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This Document Contains Chapters 12 to 13 Chapter 12 Physical Development and Health in Middle Childhood Multiple Choice Questions 1. Although individual growth in middle childhood varies widely, one typical difference between school-age boys and school-age girls is that A. boys are nearly a head taller than girls. B. girls are nearly a head taller than boys. C. girls weigh less than boys throughout this period. D. girls retain more fatty tissue than boys do. Answer: D. girls retain more fatty tissue than boys do. 2. Christina is beginning to feel like a giant among her classmates and thinks that something is wrong with her. Which of the following best describes children's height gain during middle childhood? A. Children's height typically increases about 6 inches a year until age 9, after which it remains stable until puberty. B. Children generally grow about 3 inches from the age of 6 until the adolescent growth spurt begins. C. School-age children grow an average of about 1 to 3 inches a year. D. School-age children grow an average of about 4 to 5 inches a year. Answer: C. School-age children grow an average of about 1 to 3 inches a year. 3. By age 11, the average child, both males and females, weigh about _____________ pounds. A. 65 B. 80 C. 100 D. 115 Answer: C. 100 4. Judgments of normal weight and body composition in middle-school-age children should be made cautiously because A. each child is unique and developmental norms are of little use. B. different ethnic groups and populations seem to differ in developmental rates. C. existing norms are based on data collected in the 1920s and 1930s and may be inapplicable today. D. averages and norms for children's height have not been firmly established. Answer: B. different ethnic groups and populations seem to differ in developmental rates. 5. Today, the average 10-year-old weighs 11 pounds more than the average 10-year-old did _____________ years ago. A. 20 B. 30 C. 40 D. 50 Answer: C. 40 6. Elizabeth is receiving injections of growth hormone to increase her height. These hormones: A. are recommended only for children whose bodies are naturally deficient in the hormone. B. need to be administered for 6-12 months to achieve maximum benefit. C. are a safe technique for parents who want to give their children an advantage in life. D. are risky and not recommended, even for children with growth disorders. Answer: A. are recommended only for children whose bodies are naturally deficient in the hormone. 7. Which of the following statements regarding population differences in growth among school-age children is FALSE? A. By age 6, white girls have more muscle and bone mass than African American girls. B. Hispanic girls have a higher percentage of body fat than white girls who are of the same size. C. African American boys and girls tend to grow faster than white children do. D. African American girls have more muscle and bone mass than Hispanic girls do. Answer: A. By age 6, white girls have more muscle and bone mass than African American girls. 8. Which of the following statements about growth hormone is FALSE? A. Growth hormone has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for healthy children. B. Growth hormone has been identified as effective treatment for obese children. C. The use of growth hormone has been met with some controversy. D. Growth hormone has been identified as effective treatment for children with short stature. Answer: B. Growth hormone has been identified as effective treatment for obese children. 9. The primary teeth begin to fall out at age _____________ and are replaced by permanent teeth. A. 4 B. 5 C. 6 D. 7 Answer: C. 6 10. Children are first introduced to the magic of the Tooth Fairy when their primary teeth begin to fall out at about age _____________. A. 4 B. 6 C. 8 D. 10 Answer: B. 6 11. Sally's primary teeth have been falling out at a rate of about four each year. This process will probably continue until she is approximately _____________ years old. A. 15 B. 13 C. 11 D. 8 Answer: C. 11 12. Between 1971 and 1994, the number of children ages 6 to 18 with untreated cavities has A. increased by 20 percent. B. decreased by 20 percent. C. increased by 80 percent. D. decreased by 80 percent. Answer: D. decreased by 80 percent. 