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Chapter 11 Psychosocial Development in Early Childhood Multiple Choice Questions 1. Our beliefs about who we are, what we are able to do, and the traits we engender are referred to as our A. self-esteem. B. self-concept. C. self-efficacy. D. self-evaluation. Answer: B. self-concept. 2. Mrs. Hubbard tries to instill in her fourth-graders the idea that self-concept is a(n) _____________ construction. A. cognitive B. emotional C. social D. physical Answer: A. cognitive 3. Lucas is 4-years-old. He is likely to describe himself according to A. generalized abilities, such as being "athletic" or "smart." B. specific abilities, such as being a fast runner or a good climber. C. global traits, such as being popular or outgoing. D. internal traits, such as being thoughtful or worried. Answer: B. specific abilities, such as being a fast runner or a good climber. 4. When Dora starts to list characteristics to describe herself, she is disclosing her A. self-esteem. B. self-efficacy. C. self-concept. D. self-definition. Answer: D. self-definition. 5. Four-year-old Dana goes to her pediatrician for her annual checkup. She tells the nurse her name, address, phone number, and her doctor's name. She also tells the nurse about her sister Nancy. These descriptions represent Dana's A. self-esteem. B. self-definition. C. self-efficacy. D. self-evaluation. Answer: B. self-definition. 6. Which of the following is NOT a typical aspect of self-definition in early childhood? A. Using concrete, observable behaviors to describe oneself B. Focusing on physical features in self-descriptions C. Having difficulty separating what one thinks of oneself from what one does D. Being self-critical, while maintaining a positive overall self-concept Answer: D. Being self-critical, while maintaining a positive overall self-concept 7. Tasha's judgment and evaluation about her self-worth is called her A. self-definition. B. ideal self. C. real self. D. self-esteem. Answer: D. self-esteem. 8. Preschool children _____________ self-esteem and _____________ self-concept. A. think; feel B. understand; think C. think; understand D. feel; think Answer: D. feel; think 9. In early childhood, the development of self-definition occurs in the following order: A. single representation, representational mappings, and representational systems. B. single representation, representational systems, and representational mappings. C. representational mappings, representational systems, and single representation. D. representational systems, representational mappings, and single representation. Answer: A. single representation, representational mappings, and representational systems. 10. When Jacinta daydreams about the person she would like to be, she is thinking of her A. ideal self. B. real self. C. ultimate self. D. representational system. Answer: A. ideal self. 11. The _____________ is how one perceives oneself, and the _____________ is what one would like to be. A. ideal self; imaginary self B. real self; ideal self C. real self; imaginary self D. ideal self; real self Answer: B. real self; ideal self 12. In the preschool years, a child typically makes logical connections between aspects of the self but still sees these characteristics in all-or-nothing terms. This way of thinking is called A. visions of the ideal self. B. visions of the real self. C. single representations. D. representational mappings. Answer: D. representational mappings. 13. Shelton loves to draw and do art projects, and is very good at it. However, when he plays soccer, he gets frustrated because he is not as good as the other boys. In which of the following stages of self-definition is Shelton? A. Single representations B. Representational mappings C. Representational systems D. None of these Answer: C. Representational systems 14. Leo thinks he is the smartest kid in his kindergarten class. The judgment a person makes about his or her self-worth is called A. self-esteem. B. self-concept. C. self-efficacy. D. self-actualization. Answer: A. self-esteem. 15. In early childhood, a person's sense of self-esteem is derived primarily from A. his own sense of competence. B. parents' behaviors. C. the number of friends he has. D. his level of maturity relative to same-aged peers. Answer: B. parents' behaviors. 16. Seligman's groundbreaking research involved shocking dogs in either an "escape" or "no escape" condition. After several trials, the dogs in the "no escape" condition ceased trying to escape the shocks. This demonstrates the concept of A. low self-esteem. B. learned helplessness. C. self-efficacy. D. egocentrism. Answer: B. learned helplessness. 17. Mary has low self-esteem and received a poor grade on her math test. To which of the following reasons would she most likely attribute her poor grade to? A. She is not good at math. B. She did not study. C. The test was too difficult. D. The teacher did not cover all of the materials. Answer: A. She is not good at math. 18. Parents and teachers of preschoolers can avoid fostering the "helpless" pattern associated with low self-esteem by A. targeting their criticism at the child as a person rather than focusing on particular behaviors. B. focusing on other children's good performance so that the child can have a goal to achieve. C. giving specific strategy-focused feedback rather than criticizing the child as a person. D. ignoring the child when he or she exhibits "helpless" behavior. Answer: C. giving specific strategy-focused feedback rather than criticizing the child as a person. 