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Chapter 06 Physical Development and Health During the First Three Years Multiple Choice Questions 1. Children's most rapid physical growth takes place during the _____________ year of life. A. first B. second C. third D. fourth Answer: A. first 2. According to the proximodistal principle, A. growth occurs from the center of the body outward. B. growth occurs from top down. C. upper and lower body parts develop simultaneously. D. the order of development depends on environmental influences. Answer: A. growth occurs from the center of the body outward. 3. A child's rate of growth is most rapid during _____________. A. infancy B. early childhood C. late childhood D. adolescence Answer: A. infancy 4. Which of the following statements is true of babies' growth patterns during the first three years? A. Children grow faster, especially during the second year of life. B. On average, baby girls are slightly larger than baby boys. C. Teething in babies usually begins around 3 or 4 months after birth. D. The first tooth usually arrives at the end of the first year. Answer: C. Teething in babies usually begins around 3 or 4 months after birth. 5. Eric is celebrating his first birthday. Since birth, Eric's weight has likely A. increased by 25 percent. B. doubled. C. tripled. D. quadrupled. Answer: C. tripled. 6. Mothers can expect their babies' first tooth to erupt A. during the first month. B. between 5 and 9 months. C. between 2 and 4 months. D. after the tenth month. Answer: B. between 5 and 9 months. 7. One-year-old Samantha and Edwin are fraternal twins. At a recent checkup, the doctor said that the twins were normal for their age in terms of height and weight. Which of the following statements is most likely to be true in this case? A. Samantha is taller than Edwin. B. Both Samantha and Edwin are below average in height and weight. C. Edwin is slightly larger than Samantha. D. Samantha weighs more than Edwin. Answer: C. Edwin is slightly larger than Samantha. 8. According to the cephalocaudal principle, A. upper body parts develop before lower parts. B. lower body parts develop before upper parts. C. upper and lower body parts develop simultaneously. D. the order of development depends on environmental influences. Answer: A. upper body parts develop before lower parts. 9. The _____________ principle states that development proceeds from the central part of the body to the outer parts. A. centrifugal B. cephalocaudal C. neurological D. proximodistal Answer: D. proximodistal 10. Baby Kevin can accurately reach for a toy bat and grasp it in his hands, although he cannot yet stand on his feet. Only when he is older will he be able to control his legs well enough to stand. This pattern of development illustrates the _____________ principle. A. proximodistal B. cephalocaudal C. centrifugal D. longitudinal Answer: B. cephalocaudal 11. Baby Arnold first learned to hold up his head, then to raise his shoulders, and then to push with his feet. Which of the following principles of development does this sequence demonstrate? A. proximodistal B. lateralization C. maturational D. cephalocaudal Answer: D. cephalocaudal 12. Why are babies' heads so large in proportion to their body size? A. The head widens the birth canal so the rest of the body can pass easily. B. The baby's brain and head are more developed than are other parts of the body. C. The brain is surrounded by a large volume of fluid that gradually subsides after birth. D. The head has excess fat at birth to protect it during passage through the birth canal. Answer: B. The baby's brain and head are more developed than are other parts of the body. 13. Sensory and motor development of babies proceeds according to the _____________ principle. A. proximodistal B. lateralization C. cephalocaudal D. maturational Answer: C. cephalocaudal 14. Baby Miley first learned to wave her arms, then to move her hands toward objects, and finally to use her fingers. This sequence exemplifies which of the following principles of development? A. maturational B. cephalocaudal C. proximodistal D. environmental science Answer: C. proximodistal 15. Luci can control her shoulder muscles well enough to move her arms in the general direction of a toy, but she has trouble using her hands to grasp it. When she is older, she will be able to control her hands and grasp the toy. This sequence illustrates the _____________ principle of development. A. proximodistal B. cephalocaudal C. evolutionary D. information-processing Answer: A. proximodistal 16. Which of the following statements about obesity is true? A. The age of an overweight child is a poor indicator for obesity in adulthood. B. Overweight has increased in infancy as in all age groups in the United States. C. An overweight child with only one obese parent is not likely to become obese later in life. D. Infants and toddlers in the United States tend to eat much less than required. Answer: B. Overweight has increased in infancy as in all age groups in the United States. 