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Chapter 05 Birth and the Newborn Baby Multiple Choice Questions 1. Jason remarks to Darleen, who is 6 months pregnant, that it would be nice if they could go back to a time when it was easier to bring a child into the world. Darleen has read the literature about how childbirth procedures have changed over the years and is a little less enthused. Which of the following statements about childbirth in the past is FALSE? A. The prospective father assisted the midwife in the delivery. B. Women sat up in bed or perhaps in a stable. C. Cracks in walls were plugged to keep out evil spirits. D. A local doctor was always present. Answer: D. A local doctor was always present. 2. The science that specializes in the birth of babies is called A. pediatrics. B. gynecology. C. obstetrics. D. birthing. Answer: C. obstetrics. 3. Women who have given birth during the past 50 years have benefited from a dramatic reduction in risks surrounding pregnancy and childbirth. This is due to A. use of antibiotics. B. use of anesthesia. C. implementation of prenatal care. D. all of the above. Answer: D. all of the above. 4. The series of uterine and cervical changes that occur two weeks before delivery are called A. contractions. B. labor. C. parturition. D. quickening. Answer: C. parturition. 5. A set of uterine, cervical, and other changes that is the act, or process, of giving birth is called A. organosis. B. effacement. C. milla. D. parturition. Answer: D. parturition. 6. Yvonne has begun to experience uterine contractions that are causing her cervix to dilate. She is in the _____________ stage of childbirth. A. first B. second C. third D. fourth Answer: A. first 7. During childbirth, dilation of the cervix occurs A. during the first stage. B. during the second stage. C. during the third stage. D. shortly before the first contractions occur. Answer: A. during the first stage. 8. Mary is in the delivery room giving birth to her first child. Her cervix has fully dilated, and the baby's head is just visible in the vaginal canal. Mary is in which stage of childbirth? A. First B. Second C. Third D. Fourth Answer: B. Second 9. Harriet's labor has gone on for quite a while, so her physician decides to grasp the baby's head with forceps to help with the birth. Harriet is in which stage of childbirth? A. First B. Second C. Third D. Fourth Answer: B. Second 10. The end of the second stage of childbirth is indicated by A. dilation of the cervix. B. the emergence of the baby from the mother's body. C. the expulsion of the placenta. D. contractions that occur every 8 to 10 minutes. Answer: B. the emergence of the baby from the mother's body. 11. The placenta is expelled from the mother's body during the _____________ stage of childbirth. A. first B. second C. third D. fourth Answer: C. third 12. An electronic fetal monitor is used A. to track the fetus's heartbeat. B. to detect any serious problems. C. to gather information in high-risk deliveries. D. for all of the above. Answer: D. for all of the above. 13. The most common method of childbirth is a _____________ delivery. A. vaginal B. medicated C. cesarean D. forceps Answer: A. vaginal 14. A surgical incision was made in Lana's abdomen in order for her to deliver her baby. This procedure is called a A. forceps birth. B. natural birth. C. cesarean section. D. Lamaze birth. Answer: C. cesarean section. 15. Kathleen is in labor and is told by her physician that the baby's feet, rather than his head, are moving down the birth canal first. What type of delivery is likely to be performed? A. Lamaze delivery B. Vaginal delivery C. Cesarean delivery D. Natural delivery Answer: C. Cesarean delivery 16. Ms. Feldman is a midwife attending to Louise who is in labor. Ms. Feldman determines that Louise's baby is not in the proper position and that the labor is progressing very slowly. She decides to take Louise to the hospital so that doctors can deliver the baby through abdominal surgery. This birth is an example of a A. natural delivery. B. Lamaze birth. C. cesarean delivery. D. forceps delivery. Answer: C. cesarean delivery. 17. A fetus whose feet are below his or her head in the uterus is in a _____________ position. A. normal B. transverse C. breech D. cesarean Answer: C. breech 18. Krystal's obstetrician has told her that the baby she is about to deliver has his buttocks down in the uterus. Krystal's baby is in the _____________ position. A. normal B. breech C. transverse D. effacement Answer: B. breech 19. Cesarean deliveries A. are most common among low-income women. B. are sometimes performed unnecessarily. C. lead to a substantial increase in risk of newborn death. D. generally result in shorter hospital stays. Answer: B. are sometimes performed unnecessarily. 