19. Four-year-old Martha's ability to understand her own emotions helps her to A. guide her behavior in social situations. B. talk about her feelings. C. be sensitive to how others feel. D. all of the above. Answer: D. all of the above. 20. Jenny says, "I couldn't feel happy and scared at the same time; I would have to be two people at once!" Malcolm, who is the same age as Jenny, can easily imagine feeling happy and scared simultaneously. At what age are individual differences in understanding conflicting emotions first evident? A. 3 years B. 8 years C. 10 years D. 12 years Answer: A. 3 years 21. At what age do children begin to understand simultaneous emotions? A. 2-3 B. 4-5 C. 7-9 D. 13-15 Answer: C. 7-9 22. Marcus comments on how some children in his class pick up on the feelings of characters in books, whereas other children never seem to figure out how the characters are feeling. Individual differences in understanding conflicting emotions A. are rarely seen in preschool children. B. do not typically appear until the age of 5. C. may reflect differences among families in the amount and type of discussion of why people behave the way they do. D. are primarily due to gender differences between girls and boys. Answer: C. may reflect differences among families in the amount and type of discussion of why people behave the way they do. 23. In terms of Erikson's concept of "initiative versus guilt," which of the following statements is FALSE? A. The concept is based largely on conflicting feelings about the self. B. The concept involves preschoolers' reconciling their need to act with their need for approval. C. Because this crisis is based on a behavioral theory, the conscience is irrelevant to it. D. Successful outcome leads to the characteristic of "purpose." Answer: C. Because this crisis is based on a behavioral theory, the conscience is irrelevant to it. 24. Erikson's third developmental conflict is referred to as A. initiative versus guilt. B. attachment versus detachment. C. autonomy versus shame. D. detachment versus identification. Answer: A. initiative versus guilt. 25. In Erikson's theory, which of the following parental behaviors is least likely to help children achieve a healthy balance between initiative and guilt? A. Giving children opportunities to do things on their own B. Providing guidance C. Establishing firm limits D. Emphasizing strict obedience Answer: D. Emphasizing strict obedience 26. A child who successful resolves Erikson's initiative versus guilt stage develops A. hope. B. purpose. C. trust. D. will. Answer: B. purpose. 27. Which of the following statements describes the most preferable outcome of Erikson's psychosocial stage of initiative versus guilt? A. The child is free of guilt. B. The child finds an even balance of initiative and guilt. C. The child finds a balance of initiative and guilt, with the greater emphasis on initiative. D. The child finds a balance of initiative and guilt, with the greater emphasis on guilt. Answer: C. The child finds a balance of initiative and guilt, with the greater emphasis on initiative. 28. Thomas is quick to remind his sister that he can hunt with his dad because he is a boy. A child's awareness of being male or female is called A. gender constancy. B. gender identity. C. gender-typing. D. identification of sex. Answer: B. gender identity. 29. Abigail has become aware that she is a female and that females are different from males. Abigail has acquired A. gender identity. B. gender. C. a gender role. D. gender-stereotyping. Answer: A. gender identity. 30. Which of the following statements regarding gender differences in specific abilities is FALSE? A. Females tend to do better at verbal tasks. B. Females tend to do better at fine motor tasks. C. Males tend to have superior motor performance. D. Males tend to do better at solving mazes tests. Answer: C. Males tend to have superior motor performance. 31. Behaviors, interests, attitudes, and skills considered appropriate for females and males in a given culture are: A. called gender roles. B. biologically determined. C. fairly easy to change. D. all of these Answer: A. called gender roles. 32. The socialization process whereby children learn culturally accepted gender roles is called: A. achieving gender identity. B. gender conservation. C. gender-typing. D. gender-stereotyping. Answer: C. gender-typing. 33. Sam is 30 months old. He is becoming aware that he is a boy and that boys play with trucks but not dolls. He is developing: A. gender identity. B. a gender role. C. gender-typing. D. all of these Answer: D. all of these 34. In the past, many preschool teachers encouraged children to play with both "boy" and "girl" toys. We know now that gender stereotypes: A. are rarely found in children under the age of 5. B. can restrict children's self-image, activities, and plans. C. have been largely eliminated in the United States. D. affect major life decisions but not everyday behavior. Answer: B. can restrict children's self-image, activities, and plans. 