17. Which of the following statements about breastfeeding is correct? A. Pediatric experts recommend only breast milk for babies until they are 10 months of age. B. The American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Breastfeeding recommends that babies be exclusively breast-fed for 4 months. C. Nutritionally speaking, breast-feeding is almost always best for infants, as well as mothers. D. Breast-feeding should begin during the third month after birth and should continue for at least 1 year. Answer: C. Nutritionally speaking, breast-feeding is almost always best for infants, as well as mothers. 18. Breast milk is almost always the best food for newborns and is recommended for at least the first _____________ months. A. 3 B. 6 C. 14 D. 12 Answer: D. 12 19. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that infants be given A. cow's milk for the first 4 months after birth. B. skim milk rather than whole milk, to prevent obesity. C. breast milk exclusively for six months. D. baby food during the first 2 months to help them sleep through the night. Answer: C. breast milk exclusively for six months. 20. Babies can switch to full-fat cow's milk after age _____________. A. 2 years B. 1 year C. 8 months D. 6 months Answer: B. 1 year 21. Breast-fed babies are A. more likely to need braces. B. less likely to become obese. C. more likely to contract infectious illnesses such as diarrhea. D. less likely to develop osteoporosis. Answer: B. less likely to become obese. 22. Breast-feeding mothers A. take more time to recover from childbirth. B. are less likely to return to their prepregnancy weight. C. have a higher risk of postpartum bleeding. D. report feeling more confident and less anxious. Answer: D. report feeling more confident and less anxious. 23. All of the following illnesses are prevented or minimized by breast-feeding EXCEPT A. diarrhea. B. diabetes. C. asthma. D. measles. Answer: D. measles. 24. To which of the following women is breast-feeding inadvisable? A. Carol, who is overweight B. Ellen, who drinks 3 cups of coffee per day C. Cindy, who has only a three-week maternity leave D. Alison, who has AIDS Answer: D. Alison, who has AIDS 25. Pediatric experts recommend that iron-enriched solid foods be introduced gradually between ages _____________ and _____________ months. A. 2; 4 B. 3; 5 C. 6; 12 D. 12; 16 Answer: C. 6; 12 26. The brain and the spinal cord together form the _____________ nervous system. A. autonomic B. peripheral C. parasympathetic D. central Answer: D. central 27. Fetal nervous system development begins at about _____________ weeks. A. 3 B. 9 C. 12 D. 20 Answer: A. 3 28. The brain's growth occurs in fits and starts called brain _____________. A. cognitive bursts B. developmental drifts C. growth spurts D. neurological regressions Answer: C. growth spurts 29. Which of the following brain structures has its major growth period before birth and is responsible for basic bodily functions such as breathing and heart rate? A. Brain stem B. Cerebellum C. Cerebrum D. Frontal lobe Answer: A. Brain stem 30. The part of the brain that maintains balance and motor coordination grows fastest A. during the 1st year of life. B. between 3 and 5 years of age. C. during middle childhood. D. during the first few weeks after conception. Answer: A. during the 1st year of life. 31. Which of the following is a part of the brain that maintains balance and motor coordination? A. Cerebellum B. Brain stem C. Spinal cord D. Cerebrum Answer: A. Cerebellum 32. Which of the following regions of the brain is the largest and is divided into two halves or hemispheres? A. Cerebellum B. Brain stem C. Spinal cord D. Cerebrum Answer: D. Cerebrum 33. Which of the following is a primary function of the left hemisphere of the brain? A. Visual and spatial functions B. Language and logical thinking C. Motor skills and locomotion D. Vision and hearing Answer: B. Language and logical thinking 34. The tendency for the brain's hemispheres to have specialized functions is termed _____________. A. compartmentalization B. specialization C. lateralization D. departmentalization Answer: C. lateralization 35. The function of the corpus callosum is to A. join the two hemispheres of the brain. B. control breathing in newborns. C. maintain balance and motor coordination. D. maintain body temperature in infants. Answer: A. join the two hemispheres of the brain. 36. The occipital lobe is primarily concerned with A. making mental associations. B. abstract thought processes. C. visual processing. D. planning and problem solving. Answer: C. visual processing. 