20. A medicated delivery is one in which A. the baby receives injections of two stress hormones—adrenaline and noradrenaline. B. the mother is given adrenaline and noradrenaline to help the baby withstand the stress of childbirth. C. the mother receives anesthesia. D. mother and baby are both given antibiotics to prevent infection. Answer: C. the mother receives anesthesia. 21. Patrick and Lacey attend prepared childbirth classes where they are taught breathing and muscular responses designed to A. speed up the birth. B. minimize the fear and pain associated with labor. C. bring about a hypnotic state during delivery. D. slow down contractions during labor. Answer: B. minimize the fear and pain associated with labor. 22. A method of childbirth whereby mothers are trained to make breathing and muscular responses to sensations of uterine contractions is called A. prepared childbirth. B. silent childbirth. C. doula birth. D. cesarean response training. Answer: A. prepared childbirth. 23. Which of the following statements about the use of prepared childbirth is FALSE? A. It involves delivering babies in dimly lit, isolated rooms. B. It allows the mother to participate actively in birth. C. It allows the father to be involved in labor and delivery. D. It uses breathing and muscular responses to overcome fear and pain. Answer: A. It involves delivering babies in dimly lit, isolated rooms. 24. If a pregnant woman learns to use certain breathing techniques and muscle relaxation in response to a "coach," she is using the childbirth method developed by A. Fernand Lamaze. B. the American Academy of Pediatrics. C. Benjamin Spock. D. Jerome Kagan. Answer: A. Fernand Lamaze. 25. Jim and Heather are delivering their first child. Jim is coaching Heather in her breathing and encouraging her to practise her relaxation techniques. This is an example of A. a cesarean delivery. B. doula-assisted childbirth. C. stillbirth. D. the Lamaze method. Answer: D. the Lamaze method. 26. If a woman decides to have her baby at home, the birth is usually attended by a A. physician's assistant. B. nursing assistant. C. physician. D. doula. Answer: D. doula. 27. A criticism of the use of anesthesia during childbirth is that it A. does not relieve the mother's discomfort. B. is too expensive and therefore only available to affluent women. C. may slow infants' motor and physiological development. D. contributes to the high rate of maternal death during childbirth. Answer: C. may slow infants' motor and physiological development. 28. Linda is in labor. If she is having a typical birth, which of the following is she most likely to receive to lessen her pain? A. Over-the-counter pain killers B. Catecholamine C. A regional epidural D. A general anesthetic Answer: C. A regional epidural 29. A criticism of medicated births is that A. it reduces the pain that is essential to a normal delivery. B. women who choose medicated births experience a longer recovery period. C. babies' motor responsiveness and development may be slowed. D. it leads to a risk of infection in the mother. Answer: C. babies' motor responsiveness and development may be slowed. 30. An experienced helper who provides emotional support to a woman during labor is referred to as a(n) A. maternity nurse. B. doula. C. labor facilitator. D. adjunct. Answer: B. doula. 31. A doula is a A. physician in South America who specializes in delivering babies. B. nurse certified to assist at births. C. woman who gives emotional support during childbirth. D. home-like birth center. Answer: C. woman who gives emotional support during childbirth. 