35. Gender stereotypes appear to reach a peak at age: A. 3. B. 5. C. 8. D. 11. Answer: B. 5. 36. Five-year-old Shawn is playing with his sister Cheryl's doll. She tells him to put it down because "boys don't play with dolls!" This is an example of a gender: A. role. B. stereotype. C. identity. D. acquisition. Answer: B. stereotype. 37. Which of the following statements regarding biological differences between the brains of males and females is correct? A. Females have more brain cells. B. Males have more functional brain cells. C. Female brains have a larger cerebral cortex. D. Female brains have greater neuronal density. Answer: D. Female brains have greater neuronal density. 38. The theory of sexual selection was developed by: A. Sigmund Freud. B. Albert Bandura. C. Charles Darwin. D. Jean Piaget. Answer: C. Charles Darwin. 39. The process by which a young child adopts characteristics, beliefs, attitudes, values, and behaviors of the same-sex parent is called: A. socialization. B. conditioning. C. information processing. D. identification. Answer: D. identification. 40. Five-year-old Larry has been doing everything that his dad does. Larry's dad has a successful construction business, and Larry proudly wears his own company hat and tool belt everywhere his mother lets him. Freud would call Larry's dress preferences a sign of: A. identification. B. regression. C. fixation. D. none of these Answer: A. identification. 41. Soon after they moved to the United States from Mumbai, Cathy and her brother Charles went to school and started dressing like the other children. The process by which children adopt the characteristics, beliefs, attitudes, values, and behaviors of another person or group is termed: A. socialization. B. identification. C. imitation. D. internalization. Answer: B. identification. 42. Which of the following perspectives on gender identity development is least favored by developmental psychologists? A. Social cognitive theory B. Gender-schema theory C. Cognitive developmental theory D. Psychoanalytic theory Answer: D. Psychoanalytic theory 43. The _____________ theory, associated with Lawrence Kohlberg, holds that a child learns about gender by actively thinking about his or her experiences. A. social-learning B. psychoanalytic C. psychosocial D. cognitive-developmental Answer: D. cognitive-developmental 44. According to Kohlberg's cognitive-developmental theory, which of the following statements about gender identity is false? A. Before the age of 5, children do not usually know which gender they belong to. B. Gender constancy is the realization that one's gender will never change. C. Children usually acquire gender constancy between the ages of 3 and 7. D. Gender differences in behavior develop after children achieve gender constancy. Answer: A. Before the age of 5, children do not usually know which gender they belong to. 45. Jennifer knows that she is a girl, and by watching what other girls do in her culture, she is learning how she is expected to behave. Which theory holds that gender-typing is acquired in this way? A. Psychoanalytic B. Biological C. Cognitive-developmental D. Gender-schema Answer: D. Gender-schema 46. According to gender-schema theory, the key process of gender-identity development is: A. self-categorization based on the processing of cultural information. B. genetic, neurological, and hormonal activity. C. the resolution of an unconscious, emotional conflict. D. modeling, reinforcement, and teaching. Answer: A. self-categorization based on the processing of cultural information. 47. In the _____________ theory of gender-identity development, children socialize themselves in gender roles by developing a concept of what it means to be male or female in their culture. A. social cognitive B. gender-schema C. psychoanalytic D. biological Answer: B. gender-schema 48. A major weakness of the cognitive-developmental theory when explaining gender differences is that: A. children often identify with a parent of the opposite sex. B. children often act in "gender-appropriate" ways before they achieve gender constancy. C. many children pay little attention to sex when organizing their knowledge of their world. D. all of these Answer: B. children often act in "gender-appropriate" ways before they achieve gender constancy. 49. Albert Bandura is associated with which perspective of gender identity development? A. Biological B. Psychoanalytic C. Gender-schema D. Social cognitive Answer: D. Social cognitive 50. According to social cognitive theory, which of the following statements describes part of the process by which boys come to internalize identification with their fathers? A. Boys pick models, such as their fathers, whom they see as powerful. B. Boys imitate their fathers' behaviors. C. Fathers and other adults reinforce gender-typing through praise and feedback. D. All of these Answer: D. All of these 51. Gender identity is seen by _____________ theorists as a consequence of observing and imitating models. A. psychoanalytic B. social cognition C. cognitive-developmental D. gender-schema Answer: B. social cognition 52. Tom's father is thrilled that his daughter is playing soccer again this summer, but he is not pleased that his son wants to take art classes. In socializing children, parents generally: A. have more influence on children's gender behavior than on their gender knowledge. B. show more discomfort if a boy plays with a doll than if a girl plays with a truck. C. have little influence on gender role development. D. give boys more latitude and flexibility than girls with regard to gender roles. Answer: B. show more discomfort if a boy plays with a doll than if a girl plays with a truck. 