37. Which of the following statements about the cerebral hemisphere is true? A. The cerebral cortex is the inner layer of the cerebrum. B. The temporal lobes are involved with a variety of higher-order processes. C. The occipital lobe is the largest of the four lobes. D. The parietal lobe is involved with integrating sensory information from the body. Answer: D. The parietal lobe is involved with integrating sensory information from the body. 38. The process of coating neurons with a fatty substance to enable faster communication between cells is called A. integration. B. differentiation. C. neuron lubrication. D. myelination. Answer: D. myelination. 39. The brain is composed of A. white and gray cells. B. neurons and protoneurons. C. neurons and glia. D. positive and negative cells. Answer: C. neurons and glia. 40. _____________ cells of the brain nourish and protect the neurons. A. Glial B. Nerve C. Synaptic D. Stem Answer: A. Glial 41. _____________ are cells in the brain that send and receive information. A. Axons B. Dendrites C. Neurons D. Glia Answer: C. Neurons 42. Which of the following statements about the components of a neuron is true? A. Axons receive incoming messages from dendrites. B. Synapses are the nervous system's communication links. C. Glial cells are narrow, branching, fiber-like extensions. D. Dendrites send signals to other neurons. Answer: B. Synapses are the nervous system's communication links. 43. The tiny gaps that are the communication links in the nervous system are called A. axons. B. neurons. C. dendrites. D. synapses. Answer: D. synapses. 44. _____________ bridge the gaps between synapses. A. Axons B. Dendrites C. Neurotransmitters D. Neurons Answer: C. Neurotransmitters 45. _____________ describes the process by which neurons coordinate the activities of muscle groups. A. Integration B. Differentiation C. Consolidation D. Lateralization Answer: A. Integration 46. During brain development, through differentiation A. the neurons that control various groups of muscles coordinate their activities. B. each neuron takes on a specific, specialized structure and function. C. the multiplication of dendrites and synaptic connections takes place. D. each neuron releases chemicals called neurotransmitters. Answer: B. each neuron takes on a specific, specialized structure and function. 47. Which of the following statements is true of cell death in brain development? A. Cell death ends after birth. B. Cell death leads to physical and cognitive delays. C. Cell death helps to create an efficient nervous system. D. Cell death begins after birth. Answer: C. Cell death helps to create an efficient nervous system. 48. An automatic, involuntarily, innate reaction to stimulation is called a(n) A. unconditioned response. B. reflex. C. neutral response. D. conditioned response. Answer: B. reflex. 49. Three-month-old Eddie extended his arms automatically in an attempt to break a fall, when his mom tilted him downward to pose for a picture. Eddie's automatic response to movement is an example of a _____________ reflex. A. primitive B. postural C. Babinski D. locomotor Answer: B. postural 50. Which of the following reflexes tends to remain throughout one's lifetime? A. Blinking B. Rooting C. Grasping D. Babinski Answer: A. Blinking 51. Rooting for the nipple is an example of a _____________ reflex. A. Babinski B. primitive C. postural D. Moro Answer: B. primitive 52. By examining an infant's reflex behaviors, we can assess A. neurological development. B. intelligence. C. handedness. D. personality development. Answer: A. neurological development. 53. _____________ is a term that explains how humans who grow up in a high-quality environment generally thrive better than those who grow up in deprived environments. A. Flexibility B. Malleability C. Neurological sensitivity D. Plasticity Answer: D. Plasticity 54. Based on experiments conducted with animals, which of the following statements about environmental influences on brain development is correct? A. Early experiences can result in actual physical changes in brain functioning. B. Early experiences can affect cognitive and social functioning but cannot bring about actual physical changes. C. Early experiences have minimal effect on brain development. D. Early experiences are less influential than later experiences. Answer: A. Early experiences can result in actual physical changes in brain functioning. 