13. Which of the following seems to be the best reason for the marked decrease in children's tooth decay during the past 20 years? A. More regular brushing and flossing B. Increased use of sealants on the rough, chewing surfaces C. Improved nutrition and eating habits D. None of these; tooth decay is on the rise. Answer: B. Increased use of sealants on the rough, chewing surfaces 14. A technique designed to prevent decay on the rough, chewing surfaces of children's teeth involves the use of: A. adhesive sealants B. fluoride treatments C. abrasive cleaning products D. tooth sanding Answer: A. adhesive sealants 15. There are developmental differences in the amount of gray matter in children. For example, around the ages of _____________, the volume of gray matter in the caudate, a part of the basal ganglia involved in control of movement and muscle tone, peaks. A. 5 in girls and age 7 in boys B. 7 in girls and age 10 in boys C. 9 in girls and age 12 in boys D. 11 in girls and age 12 in boys Answer: B. 7 in girls and age 10 in boys 16. Brain development in middle childhood includes A. a loss in the density of gray matter. B. an increase in white matter. C. thickening of the cortex. D. all of the above. Answer: D. all of the above. 17. Claudette has an fMRI and her doctor says that he notices that the gray matter has peaked in the part of her brain beneath the cortex and part of the basal ganglia involved in control of movement, muscle tone, attention, and emotional states. Claudette's doctor is referring to what part of the brain? A. Occipital lobe B. Parietal lobes C. Frontal lobe D. Temporal lobe Answer: A. Occipital lobe 18. There are developmental differences in the amount of gray matter in children. For example, around the ages of _____________, the volume of gray matter in the parietal lobes, an area of the brain involved in spatial understanding peaks. A. 5 in girls and age 7 in boys B. 7 in girls and age 10 in boys C. 9 in girls and age 12 in boys D. 11 in girls and age 12 in boys Answer: D. 11 in girls and age 12 in boys 19. Ziaul has an fMRI and his doctor says that he notices that the gray matter has peaked in the lobe of his brain partially involved in dealing with spatial understanding. The doctor is referring to what part of the brain? A. Occipital lobe B. Parietal lobe C. Frontal lobe D. Temporal lobe Answer: B. Parietal lobe 20. There are developmental differences in the amount of gray matter in children. For example, around the ages of _____________, the volume of gray matter in the frontal lobes, an area of the brain involved in higher-order functions peaks. A. 5 in girls and age 7 in boys B. 7 in girls and age 10 in boys C. 9 in girls and age 12 in boys D. 11 in girls and age 12 in boys Answer: D. 11 in girls and age 12 in boys 21. Hunter has an fMRI and his doctor says that he notices that the gray matter has peaked in the lobe of his brain partially involved in dealing with higher-order thinking. The doctor is referring to what part of the brain? A. Occipital lobe B. Parietal lobes C. Frontal lobe D. Temporal lobe Answer: C. Frontal lobe 22. There are developmental differences in the amount of gray matter in children. For example, around the ages of _____________, the volume of gray matter in the temporal lobes, an area of the brain involved in language peaks. A. 5 in girls and age 7 in boys B. 7 in both boys and girls C. 9 in girls and age 12 in boys D. 16 for both girls and boys Answer: D. 16 for both girls and boys 23. Honor has an fMRI and her doctor says that he notices that the gray matter has peaked in the lobe of her brain partially involved in dealing with language. He is referring to what part of the brain? A. Occipital lobe B. Parietal lobes C. Frontal lobe D. Temporal lobe Answer: D. Temporal lobe 24. The amount of gray matter in the _____________ cortex is likely associated with differences in IQ. A. occipital B. parietal C. frontal D. temporal Answer: C. frontal 25. _____________ matter is composed of closely packed neurons in the cerebral cortex and _____________ matter is made of glial cells, which provide support for neurons. A. White; gray B. Gray; white C. Myelinated; axon D. Axon; myelinated Answer: B. Gray; white 26. One of the reasons school-age children are faster thinkers and able to filter out distracting information better than younger children is _____________. A. myelination B. decrease in white matter C. increase in density of gray matter D. fewer axons Answer: A. myelination 27. Which of the following is NOT a reason for the cognitive advances seen in middle childhood that can be traced back to changes in the brain's structure and functioning? A. Loss