53. Research has found that peers begin to reinforce gender-typed behavior by the age of: A. 1. B. 3. C. 5. D. 7. Answer: B. 3. 54. Which of the following statements regarding current children's books is FALSE? A. Children's books continue to display many gender stereotypes. B. Male characters predominate in children's books. C. Females are more often portrayed as needing help in children's books. D. All of these are true. Answer: D. All of these are true. 55. Play is an important part of child development, and, in our fast-paced world, many children do not have enough unscheduled time to just play with their friends. On which of the following areas of development does play have an influence? A. Physical B. Intellectual C. Psychosocial D. All of the above Answer: D. All of the above 56. In terms of cognitive complexity, play moves through the following sequence: A. dramatic/pretend play, functional play, formal games with rules, and constructive play. B. functional play, constructive play, dramatic/pretend play, and formal games with rules. C. constructive play, dramatic/pretend play, functional play, and formal games with rules. D. constructive play, functional play, dramatic/pretend play, and formal games with rules. Answer: B. functional play, constructive play, dramatic/pretend play, and formal games with rules. 57. _____________ is the lowest cognitive level of play, involving repetitive muscular movements such as rolling or bouncing a ball. A. A formal games with rules B. Constructive play C. Pretend play D. Functional play Answer: D. Functional play 58. Dakota is using blocks to make a house and a garage. According to Piaget's categorization, Dakota is engaged in A. a formal game with rules. B. functional play. C. parallel play. D. constructive play. Answer: D. constructive play. 59. Antonio and Anton want to play soccer after school, but they need to find more friends who want to play with them. Soccer is considered what kind of play? A. A formal game with rules B. Constructive play C. Functional play D. Pretend play Answer: A. A formal game with rules 60. Which of the following statements regarding play is correct based on the 1920 research by Mildred B. Parten? A. A child's cognitive development has very little influence on her or his play behavior. B. Recent research has supported Parten's conclusion that solitary play is less mature than group play. C. Imaginative play typically does not emerge until 4 or 5 years of age. D. Reticent play is often a manifestation of shyness. Answer: D. Reticent play is often a manifestation of shyness. 61. Which statement about dramatic play during the preschool years is FALSE? A. Dramatic/imaginative play decreases during the preschool years. B. Play changes during the preschool years, from solitary pretending to dramatic play with other children. C. Dramatic/imaginative play offers rich opportunities to practice interpersonal and language skills. D. Children who play imaginatively tend to be more popular with their peers. Answer: A. Dramatic/imaginative play decreases during the preschool years. 62. Parten identified _____________ types of play. A. three B. four C. five D. six Answer: D. six 63. _____________ identified six types of play based on children's level of social involvement. A. Jean Piaget B. Diana Baumrind C. Mildred B. Parten D. Sandra Bem Answer: C. Mildred B. Parten 64. Despite the fact that Brenna is in a crowded classroom, she chooses to play by herself and makes no attempt to join the others. She is engaged in _____________ play. A. onlooker B. solitary independent C. parallel D. associative Answer: B. solitary independent 65. At Jason's birthday party, all of the children are playing with toy cars in the backyard. Although the children are sitting near one another, each child is playing separately with his or her selected cars. Parten would describe this as _____________ play. A. dramatic B. parallel C. associative D. cooperative Answer: B. parallel 66. During free play at preschool, Valerie spends her time playing with Seth and Tiara. Their favorite activity is building with blocks. As they share the blocks, they talk excitedly with one another about their various buildings. The children are engaged in A. associative play. B. cooperative play. C. parallel play. D. onlooker behavior. Answer: A. associative play. 67. Regarding cultural differences in play styles, which of the following statements is FALSE? A. In non-literate societies, children spend more time playing. B. Compared to Korean American children, Anglo-American children are more aggressive in their play. C. Chinese children are more likely to pretend play with their caregivers than with other children. D. The frequency of different forms of play differs across cultures. Answer: A. In non-literate societies, children spend more time playing. 