55. A generalization about brain development that has emerged from animal research is that plasticity A. is evident only during the first trimester of gestation. B. is evident only during the period immediately after birth. C. tends to occur more in female brains than in male brains. D. tends to be evident throughout life. Answer: D. tends to be evident throughout life. 56. Which of the following was NOT an observation made about the children discovered in Romanian orphanages? A. Many of the children were passive and emotionless. B. Most 2- and 3-year-olds did not talk or walk. C. PET scans showed regular brain activity in the temporal lobes. D. The older children played aimlessly. Answer: C. PET scans showed regular brain activity in the temporal lobes. 57. Toy manufacturers know that during the early years of life, a child's brain can be "molded" by experience. This capacity, known as _____________, encourages companies to develop new and more enriching types of toys. A. plasticity B. programmability C. functionality D. flexibility Answer: A. plasticity 58. The first sense to develop is the sense of _____________. A. smell B. touch C. sight D. hearing Answer: B. touch 59. The most mature sensory system for the first few months of life is the sense of _____________. A. taste B. smell C. touch D. sight Answer: C. touch 60. Jenna's pediatrician recommends that her newborn son receive lots of sensory stimulation. The doctor tells her to stimulate the sense that is the most developed. Which of the following techniques should Jenna use? A. Play classical music softly. B. Give her newborn a massage. C. Turn the lights on and off. D. Show the infant complex pictures. Answer: B. Give her newborn a massage. 61. The American Academy of Pediatrics now maintains that anesthesia is _____________ during circumcision. A. preferred B. essential C. not required D. ineffective Answer: B. essential 62. Newborns have an innate preference for _____________ tastes. A. bitter B. sour C. sweet D. salty Answer: C. sweet 63. Which of the following liquids would a newborn most likely prefer? A. Water B. Sugar solution C. Unsweetened lemonade D. Salt water Answer: B. Sugar solution 64. A study of infants' hearing suggests that infants identify new speech sounds from those they have heard before A. as early as 3 days after birth. B. at about 2 weeks after birth. C. at about 4 weeks after birth. D. as early as 10 days after birth. Answer: A. as early as 3 days after birth. 65. During the first two months of life, a baby's visual abilities include all of the following EXCEPT A. blinking at bright lights. B. 20/20 visual acuity. C. the ability to follow a moving target. D. color perception. Answer: B. 20/20 visual acuity. 66. Vision becomes more acute during the first year, reaching the 20/20 level by about the _____________ month. A. second B. fourth C. sixth D. eighth Answer: D. eighth 67. Binocular vision usually does not develop until _____________ months of age. A. 2 or 3 B. 4 or 5 C. 7 or 8 D. 9 or 10 Answer: B. 4 or 5 68. The Denver Developmental Screening Test assesses all of the following EXCEPT A. gross motor development. B. social skills. C. temperament. D. language skills. Answer: C. temperament. 69. When interpreting the Denver Developmental Screening Test, "average" refers to skills exhibited by _____________ percent of all children at a given age. A. 25 B. 50 C. 75 D. 90 Answer: B. 50 70. Physical skills that involve the large muscles are called _____________ motor skills, and physical skills that involve the small muscles and eye-hand coordination are called _____________ motor skills. A. gross; fine B. large; gross C. fine; large D. fine; gross Answer: A. gross; fine 71. To observe the development of a child's fine motor skills, a psychologist would ask the child to A. draw with a crayon. B. read a children's book. C. throw a baseball. D. kick a football. Answer: A. draw with a crayon. 72. Increasingly complex combinations of skills that permit a wider or more precise range of movement and more control of the environment are called A. cephalocaudal skills. B. systems of action. C. proximodistal skills. D. centrifugal movements. Answer: B. systems of action. 73. Which of the following principles does motor development in infancy follow? A. Cephalocaudal B. Proximodistal C. Simple-to-complex D. All of these Answer: D. All of these 74. Which of the following refers to a baby's ability to pick up tiny objects using the thumb and the index finger? A. Pincer grasp B. Raking grasp C. Palmar grasp D. Grasp reflex Answer: A. Pincer grasp 75. Which of the following motor skills is present at birth? A. The ability to lift the head while lying on the stomach B. The ability to hold the head erect while being held C. The ability to grasp with the thumb and index finger D. The ability to roll over purposefully Answer: A. The ability to lift the head while lying on the stomach 76. Barbara is delighted that her 4-month-old son Matt is developing normally. At this age, Matt should be able to A. roll over. B. sit unsupported. C. pick up small objects. D. stand while holding on. Answer: A. roll over. 77. Baby Eddie is developing normally. At what age will Eddie be able to assume a sitting position and remain in that position without help while a photographer takes his picture? A. 2 months B. 5 months C. 8 months D. 11 months Answer: C. 8 months 78. Babies begin using different forms of locomotion such as scooting, crawling, and standing A. between 2 and 4 months. B. between 6 and 10 months. C. during the 5th month. D. from 11 months on. Answer: B. between 6 and 10 months. 