of parental values C. Mature intimacy D. Courage and strength Answer: A. Loyalty 12. In Erikson's theory, which virtue arises from the crisis of identity versus identity confusion? A. Purpose B. Hope C. Fidelity D. Competence Answer: C. Fidelity 13. The concept of "identity statuses" is associated with A. Sigmund Freud. B. Carol Gilligan. C. Erik Erikson. D. James Marcia. Answer: D. James Marcia. 14. James Marcia's research on identity in adolescence is based on the theory of A. Sigmund Freud. B. Carol Gilligan. C. Lawrence Kohlberg. D. Erik Erikson. Answer: D. Erik Erikson. 15. Which of the following is NOT one of Marcia's four identity statuses? A. Achievement B. Foreclosure C. Moratorium D. Fidelity Answer: D. Fidelity 16. According to Marcia, adolescents who make commitments for their future based on plans that were made by others are in a state of A. moratorium. B. foreclosure. C. achievement. D. commitment. Answer: B. foreclosure. 17. Shelly has always been told that she is good with children. Both of her parents are teachers, and Shelly has never questioned their expectation that she will also become a teacher. What is Shelly's identity status? A. Achievement B. Diffusion C. Moratorium D. Foreclosure Answer: D. Foreclosure 18. Strong commitment after an active search of choices is known as A. individuation. B. identity achievement. C. autonomy. D. moratorium resolution. Answer: B. identity achievement. 19. About half of all late adolescents are in which of Marcia's identity statuses? A. Moratorium or achievement B. Diffusion or Moratorium C. Achievement or foreclosure D. Foreclosure or diffusion Answer: D. Foreclosure or diffusion 20. Marcia defines _____________ as a period of conscious decision-making during adolescence. A. identity status B. crisis C. commitment D. identity confusion Answer: B. crisis 21. Renaldo is a high school student trying to decide which college to attend. If he goes to Alfred University, he will major in music and become a teacher. If he goes to Kent State, he will study architecture and become an urban planner. According to James Marcia, Renaldo is in a period of A. commitment. B. diffusion. C. fidelity. D. crisis. Answer: D. crisis. 22. Which of the following terms does Marcia use to describe a personal investment in an occupation or a system of beliefs? A. fidelity B. crisis C. commitment D. identity Answer: C. commitment 23. Russell, age 17, seems to have no real concern for his future. He knows that soon he must decide on college, but he is rather passive and vague about his goals for the future. Which of the following is Russell's identity status? A. Achievement B. Foreclosure C. Diffusion D. Moratorium Answer: C. Diffusion 24. Amanda's mother and grandfather are doctors who attended Yale University. It is expected that Amanda will follow in their footsteps, but she is struggling with making her decision. She is no longer certain of what she wants to do and is progressively more troubled with the pressure that her family is exerting on her. According to James Marcia, which of the following terms best describes Amanda's identity status? A. Foreclosure B. Achievement C. Moratorium D. Diffusion Answer: C. Moratorium 25. An adolescent who is in crisis and is actively searching and considering alternatives is in which of Marcia's identity statuses? A. Moratorium B. Foreclosure C. Commitment D. Diffusion Answer: A. Moratorium 26. Michael, a high school senior, is going to college but he cannot decide on a major and a career. He has considered political science, education, and criminal justice but thinks there may be other possibilities he will discover once he is in college. Michael plans to keep his options open for a year or two before he makes a decision. According to Marcia, Michael's identity status is A. achievement. B. diffusion. C. foreclosure. D. moratorium. Answer: D. moratorium. 27. Carol Gilligan found that females define their identity in terms of A. imagination. B. personal relationships. C. competition. D. independence from parents. Answer: B. personal relationships. 28. Which of the following statements regarding gender differences in identity formation is correct? A. Individual differences may be more important than gender differences. B. Gilligan proposes that a large part of female identity achievement is based on the ability to achieve a separate identity. C. Erikson states that women must achieve identity before they achieve intimacy. D. All of the above are true. Answer: A. Individual differences may be more important than gender differences. 29. Which of the following statements regarding gender differences in self-esteem is FALSE? A. Overall, men and boys have higher self-esteem than women and girls. B. Female self-esteem seems to be linked to striving for individual achievement. C. Gender differences in self-esteem are small. D. Both females and males tend to gain self-esteem as they age. Answer: B. Female self-esteem seems to be linked to striving for individual achievement. 30. Elaine has begun to explore her ethnicity but is confused about what it means to her. According to research, Elaine is in which stage of ethnic identity? A. Diffused B. Foreclosed C. Moratorium D. Achieved Answer: C. Moratorium 31. Diego has explored his identity and understands and accepts his ethnicity. Which ethnic identity status characterizes Diego? A. Diffuse B. Foreclosed C. Moratorium D. Achieved Answer: D. Achieved 32. Juanita has done little to explore her ethnicity and does not clearly understand the issues involved. Her ethnic identity status is A. diffused. B. foreclosed. C. moratorium. D. achieved. Answer: A. diffused. 33. Sexual orientation becomes a pressing issue during A. middle childhood. B. the phallic stage. C. adolescence. D. young adulthood. Answer: C. adolescence. 34. Physical attraction toward others of the same sex is referred to as A. heterosexual. B. homosexual. C. bisexual. D. transsexual. Answer: B. homosexual. 35. Recent research suggests that a homosexual orientation may be the result of which of the following? A. Disturbed family relationships B. Environmental influences C. Anatomical differences in the brain D. Teratogens Answer: C. Anatomical differences in the brain 36. Teenagers who are gay or lesbian A. fear strong disapproval or disruption in the family. B. often feel isolated in a hostile environment. C. may be subject to prejudice and violence. D. experience all of the above. Answer: D. experience all of the above. 37. The faculty at a large urban high school are developing a program that will help students avoid "risky" sexual behavior. They have learned from research that adolescents who _____________ are most at risk for pregnancy and STIs. A. do not use contraceptives B. have multiple partners C. begin sexual activity early D. engage in all of the above Answer: D. engage in all of the above 38. According to one study, sexual risk-taking can best be reduced by A. economic status. B. parental relationships. C. self-regulation. D. age of first sexual activity. Answer: B. parental relationships. 39. Counselors who work with students at high schools know that the most important predictor for early sexual activity is A. intense sexual desire. B. love. C. curiosity. D. peer group norms supporting sexual activity. Answer: D. peer group norms supporting sexual activity. 40. Approximately _____________ percent of sexually active teenagers use some type of contraception most of the time. A. 30 B. 50 C. 70 D. 90 Answer: D. 90 41. The most common STI in adolescents is A. HPV. B. AIDS. C. chlamydia. D. herpes. Answer: A. HPV. 42. The STI with the most direct link to cancer is A. HPV. B. AIDS. C. chlamydia. D. herpes. Answer: A. HPV. 43. The most common curable STI is A. HPV. B. AIDS. C. chlamydia. D. herpes. Answer: C. chlamydia. 44. More than _____________ percent of teenage girls have been pregnant at least once before the age of 20. A. 20 B. 30 C. 40 D. 50 Answer: C. 40 45. The decline in teenage pregnancy and birth rates during the 1990s is most likely due to A. the increased use of contraceptives. B. an increase in the number of gay and lesbian teenagers. C. a growing problem with infertility. D. none of these; the rates have not declined. Answer: A. the increased use of contraceptives. 46. Which of the following statements regarding teenage pregnancies is FALSE? A. About two-thirds of the pregnancies end in abortions. B. More than half of pregnant teens have their babies and plan to raise them independently. C. Teenage birthrates are the lowest in decades. D. Most teenage pregnancies are unintended. Answer: A. About two-thirds of the pregnancies end in abortions. 47. The pregnancy rate for girls ages 15 to 19 has fallen most sharply among A. Whites. B. African Americans. C. Hispanics. D. Asians. Answer: B. African Americans. 48. Approximately what percentage of teenage pregnancies is unintended? A. 90 percent B. 80 percent C. 70 percent D. 60 percent Answer: A. 90 percent 49. A California study found that teenage mothers are likely to have been exposed to A. emotional abuse. B. sexual abuse. C. parental divorce. D. all of the above. Answer: D. all of the above. 50. Unwed teenage mothers and their children are likely to suffer financial hardship because A. child support laws are spottily enforced. B. adolescent fathers often have poor school performance and limited financial resources. C. court-ordered payments are inadequate. D. of all of the above. Answer: D. of all of the above. 51. Which of the following statements regarding teenage mothers and their children is FALSE? A. Teenage mothers are likely to drop out of school and have repeated pregnancies. B. Teenage unwed mothers and their families are likely to suffer financial hardship. C. Teenage mothers are likely to give birth to low-birth-weight babies regardless of socioeconomic status. D. Teenage mothers with proper prenatal care are not likely to give birth to low-birth-weight babies. Answer: C. Teenage mothers are likely to give birth to low-birth-weight babies regardless of socioeconomic status. 52. A pattern of emotional turmoil that can involve conflict with family, alienation from adult society, reckless behavior, and rejection of adult values is called A. puberty. B. adolescent egocentrism. C. adolescent rebellion. D. identity formation. Answer: C. adolescent rebellion. 