68. Methods of molding children's character and teaching them self- control and acceptable behavior referred to as A. punishment. B. discipline. C. reinforcement. D. shaping. Answer: B. discipline. 69. According to your textbook, the word discipline has the same general meaning as A. punishment. B. training. C. rewarding. D. coercion. Answer: B. training. 70. If Sally's parents want her to stop misbehaving, research suggests that they should A. punish her soundly every time she misbehaves. B. reinforce good behavior and focus less on misbehavior. C. allow a longer amount of time to elapse between the misbehavior and the punishment. D. administer punishment but offer no verbal explanation for their action. Answer: B. reinforce good behavior and focus less on misbehavior. 71. Examples of external rewards include all the following EXCEPT A. increased pride. B. a special privilege. C. praise. D. money. Answer: A. increased pride. 72. An internal reward for a child's good behavior is a reward that is A. given within the home. B. given by a close family member. C. intangible (such as praise or a smile) rather than tangible (such as a toy or sticker). D. the child's own feeling of pleasure or accomplishment. Answer: D. the child's own feeling of pleasure or accomplishment. 73. Children who are punished harshly may A. have trouble interpreting other people's actions and words. B. later act aggressively. C. become passive because they feel helpless. D. All of the above are true. Answer: D. All of the above are true. 74. Punishment is sometimes necessary. Which of the following guidelines would NOT be effective for administering punishment? A. It must be consistent. B. It must be immediate. C. The subject must have some time to think about what she has done before punishment is administered. D. It must be clearly tied to the offense. Answer: C. The subject must have some time to think about what she has done before punishment is administered. 75. Punishing a child tends to be most effective when A. a considerable time elapses between a behavior and its punishment, so that the child will have time to reflect on her or his misbehavior. B. punishment is accompanied by a short, simple explanation. C. the person who punishes is not on good terms with the child, because children tend to ignore punishment from people with whom they have very good relationships. D. all of these Answer: B. punishment is accompanied by a short, simple explanation. 76. Compared to children who are not spanked, children who are spanked are more likely to A. be aggressive. B. be cooperative and show prosocial behavior. C. show accelerated cognitive development. D. obey adults. Answer: A. be aggressive. 77. Julian is explaining to his young daughter why she must not play in the neighbor's garden. He tells her that they work hard to grow flowers, and if she does play in the garden, she will not be allowed to go outdoors alone. As a method of socialization, Julian is employing A. inductive techniques. B. persuasive techniques. C. power assertion. D. reward and punishment. Answer: A. inductive techniques. 78. Madeline took Billy's toy boat away from him and made him cry. Madeline's parents talked to her about how sad Billy was and how badly he felt. Madeline felt sorry about what she had done and gave the boat back to Billy. Which form of discipline was used? A. Power assertion B. Withdrawal of love C. Inductive technique D. Punishment Answer: C. Inductive technique 79. Roberto's parents often express their displeasure with his misbehavior by ignoring him when he is acting inappropriately and for a short time afterward. This is called A. power assertion. B. withdrawal of love. C. ignorance. D. an inductiveness technique. Answer: B. withdrawal of love. 80. In her research on parenting styles, _____________ identified the authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative styles. A. Anna Freud B. Mildred Parten B. Eva Peron C. Diana Baumrind Answer: C. Diana Baumrind 81. _____________ parenting emphasizes control and obedience. A. Authoritative B. Authoritarian C. Permissive D. Neglectful Answer: B. Authoritarian 82. According to Baumrind, _____________ parents value self-expression and self-regulation, allowing children to monitor their own activities as much as possible. A. permissive B. authoritative C. authoritarian D. neglectful Answer: A. permissive 83. Lana asks her mother if she can have a friend over on a school night to study. Her mother quickly reminds her that the rule is no visitors on school nights, and she is not going to break it. Lana's mother is demonstrating a(n) _____________ parenting style. A. authoritative B. authoritarian C. permissive D. neglectful Answer: B. authoritarian 84. Johnny brings a note home from school that states that he hit the school principal with a spitball. His mother is very upset, but his father simply says, "Relax, kids will be kids. No one got hurt, so what is the problem?" Which parenting style is Johnny's father demonstrating? A. Authoritative B. Authoritarian C. Permissive D. Neglectful Answer: C. Permissive 85. A style of parenting in which parents focus on their own needs is called A. the authoritative parenting style. B. the authoritarian parenting style. C. psychological aggression. D. neglectful parenting. Answer: D. neglectful parenting. 