79. Tina has just begun to walk regularly and steadily without assistance. If Tina is an "average" child, she is approximately _____________ months old. A. 8 B. 12 C. 20 D. 24 Answer: B. 12 80. Which of the following milestones of motor development, when achieved, has striking cognitive and psychosocial benefits? A. Ability to hold the head erect B. Sitting without support C. Emergence of self-locomotion D. Development of pincer grasp Answer: C. Emergence of self-locomotion 81. According to Piaget, reaching depends on the use of the eyes to guide the movement of the hands, which is referred to as _____________. A. binocular coordination B. haptic perception C. depth perception D. visual guidance Answer: D. visual guidance 82. The visual cliff is a device for testing infants' A. peripheral vision. B. depth perception. C. visual preferences. D. color perception. Answer: B. depth perception. 83. Which of the following is necessary for proper depth perception? A. Binocular coordination B. Focusing with both eyes C. Motor control D. All of the above are necessary. Answer: D. All of the above are necessary. 84. Haptic perception is A. an accidental process that leads to learning. B. the ability to accurately see items that are far away. C. the ability to accurately see items that are in close proximity. D. the ability to acquire information about objects by handling them. Answer: D. the ability to acquire information about objects by handling them. 85. Which of the following theories describes developing motor and sensory abilities as interdependent parts of a functional system that guides behavior in varying contexts? A. Gibsons' ecological theory of perception B. Thelen's dynamic systems theory C. Bronfenbrenner's bioecological theory D. Piaget's theory of cognitive development Answer: A. Gibsons' ecological theory of perception 86. Which of the following statements best describes the role of culture in infant motor development? A. Motor development is genetically programmed, and culture has no effect. B. Researchers have found no instances in which culture affects motor development. C. A culture's specific child-rearing practices can have some effect on motor development. D. Culture has a major influence on motor development. Answer: C. A culture's specific child-rearing practices can have some effect on motor development. 87. The infant mortality rate is defined as the proportion of babies who die A. at birth. B. within the first year of life. C. during toddlerhood. D. during the first 3 years of life. Answer: B. within the first year of life. 88. Which of the following is the chief cause of neonatal death worldwide, accounting for 86 percent of all neonatal deaths? A. Diabetes mellitus B. Unintentional injuries C. Breathing difficulty D. Severe infections Answer: D. Severe infections 89. Which of the following is NOT one of the major causes of infant mortality? A. Birth defects B. Low-birth-weight C. Sudden infant death syndrome D. Birth trauma Answer: D. Birth trauma 90. Which of the following groups is least likely to have babies that die in infancy? A. African Americans B. Hispanics C. American Indians D. Asian Americans Answer: D. Asian Americans 91. Which of the following behavioral factors does NOT account for racial and ethnic disparities in infant mortality rates? A. Mother's obesity during pregnancy B. Smoking C. Alcohol consumption D. Number of children in the home Answer: D. Number of children in the home 92. Which of the following statements is true of racial/ethnic disparities in infant mortality? A. Infant mortality has increased for all racial and ethnic groups in the United States. B. African American infants are more likely to die in their first year than white babies. C. Asian Americans are most likely to die in infancy than any other ethnic group, D. Chinese American infants are more than three times as likely to die as Hawaiian infants. Answer: B. African American infants are more likely to die in their first year than white babies. 93. If a normal, healthy infant dies in his sleep, he most likely suffered from A. sudden infant death syndrome. B. fetal alcohol syndrome. C. hyaline membrane disease. D. trauma. Answer: A. sudden infant death syndrome. 