32. Though Elaine has no formal medical training, she has given birth to five children and has exceptionally good interpersonal skills. She would like to receive training that would enable her to help other women emotionally during the birthing process. Which of the following roles should she look into? A. Midwife B. Doula C. Sherpa D. Shaman Answer: B. Doula 33. Which of the following is NOT necessarily one of the benefits of having a doula present at childbirth? A. Shorter labor B. Less anesthesia C. Lower insurance premiums D. Less use of forceps Answer: C. Lower insurance premiums 34. The first four weeks after a baby is born is known as the _____________ period. A. prepartum B. neonatal C. prenatal D. neopartum Answer: B. neonatal 35. The neonatal period is the first _____________ of life. A. 4 weeks B. 8 weeks C. 6 months D. year Answer: A. 4 weeks 36. A neonatal toxicologist's primary research interest is the first _____________ of life. A. week B. month C. 3 months D. 6 months Answer: B. month 37. The average newborn weighs _____________ pounds. A. 5 B. 7½ C. 8½ D. 9 Answer: B. 7½ 38. In the first few days of life, newborns typically A. have small heads in proportion to their bodies. B. acquire lanugo. C. lose weight. D. appear very dark. Answer: C. lose weight. 39. Places in the neonate's skull where the bones are not completely fused are called the A. fontanels. B. vernix. C. apex. D. hyaline commissure. Answer: A. fontanels. 40. When Billy's mother brings his new baby sister home from the hospital, the first thing that he asks her is if he can touch her. His mother says yes, but to be careful not to touch the soft spot on her head. Billy's mother is referring to the A. fontanels. B. vernix. C. apex. D. corpus callosum. Answer: A. fontanels. 41. Which of the following statements about the first few days of life is FALSE? A. Newborns initially have very little variance in their complexions. B. Babies lose as much as 10% of their body weight. C. The baby's nose is likely to look flattened. D. The baby's head may be misshapen. Answer: A. Newborns initially have very little variance in their complexions. 42. Fontanels are present in the neonate's skull A. to allow for rapid postnatal brain expansion. B. to prevent calcium deposits from damaging cartilage. C. to ease the passage of the skull through the birth canal. D. until 6 months of age. Answer: C. to ease the passage of the skull through the birth canal. 43. When Henna and Thomas first see their new granddaughter, they are surprised to find her body covered with dark hair. This fuzzy prenatal hair is called the A. vermis. B. follicle caseosa. C. meconium. D. lanugo. Answer: D. lanugo. 44. Upon seeing her newborn baby brother, Wanda exclaims, "He looks all oily and shiny!" Wanda has noticed the A. fontanels. B. lanugo. C. meconium. D. vernix caseosa. Answer: D. vernix caseosa. 45. The oily covering on the skin of a newborn is called the A. witch's milk. B. lanugo. C. vernix caseosa. D. fontanels. Answer: C. vernix caseosa. 46. Freda loves listening to her neonate daughter's _____________ heartbeat as she nurses her in the quiet of the night. A. slow and steady B. slow and irregular C. fast and irregular D. fast and steady Answer: C. fast and irregular 47. Most babies begin to breathe A. as soon as they are exposed to air. B. about 30 seconds after birth. C. about 4 minutes after birth. D. only after a sharp slap on the bottom. Answer: A. as soon as they are exposed to air. 48. The Costellos' baby daughter did not begin to breathe within 5 minutes after birth, and doctors are concerned that she may have suffered brain damage due to A. hypothermia. B. anoxia. C. hyperphagia. D. oxidation. Answer: B. anoxia. 49. If breathing has not begun within 5 minutes after birth, the baby is at risk of developing A. phenylketonuria. B. neonatal jaundice. C. sickle-cell anemia. D. brain damage. Answer: D. brain damage. 50. The Petris, new parents of a healthy son John, were at first concerned about the newborn's stringy, greenish-black waste called A. physiologic jaundice. B. meconium. C. lanugo. D. vernix caseosa. Answer: B. meconium. 51. Waste matter formed in the fetal intestinal tract and secreted after birth is called A. meconium. B. witch's milk. C. lanugo. D. vernix. Answer: A. meconium. 52. A few days after birth, a baby develops a yellowish tinge to the skin and the eyeballs. These symptoms indicate _____________, which is due to immaturity of the _____________. A. anoxia; liver B. anoxia; kidneys C. neonatal jaundice; liver D. neonatal jaundice; kidneys Answer: C. neonatal jaundice; liver 53. Neonatal jaundice is caused by A. incomplete development of the circulatory system. B. immaturity of the liver. C. incomplete development of the respiratory system. D. an inability to regulate body temperature. Answer: B. immaturity of the liver. 54. Anthony was born with neonatal jaundice, which A. must be treated quickly with antibiotics. B. is most common in postmature babies. C. occurs in about 50% of neonates. D. usually occurs about 10 to 14 days after birth. Answer: C. occurs in about 50% of neonates. 55. The Apgar scale does NOT measure A. pulse. B. gross motor ability. C. respiration. D. activity. Answer: B. gross motor ability. 56. The highest score on the Apgar scale is 10; more than 90% of normal infants receive a score of at least A. 8. B. 7. C. 6. D. 5. Answer: B. 7. 57. A healthy newborn can receive a maximum score of _____________ on the Apgar scale. A. 10 B. 8 C. 6 D. 4 Answer: A. 10 58. Which of the following newborns would have the highest Apgar score? A. Ann, who is listless and blue, with limp muscle tone B. Billy, who is pink with blue extremities, a slow pulse, and slow breathing C. Carmela, who is coughing and crying, is pink, and has a rapid pulse D. David is blue, with a slow pulse, and irregular breathing Answer: C. Carmela, who is coughing and crying, is pink, and has a rapid pulse 59. The condition of a baby whose Apgar score is 3 is A. very healthy. B. within normal range. C. slightly below normal. D. dangerous; the baby needs immediate resuscitation. Answer: D. dangerous; the baby needs immediate resuscitation. 60. The _____________ is a test that assesses five aspects of behavior in order to measure a newborn's response to the environment. A. Apgar scale B. Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale C. Bayley scale D. PKU screen Answer: B. Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale 61. Often, a neonate is assessed using the the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, which examines A. the oxygen content of the blood. B. color, pulse, and breathing. C. responses to the environment, such as alertness, reflexes, and control. D. neurological maturity. Answer: C. responses to the environment, such as alertness, reflexes, and control. 62. Gannon and his twin brother Garrett have just been evaluated for their responses to stress, ability to calm down, reflexes, hand-mouth coordination, alertness, and response to cuddling. Which test have they been given? A. Apgar scale B. Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale C. Denver Development Screening Test D. PKU screen Answer: B. Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale 63. PKU—phenylketonuria—is A. a form of neonatal jaundice. B. rare and untreatable. C. routinely screened for in all states. D. found in about 1 in 100 newborns. Answer: C. routinely screened for in all states. 64. If an infant inherits the gene for PKU, and it is left untreated, the result will be A. neonatal jaundice. B. a hormonal imbalance. C. neurological damage. D. mental retardation. Answer: D. mental retardation. 65. Periodic variations in an infant's cycle of wakefulness, sleep, and activity are known as the various _____________ of infancy. A. temperaments B. states of arousal C. periods D. moods Answer: B. states of arousal 66. Newborn babies sleep an average of _____________ hours per day. A. 10 B. 15 C. 18 D. 20 Answer: C. 18 67. Just moments ago, Anna was lying quietly with her eyes closed and she was breathing regularly. Now her breathing has become more irregular, and some slight muscle twitches are occurring. Anna has passed from a state of _____________ to a state of _____________. A. drowsiness; alert inactivity B. regular sleep; apnea C. regular sleep; irregular sleep D. irregular sleep; drowsiness Answer: C. regular sleep; irregular sleep 68. One-week-old Cody's eyes are open, and he is quietly looking around the room. Cody's is in a state called A. alert inactivity. B. active sleep. C. waking activity. D. drowsiness. Answer: A. alert inactivity. 69. Dan and Diane are exhausted because 4-week-old Jake wakes three to four times each night. What is the most probable explanation for Jake's behavior? A. He is not eating enough and wakes when he is hungry. B. He is not getting enough attention from his parents when he is awake. C. He lacks a sense of security. D. His sleep pattern is typical of newborn babies. Answer: D. His sleep pattern is typical of newborn babies. 70. Baby Joey is in the state of active sleep. This state of arousal corresponds most closely to _____________ in adults. A. quiet sleep B. drowsiness C. rapid eye movement sleep D. interactive sleep Answer: C. rapid eye movement sleep 71. By _____________ of age, more than half the baby's sleep takes place at night. A. 1 week B. 1 month C. 3 months D. 6 months Answer: D. 6 months 72. Betty was born after a 30-week gestation period. She is called a _____________ infant. A. postterm B. preterm C. high-risk D. small-for-date Answer: B. preterm 73. Jaedyn was born five days before her due date. She weighed 5 pounds at birth. Jaedyn would be classified as a _____________ infant. A. normal full-term B. premature C. preterm D. small-for-date Answer: D. small-for-date 74. Troy was born 38 weeks after conception and weighs 4 1/2 pounds. Troy is A. premature. B. preterm. C. postterm. D. small-for-date. Answer: D. small-for-date. 75. The most serious risk for low-birth-weight babies is that they may A. be stillborn. B. die in infancy. C. be very sick during the first year of life. D. have severe physical deformities. Answer: B. die in infancy. 76. Who is most likely to have a low-birth-weight baby? A. Adele, who is 25, in good health, and has had one normal delivery B. Bianca, who is 40, in generally good health but has high blood pressure, and has had no previous pregnancies C. Carol, who is 17, pregnant for the first time, and in good health D. Dana, who is 37, underweight, smokes, and has had five previous pregnancies Answer: D. Dana, who is 37, underweight, smokes, and has had five previous pregnancies 77. The major cause of high infant mortality rates among African Americans is A. older maternal age. B. chronic maternal illness. C. higher rates of low-birth-weight babies. D. all of the above. Answer: C. higher rates of low-birth-weight babies. 78. Dr. Smith informs a mother that her newborn suffers from hyaline membrane disease. The baby is having problems with A. the membranes that cover the fontanels. B. the control of eye muscles. C. urination. D. respiration. Answer: D. respiration. 79. A newborn's air sacs keep collapsing, making it very difficult for her to breathe. A likely diagnosis for this infant's problem is A. hyaline membrane disease. B. respiratory dystrophy. C. postmaturity syndrome. D. pulmonary incompetence. Answer: A. hyaline membrane disease. 80. Low-birth-weight newborns are usually placed in a warmed crib called a(n) A. warming machine. B. isolette. C. heat bed. D. oxygen tent. Answer: B. isolette. 81. Which of the following is most beneficial for a low-birth-weight baby? A. Being placed in isolation to avoid human contact B. Being touched and massaged frequently C. Being in a simple sensory environment to avoid overstimulation D. Being in a cool environment to reduce fluid loss from sweating Answer: B. Being touched and massaged frequently 82. Which of the following statements about the prognosis for low-birth-weight babies is correct? A. Those weighing less than 2 pounds have almost no chance of survival past two years. B. Most survivors are left with disabling conditions. C. Their social development tends to be poor. D. Some low-birth-weight babies are at a risk for learning disabilities. Answer: D. Some low-birth-weight babies are at a risk for learning disabilities. 83. A baby is defined as postmature if it A. has had a gestation of less than 30 weeks. B. weighs over 8 1/2 pounds at birth. C. is born after 40 weeks of gestation and weighs at least 9 1/2 pounds. D. is still in the womb 2 weeks past the due date. Answer: D. is still in the womb 2 weeks past the due date. 84. Christa is now in her 43rd week of pregnancy. Her unborn baby is considered to be A. postmature. B. preterm. C. post fetal. D. post differentiated. Answer: A. postmature. 85. Postmature babies are at risk for A. brain damage. B. hyaline membrane disease. C. respiratory distress syndrome. D. childhood obesity. Answer: A. brain damage. 86. Postmature babies tend to be A. very plump, because they have had a longer time to receive nourishment in the womb. B. long and thin, because their food supply has been insufficient at the end of gestation. C. at a much lower risk of brain damage than babies delivered on time, because the brain has had a longer time to mature. D. kept in isolettes after delivery. Answer: B. long and thin, because their food supply has been insufficient at the end of gestation. 87. Which of the following statements about postmature babies is FALSE? A. They tend to have more fat owing to a longer period in the womb. B. They are at a higher risk for brain damage. C. The placenta provides a reduced blood supply during the later stages of gestation. D. They tend to be longer than babies who are delivered on time. Answer: A. They tend to have more fat owing to a longer period in the womb. 88. Which of the following is NOT considered a protective factor against potentially negative influences of early life stressors? A. Individual attributes B. Being an only child C. Affectionate ties with one or more family members D. Rewards for accomplishments in school, work, or home Answer: B. Being an only child 89. An ongoing longitudinal study in Kauai suggests that the effects of low birth weight, birth injuries, and other birth complications can be counteracted by A. a favorable home environment. B. drug therapy. C. adoption into an affluent home. D. surgical intervention. Answer: A. a favorable home environment. 90. A longitudinal study of children in Kauai found that difficult births, illness at the time of birth, and low birth weight A. had much less effect than children's environment on their development. B. resulted in serious adverse effects—physical, cognitive, and emotional—on most of the children in the study, even into adulthood. C. had no long-lasting physical effects but were strongly correlated with poor grades and emotional problems during childhood. D. were not correlated with cognitive or emotional problems during childhood but almost always left permanent physical damage. Answer: A. had much less effect than children's environment on their development. 91. According to the Kauai longitudinal study, which of the following factors seems to protect some individuals from the harmful effects of birth complications? A. A sense of personal control over one's life B. Close ties to a family member C. A high inborn level of sociability D. All of the above Answer: D. All of the above 92. Patterns of parent-infant interaction may be based on A. culture. B. phenotype similarity. C. mother-infant bonding after delivery. D. genetics. Answer: A. culture. 93. Which of the following statements about the father's presence during childbirth is correct? A. Most fathers are reluctant to be present in the delivery room. B. Most mothers prefer that the father remains outside of the delivery room until after the baby is born. C. Fathers who are present at birth engage in warmer child rearing than fathers who are not present for the event. D. Fathers who are present at the birth of a child often see the event as a "peak emotional experience." Answer: D. Fathers who are present at the birth of a child often see the event as a "peak emotional experience." 94. According to the most recent research cited in the text, a strong mother-infant bond can develop A. only during the first few hours after birth. B. through a process that appears similar to imprinting. C. most effectively when a midwife and doula are present at birth. D. even if the newborn and mother do not have contact during the first few hours after birth. Answer: D. even if the newborn and mother do not have contact during the first few hours after birth. 95. An illuminating study performed by Harry Harlow examined attachment behaviors in rhesus monkeys. Harlow raised some monkeys with cloth "mothers" and others with wire "mothers." He found that A. monkeys preferred wire mothers. B. monkeys preferred cloth mothers. C. monkeys received no comfort from touching the cloth. D. male monkeys preferred wire mothers, while female monkeys preferred cloth mothers. Answer: B. monkeys preferred cloth mothers. Essay Questions 96. Describe the changes that have occurred in childbirth practices during the twentieth century. How do these practices differ from those of previous centuries? Answer: In the twentieth century, childbirth practices shifted significantly towards hospital births with medical interventions like anesthesia and surgical deliveries becoming more common. This marked a departure from earlier centuries where childbirth typically occurred at home with midwives, emphasizing natural methods and familial support. The shift brought advancements in safety and medical care but also altered the birthing experience from a domestic and often community-centered event to a more clinical setting. 97. Lorraine and Michael are about to have their first child. If you were their birthing coach, what signs would you tell them to look for as they near the time of delivery? Describe the signs of the onset of labor and, after listing each stage of labor, describe what they should expect at each stage. Answer: As their birthing coach, I would advise Lorraine and Michael to watch for signs of labor onset such as regular contractions, lower back pain, and the release of the mucus plug. During the first stage of labor (early and active labor), expect contractions to become stronger and more frequent, possibly accompanied by the rupture of the amniotic sac. In the second stage (delivery of the baby), expect intense contractions leading to the baby's descent through the birth canal and eventual delivery. The third stage (delivery of the placenta) involves the placenta's expulsion, typically within minutes to half an hour after birth, accompanied by mild contractions. 98. Long before her due date, doctors can often anticipate problems that a pregnant woman might have. Thus, they might inform her that she should deliver by cesarean section. In other cases, doctors make the decision about a cesarean delivery as the labor progresses. Explain the differences between a vaginal delivery and a cesarean delivery. Also, explain why a doctor may recommend one procedure over the other. Answer: A vaginal delivery involves the baby passing through the birth canal, aided by uterine contractions. It is considered the natural method of childbirth, typically resulting in quicker recovery times for the mother. A cesarean delivery, or C-section, involves surgical incisions in the abdomen and uterus to deliver the baby. Doctors may recommend a C-section if complications arise during labor, such as fetal distress, breech presentation, placenta previa, or previous uterine surgeries that may pose risks during vaginal delivery. 99. Women today can select one of several alternative childbirth methods and settings. List and describe some of the options that women may consider. Be sure to include the terms midwife and doula. Answer: Women today have several alternative childbirth options: 1. Home birth: Giving birth in the comfort of one's home with a midwife providing medical support. 2. Birth center: A facility designed for natural childbirth, often run by midwives and providing a home-like environment. 3. Water birth: Giving birth in a tub of warm water, believed to offer relaxation and pain relief. 4. Doula-assisted birth: A doula provides emotional and physical support throughout labor and delivery, complementing medical care provided by midwives or doctors. 100. Hospital personnel and new parents should know certain terms so that childbirth events are understandable to everyone. Explain each of the following terms: neonate, fontanels, lanugo, anoxia, and neonatal jaundice. Answer: 1. Neonate: Refers to a newborn baby within the first 28 days of life. 2. Fontanels: Soft spots on a baby's skull where the bones have not yet fused, allowing for easier passage through the birth canal and brain growth. 3. Lanugo: Fine, downy hair covering a newborn's body, which typically sheds before or shortly after birth. 4. Anoxia: A condition where a newborn experiences a lack of oxygen, potentially leading to brain damage or other complications if not promptly treated. 5. Neonatal jaundice: A common condition in newborns caused by elevated bilirubin levels, resulting in yellowing of the skin and eyes, often treated with phototherapy to break down excess bilirubin. 101. Describe the Apgar scale, and explain how it is used. What do each of the letters stand for? Answer: The Apgar scale is used to quickly assess a newborn's health status and determine the need for immediate medical intervention. It evaluates Appearance (skin color), Pulse (heart rate), Grimace response (reflexes), Activity (muscle tone), and Respiration. Each letter in "Apgar" stands for one of these five criteria, with scores ranging from 0 to 2 for each, summed up to give an overall score out of 10. 102. While most babies are born without complications, some childbirth complications can endanger mothers and their newborn babies. Explain some of these complications, and describe what can be done to minimize the risk of complications. Answer: Childbirth complications can include: 1. Preterm birth: Babies born before 37 weeks gestation, leading to potential developmental challenges. Minimizing risk involves prenatal care, managing chronic conditions, and avoiding smoking or substance use. 2. Gestational diabetes: High blood sugar during pregnancy, increasing the risk of complications like macrosomia (large birth weight) and cesarean delivery. Monitoring blood sugar levels, diet management, and regular exercise can reduce risks. 3. Infections: Maternal infections like urinary tract infections or sexually transmitted infections can affect the baby. Early detection and treatment through regular prenatal screenings can minimize risks. 4. Birth defects: Structural or functional abnormalities in the baby's organs or body systems. Preconception care, genetic counseling, and prenatal screenings can help identify risks and manage complications early. Addressing these risks involves comprehensive prenatal care, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, early detection of complications, and prompt medical intervention when necessary to ensure the health and safety of both mothers and babies. 