86. Research on parenting styles suggests that the most self-reliant, self-controlled, and contented children have parents who use a(n) _____________ style. A. authoritarian B. permissive C. egalitarian D. authoritative Answer: D. authoritative 87. Joey came home from school and asked his parents if he could stay up later on Wednesday nights to watch a new television show. As a family, they came to a compromise on a new bedtime, with the stipulation that Joey be ready for bed before he watched television. Joey and his parents also agreed on consequences in the event that he did not get to bed on time. Joey's parents are using a(n) _____________ style. A. authoritative B. authoritarian C. permissive D. egalitarian Answer: A. authoritative 88. Since Baumrind's findings are based on _____________ research, they do not show that styles of child rearing cause children to be more or less competent. A. experimental B. correlational C. preliminary D. longitudinal Answer: B. correlational 89. Which of the following statements has NOT been raised as a criticism of Baumrind's research? A. Her studies focus on correlations. B. Her studies are artificial, because she adheres strictly to the experimental model. C. It is impossible to know whether children were, in fact, consistently raised in a particular style. D. Baumrind did not consider innate factors, such as children's temperament. Answer: B. Her studies are artificial, because she adheres strictly to the experimental model. 90. Studies of Chinese American parents have shown that they usually A. are more permissive than Caucasian parents. B. combine warmth and support with an emphasis on training, firm control, and governance. C. rely on authoritarian techniques. D. are more permissive with daughters than sons. Answer: B. combine warmth and support with an emphasis on training, firm control, and governance. 91. Catherine has spent most of her life watching her aunts and her mother help the elderly at the church. She is observing prosocial behavior, or A. altruistic behavior. B. social play. C. induction. D. socialization. Answer: A. altruistic behavior. 92. On the basis of research, which of the following factors is NOT significant in the development of prosocial behavior? A. Access to educational toys B. Family modeling C. Parenting style D. Child's age Answer: A. Access to educational toys 93. Ron takes Hogan's lunch money and makes him cry almost every morning when he arrives at school. Behavior intended to cause pain or establish dominance is called _____________ aggression. A. instrumental B. hostile C. overt D. relational Answer: A. instrumental 94. Hailey asks her friend Madeline if she can play with her "Astronaut Barbie." Madeline refuses to turn over the doll, because she is waiting for lift-off of the space shuttle. Hailey grabs the doll and runs from the room. Which type of aggression is being demonstrated? A. Instrumental B. Hostile C. Relational D. Covert Answer: A. Instrumental 95. Research suggests that boys use _____________ aggression and girls use _____________ aggression. A. overt; relational B. covert; overt C. overt; physical D. covert; relational Answer: A. overt; relational 96. Social aggression is also known as _____________ aggression. A. relational B. covert C. instrumental D. overt Answer: A. relational 97. Timmy is an aggressive child who spends time with friends who behave the same way. Timmy's parents are convinced that he is a good child who is aggressive only because of his friends. Which of the following statements regarding aggression is correct? A. Aggression is linked to individual temperament. B. Highly aggressive children tend to seek out friends like themselves. C. Through negative socializing experiences, children growing up in a high-risk environment may adopt undesirable behaviors despite their parents' best efforts. D. All of these are correct. Answer: D. All of these are correct. 98. When Nila started swimming lessons this summer, her family was surprised to see that she was afraid of the water. The best way for Nila's family to deal with this situation is to A. allow Nila to discontinue swimming lessons and avoid going in the water. B. give Nila reassurance and encourage her to openly express her feelings. C. logically explain that Nila's fear is unfounded. D. ignore Nila's fear, because she will grow out of it. Answer: B. give Nila reassurance and encourage her to openly express her feelings. 99. The earliest, most frequent, and most intense disputes among siblings are about A. jealousy over parent's attention. B. differences in self-efficacy. C. moral issues. D. property rights. Answer: D. property rights. 100. Regarding sibling play, which pair type plays least peacefully? A. Boys with boys B. Girls with boys C. Girls with girls D. None of these; no differences exist in the peacefulness of play in sibling pairs. Answer: B. Girls with boys 101. Observations of preschool-age siblings indicate that A. sibling rivalry is not the main pattern between siblings early in life. B. rather than imitate their older siblings, younger siblings are typically more interested in asserting their individuality. C. younger siblings initiate more behavior—both friendly and antagonistic—than do older siblings. D. as younger siblings reach the age of 5, the sibling relationship tends to become more physical and less verbal. Answer: A. sibling rivalry is not the main pattern between siblings early in life. 102. Researchers who studied sibling relationships in young children over several years concluded that A. most sibling behavior is play-oriented and prosocial rather than competitive. B. siblings' behavior toward one another tends to be most negative and competitive when the mother is not present. C. sibling rivalry tends to be the dominant pattern whether or not the mother is present. D. sibling rivalry is an imaginary construct. Answer: A. most sibling behavior is play-oriented and prosocial rather than competitive. 103. China's policy of limiting families to one child has facilitated several observations. Which of the following observations is correct? A. Many observed personality differences exist between only children and children who have siblings. B. Only children have poor or inadequate language skills because of the lack of sibling interaction. C. Only children appear to have a distinct psychological advantage in a society that favors and rewards such a child. D. Children with siblings have fewer overall behavioral problems because they have learned to take turns and share. Answer: C. Only children appear to have a distinct psychological advantage in a society that favors and rewards such a child. 104. About _____________ out of 4 preschoolers have mutual friendships. A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 Answer: C. 3 105. Research suggests that compared to those who are unpopular, well-liked preschoolers and kindergartners A. cope well with anger. B. attempt to minimize conflict. C. avoid insults and threats. D. All of these are correct. Answer: D. All of these are correct. Essay Questions 106. Describe the development of self-concept in early childhood. In your explanation, include a description of single representations and representational mappings. Answer: In early childhood, self-concept develops as children form single representations of themselves based on observable characteristics like age or gender. Representational mappings emerge as they integrate multiple attributes into a coherent self-image, including abilities, preferences, and relationships. This process is influenced by social interactions, feedback from caregivers, and cognitive maturation, shaping their evolving sense of identity and self-esteem. 107. Erikson's theory of psychosocial development addresses personality conflicts that arise over the course of the lifespan. Identify Erikson's chief conflict of early childhood, and elaborate on its relevance to self-esteem. Answer: Erikson's chief conflict of early childhood is autonomy versus shame and doubt. This stage involves children asserting their independence while learning self-control. Success fosters self-esteem by allowing children to develop a sense of mastery and confidence in their abilities. 108. A relationship exists between gender identity and self-concept. Describe this relationship, and include the following terms in your description: gender roles, gender typing, gender stereotypes, and gender constancy. Answer: The relationship between gender identity and self-concept is shaped by societal expectations and individual understanding. Gender roles prescribe behaviors deemed appropriate for each gender, influencing gender typing where children adopt these roles. Gender stereotypes reinforce societal norms about traits and behaviors associated with masculinity and femininity. Gender constancy, understanding that gender is stable over time despite superficial changes, contributes to the formation of a stable and integrated gender identity, influencing self-concept development. 109. Piaget and others identified increasing levels of cognitive complexity in play. List and describe the four levels of play, and give an example for each. Answer: The four levels of play identified by Piaget and others are: 1. Functional play: Involves repetitive movements with objects, such as shaking a rattle. 2. Constructive play: Involves using objects or materials to create something, like building a tower with blocks. 3. Symbolic play: Involves pretending and using objects or actions to represent other objects or roles, such as pretending to be a doctor and treating a stuffed animal. 4. Games with rules: Involves play that follows structured rules and conventions, like playing a board game with specific guidelines for winning and losing. 110. Describe Parten's research on the social development of play. Give examples of how this research can be used by teachers in the classroom. Answer: Parten's research on the social development of play identified six stages: unoccupied, solitary, onlooker, parallel, associative, and cooperative play. Teachers can use this research to encourage social interaction by creating opportunities for cooperative play through group activities and projects. They can also facilitate transitions between play stages, helping children develop social skills and fostering a supportive classroom environment that promotes peer interaction and collaboration. 111. Define the term discipline. Compare various forms of discipline and identify factors that influence their effectiveness. Answer: Discipline refers to the methods used to teach children self-control, responsibility, and appropriate behavior. Forms of discipline include positive reinforcement, such as praise or rewards, and negative consequences, such as time-outs or loss of privileges. The effectiveness of discipline methods depends on consistency, age-appropriateness, cultural context, and the responsiveness of caregivers to individual child needs and temperament. 112. Based on research discussed in your textbook, describe Baumrind's parenting styles. Discuss how parents' ways of resolving conflict with young children can contribute to the success of the authoritative child rearing. Answer: Baumrind's parenting styles include authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive/neglectful. Authoritative parenting balances warmth and responsiveness with clear expectations and rules, fostering open communication and autonomy. When parents resolve conflicts with young children using empathy, reasoning, and consistent discipline, they promote emotional regulation and problem-solving skills, contributing to children's overall success and well-being. 113. Explain the development of aggression in early childhood. Are there situations in which a child should be encouraged to be aggressive? Why or why not? Answer: Aggression in early childhood typically develops as children learn to assert themselves and manage emotions. It can be influenced by factors such as temperament, family environment, and social interactions. Encouraging aggression should be limited to contexts where assertiveness and self-defense are necessary, balanced with teaching alternative conflict resolution strategies, empathy, and emotional regulation to promote positive social behavior and minimize harm to others. 114. Describe some of the facets of sibling and peer relationships in early childhood. Describe how gender and birth order affect typical patterns of sibling interaction. Answer: Sibling relationships in early childhood can involve cooperation, rivalry, and imitation, influencing social development. Gender often shapes play preferences and roles, with boys more likely to engage in physical activities and girls in cooperative play. Birth order can impact sibling dynamics, where older siblings may assume leadership roles while younger ones seek attention or imitate older behaviors, affecting their socialization and relationship dynamics. 115. Describe how children choose playmates, and explain why some children are more popular than others. Answer: Children choose playmates based on shared interests, proximity, and personality compatibility. Some children are more popular due to social skills like communication, cooperation, and empathy, which facilitate positive interactions. Additionally, being helpful, assertive without being aggressive, and having a sense of humor can contribute to peer popularity. True/False Questions 116. According to the neo-Piagetians, self-definition shifts from a single representation to representational mappings. Answer: True 117. Culture does not affect self-definition. Answer: False 118. Self-esteem in early childhood tends to be global and unrealistic, reflecting adult approval. Answer: True 119. According to Erikson, the developmental conflict of early childhood is autonomy versus guilt/shame. Answer: False 120. The main gender difference in early childhood is boys' greater aggression and activity. Answer: True 121. Gender stereotypes do not peak until adolescence. Answer: False 122. There is little in the way of biological differences in the brains of males and females. Answer: False 123. Evolutionary theory argues that children's gender roles are preparation for adult mating behavior. Answer: True 124. Gender constancy is achieved at approximately 3 years of age for most children. Answer: False 125. Play has physical, cognitive, and psychosocial benefits, as well as evolutionary functions. Answer: True 126. Changes in the type of play children engage in rarely reflect changes in cognitive development. Answer: False 127. According to Parten, play becomes more social during early childhood. Answer: True 128. Discipline can be a powerful tool for socialization. Answer: True 129. Power assertion is the most effective in promoting internalization of parental standards. Answer: False 130. Today, most argue that spanking and other forms of corporal punishment have negative consequences. Answer: True 131. Baumrind identified three child-rearing styles: authoritarian, authoritative, and neglectful. Answer: False 132. Authoritarian parents tend to raise more competent children. Answer: False 133. Instrumental aggression, first physical, then verbal is most common in early childhood. Answer: True 134. Most sibling interactions are competitive and not positive. Answer: False 135. Aggressive children are more popular than prosocial children. Answer: False Test Bank for A Child's World: Infancy Through Adolescence Diane E. Papalia, Gabriela Martorell, Ruth Duskin Feldman 9780078035432

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