53. Research suggests that _____________ adolescents display classic adolescent rebellion. A. virtually all B. approximately 75 percent of C. approximately 20 percent of D. approximately 5 percent of Answer: C. approximately 20 percent of 54. Larson's research on how adolescents spend their time indicates the increasing importance of A. parents. B. teachers. C. siblings. D. peers. Answer: D. peers. 55. Which of the following statements regarding adolescents and family relationships is FALSE? A. As adolescents age, their feelings about contact with parents becomes more positive. B. Mexican American girls tend to become closer to their parents during puberty. C. African American teenagers maintain more intimate family relationships than white teenagers do. D. High school students spend more of their free time with friends than with family. Answer: B. Mexican American girls tend to become closer to their parents during puberty. 56. _____________ Americans tend to maintain more intimate family relationships and less intense peer relations than do white teenagers. A. Chinese B. African C. Mexican D. Arab Answer: B. African 57. "Parents and teenagers do not like each other and do not get along well with each other." This statement expresses A. a prevalent but mistaken myth about personal relationships in adolescence. B. a notion that is well supported by research. C. the opinions of most U.S. teenagers. D. James Marcia's concept of identity foreclosure. Answer: A. a prevalent but mistaken myth about personal relationships in adolescence. 58. Everyday living seems like a battle at the Davidson house. With three teenagers at home, what is likely to be at the root of the conflict between the Davidson adolescents and their parents? A. Contradictory values on major issues B. Tension between dependency on parents and the need to be independent C. Wide mood swings D. Drug use Answer: B. Tension between dependency on parents and the need to be independent 59. According to research cited in your textbook, which of the following is 16-year-old Kevin and his father most likely to argue about? A. Religion B. Chores C. Politics D. Values Answer: B. Chores 60. Most arguments between young teenagers and their parents are about A. drugs. B. sexual activity. C. career choices. D. chores and school work. Answer: D. chores and school work. 61. Family conflict is most frequent during _____________ adolescence and most intense in _____________ adolescence. A. early; late B. early; mid C. mid; late D. late; early Answer: B. early; mid 62. An adolescent struggle for personal identity is called A. independence. B. dependence. C. rebellion. D. individuation. Answer: D. individuation. 63. When parents demonstrate an authoritative parenting style, teenagers A. have lower self-esteem. B. suffer declines in emotional health. C. tend to become more self-confident and competent. D. evaluate their own conduct negatively. Answer: C. tend to become more self-confident and competent. 64. Which of the following statements about the effect of economic stress on families is correct? A. Economic stress negatively affects children in single-parent families, but children in two-parent families tend to be buffered from its effects. B. Children of unemployed single mothers usually excel in school as a way of forgetting about their mother's problems. C. Children of unemployed single parents are less negatively affected if their mothers have strong, supportive kinship networks. D. All of the above are true. Answer: C. Children of unemployed single parents are less negatively affected if their mothers have strong, supportive kinship networks. 65. When children enter adolescence, their relationships with their siblings typically change in which of the following ways? A. They spend more time together than before. B. They become more distant. C. They have more need for emotional gratification from the sibling bond. D. They fight more. Answer: B. They become more distant. 66. The influence of peers is _____________ in early adolescence and _____________ during middle and late adolescence. A. weakest; increases B. strongest; declines C. unimportant; essential D. strongest; increases Answer: B. strongest; declines 67. A structured group of friends is called a A. group. B. clique. C. crowd. D. dyadic. Answer: B. clique. 68. In adolescence, friendships tend to be A. intense. B. casual. C. competitive. D. conflicted. Answer: A. intense. 69. Friendships in adolescence are likely to be more intimate, loyal, and supportive than those in middle childhood because teenagers A. spend so much time talking to one another on the telephone. B. find in their friends the intimacy they lack at home. C. are more egocentric and therefore better able to understand their friends' feelings and point of view. D. are better able to express and share their feelings because of advances in cognitive and emotional development. Answer: D. are better able to express and share their feelings because of advances in cognitive and emotional development. 70. As young people get older and more experienced in romantic relationships, A. romantic interactions become more intense. B. fulfillment of romantic roles becomes less important. C. insecurity escalates. D. they rely on a wider social network for emotional support. Answer: A. romantic interactions become more intense. 71. The strongest influence on aggressive antisocial behavior, accounting for over 60 percent of the variance is A. genes. B. parenting. C. peers. D. media Answer: A. genes. 72. Which of the following is a potential warning sign for early-onset delinquency? A. Parent child hostility B. Peer deviance C. Lack of social support D. All of the above are true. Answer: D. All of the above are true. 73. In terms of Bronfenbrenner's ecological model, effective early interventions and delinquency-prevention programs operate on the _____________ level and the _____________ level. A. microsystem; macrosystem B. mesosystem; exosystem C. microsystem; exosystem D. mesosystem; macrosystem Answer: B. mesosystem; exosystem 74. Researchers analyzing the long-term effects of some early childhood intervention programs have found that adolescents who had taken part in these programs as children A. were just as likely to get in trouble with the law as were children who did not participate in such programs. B. were less likely to get in trouble with the law. C. had lower self-esteem. D. had few aspirations for the future. Answer: B. were less likely to get in trouble with the law. 75. Which of the following criteria has NOT been repeatedly mentioned as a marker of emerging adulthood? A. Moving away from home B. Learning to involve others in decision-making C. Becoming financially self-supporting D. Having children Answer: B. Learning to involve others in decision-making 76. Since the 1990s surveys of emerging adulthood, Americans have repeatedly come up with three top criteria for adulthood. Which of the following is NOT one of those criteria? A. Accepting responsibility for oneself B. Making independent decisions C. Becoming financially independent D. Moving out of their parent's house Answer: D. Moving out of their parent's house Essay Questions 77. Explain the significance of Erikson's crisis of identity versus identity confusion. Answer: Erikson's crisis of identity versus identity confusion, occurring during adolescence, emphasizes the struggle to form a coherent sense of self. Successfully resolving this stage leads to a strong identity, allowing individuals to navigate life with clarity and purpose. Failure to resolve it can result in confusion and uncertainty about one's values, beliefs, and future direction. 78. Define Marcia's terms crisis and commitment, and describe their relationship to each of the following identity statuses: identity achievement, foreclosure, moratorium, and identity diffusion. Answer: Marcia's terms relate to identity development: Crisis: A period of exploration and decision-making regarding personal values and goals. Commitment: A firm commitment to chosen values, beliefs, and career paths. Identity Achievement: Involves both crisis and commitment, where individuals have explored options and made commitments based on personal values. Foreclosure: Lack of crisis exploration but strong commitment based on others' values or expectations. Moratorium: Involves crisis exploration without firm commitments yet, allowing for personal growth and decision-making. Identity Diffusion: Neither crisis exploration nor commitment, leading to confusion and lack of direction in identity formation. 79. Discuss how gender and ethnicity affect identity formation. Make sure to include the role cultural socialization plays in ethnic identity. Answer: Gender and ethnicity influence identity formation significantly. Gender norms and societal expectations shape how individuals perceive themselves and are perceived by others. Ethnicity involves cultural socialization, where individuals learn and internalize values, traditions, and beliefs from their ethnic group, impacting their sense of identity and belonging within their cultural context. 80. Controversy remains as to whether sexual orientation is decisively shaped before birth or at an early age. Discuss factors believed to contribute to sexual orientation. Answer: Sexual orientation is influenced by a complex interplay of biological, psychological, and social factors. Biological factors include genetic predispositions and prenatal hormonal influences. Psychological factors may involve individual temperament and early childhood experiences, while social factors encompass cultural norms and familial attitudes towards sexuality. 81. Identify the sexual practices common among adolescents, and cite factors that lead some teens to engage in risky sexual behavior. Answer: Common sexual practices among adolescents include kissing, touching, oral sex, and vaginal intercourse. Factors contributing to risky sexual behavior include peer pressure, curiosity, lack of comprehensive sex education, alcohol or drug use, and inconsistent use of contraception or protection against sexually transmitted infections. 82. Discuss the usual outcomes of early sexual activity. Describe the issues that adolescents have to face in dealing with teenage pregnancy. Answer: Early sexual activity can lead to both positive and negative outcomes. Positively, it may foster intimacy and exploration of relationships. However, it also increases risks such as unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, emotional distress, and strained relationships with parents or peers. Teenage pregnancy brings challenges like financial strain, disruption of education, emotional stress, and decisions about parenting or adoption. 83. Describe adolescent rebellion. Give some examples, and discuss its frequency among today's teens. Answer: Adolescent rebellion involves defiance or resistance against authority figures or societal norms. Examples include defiance of parental rules, experimenting with substances, or rejecting traditional values. While rebellion has always been a part of adolescence, its expression today varies widely due to changing societal norms and individual circumstances, making its frequency difficult to generalize. 84. During adolescence, change occurs in the relationships among adolescents, peers, and parents. Describe how these relationships change, and mention both the positive and negative effects of these changes. Answer: During adolescence, relationships among adolescents, peers, and parents undergo significant shifts. Adolescents seek more independence and autonomy from parents while forming deeper bonds with peers. Positive effects include enhanced social skills, emotional support from peers, and increased self-confidence. However, conflicts with parents may arise, leading to tension and misunderstandings, while peer influence can sometimes lead to risky behaviors or negative peer pressure. 85. Adolescents' families, schools, and communities are often witnesses to and victims of adolescent antisocial behavior. Describe the consequences of this behavior. Explain some of the root causes of antisocial behavior, and list what can be done to reduce these risks. Answer: The consequences of adolescent antisocial behavior can include strained family relationships, academic failure, legal issues, and community unrest. Root causes often involve a mix of genetic predisposition, early childhood experiences, peer influence, and socioeconomic factors. To mitigate risks, interventions such as family therapy, school-based mentoring programs, community outreach initiatives, and early identification and support for at-risk youth are crucial. 86. Describe the different characteristics of emerging adulthood for adolescents living in various westernized cultures. Give examples of how adolescence varies across cultures. Answer: Emerging adulthood varies across westernized cultures in terms of timing and milestones. In some cultures, like the United States, young adults often delay marriage and parenthood, focusing on education and career. In contrast, in European countries, there's more emphasis on early financial independence. Cultural norms also influence the extent of familial support and individual autonomy during this transitional phase. True/False Questions 87. According to Erikson, the focus of adolescence is identity versus confusion. Answer: True 88. Identity formation includes attitudes about religion. Research indicates that 84 percent of U.S. teens believe in God, and over half say religion is important to them. Answer: True 89. According to Marcia's theory, developing an identity requires both crisis and commitment. Answer: True 90. Erikson and Gilligan argue that for boys, identity and intimacy develop together. Answer: False 91. Ethnic identity status is the same as Marcia's more global theory of identity status: diffusion, foreclosure, moratorium, and achievement. Answer: True 92. Celebrating Kwanzaa is an example of cultural socialization. Answer: True 93. Sexual orientation appears to be primarily environmental. Answer: False 94. Teenage sexual activity is much more prevalent than in the past. Answer: False 95. Pledges to maintain virginity have shown little to no impact on sexual behavior other than to decrease the likelihood to take precautions during sex. Answer: True 96. Herpes is the most common STI in adolescence. Answer: False 97. STIs are more likely to be detected in boys than in girls. Answer: False 98. Teen pregnancy and birthrates in the United States have declined in recent years. Answer: True 99. Full-scale adolescent rebellion is the norm for most teens in the United States. Answer: False 100. Adolescents may spend an increasing amount of time with peers but parents still are close and influential. Answer: True 101. Conflict with parents tends to increase sharply over the teenage years, peaking in late adolescence. Answer: False 102. Authoritarian parenting styles are most closely related to positive outcomes in emerging adulthood. Answer: False 103. Economic stress is primarily a factor in teen relationships with their families only in single-parent homes. Answer: False 104. The influence of peer groups is strongest in early adolescence. Answer: True 105. Programs that address environmental risk factors have had success in preventing juvenile delinquency. Answer: True 106. The most widely held view about emerging adulthood is conformity with social norms. Answer: False Test Bank for A Child's World: Infancy Through Adolescence Diane E. Papalia, Gabriela Martorell, Ruth Duskin Feldman 9780078035432

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