94. The leading cause of postneonatal infant death in the United States is: A. fetal alcohol syndrome. B. sudden infant death syndrome. C. poor medical care. D. unintentional injuries. Answer: B. sudden infant death syndrome. 95. Which of the following infants is at the greatest risk of SIDS? A. Alexander, who is 10 months old and has frequent colds and other respiratory ailments B. Barry, who is 2 weeks old and has irregular sleep patterns and an overweight mother C. Curt, who is 3 months old and has a teenage unmarried mother who smokes regularly D. Samantha, who is 6 months old and had a difficult birth Answer: C. Curt, who is 3 months old and has a teenage unmarried mother who smokes regularly 96. Which of the following groups has the highest risk of dying from SIDS? A. Babies of average birth weights B. Babies weighing more than 9 pounds at birth C. Black babies of low birth weight D. White babies of low birth weight Answer: C. Black babies of low birth weight 97. Which of the following is recommended by doctors to reduce the occurrences of SIDS? A. To avoid letting babies sleep on their stomach B. To give babies more solid food than liquid food C. To let infants share a bed with the mother or any other adult D. To use very soft bedding in the crib Answer: A. To avoid letting babies sleep on their stomach 98. Which of the following factors is the fifth leading cause of infant death in the United States? A. Sudden infant death syndrome B. Fetal alcohol syndrome C. High birth weight D. Unintentional injuries Answer: D. Unintentional injuries 99. Which of the following statements about immunization is true? A. Infant immunization has been identified as a leading risk factor for autism and other developmental disorders. B. The immune systems of young children cannot safely handle multiple vaccines. C. Immunization rates are lower among minority groups and poor families. D. Immunization has done little to combat childhood illness, including measles and pertussis. Answer: D. Immunization has done little to combat childhood illness, including measles and pertussis. 100. In infancy, lack of appropriate growth for no known medical cause, accompanied by poor developmental and emotional functioning is known as _____________. A. nonorganic failure to thrive B. shaken baby syndrome C. fetal alcohol syndrome D. attention deficit hyperactive disorder Answer: A. nonorganic failure to thrive 101. When authorities remove a maltreated child from his/her home, the usual alternative placement is A. foster care. B. with neighbors. C. with relatives. D. an orphanage. Answer: A. foster care. Essay Questions 102. Explain the cephalocaudal principle of early growth and physical development. Answer: The cephalocaudal principle of early growth and physical development describes the pattern where development progresses from head (cephalo) to tail (caudal). This means that during infancy and early childhood, growth and motor control typically develop first in the head and upper body before extending to the lower body and limbs. For instance, infants gain control over their neck and head movements before developing the ability to control their trunk and eventually their legs and feet. 103. What patterns of growth take place during the first three years of life? Provide examples of factors that can affect this growth. Answer: During the first three years of life, growth patterns include rapid physical growth, particularly in height and weight, as well as significant neurological and cognitive development. Factors influencing this growth include nutrition (breastfeeding vs. formula feeding), genetics, overall health, environmental stimulation (such as access to toys and interaction), and socioeconomic factors (like access to healthcare and living conditions). These factors collectively contribute to a child's overall growth and development during early childhood. 104. Describe how infant health and survival has improved throughout history due to changes in feeding practices. Answer: Infant health and survival have improved significantly throughout history due to changes in feeding practices. Historically, improvements in sanitation and the understanding of germ theory reduced infections transmitted through breastfeeding. The introduction of formula and improvements in its composition provided an alternative for infants who couldn't breastfeed. Today, breastfeeding promotion and better formula options contribute to lower infant mortality rates globally, ensuring better nutrition and immune support for infants. 105. Pediatricians encourage new mothers to consider breast-feeding their babies. Explain some of the advantages of breast-feeding. Answer: Breastfeeding offers several advantages for both infants and mothers: 1. Nutritional benefits: Breast milk provides ideal nutrition with the right balance of nutrients for growth and development. 