of density of gray matter B. Increase in white matter C. Changes in the thickness of the cortex D. The thickening of the prefrontal cortex after age 10 Answer: D. The thickening of the prefrontal cortex after age 10 28. In middle childhood, some of the cognitive advances that can be traced back to changes in the brain's structure and functioning are undoubtedly due to the connections between neurons thickening and myelinating. This process A. begins in the frontal lobes and moves toward the back of the brain. B. begins in the occipital lobe and moves towards the front of the brain. C. begins in several sporadic places around the brain at once. D. cannot be tracked with current technology. Answer: A. begins in the frontal lobes and moves toward the back of the brain. 29. During middle childhood, children need on average about _____________ calories a day to maintain healthy growth and activity levels. A. 1,200 B. 1,600 C. 2,000 D. 2,400 Answer: D. 2,400 30. All of the following are contributing factors to children's unhealthy eating habits EXCEPT A. school vending machines. B. changes in food labeling and daily allowance recommendations. C. television and other advertisements for low-nutrition snacks. D. family influences and eating habits at home. Answer: B. changes in food labeling and daily allowance recommendations. 31. Many children do not eat breakfast and get at least _____________ of their calories from snacks. A. 1/4 B. 1/3 C. 1/2 D. 2/3 Answer: B. 1/3 32. Sleep needs decline from about _____________ hours a day at age 5 to a little more than _____________ hours a day by age 9. A. 8; 7 B. 9; 8 C. 10; 9 D. 11; 10 Answer: D. 11; 10 33. The recommended amount of sleep for first through fifth graders is _____________ hours. A. 8-9 B. 10-11 C. 12-13 D. 14-15 Answer: B. 10-11 34. The average reported amount of sleep for first through fifth grader is _____________ hours. A. 8-9 B. 9-10 C. 10-11 D. 12-13 Answer: B. 9-10 35. Which of the following is NOT a common sleep problem for school-aged children? A. Insomnia B. Daytime sleepiness C. Resistance to go to bed D. Night terrors Answer: D. Night terrors 36. Based on current research, of the following school-aged children, who is likely to get the most sleep? A. Katya, a young girl B. Sabine, an older girl C. Gustavo, a young boy D. Tobias, an older boy Answer: A. Katya, a young girl 37. Based on current research, of the following school-aged children, who is likely to get the least amount of sleep? A. A child with a TV in his room B. A child with a lot of family stress C. A child with a set bedtime D. A child that stalls going to sleep Answer: B. A child with a lot of family stress 38. A common treatment for children with sleep-disordered breathing is A. nebulizer treatments. B. use of a sleep apnea machine (CPAP) C. surgery to remove the adenoids and tonsils. D. sleeping on the back. Answer: C. surgery to remove the adenoids and tonsils. 39. Which of the following statements about school-age children in non-literate societies and in industrialized societies is correct? A. Children in industrialized countries have more time for play. B. More children in non-literate countries go to work in middle childhood. C. Children in non-literate countries spend more time on household chores. D. All of the above are true. Answer: D. All of the above are true. 40. Judy is able to walk a 2-inch-wide balance beam, hop and jump accurately into small squares, and perform jumping-jacks. Judy is at least _____________ years old. A. 7 B. 9 C. 11 D. 13 Answer: A. 7 41. Ahmed is able to hop in a 2-2, 2-3, or 3-3 pattern. He can also play a wide variety of games at this age. Ahmed is at least _____________ years old. A. 6 B. 8 C. 10 D. 12 Answer: B. 8 42. Pierre is able to judge and intercept pathways of small balls thrown from a distance. This is greatly helping his baseball game. Pierre is at least _____________ years old. A. 6 B. 8 C. 9 D. 10 Answer: D. 10 43. Jonathan and Vinnie are wrestling, hitting, and chasing each other. At the same time, they are laughing and screaming. Jonathan and Vinnie are engaged in _____________. A. aggressive play B. evolutionary play C. dominance assertion D. rough-and-tumble play Answer: D. rough-and-tumble play 44. Most parents can probably tell you that rough-and-tumble play reaches its peak during A. early childhood. B. middle childhood. C. adolescence. D. none of the above. Answer: B. middle childhood. 45. Rough-and-tumble play seems to be universal. