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This Document Contains Chapters 1 to 2 Chapter 01 Studying A Child's World Multiple Choice Questions 1. Child development is the scientific study of the processes that human beings undergo from the moment of conception through adolescence. The main focus of study is how children A. change. B. develop physically. C. develop social relationships. D. learn language skills. Answer: A. change. 2. Which of the following events paved the way for the scientific study of child development? A. the discovery of vaccines B. the enactment of child labor laws C. scientific discoveries about the nature of conception D. all of the above Answer: D. all of the above 3. Which of the following helped to pioneer the study of child development as a true science? A. G. Stanley Hall's book Adolescence B. the establishment of research institutes at Berkeley and Yale C. Arnold Gesell's studies on motor development D. all of the above Answer: D. all of the above 4. Five-year-old Tara does not make friends easily. She is shy and anxious in new situations. Because Tara's behavior has persisted over time, it is an example of developmental A. instability. B. resilience. C. stability. D. awkwardness. Answer: C. stability. 5. _____________ first emphasized the developmental nature of behavior by publishing a record of his son's sensory, motor, language, and emotional milestones during his first years of life. A. Charles Darwin B. John B. Watson C. Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard D. John Dewey Answer: A. Charles Darwin 6. Dietrich Tiedemann and Charles Darwin used the information obtained from _____________ to support their early theories about child development. A. baby biographies B. teachers C. doctors D. mothers' diaries Answer: A. baby biographies 7. Professor Hughes believes that students can better understand the developmental nature of behavior by studying human origins, both as a species and as individuals. Professor Hughes's belief is consistent with _____________ view of child development. A. John Locke's B. Charles Darwin's C. John Watson's D. Alfred Binet's Answer: B. Charles Darwin's 8. Adolescence has been considered a separate stage of development since A. early in the fifteenth century. B. the twentieth century. C. Konrad Lorenz's research on imprinting. D. The Great Depression. Answer: B. the twentieth century. 9. Who was the first to identify adolescence as a separate stage of development? A. John Watson B. G. Stanley Hall C. Arnold Gesell D. Lewis Terman Answer: B. G. Stanley Hall 10. Marsha is taking a class in human development. This class addresses the study of humans from A. conception to adolescence. B. infancy to adolescence. C. adolescence to death. D. conception to death. Answer: D. conception to death. 11. _____________ conducted longitudinal studies that traced the stages of motor development, which contributed to our understanding of developments that typically occur at various ages. A. G. Stanley Hall B. Arnold Gesell C. Jean Piaget D. Lewis M. Terman Answer: B. Arnold Gesell 12. The study of human development A. primarily emphasizes infancy through adolescence. B. emphasizes nature over nurture. C. is interdisciplinary. D. focuses more on adult than child development. Answer: C. is interdisciplinary. 13. Developmental scientists are interested in _____________ development. A. physical B. cognitive C. psychosocial D. physical, cognitive, and psychosocial Answer: C. psychosocial 14. Annette started crawling, then standing, and is now taking her first steps. This aspect of Annette's development falls within the _____________ domain. A. physical B. motivational C. biological D. toddler Answer: A. physical 15. At age 1, Suzi had a vocabulary of 10 words. Now, at 2 years of age, she has a vocabulary of over 100 words. Language development falls within the _____________ domain. A. physical B. cognitive C. psychosocial D. neurological Answer: B. cognitive 16. Which of the following psychosocial developments occur in adolescence? A. Gender identity develops. B. Self-awareness emerges. C. Search for identity becomes central. D. Self-esteem is global. Answer: C. Search for identity becomes central. 17. In order to acquire a thorough understanding of the nature of human development over time, scientists have divided the life span into five periods. These divisions are A. based on clear-cut development criteria. B. based on cognitive differences. C. arbitrary and approximate. D. separated into 10-year periods. Answer: C. arbitrary and approximate. 18. Which of the following is not a characteristic of physical development in early childhood? A. Handedness appears. B. Appetite diminishes. C. Abstract thinking emerges. D. Fine and gross motor skills improve. Answer: C. Abstract thinking emerges. 19. Dr. Ortiz, a pediatrician, charts his patients' brain and body growth, overall health, and motor skills. Dr. Ortiz is documenting A. hereditary factors. B. neurological development. C. physical development. D. developmental domains. Answer: C. physical development. 20. One-year-old Tamara's height and weight, along with her newfound ability to walk, A. interact with her cognitive, personality, and social development. B. occur independently of her cognitive development. C. will become less important than personality and social development with age. D. are primarily controlled by her genetic makeup. Answer: A. interact with her cognitive, personality, and social development. 21. Fifteen-month-old Lorraine and 5-year-old Joaquin are siblings. Which of the following statements about their physical growth is true? A. Both Lorraine and Joaquin are undergoing steady physical growth. B. Joaquin's physical growth is rapid, while Lorraine's growth is steady. C. Both Lorraine and Joaquin are undergoing rapid physical growth. D. Lorraine's physical growth is rapid, while Joaquin's growth is steady. Answer: D. Lorraine's physical growth is rapid, while Joaquin's growth is steady. 22. Dr. Dunn studies the way that children of different ages organize information in memory. His research focuses primarily on _____________ development. A. physical B. personality C. cognitive D. psychosocial Answer: C. cognitive 23. Darrin attends a preschool program that focuses on enhancing children's language and reasoning skills, as well as fostering creativity. Darrin's preschool emphasizes _____________ development. A. physical B. cognitive C. psychosocial D. physiological Answer: B. cognitive 24. Donald is referred to as the "Mayor of the First Grade," a title given to him because he gets along with everyone and seems to know everything that is going on. These skills demonstrate Donald's level of _____________ development. A. physical B. cognitive C. psychosocial D. psychosexual Answer: C. psychosocial 25. Three-year-old Lydia is extremely athletic. Although her interpersonal skills were not strong when she entered preschool, her athletic prowess meant that she was always included in play activities. Due to her high level of participation in these activities, she gradually learned to interact with her peers at a higher level. Which of the following statements explains Lydia's progress? A. Lydia's cognitive development was enabled by her psychosocial development. B. Lydia's psychosocial development was enabled by her physical development. C. Lydia's physical development was enabled by her cognitive development. D. Lydia's cognitive development was enabled by her physical development. Answer: B. Lydia's psychosocial development was enabled by her physical development. 26. Separation anxiety in infancy is an example of the effect of _____________ development on _____________ development. A. psychosocial; physical B. cognitive; psychosocial C. psychosocial; cognitive D. physical; psychosocial Answer: C. psychosocial; cognitive 27. Kari is very tall for her age. She has fewer friends than her average-sized classmates. This is an example of the interaction between which two types of development? A. physical and cognitive B. cognitive and psychosocial C. physical and psychosocial D. personality and psychosocial Answer: C. physical and psychosocial 28. Carrie (age 22) and Chelsea (age 17) are sisters. Carrie is a focused student who thrives in academic settings. She is working on a graduate degree at a very selective university. Chelsea is much less concerned about school and more interested in socializing. She is considering bypassing college because she wants to go to work as soon as she graduates from high school. Their parents cannot figure out what they did to make their daughters turn out so differently. Which of the following concepts would you emphasize when trying to explain the sisters' differences to their parents? A. social construction B. quantitative change C. individual differences D. physical development Answer: C. individual differences 29. Which of the following statements about social construction is correct? A. Social construction is a theory that explains the sequence of children's play patterns. B. Social construction is an idea about the nature of reality that is accepted by members of a particular society at a particular time. C. As children reach adolescence, they socially construct their free time. D. Social construction must be conditioned into children in order to avoid antisocial or deconstructive behaviors. Answer: B. Social construction is an idea about the nature of reality that is accepted by members of a particular society at a particular time. 30. Adolescence is an example of a A. domain of development. B. developmental trajectory. C. psychosocial milestone. D. social construction. Answer: D. social construction. 31. In many pre industrial societies, the concept of _____________ does not exist. A. prenatal development B. infancy and toddlerhood C. early childhood D. adolescence Answer: D. adolescence 32. Which of the following is NOT considered to be one of the major divisions of the life span? A. prenatal period B. infancy and toddlerhood C. late adulthood D. senescence Answer: D. senescence 33. During which developmental period do children develop speech and locomotion, and become somewhat more assertive and self-reliant, yet need considerable help in restraining their impulsive behavior? A. infancy and toddlerhood B. early childhood C. middle childhood D. the preschool years Answer: B. early childhood 34. During _____________, children begin to develop self-control and have more interest in others. A. infancy B. toddlerhood C. early childhood D. middle childhood Answer: C. early childhood 35. Children become proficient in regulating their own behavior and are very interested in their peer group during A. infancy. B. toddlerhood. C. early childhood. D. middle childhood. Answer: D. middle childhood. 36. Carlos is undergoing rapid physical growth, has the ability to use abstract thought, and is trying to establish an identity. Carlos is a(n) A. school-age child. B. adolescent. C. young adult. D. college student. Answer: B. adolescent. 37. Attachment is particularly important during which developmental period? A. infancy and toddlerhood B. early childhood C. middle childhood D. adolescence Answer: A. infancy and toddlerhood 38. Research looking at influences on development indicates that A. every child has a unique developmental trajectory. B. developmental milestones are universal. C. heredity is more important than environment. D. there are few gender or ethnic differences in physical or cognitive maturation. Answer: A. every child has a unique developmental trajectory. 39. Characteristics that are the result of inborn influences are generally attributed to A. heredity. B. the environment. C. both heredity and environment. D. a natural sequence. Answer: A. heredity. 40. The totality of experiential influences on development is generally referred to as A. a natural sequence. B. maturation. C. the environment. D. heredity. Answer: C. the environment. 41. William is a gifted baseball player. His father was a star player in the major leagues. They did not spend much time together while William was growing up because of his father's professional commitments. William's talent for baseball would seem to demonstrate the influence of A. heredity. B. environment. C. maturation. D. cohort differences. Answer: A. heredity. 42. Jenny is a very talented soccer player. Her mother was a star player in both college and in the women's professional leagues. They spent a great deal of time together while Jenny was growing up. Jenny has her mother's speed and height to go along with a superior understanding of the game. Jessica's abilities would seem to demonstrate the influence of A. heredity. B. environment. C. individual differences. D. both heredity and environment. Answer: D. both heredity and environment. 43. Although there are developmental differences in timing, most children learn to walk and talk at a similar age. This is an example of A. heredity. B. environmental influences. C. maturation. D. a critical period. Answer: C. maturation. 44. The unfolding of a natural, genetically influenced sequence of physical and psychological patterns is the result of A. heredity. B. environment. C. maturation. D. personality. Answer: C. maturation. 45. A two-generational kinship unit that shares household and economic resources and consists of one or two parents and their biological, adopted, or stepchildren is called a(n) A. family. B. nuclear family. C. extended family. D. blended family. Answer: B. nuclear family. 46. Shari belongs to a multigenerational kinship unit consisting of parents, children, grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins. This unit is referred to as a(n) A. family. B. nuclear family. C. extended family. D. blended family. Answer: C. extended family. 47. The Ferkle family goes away each year to see such sights as the world's largest ball of string and the world's largest landfill. On each vacation, they make certain that both parents and children are included. Their vacations are shared by the _____________ family. A. extended B. nuclear C. inclusive D. derivative Answer: B. nuclear 48. Each summer, the Smith's host grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, and distant relatives for a two-day reunion. The Smith family reunion involves the _____________ family. A. nuclear B. general C. extended D. inclusive Answer: C. extended 49. In western societies, the dominant traditional family structure is the _____________ family, while in other societies such as Asian and Latin America, the _____________ family is more traditional. A. nuclear; extended B. general; nuclear C. extended; general D. extended; nuclear Answer: A. nuclear; extended 50. Which one of the following is NOT a factor that determines socioeconomic status? A. ethnicity B. income C. education D. occupation Answer: A. ethnicity 51. Which of the following is/are determined by socioeconomic status? A. the neighborhood in which a family lives B. the school the children attend C. the quality of medical care available to a family D. all of the above Answer: D. all of the above 52. Charles is a child growing up in a low-SES (socioeconomic status) family. Which of the following will likely have an effect on his development? A. nutritional deficiencies B. frequent illness C. poor housing/living conditions D. all of the above Answer: D. all of the above 53. Conditions that increase the likelihood of a negative outcome or result are called _____________ factors. A. diversity B. developmental C. adaptive D. risk Answer: D. risk 54. The most powerful factors in a neighborhood that affect the way children develop are income and A. attitudes toward higher education. B. the quality of schools. C. access to resources. D. the number of recreational facilities. Answer: C. access to resources. 55. A society or group's total way of life, including customs, traditions, beliefs, values, and language is referred to as its A. subculture. B. ethnicity. C. culture. D. origin. Answer: C. culture. 56. The well-being of children from affluent families may be at risk due to A. pressure to achieve. B. the amount of time they are left alone by working parents. C. high rates of substance abuse, depression, and anxiety. D. all of the above Answer: D. all of the above 57. A group consisting of people united by ancestry, race, religion, language, or national origin is known as a(n) A. subculture. B. ethnic group. C. unique culture. D. nuclear family. Answer: B. ethnic group. 58. Teachers in the classroom need to be aware that ethnic and cultural patterns may influence A. the way the children act toward each other. B. the games children play. C. the way children learn. D. all of the above Answer: D. all of the above 59. The fact that 11-year-old Kim is interested in attracting boys' attention while her classmates are still focused on their same-sex friendships is an example of the phenomenon that A. developmental periods occur in different sequences for different people. B. deviations from "average" development are a cause for concern. C. rates of development may vary from the average or typical. D. the sequence of development is primarily altered by experience. Answer: C. rates of development may vary from the average or typical. 60. Most immigrant children in the United States A. live with two parents. B. are twice as likely as other children to live with an extended family. C. live with parents who have high academic aspirations for them. D. all of the above. Answer: D. all of the above. 61. An overgeneralization that obscures cultural differences within an ethnic group is referred to as A. acculturation. B. ancestry impairment. C. cultural confusion. D. ethnic gloss. Answer: D. ethnic gloss. 62. Katherine grew up attending private Catholic schools. Each year at Christmas, she and her classmates decorated a tree in school and did the same at home. For Katherine's classmates and family, the tree decorating was a _____________ event. A. nonnormative B. normative C. cohort D. cultural Answer: D. cultural 63. Events that occur at about the same age for people around the world, such as starting school, are called A. normative age-graded influences. B. normative history-graded influences. C. nonnormative life events. D. cohort-determined influences. Answer: A. normative age-graded influences. 64. Normative age-graded influences include all of the following EXCEPT A. puberty and menopause. B. starting school. C. retirement. D. war and famine. Answer: D. war and famine. 65. Events such as puberty and entry into formal education, which are highly similar for people in a particular age group, are considered A. normative age-graded influences. B. normative history-graded influences. C. cohort experiences. D. nonnormative life events. Answer: A. normative age-graded influences. 66. Normative history-graded influences include all of the following EXCEPT A. worldwide economic depression. B. introduction of the contraceptive pill. C. the AIDS epidemic. D. the death of a spouse. Answer: D. the death of a spouse. 67. The impact of technological developments such as video games, computers, and the Internet are considered _____________ influences. A. nonnormative age-graded B. normative history-graded C. normative age-graded D. nonnormative history-graded Answer: B. normative history-graded 68. Nonnormative life events are A. unusual events that influence a person's life. B. events that generally happen to everyone. C. typical for a given population. D. traumatic or unhappy events. Answer: A. unusual events that influence a person's life. 69. All of the individuals who were elementary school students in New York City during the 9/11 Terrorist attacks shared a common experience. This group is referred to as a(n) A. cohort. B. historical generation. C. culture. D. encounter group. Answer: B. historical generation. 70. Which of the following individuals are members of the same cohort? A. a woman who raised children in Chicago during World War II and a woman who raised children in Chicago during the 1990s B. an urban child in the Soviet Union and a rural child in the United States C. a high school student in Cleveland and a high school student in Cincinnati D. all of the above Answer: C. a high school student in Cleveland and a high school student in Cincinnati 71. Which of the following statements describes a fundamental point of childhood development? A. Social, cognitive, and physical domains are distinct and have little bearing on one another. B. Normal development is quite standard; children developing normally exhibit few differences. C. Historical events influence development. D. Development is a process that ceases at the end of childhood. Answer: C. Historical events influence development. 72. A _____________ is a specific time during development when a given event, or lack of an event, has the greatest impact. A. cohort B. nonnormative event C. critical period D. developmental milestone Answer: C. critical period 73. Rubella has a disastrous impact if it is contracted during the first trimester of a pregnancy, yet has hardly any impact if contracted later in a pregnancy. This is an example of A. heredity. B. normative age-graded events. C. maturational timing. D. a critical period. Answer: D. a critical period. 74. Morgan was born with a muscle problem that interfered with her ability to focus both of her eyes on the same object. However, the problem was not detected until third grade. Morgan's vision has greatly improved with physical therapy and glasses but it is likely that her depth perception has been adversely affected for life. This is an example of A. cohorts. B. developmental domains. C. critical periods of development. D. imprinting. Answer: C. critical periods of development. 75. Evidence for critical periods of physical development is undeniable. However, for other aspects of development, there seems to be greater A. rigidity. B. plasticity. C. acceptability. D. latency. Answer: B. plasticity. 76. Research suggests a critical period and a sensitive period for language development. The sensitive period ends around the time of A. toddlerhood. B. early childhood. C. middle childhood. D. puberty. Answer: D. puberty. 77. Which aspects of development show plasticity? A. physical development B. cognitive development C. psychosocial development D. all of the above Answer: D. all of the above 78. Which of the following would be the best example of bidirectional influences on child development? A. High-income households support more favorable development than low-SES households. B. School-age children can focus on two or more pieces of information at the same time. C. Children influence their environments, and their environments influence them. D. No two children are influenced in exactly the same ways. Answer: C. Children influence their environments, and their environments influence them. 79. In the case study involving "Genie," researchers found that A. there is a critical period for language development. B. no critical period exists for language acquisition. C. the critical period for language development begins in middle childhood. D. adolescence is an optimal time for acquiring a second language. Answer: A. there is a critical period for language development. Essay Questions 80. Trace the evolution of the field of child development. To support your answer, include the contributions of such researchers as Dietrich Tiedemann, Charles Darwin, G. Stanley Hall, and Arnold Gesell. Answer: The field of child development has evolved significantly over time. Dietrich Tiedemann's observations in the 18th century marked early systematic studies of child behavior. Charles Darwin introduced the idea of developmental stages through his evolutionary theory. G. Stanley Hall pioneered empirical research and the use of questionnaires to study children. Arnold Gesell contributed by emphasizing the role of biological maturation in child development. 81. Developmental scientists study development over the human life span. Explain the difference between psychosocial development, cognitive development, and physical development. Provide an example of each type of development. Answer: Psychosocial development involves changes in emotions, personality, and social relationships, exemplified by Erikson's stages of social development. Cognitive development refers to changes in thinking, memory, problem-solving, and language, illustrated by Piaget's stages of cognitive growth. Physical development encompasses changes in the body, such as growth and motor skills, like a child learning to walk. 82. Those who work with children must keep in mind that there are three domains or dimensions of child development. List the three domains, and give specific examples of how these domains are all interrelated in childhood. Answer: The three domains of child development are physical, cognitive, and psychosocial. These domains are interrelated, as physical development, such as brain growth, enhances cognitive abilities like learning and memory. Cognitive development influences psychosocial aspects, such as problem-solving in social interactions. Psychosocial development, like forming friendships, can impact physical health and cognitive skills through social support and collaborative learning. 83. Twelve-month-old Kara, born in Iraq, has just been adopted by an American couple and is moving to the United States. Explain how Kara's heredity, environment, and maturation will play a role in determining her development. Answer: Kara's heredity will influence her genetic traits, such as temperament and potential for certain abilities. Her environment, including her new home, culture, and family interactions, will shape her experiences and learning opportunities. Maturation will guide the natural progression of her physical and cognitive development over time. Together, these factors will interact to determine her overall growth and adaptation to her new surroundings. 84. Imagine that you are a developmental scientist and have been sent to a war-torn region to observe and make recommendations about the care and treatment of the children there. What is the current interpretation of the term "critical period" as it relates to childhood development? What are some of the typical tasks that must be mastered by children during a certain "critical" time period for normal developmental to occur? Explain how these principles would apply to children whose lives have been disrupted by war. Answer: The term "critical period" refers to specific times in early childhood when the brain is particularly receptive to certain stimuli and experiences necessary for typical development. During these periods, children must master tasks such as language acquisition, attachment formation, and basic motor skills. In war-torn regions, disruptions can hinder these critical developmental milestones, so it is essential to provide stable, supportive environments and interventions to help children catch up on missed developmental tasks and mitigate long-term negative impacts. 85. Mrs. Peters is a new seventh-grade teacher in an urban public school. List several normative events likely to occur among her students during the school year. What are some of the nonnormative events that may occur that she could prepare herself for in advance? Answer: Normative events among Mrs. Peters' seventh-grade students include puberty, forming peer relationships, and developing more advanced cognitive skills. Nonnormative events she might prepare for include family crises, health issues, or sudden changes in living situations. Being aware of and responsive to both types of events can help her support her students effectively. 86. A child's development can be affected by many things. For example, the socioeconomic status of a child's family, nonnormative influences, and normative history-graded events all can play a role in a child's development. Choose one of these influences and describe specifically how it contributes to child development. Give specific examples where possible, noting the importance of resilience. Answer: Socioeconomic status (SES) significantly affects child development by influencing access to resources such as quality education, healthcare, and extracurricular activities. For example, children from higher SES families often have better educational opportunities and nutrition, supporting cognitive and physical development. However, children from lower SES backgrounds can demonstrate resilience by thriving despite challenges, often through supportive relationships and community programs. 87. List and briefly describe six fundamental points about child development on which consensus among researchers has emerged. How are these points related to the study of child development? Answer: 1. Development is lifelong: Changes occur throughout the lifespan, not just in childhood. 2. Development is multidimensional: It involves physical, cognitive, and psychosocial aspects. 3. Development is plastic: It is flexible and capable of change in response to influential experiences. 4. Development is influenced by multiple contexts: Factors such as family, culture, and society play roles. 5. Development is multidisciplinary: It is studied across various fields like psychology, education, and medicine. 6. Development involves both growth and decline: Progress and regression occur across different stages and areas. These points guide the study of child development by highlighting the complexity, interrelatedness, and contextual factors that influence growth and change. 88. One of the major influences on development is the historical period in which one grows up. The text describes a study that looked at both individuals who grew up in the Depression as well as those affected by the 1980s farm crisis. Briefly describe the results of this research. Today's economic crisis may have some similarities to both of these challenging economic times. In one paragraph, briefly design a program to minimize the effects of hard times on infant and early childhood development. Answer: The study found that individuals who grew up during the Depression often faced long-term economic and psychological challenges, while those affected by the 1980s farm crisis experienced similar stressors, impacting their well-being and development. To minimize the effects of today's economic crisis on infant and early childhood development, a program could offer comprehensive support, including access to nutritious food, healthcare, early childhood education, and parental support services. By providing stable and nurturing environments, the program would aim to buffer children from the adverse effects of economic hardships and promote resilience. 89. In the discussion of critical periods, the text presents the case of Genie, who was subjected to years of child abuse. What evidence does this landmark case provide about critical periods and language acquisition? Answer: Genie's case provides evidence that there is a critical period for language acquisition, as her severe isolation and lack of language exposure during early childhood resulted in significant difficulties in fully developing language skills later. Despite intensive intervention, her language abilities never reached a typical level, highlighting the importance of early language experiences for normal linguistic development. True/False Questions 90. Developmental scientists are primarily interested in infant and child development. Answer: False 91. The three domains of development are emotional, physical, and cognitive. Answer: False 92. Learning falls under the cognitive domain of development. Answer: True 93. Cognitive advances are rarely related to physical, emotional, or social factors. Answer: False 94. The periods of development are arbitrary. Answer: True 95. Attachment is a critical component of psychosocial development during middle childhood. Answer: False 96. As an adolescent, Julio's relationship with his parents is generally good. Answer: True 97. Intuit parents do not believe that young children are capable of reason and thus are lenient with they become angry or fuss. This is an example of a social construction. Answer: True 98. Individual differences have minimal effects on development. Answer: False 99. If Bob and his parents are all farsighted, it is likely that vision problems in this family are due to heredity. Answer: True 100. If adopted children are like their non-biological adoptive parents on a trait like intelligence, it would suggest that intelligence is strongly influenced by nurture. Answer: True 101. If a characteristic has a strong genetic influence, it is largely due to nurture. Answer: False 102. Baby Jenise learns to crawl before she walks. This is an example of maturation. Answer: True 103. Developmental timing is the same for all humans. Answer: False 104. Your grandmother is part of your nuclear family. Answer: False 105. Your aunt is part of your extended family. Answer: True 106. The type of food that one eats is a reflection of ethnic and cultural patterns. Answer: True 107. Children of immigrants are twice as likely as other children to live in extended-family households. Answer: True 108. One in 4 children in immigrant families has one parent born in the United States. Answer: True 109. Developmental scientists argue that development is largely unidirectional. Answer: False 110. Research suggests there is a critical period for language acquisition. Answer: True Chapter 02 A Child's World: How We Discover It Multiple Choice Questions 1. A scientific theory is a set of A. logically related statements seeking to describe, explain, and predict human behavior. B. facts derived from research. C. predictions about future outcomes. D. opinions presented by a well-known authority in a field. Answer: A. logically related statements seeking to describe, explain, and predict human behavior. 2. The statement, "If children learn aggression from models, then children who watch violent television shows should be more aggressive than children who watch nonviolent shows," is an example of a A. theory. B. finding. C. hypothesis. D. conclusion. Answer: C. hypothesis. 3. Before designing her research study, Dr. Bennett predicts that infants who have poor diets will have academic problems later in life. Dr. Bennett's prediction is an example of a(n) A. hypothesis. B. theory. C. interpretation. D. conclusion. Answer: A. hypothesis. 4. Which of the following statements is true of scientific theories? A. Theories are the possible explanations for phenomena. B. Theories can be proved, but never disproved. C. Theories change to incorporate new findings. D. Theories are based on assumptions that are true. Answer: C. Theories change to incorporate new findings. 5. Which of the following is NOT one of the basic issues that theorists address when explaining child development? A. Assessing whether development is more influenced by heredity or by environment B. Determining whether children are active or passive in their own development C. Observing whether development is continuous or occurs in stages D. Viewing all development as culturally determined Answer: D. Viewing all development as culturally determined 6. At age 1, Suzi had a vocabulary of 10 words. Now, at 2 years of age, she has a vocabulary of over 100 words. This reflects a(n) _____________ developmental change. A. autonomous B. bidirectional C. qualitative D. quantitative Answer: D. quantitative 7. _____________ viewed human development as being shaped by unconscious forces. A. Sigmund Freud B. B. F. Skinner C. Jean Piaget D. John B. Watson Answer: A. Sigmund Freud 8. Sigmund Freud believed that people are motivated primarily by A. extrinsic rewards. B. unconscious forces. C. anxiety. D. their environment. Answer: B. unconscious forces. 9. Armond argues that unconscious forces motivate people to behave the way they do. Armond's position is similar to the _____________ perspective of development. A. information-processing B. cognitive C. ethological D. psychoanalytic Answer: D. psychoanalytic 10. According to Freud, the element of personality that operates under the pleasure principal is referred to as the A. libido. B. id. C. superego. D. ego. Answer: B. id. 11. Parents who are up all night attending to the almost insatiable demands of their newborn babies are often frustrated by infants' apparent tendency to operate on the "pleasure principle." The pleasure principle is associated with the A. id. B. ego. C. superego. D. ego ideal. Answer: A. id. 12. According to Freud, during the first year of life, the part of the personality that represents reason and operates on the "reality principle" becomes more evident in the baby's behavior. This is due to the development of the A. id. B. ego. C. superego. D. conscience. Answer: B. ego. 13. Freud maintained that children develop in an unvarying sequence of five maturation-based stages of _____________ development. A. psychosocial B. psychoanalytic C. unconscious D. psychosexual Answer: D. psychosexual 14. According to Freud, children move through five stages of psychosexual development. The sequence of these stages is A. anal, phallic, oral, latency, and, genital. B. oral, anal, phallic, latency, and, genital. C. anal, oral, genital, latency, and, phallic. D. oral, latency, genital, anal, and, phallic. Answer: B. oral, anal, phallic, latency, and, genital. 15. According to Freud's theory, a 4-year-old child who has become attached to the parent of the other sex and regards the same-sex parent as a rival is considered to be in the _____________ stage of psychosexual development. A. oral B. anal C. phallic D. latency Answer: C. phallic 16. Joseph hits his brother with a toy while playing and feels guilty about it afterwards. According to Freud, these feelings reflect the operation of the A. id. B. ego. C. superego. D. defense mechanism. Answer: C. superego. 17. Keesha is worried that her mother will find out that she accidentally broke her brother's truck. She is starting to develop a conscience. Which of the following psychosexual stages includes our conception of a "conscience?" A. Id B. Ego C. Superego D. Libido Answer: C. Superego 18. Mrs. Dobber, a teacher, believes that fourth graders are at a stage of psychosexual development characterized by relative calm. Mrs. Dobber's students are in the _____________ stage, which occurs during middle childhood. A. phallic B. superego C. latency D. generative Answer: C. latency 19. Each of Erikson's stages of development involves a psychosocial challenge, or _____________, hat is important at a particular time. A. trauma B. crises C. historical event D. phase Answer: B. crises 20. A major distinction between Freud's and Erikson's views of development is that Erikson A. emphasized female development, whereas Freud emphasized male development. B. viewed development as a lifelong process, whereas Freud emphasized early experiences. C. focused on unconscious processes, whereas Freud emphasized conscious processes. D. emphasized biological factors, whereas Freud emphasized cultural factors. Answer: B. viewed development as a lifelong process, whereas Freud emphasized early experiences. 21. As an assignment for a developmental psychology class, Darius interviewed his grandparents to learn more about their life experiences. In the interview, Darius learned that his grandparents view development as lifelong. The idea that personality development occurs throughout the life span is consistent with _____________ theory. A. Freud's psychosexual B. Erikson's psychosocial C. Bandura's social learning D. Bowlby's ethological Answer: B. Erikson's psychosocial 22. In Erikson's theory of development, there are _____________ stages of psychosocial development. A. 3 B. 5 C. 8 D. 12 Answer: C. 8 23. Compared to Freud's theory, Erikson placed greater emphasis on A. physical development. B. intellectual development. C. early experiences. D. social and cultural influences. Answer: D. social and cultural influences. 24. A long-lasting change in behavior as a result of experience or adaptation to the environment is called A. modification. B. cognition. C. learning. D. behaviorism. Answer: C. learning. 25. Behaviorists look for events that will determine whether or not a particular behavior will be repeated. This mental link is referred to as A. associative learning. B. unconscious learning. C. intelligence. D. personality. Answer: A. associative learning. 26. Every time Tanya leaves 2-year-old Timmy at day care, Timmy cries. Tanya always hands Timmy to the same teacher. She notices that Timmy now starts to cry when he sees this teacher from a distance. Timmy's behavior is an example of A. classical conditioning. B. operant conditioning. C. social learning. D. negative reinforcement. Answer: A. classical conditioning. 27. Daniel was embarrassed by his coach for not making a basket during an important game. Since then, whenever he gets the ball and heads down the court, he gets an overwhelming feeling of anxiety that prevents him from thinking clearly when he tries to shoot the ball. This is an example of A. operant conditioning. B. classical conditioning. C. social learning. D. intermittent reinforcement. Answer: B. classical conditioning. 28. When John B. Watson trained "Little Albert" to be afraid of small furry animals, he used A. classical conditioning. B. negative reinforcement. C. shaping behavior. D. intermittent reinforcement. Answer: A. classical conditioning. 29. Mr. Whitford's fifth-grade students sit quietly and continue doing their work when Mr. Whitford leaves the room because he rewards them with more recess time if they do so. Learning based on association of behavior with consequences is called A. classical conditioning. B. operant conditioning. C. the pleasure principle. D. the reality principle. Answer: B. operant conditioning. 30. Marissa really wants to be in the school play but does not enjoy having to memorize lines. Two weeks before the play is scheduled, her father implements a reward system. As soon as Marissa learns her lines, she does not have to help with the dishes until the play is over. Marissa increases her efforts in practice and learns the lines thoroughly in two days. This is an example of A. classical conditioning. B. operant conditioning. C. social learning. D. psychodynamic learning. Answer: B. operant conditioning. 31. B. F. Skinner and other behaviorists maintain that human behavior is determined by A. defense mechanisms. B. self-actualization. C. unconscious conflicts. D. conditioning. Answer: D. conditioning. 32. _____________ was the American psychologist who formulated the principles of operant conditioning while working with rats and pigeons. A. John B. Watson B. Sidney Pressey C. B. F. Skinner D. Ivan Pavlov Answer: C. B. F. Skinner 33. Larry wants his daughter to put her seat belt on when she gets in the car, so he smiles and gives her a hug each time she does so. A consequence of any behavior that increases the likelihood of that behavior being repeated is called A. punishment. B. reinforcement. C. aversion. D. classical conditioning. Answer: B. reinforcement. 34. An example of negative reinforcement is A. shouting, "No!" as a consequence of bad behavior. B. spanking as a consequence of bad behavior. C. increasing a child's allowance as a consequence of good behavior. D. canceling a disliked household chore as a consequence of good behavior. Answer: D. canceling a disliked household chore as a consequence of good behavior. 35. June's mother explains that she needs help taking care of their new puppy. June's current task, which she really dislikes, is taking the garbage out. Her mother says that if June will help take care of the puppy, she will assign another sibling to take out the garbage. June agrees immediately, because she will do anything to get out of emptying the garbage. From a behavioral viewpoint, June's decision is based on A. classical conditioning. B. positive reinforcement. C. negative reinforcement. D. vicarious reinforcement. Answer: C. negative reinforcement. 36. The parents of 15-month-old Helen want to discourage her thumb sucking. When Helen takes her thumb out of her mouth, they give her a small cup of raisins, which she loves. The raisins represent A. a negative stimulus. B. an unconditioned stimulus. C. a neutral stimulus. D. reinforcement. Answer: D. reinforcement. 37. Two-year-old Eric throws a tantrum whenever he is placed in his car seat. To calm him down, his mother has started giving him a lollipop. In effect, his mother is A. extinguishing tantrums. B. reinforcing tantrums. C. using classical conditioning. D. using negative reinforcement. Answer: B. reinforcing tantrums. 38. Every time Billy tries to open the kitchen cupboard, he gets his fingers pinched in the door. Eventually, Billy no longer tries to open the cupboard door. This is an example of A. negative reinforcement. B. intermittent reinforcement. C. punishment. D. positive reinforcement. Answer: C. punishment. 39. To get Michelle to clean her room more often, her parents gave her a piece of candy each time she picked up her toys. This resulted in more frequent room cleaning. However, when her parents stopped giving her candy, Michelle's room-cleaning behavior gradually became less frequent. The weakening of the room-cleaning behavior is called A. intermittent reinforcement. B. extinction. C. punishment. D. negative reinforcement. Answer: B. extinction. 40. Whenever Milo had a tantrum, his father would pick him up and comfort him. Now that he is in preschool, his teachers ignore his tantrums, and over time his tantrums have decreased in frequency. Based on our understanding of operant conditioning, we would say that Milo's tantrum behavior is being _____________ in preschool. A. negatively reinforced B. punished C. extinguished D. aversively conditioned Answer: C. extinguished 41. When a school principal uses operant conditioning to eliminate students' undesirable behaviors, he is implementing A. classical conditioning. B. punishment. C. behavior modification. D. reinforcement. Answer: C. behavior modification. 42. First, Jacob is praised when he points to his wet diaper. Then, Jacob is praised only if he speaks up before he is wet. Finally, Jacob is praised only when he uses his potty chair. This is an example of A. extinction. B. behavior modification. C. negative reinforcement. D. aversive conditioning. Answer: B. behavior modification. 43. _____________ developed the principles of social-learning theory. A. B. F. Skinner B. Carl Rogers C. John B. Watson. D. Albert Bandura Answer: D. Albert Bandura 44. Albert Bandura suggested that the most important element in how children acquire language, deal with aggression, develop a sense of morality, and learn gender-appropriate behavior is A. classical conditioning. B. observation and imitation. C. punishment of inappropriate behavior. D. shaping of appropriate behavior. Answer: B. observation and imitation. 45. Children have a tendency to imitate the adults they admire even if some of the observed behavior is not appropriate. This process is known as A. behavior modification. B. assimilation. C. adaptation. D. social learning. Answer: D. social learning. 46. Roberto's favorite type of music is American Jazz. After observing a classmate being teased for mentioning that she loved to listen to classical music, Roberto decided that he would keep quiet about his musical preferences. Roberto's decision is a result of A. classical conditioning. B. operant conditioning. C. social learning. D. psychodynamic learning. Answer: C. social learning. 47. By receiving feedback on their behavior, children gradually form standards for judging their own actions. They begin to develop a A. sense of self-efficacy. B. superego. C. gender identity. D. sense of self-esteem. Answer: A. sense of self-efficacy. 48. The _____________ perspective focuses on thought processes and the behavior that reflects those processes. A. cognitive B. behaviorist C. psychodynamic D. evolutionary Answer: A. cognitive 49. Which theory portrays people as active in their own learning and emphasizes qualitative and quantitative changes? A. Behaviorist B. Cognitive C. Psychoanalytic D. Social learning Answer: B. Cognitive 50. Neo-Piagetian theories combine both Piagetian theory and elements of _____________ theory. A. social cognitive B. information-processing C. behavioral D. mechanistic Answer: B. information-processing 51. Which of the following are the two key points of Piaget's cognitive perspective? A. People are controlled by their environment, and behavior develops in a specific order. B. People are active in their development, and behavior is random at any developmental stage. C. People are active in their development, and behavior develops in a specific order. D. People are controlled by their environment, and behavior is random at any developmental stage. Answer: C. People are active in their development, and behavior develops in a specific order. 52. Which of the following is NOT a general principle of Piaget's theory of cognitive development? A. Children proceed through the same developmental stages in the same order. B. Individuals reach each stage according to their own timetable. C. If overgratification occurs at a particular stage, fixation may result. D. Each stage represents a qualitative change from one type of thinking to another. Answer: C. If overgratification occurs at a particular stage, fixation may result. 53. Anabelle knows that after she is fed her bottle, she is patted on the back and put down to sleep. This organized pattern of behavior is called A. equilibration. B. accommodation. C. assimilation. D. a scheme. Answer: D. a scheme. 54. According to Piaget, a child builds internal representations of the world called schemes, and develops these into an integrated network of cognitive structures through the process of A. assimilation. B. accommodation. C. organization. D. equilibration. Answer: C. organization. 55. When Ms. Drew teaches a new concept to her students, she always tries to make a connection to something that they already understand. According to Piaget, which technique is Ms. Drew using? A. Information processing B. Accommodation C. Equilibration D. Assimilation Answer: D. Assimilation 56. According to Piaget, the process of changing existing schemes to adjust to new information is called A. organization. B. accommodation. C. assimilation. D. disequilibrium. Answer: B. accommodation. 57. Four-year-old Adam sees cows in a field. His mother points to them and says, "Cows." Later, Adam sees goats for the first time and calls them cows. Adam is demonstrating Piaget's concept of A. equilibration. B. accommodation. C. adaptation. D. assimilation. Answer: D. assimilation. 58. Frederika is learning to play a musical instrument. She struggles at first because the experience is unlike anything she has been associated with previously. Slowly she begins to make progress. This best demonstrates Piaget's concept of A. assimilation. B. accommodation. C. vicarious reinforcement. D. object permanence. Answer: B. accommodation. 59. According to Piaget, children change their ways of thinking to adapt to new experiences because of the need for A. satisfaction of id impulses B. equilibrium. C. a stable sense of identity D. parental approval. Answer: B. equilibrium. 60. Which of the following is NOT a criticism of Piaget's theory of development? A. It pays little attention to emotional development. B. It pays little attention to the influence of education on intellectual development. C. It overestimates the cognitive abilities of young children. D. It says little about individual differences in ability. Answer: C. It overestimates the cognitive abilities of young children. 61. Sociocultural theory, developed by _____________, stresses a child's active involvement with his or her environment. A. Urie Bronfenbrenner B. Jean Piaget C. Lev Vygotsky D. Margaret Mead Answer: C. Lev Vygotsky 62. _____________ developed the concept known as the "zone of proximal development" to explain the gap between what a child is already able to do and what he or she is not quite ready to do alone. A. Sigmund Freud B. Neal Miller C. Konrad Lorenz D. Lev Vygotsky Answer: D. Lev Vygotsky 63. Mara purchased a shape sorter for her 9-month-old daughter, Lucia. Mara notices that Lucia picks up the shapes but has difficulty dropping them into the correct slots. Mara hands a shape to Lucia and guides her hand to the correct slot, slowly turning the shape until it fits. After some practice with Mara, Lucia is able to retrieve a shape and twist it until it fits into the slot. Mara's assistance is consistent with which of the following concepts? A. Vygotsky's zone of proximal development B. Piagetian schemes C. The information-processing perspective D. Bandura's Social learning Answer: A. Vygotsky's zone of proximal development 64. Paul's mother has been teaching him to bake bread. She tells him, "I will help you follow the recipe a few more times, but soon you will have to try it on your own." According to Vygotsky's sociocultural theory, Paul's mother is engaging in A. intermittent reinforcement. B. imprinting. C. scaffolding. D. equilibration. Answer: C. scaffolding. 65. Tom volunteers to teach children how to play basketball. He finds that when he first tries to teach a skill, such as shooting the ball, he sometimes has to physically guide the children's feet in the correct position. Generally, the more he works with the children and the more knowledge they acquire, the less support he has to provide. This is an example of A. classical conditioning. B. information processing. C. equilibration. D. scaffolding. Answer: D. scaffolding. 66. A major distinction between Piaget's theory and the information-processing approach is that Piaget A. viewed development as continuous, whereas the information-processing approach regards development as occurring in distinct stages. B. viewed development as an active process, whereas the information-processing approach regards the organism as passive. C. focused on perception, whereas the information-processing approach focuses on thinking and memory. D. regarded development as occurring in stages, whereas the information-processing approach views development as continuous. Answer: D. regarded development as occurring in stages, whereas the information-processing approach views development as continuous. 67. The information-processing approach to explaining cognitive development compares the brain to a A. calculator. B. computer. C. modem. D. telephone. Answer: B. computer. 68. Those who ascribe to the _____________ approach attempt to explain cognitive development by observing and analyzing mental processes involved in perceiving information. A. social cognitive B. information-processing C. social learning D. behaviorst Answer: B. information-processing 69. According to the _____________ perspective, development can be understood only when individual behavior is observed as it interacts with the environment. A. psychodynamic B. contextual C. cognitive D. behavioral Answer: B. contextual 70. Dr. Cortez's undergraduate psychology class is studying the subtle differences between mannerisms of students in the Deep South to those of students in the Northeast. They begin to realize that in order to understand these differences, they must consider the social settings in which the students live. This is an example of the _____________ perspective. A. contextual B. cognitive C. information-processing D. psychodynamic Answer: A. contextual 71. _____________ developed the bioecological perspective of human development which includes five interlocking contextual systems. A. Vygotsky B. Pavlov C. Bronfenbrenner D. Piaget Answer: C. Bronfenbrenner 72. Bronfenbrenner's _____________ approach examines how environmental factors interact and contribute to child development. A. interactionist B. bioecological C. behaviorist D. cognitive Answer: B. bioecological 73. Mr. and Mrs. Johnson were both laid off from their high-paying positions at a local clean energy plant. Both found new jobs, but they are now working far more hours for much less money. The stress is showing at home, with frequent parental arguments and inpatient discipline with the children. The family's home is no longer the nurturing environment that it once was. Which of the following perspectives best explains this situation? A. Bioecological B. Ethological C. Information-processing D. Cognitive Answer: A. Bioecological 74. Piaget and his wife kept journals noting how their children developed and interacted with one another in the home. According to the bioecological approach, Piaget was studying the children in their A. microsystem. B. mesosystem. C. exosystem. D. macrosystem. Answer: A. microsystem. 75. Dr. Adams, who ascribes to the bioecological approach to human development, is studying the relationship between the quality of parent-child interactions in the home and the success of children in school. Dr. Adams is studying development at the _____________ level of environmental influence. A. microsystem B. mesosystem C. exosystem D. macrosystem Answer: B. mesosystem 76. The collapse of communism in Eastern Europe in the 1990s significantly altered most government institutions there. According to the bioecological approach, this situation reflects a change in people's A. microsystem. B. mesosystem. C. endosystem. D. macrosystem. Answer: D. macrosystem. 77. Due to his parents' chronic unemployment and inability to make ends meet, Oliver frequently moves around, never living in one location for more than a few months. Dr. Zsilak recruited Oliver and his family for a study looking at how this type of instability contributes to children's emotional development. According to the bioecological approach, Dr. Zsilak is investigating influences within the A. exosystem. B. chronosystem. C. macrosystem. D. microsystem. Answer: C. macrosystem. 78. Over time, the relative importance of peers and parents to the developing child changes. Which level of the bioecological theory accounts for this? A. Microsystem B. Chronosystem C. Macrosystem D. Exosystem Answer: B. Chronosystem 79. Which of the following perspectives emphasizes the idea that species-specific behaviors enhance the survival of that species? A. Behaviorist B. Social-cognitive C. Contextual D. Ethological Answer: D. Ethological 80. Your psychology professor claims that attachment between an infant and a caregiver must form during a critical period to ensure normal development. Which developmental perspective does your professor support? A. Behaviorist B. Ethological C. Psychoanalytic D. Informative-processing Answer: B. Ethological 81. Individuals with traits better adapted to their environments survive; those less adapted do not. This statement demonstrates the process of A. survival of the fittest. B. ethological development. C. psychoanalytic development. D. biological maturation. Answer: A. survival of the fittest. 82. _____________ extended ethological principles to the study of human development, focusing attention on the mother-infant bond. A. Mary Ainsworth B. John Bowlby C. Konrad Lorenz D. Niko Tinbergen Answer: B. John Bowlby 83. Ramona is walking in a mall when she notices a distressed-looking infant in a stroller. The infant's facial expression engrosses Ramona, and she immediately looks around to see if an adult is there to help the infant. The infant's mother is indeed right there, and Ramona moves on, but the image stays with her. She begins to wonder if humans have some innate ability to communicate with facial expressions that provides an evolutionary advantage. Which of the following theories might support Ramona's idea? A. Evolutionary B. Bioecological C. Sociocultural D. Cognitive Answer: A. Evolutionary 84. Research that deals with "how much" or "how many" is referred to as A. qualitative. B. cross cultural. C. quasi-experimental. D. quantitative. Answer: D. quantitative. 85. The scientific method, as applied in any field of study, is based on which of the following elements? A. Observation and recording of data B. Testing of alternative hypotheses C. Widespread public dissemination of results D. All of the above Answer: D. All of the above 86. Dr. Gygorgy from Hungary has decided to study the effects of travel on the lives of Hungarian circus performers. The two key issues that he must first address are A. the importance of the study and where he will publish his findings. B. his knowledge of circus performers and his knowledge of the effects of travel. C. public opinion of this topic and his own bias. D. how the participants will be chosen and how the data will be collected. Answer: D. how the participants will be chosen and how the data will be collected. 87. When conducting research, scientists typically study a _____________ and generalize the results to a _____________. A. sample; population B. nonnormative group; normative group C. population; sample D. cohort; sample Answer: A. sample; population 88. Dr. Slocum wants to conduct a study that investigates nicotine addiction in teenagers. Teenagers who are identified as addicted to cigarettes represent the _____________; those teens who participate in the study represent the _____________. A. sample; population B. population; sample C. control group; experimental group D. experimental group; control group Answer: B. population; sample 89. One of the most reliable sampling methods is the use of A. assigned groups. B. matched groups. C. random selection. D. focus groups. Answer: C. random selection. 90. When Maggie wanted to find out how children were punished at home, she conducted separate interviews of individual children and their parents. An advantage of this research design is that A. Maggie needed to interview only a few people to get a valid research sample. B. Maggie needed to interview each set of parents and children only once. C. Maggie could assess whether parents and children gave conflicting reports. D. it revealed causal relationships. Answer: C. Maggie could assess whether parents and children gave conflicting reports. 91. Which of the following is NOT an example of a self-report technique? A. Questionnaire B. Diary or log C. Interview D. Observation Answer: D. Observation 92. Jeremy has become interested in the interactions that children have with their parents in public places. He suspects that, when they are at the mall, children may interact differently with their fathers than they do with their mothers. He decides to watch the food court of a local mall and observe interaction patterns. Jeremy is using a _____________ observation method. A. naturalistic B. laboratory C. group D. participant Answer: A. naturalistic 93. Theo is a graduate student who is interested in gender differences in play. Theo and his research team observe preschoolers in their classrooms during free play, noting differences between boys and girls. Which research method is being used? A. Laboratory observation B. Case study C. Naturalistic observation D. Clinical study Answer: C. Naturalistic observation 94. Marcus is interested in the effects of television aggression on children's behavior. Marcus brings participants to a play room and shows them a short cartoon depicting the main characters hitting, yelling, and destroying toys. He then allows the children to play for 15 minutes, observing their behavior from behind a one-way mirror, noting instances of aggression. Marcus is using the _____________ observation method. A. laboratory B. participant C. naturalistic D. case study Answer: A. laboratory 95. Which of the following is NOT a problem associated with observational studies? A. They cannot determine cause-and-effect relationships. B. The participants may alter their behavior when they know they are being observed. C. It is impossible to gain information regarding relationships between variables. D. Laboratory studies may not generalize to real life. Answer: C. It is impossible to gain information regarding relationships between variables. 96. Which of the following is the best operational definition of a difficult test? A. A test that is constructed by a mean professor B. A test with challenging questions C. A test that covers materials that are in the text, but not covered in class D. A test with a class average of 70 or below Answer: D. A test with a class average of 70 or below 97. Dolores works in a pediatrics ward and has decided to investigate whether or not the level of nurse friendliness influences children's perceptions of their hospital experiences. For her research, which of the following would be the best operational definition of nurse friendliness? A. Professional interactions with patients B. Pleasant appearance C. Concern for patients D. Number of times that the nurse smiles per time spent with the patient Answer: D. Number of times that the nurse smiles per time spent with the patient 98. Cognitive neuroscientists focus on A. the effects of punishment. B. the brain. C. positive and negative reinforcement. D. unconscious conflicts. Answer: B. the brain. 99. Dr. Naglieri conducts research on how children's brains process emotional information. For example, as participants are shown a variety of emotional stimuli, such as children laughing, crying, and frowning in anger, Dr. Naglieri observes brain regions that are activated with each stimulus. Dr. Naglieri is a(n) A. behaviorist. B. psychiatrist. C. cognitive neuroscientist. D. evolutionary psychologist. Answer: C. cognitive neuroscientist. 100. Raphael, age 16, suffered an unexplained seizure and severe behavioral changes, as well as impairment of some of his motor abilities. To identify areas of the brain that were involved in this event, researchers had him undergo a series of brain-imaging studies. They also had Raphael complete several tests of memory, language, and attention. These researchers are known as A. behaviorists B. psychiatrists C. cognitive neuroscientists D. ethological researchers Answer: C. cognitive neuroscientists 101. A plan for conducting a scientific investigation is called a A. research design. B. hypothetical outline. C. scientific projection. D. research outcome. Answer: A. research design. 102. When scientists study the life of an unusual or newsworthy individual to develop theories about aberrant behavior, they are conducting a(n) A. naturalistic observation. B. case study. C. interview. D. experiment. Answer: B. case study. 103. What type of research design should a researcher use if she wishes to determine if a statistical relationship exists between variables? A. Qualitative B. Correlational C. Experimental D. Case study Answer: B. Correlational 104. In a correlational study, A. cause-and-effect relationships can be determined. B. researchers ask people to state their opinions. C. researchers observe people in their natural environment. D. the relationship between two variables is measured. Answer: D. the relationship between two variables is measured. 105. A researcher determines that children whose parents read to them for more than one hour each day have better grades than do children whose parents read to them for only a few minutes per day. What can you conclude from this pattern of data? A. Parental reading causes children to do better in school. B. Parental reading time and grades are positively correlated. C. Parental reading time and grades are unrelated. D. Good students cause their parents to spend more time reading to them. Answer: B. Parental reading time and grades are positively correlated. 106. A controlled procedure in which a researcher manipulates variables to learn how one affects another is called a(n) A. theory. B. experiment. C. naturalistic study. D. correlation. Answer: B. experiment. 107. In an experimental study, researchers manipulate a(n) _____________ variable to observe its effects on a(n) _____________ variable. A. control; independent B. dependent; independent C. independent; dependent D. dependent; control Answer: C. independent; dependent 108. In an experimental study, the subjects who receive the treatment are referred to as the _____________ group. A. experimental B. control C. dependent D. independent Answer: A. experimental 109. In an experimental study, the subjects who do NOT receive the treatment are referred to as the _____________ group. A. experimental B. control C. dependent D. independent Answer: B. control 110. A group of children is given special training on how to handle their anger. A second group is treated the same as the first group except they do not receive the special training. Those given the training comprise the _____________ group, and those who receive no training comprise the _____________ group. A. experimental; control B. control; experimental C. dependent; independent D. independent; dependent Answer: A. experimental; control 111. Children were asked to drink an extra glass of milk each day to see if their memories improved over time. In this experiment, milk is the _____________ variable. A. action B. control C. independent D. dependent Answer: C. independent 112. In an experiment, a researcher manipulates the _____________ variable and then looks for an effect of that manipulation by measuring the _____________ variable. A. dependent; independent B. control; experimental C. experimental; control D. independent; dependent Answer: D. independent; dependent 113. In an experiment to assess the relationship between nutrition and intelligence, one group of children is given a power bar containing a special vitamin supplement on a daily basis. A second group of children is given an identical-looking power bar but without the supplement. Later, all children are given an intelligence test. In this experiment, the children's scores on the intelligence test are the _____________ variable. A. independent B. cross-sequential C. dependent D. control Answer: C. dependent 114. A youth sports league is involved in a study in which one group of coaches is given instruction covering developmental considerations of teaching children and another group receives no such training. The coaches are assigned to different groups of children for two weeks. At the end of the two weeks, each group of children is interviewed to assess their level of satisfaction with their sport experience. In this study, the type of training the coaches received is considered the _____________ variable. A. independent B. dependent C. extraneous D. control Answer: A. independent 115. Unlike correlational research, experimental studies A. do not require a control group. B. require fewer participants. C. can establish cause-and-effect relationships. D. are lifelike and intuitive. Answer: C. can establish cause-and-effect relationships. 116. The major difference between a laboratory experiment and a field experiment is the degree of A. control. B. manipulation. C. random assignment. D. correlation. Answer: A. control. 117. The research team at University Hospital wants to ensure that their research results can be verified by others through replication. What research technique should they use? A. Natural experiment B. Laboratory experiment C. Case study D. Cross-sectional design Answer: B. Laboratory experiment 118. A researcher who studies identical twins separated at birth and reared in different environments is using a _____________ experiment. A. laboratory B. field C. natural D. correlational Answer: C. natural 119. Natural experiments compare people who have been divided into separate groups A. through random sampling. B. through matching. C. by the researcher. D. due to accidental life circumstances. Answer: D. due to accidental life circumstances. 120. Which of the following is a shortcoming of laboratory experiments? A. It is often difficult to randomly assign subjects to different treatment conditions. B. Experiments rarely inform us about cause-and-effect relationships. C. They tell us little about how children think and behave. D. The results may not be applicable outside the experimental situation. Answer: D. The results may not be applicable outside the experimental situation. 121. Over a 10-year period, Professor Dohner followed the same group of schoolchildren, measuring their performance on an intelligence test twice a year. Which method of data collection did Professor Dohner use? A. Cross-sectional B. Longitudinal C. Cross-sequential D. Clinical Answer: B. Longitudinal 122. An experimenter measures the cognitive skills of 100 three-year-olds and compares the results with the skills exhibited by 100 seven-year-olds. This is an example of which research method? A. Cross-sectional B. Longitudinal C. Sequential D. Clinical Answer: A. Cross-sectional 123. Researchers realize that while it may provide invaluable information, a _____________ study is time-consuming and expensive, and it has problems associated with attrition. A. longitudinal B. cross-sectional C. cross-sequential D. clinical Answer: A. longitudinal 124. An advantage of the cross-sectional research method is that it A. provides information about how the same person changes with age. B. provides information about differences in behavior among people of different ages. C. eliminates the effect of "cohort differences." D. is more sensitive than the longitudinal method to individual behavioral change and stability. Answer: B. provides information about differences in behavior among people of different ages. 125. Which of the following research methods was designed to address the disadvantages of both the longitudinal and the cross-sectional designs? A. Life-span B. Clinical C. Sequential study D. Behavior sampling Answer: C. Sequential study 126. A therapist is studying the behavior of children whose parents divorced six months before the children started school and children whose parents divorced two years before the children started school. Both groups of children will be followed and measured over the course of five years. This is an example of a(n) _____________ design. A. cross-sectional B. sequential C. longitudinal D. experimental Answer: B. sequential 127. Dr. Knowles wants to assess the effectiveness of Ritalin, a drug used to treat hyperactivity and inattention. At the beginning of the school year, he administers a test of cognitive skills to two groups of children who are on the medication: third-graders and fifth-graders. He retests both groups at the end of the first semester and at the end of the school year. Dr. Knowles is using a _____________ design. A. sequential B. cross-sectional C. longitudinal D. time-sampling Answer: A. sequential 128. Which of the following is NOT one of the ethical guidelines that a researcher must follow when conducting research with human subjects? A. Right to privacy and confidentiality B. Right to informed consent C. Right to financial compensation D. Right to self-esteem Answer: C. Right to financial compensation 129. A researcher is interested in the learning capabilities of children who are yelled at by an adult. She recruits a former drill sergeant to scream at a group of 7-year-olds while they learn a list of terms from a screen. What is the primary concern associated with this type of study? A. There is no control group. B. The dependent variable is not operationally defined. C. It is unethical. D. The study does not include children of different ages. Answer: C. It is unethical. 130. When performing psychological research with children, a researcher's primary consideration must be A. research ethics. B. using the correct research design. C. random sampling. D. operationally defining variables. Answer: A. research ethics. 131. In research ethics, beneficence refers to A. the inclusion of diverse groups in research studies. B. the obligation to maximize positive influences and minimize harm for subjects. C. a guarantee of privacy. D. all of the above. Answer: B. the obligation to maximize positive influences and minimize harm for subjects. Essay Questions 132. A theory is a coherent set of logically related concepts that seeks to organize, explain, and predict data. Explain the relationship between a theory and a hypothesis. Using Piaget's cognitive stages of development, give an example of a hypothesis that could be derived from one stage of the theory. Answer: A theory provides a broad framework to explain phenomena, while a hypothesis is a specific testable prediction derived from that theory. For instance, based on Piaget's theory of cognitive development, a hypothesis could be: "Children in the concrete operational stage will demonstrate better conservation abilities compared to those in the preoperational stage." This hypothesis tests Piaget's broader theory that children progress through distinct stages of cognitive development marked by qualitative shifts in thinking abilities. 133. Imagine you are a new student teacher in a fourth-grade classroom. You have been asked to "back up" your lesson plans with the appropriate developmental theories. Define Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, and describe how it was influenced by and differed from Freud's psychosexual theory. Give an example of how you would apply each theory in a fourth-grade classroom. Answer: Erikson's psychosocial theory posits that individuals pass through eight stages of development, each characterized by a conflict that must be successfully resolved to achieve healthy personality development. Unlike Freud's focus on sexual instincts, Erikson emphasized social relationships and cultural influences in shaping development. In a fourth-grade classroom, Erikson's theory could be applied by fostering a sense of industry versus inferiority, encouraging students to develop competence and confidence in their abilities. Freud's theory might be applied by recognizing that early experiences can influence behavior, such as understanding how unresolved conflicts might manifest in behavior or academic performance. 134. Explain the difference between classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Give an example of how each form of conditioning might be utilized in a preschool social situation. Answer: Classical conditioning involves associating an involuntary response with a stimulus, like Pavlov's dog associating a bell with food. In a preschool, this could be used to teach children to associate a bell sound with cleanup time, prompting them to tidy up. Operant conditioning, on the other hand, uses reinforcement or punishment to strengthen or weaken voluntary behaviors. In a preschool setting, this might involve giving stickers (positive reinforcement) to children who share toys with their peers, encouraging prosocial behavior. 135. Explain Piaget's cognitive stage theory. In your explanation, include the following terms: organization; schemes; assimilation; accommodation; and, equilibration. Answer: Piaget's cognitive stage theory describes how children actively construct their understanding of the world through four stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. Organization refers to the process of arranging and connecting cognitive structures called schemes. Assimilation is integrating new experiences into existing schemes, while accommodation involves modifying schemes to fit new experiences. Equilibration is the balance between assimilation and accommodation, driving cognitive development towards more advanced understanding. 136. Bronfenbrenner's bioecological theory and Vygotsky's sociocultural theory are considered to be contextual theories. Describe the similarities and the differences between them. Answer: Bronfenbrenner's bioecological theory emphasizes the nested layers of environments that influence development, from immediate settings like family and school to broader societal influences. Vygotsky's sociocultural theory, on the other hand, focuses on how culture and social interactions shape cognitive development, particularly through the role of language and collaborative learning. Both theories highlight the importance of context in understanding development but differ in their emphasis on environmental layers versus cultural and social influences. 137. Describe each of the following research designs, and give an advantage and a disadvantage of each: case study; ethnographic study; correlational study; and experiment. Answer: 1. Case study: Involves an in-depth analysis of a single individual or small group. Advantage: Provides detailed, rich qualitative data. Disadvantage: Limited generalizability to broader populations. 2. Ethnographic study: Involves immersion in a culture or community to understand its dynamics. Advantage: Offers deep insights into cultural contexts and behaviors. Disadvantage: Time-consuming and may lack objectivity. 3. Correlational study: Examines the relationship between two or more variables. Advantage: Helps identify associations between variables. Disadvantage: Cannot establish causation or directionality of relationships. 4. Experiment: Involves manipulating one variable to observe its effect on another under controlled conditions. Advantage: Allows for establishment of cause-and-effect relationships. Disadvantage: May lack ecological validity and ethical constraints can limit experimental design. 138. Create a hypothetical experiment. In the experiment, identify each of the following components: hypothesis; independent variable; dependent variable; experimental group; and control group. Answer: Hypothesis: Children who read regularly will show improved vocabulary compared to those who do not. Independent Variable: Reading frequency (e.g., daily reading vs. no reading). Dependent Variable: Vocabulary comprehension scores on a standardized test. Experimental Group: Children assigned to read daily for 20 minutes. Control Group: Children who do not change their reading habits. 139. Give an example of each of the following research designs: longitudinal study; cross-sectional study; and sequential study. Answer: 1. Longitudinal study: Researchers track the same group of individuals over an extended period to observe changes. Example: Following a cohort of children from infancy to adulthood to study changes in cognitive development. 2. Cross-sectional study: Researchers compare different groups of individuals at the same point in time to assess age-related differences. Example: Comparing vocabulary skills among children of different ages (e.g., 5-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and 15-year-olds). 3. Sequential study: Combines elements of longitudinal and cross-sectional designs by studying multiple cohorts over time. Example: Following groups of children of different ages over several years to examine both age-related changes and developmental trends. 140. Dr. Kain is preparing to study the effects of television viewing on middle-school-age children. List and explain three ethical principles that she must follow when performing research that uses young children as subjects. Answer: Three ethical principles Dr. Kain must follow when studying children include: 1. Informed Consent: Obtain consent from parents or guardians and ensure children understand the study's purpose and procedures at an age-appropriate level. 2. Protection from Harm: Ensure the research does not harm participants physically, mentally, or emotionally. Minimize potential risks and provide appropriate support. 3. Confidentiality: Safeguard participants' privacy by ensuring data confidentiality and anonymity in reporting results to protect their identities. True/False Questions 141. Hypotheses are developed before theories. Answer: False 142. The mechanistic model argues that human development is a series of predictable responses to stimuli. Answer: True 143. The organismic model views human development as internally initiated by an active organism, and as occurring in a sequence of qualitatively different stages. Answer: True 144. Because Piaget believed that development is active and occurs in stages, he would be considered a mechanistic. Answer: False 145. A researcher interested in qualitative research focuses on fundamental changes in development with age. Answer: True 146. Researcher Bibb believes that development is continuous, thus he believes that development is like climbing a flight of stairs. Answer: False 147. Sergio believes that development occurs through an interaction between a developing person and his or her surrounding environment. Sergio is most likely a cognitive neuroscientist. Answer: False 148. Takara notices that birds with red feathers are more likely to survive than birds with blue feathers; she predicts that there will be more red feathered birds in the next generation. Takara believes in an evolutionary approach to development. Answer: True 149. Martine believes that unconscious forces drive her behavior. Her thinking is most in line with Freud. Answer: True 150. Sakura believes that experience and social interaction are a catalyst for human development. Her thinking is most in line with Skinner. Answer: False 151. Jonas believes that the brain is like a computer and uses this analogy to discuss development. His thinking is consistent with the information-processing approach. Answer: True 152. Ethologists study such topics as how spiders spin webs and the differences between various species. Answer: True 153. Some researchers argue that limitations on young children have adaptive value. That by children having unrealistic expectations of their abilities it may allow them to try new things and also reduce fear. Answer: True 154. One of the advantages of naturalistic observation is that you can gather a large amount of data quickly and it is an objective approach to understanding behavior. Answer: False 155. In an ethnographic study, you perform an in depth investigation of a culture or subculture. Answer: True 156. Magdalene conducts a study examining the number of books in the family home and children's verbal skills in third grade. She finds a positive correlation; she can thus conclude that books in the house cause children to be smarter. Answer: False 157. Payton finds a correlation between global warming and number of pirates; as the number of pirates has decreased, global warming has increased. This is an example of a negative correlation. Answer: True 158. Luc is performing an experiment to determine if cocaine use causes learning difficulty in rats. Some rats are given no cocaine and some are given a fixed amount of cocaine. After 1 week of this treatment, the rats are taught to run a maze over 15 trials. In this example, running the maze is the independent variable. Answer: False 159. If I study the same group of individuals over a period of time, I am conducting a cross-sectional study. Answer: False 160. Deception is never used in psychological research. Answer: False Test Bank for A Child's World: Infancy Through Adolescence Diane E. Papalia, Gabriela Martorell, Ruth Duskin Feldman 9780078035432

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