2. Immune protection: It contains antibodies that help protect infants from infections and diseases. 3. Bonding: Promotes bonding between mother and baby through skin-to-skin contact and eye contact. 4. Health benefits for mothers: Reduces the risk of postpartum bleeding, helps in losing pregnancy weight, and lowers the risk of breast and ovarian cancers. 106. Technological advances have allowed researchers to observe brain activity in infants at the cell level. Describe how the development of neurological synaptic networks and cell death contribute to the optimization of development. Answer: The development of neurological synaptic networks in infants involves the formation and strengthening of connections between neurons, which supports learning and cognitive function. Simultaneously, programmed cell death, or apoptosis, eliminates unnecessary or damaged neurons to refine and optimize neural circuits. This process enhances brain efficiency and specialization, crucial for optimal cognitive, emotional, and behavioral development in infants. 107. The discovery of thousands of infants and children who spent virtually their whole lives in Romanian orphanages has offered us the opportunity to study the effects of deprivation on children. What observations were made about these children? Answer: Studies of children raised in Romanian orphanages revealed significant developmental and psychological effects due to deprivation. These children often exhibited delays in physical growth, cognitive abilities, and emotional development. They showed higher rates of attachment disorders, social withdrawal, and behavioral problems compared to children raised in nurturing environments. This research underscored the critical importance of early and responsive caregiving in supporting healthy child development. 108. List the senses that are the most and least developed at birth, and describe how these senses continue to develop during infancy and toddlerhood. Answer: At birth, the sense of touch is the most developed, crucial for bonding and comfort. Vision is the least developed, with newborns seeing best at close distances and gradually improving over months. Throughout infancy and toddlerhood, senses like hearing and taste refine rapidly, while vision develops further through exposure to visual stimuli and motor skills, aiding in spatial awareness and exploration. 109. Describe some of the early milestones in motor development. Answer: Early milestones in motor development include: 1. Lifting the head: Typically achieved around 1-2 months, demonstrating neck muscle strength. 2. Rolling over: Usually occurs around 4-6 months, showing increased coordination and core strength. 3. Sitting independently: Achieved around 6-8 months, indicating improved balance and trunk control. 4. Crawling and standing: Typically observed between 7-12 months, showcasing further coordination and muscle development in preparation for walking. 110. Explain how the development of self-locomotion affects cognitive, psychosocial, and physical attributes. Answer: The development of self-locomotion, such as crawling and walking, significantly impacts various aspects of development: 1. Cognitive: Enhances spatial awareness, problem-solving skills, and exploration of the environment. 2. Psychosocial: Promotes independence, self-confidence, and social interactions with peers and caregivers. 3. Physical: Strengthens muscles, improves coordination, and supports further motor skill development, laying the foundation for more complex physical activities and sports later in life. 111. What is SIDS? What are the doctors' recommendations to minimize its occurrence? Answer: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant, usually during sleep. To minimize its occurrence, doctors recommend placing infants on their backs for sleep, using a firm sleep surface, avoiding overheating, keeping soft bedding and objects out of the crib, offering a pacifier at sleep times, and ensuring a smoke-free environment. Regular prenatal care and breastfeeding are also encouraged as they contribute to overall infant health and well-being. 112. Describe each of the following forms of childhood maltreatment: physical abuse, neglect. Answer: Childhood maltreatment includes: 1. Physical abuse: Involves intentional physical harm or injury inflicted by a caregiver, causing pain, injury, or impairment. 2. Neglect: Refers to the failure of caregivers to provide basic needs such as food, shelter, supervision, and medical care, impacting a child's physical, emotional, and cognitive development. Test Bank for A Child's World: Infancy Through Adolescence Diane E. Papalia, Gabriela Martorell, Ruth Duskin Feldman 9780078035432

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