103. Ken and Kristie have a low-birth-weight baby. What babies are included in this category? What factors contribute to low birth weight? Answer: Babies with a birth weight less than 5.5 pounds (2500 grams) are considered low birth weight. Factors contributing to low birth weight include premature birth (born before 37 weeks gestation), maternal health issues (such as high blood pressure or diabetes), maternal malnutrition, smoking or substance use during pregnancy, multiple gestations (twins or more), and socioeconomic factors like poverty and limited access to healthcare. 104. Describe Harry and Margaret Harlow's experiment with rhesus monkeys. What do you think these researchers might have hypothesized about mother-infant bonding prior to conducting their research? What were the methods and results of this research? What does this study suggest about early bonding between infants and their mothers? Answer: Harry and Margaret Harlow conducted experiments with rhesus monkeys to study mother-infant bonding. They likely hypothesized that physical contact and comfort would be essential for mother-infant bonding. Their methods involved separating infant monkeys from their biological mothers and offering surrogate mothers made of wire or cloth. Results showed that monkeys preferred the cloth surrogate, indicating the importance of comfort and tactile stimulation in bonding, suggesting that early bonding involves more than just feeding and physical proximity. 105. List some parental behaviors that can maximize parent-child bonding. Answer: Some parental behaviors that can maximize parent-child bonding include: 1. Skin-to-skin contact: Holding the baby close for warmth and comfort. 2. Responsive caregiving: Promptly attending to the baby's needs and cues. 3. Talking and singing: Engaging in vocal interactions to promote communication. 4. Eye contact and smiling: Establishing emotional connection and positive reinforcement. True/False Questions 106. By the 1920s, over 65% of deliveries in the United States took place in hospitals. Answer: True 107. The act or process of giving birth is called parturition. Answer: True 108. The protein corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) promotes maturation of the fetal lungs to ready them for life outside the womb. Answer: True 109. Braxton-Hicks contractions indicate that a woman is going into labor. Answer: False 110. The stages of childbirth in order are: dilatation of the cervix, emergence of the baby, and delivery of the placenta. Answer: True 111. The cutting between the vagina and anus to enlarge the vaginal opening and aide delivery is called an epidural. Answer: False 112. Cesarean delivery is on the rise in the United States. Answer: False 113. Research suggests that oxytocin can help people low in social competence accurately read the emotions of others. Answer: True 114. In a natural or prepared childbirth, use of drugs to reduce pain is the norm. Answer: False 115. A baby is a neonate for the first 2 months of life. Answer: False 116. In the Himalayas, sometimes a piece of the umbilical cord is saved and placed in a metal bead that the child then wears. Answer: True 117. Colostrum is a special high-protein type of milk that aids in the immune system of the infant. Answer: True 118. In a newborn, over one-third of the infants body length is comprised of the infant's head. Answer: False 119. Whereas in the prenatal environment the newborns temperature is relatively constant, after birth is fluctuates with mother's mood. Answer: False 120. The Apgar scale measures the neonate's response to the environment. Answer: False 121. Neonates sleep an average of 20 hours a day. Answer: False 122. Low birth weight is a concern as it often leads to long, thin babies and don't receive enough blood supply towards the end of gestation. Answer: False 123. Ethnicity is unrelated to birth weight. Answer: False 124. Research suggests that resilience can overcome difficult starts to life if the environment is supportive. Answer: True 125. Research suggests that human babies imprint on their mothers much as Lorenz's goslings. Answer: False Test Bank for A Child's World: Infancy Through Adolescence Diane E. Papalia, Gabriela Martorell, Ruth Duskin Feldman 9780078035432

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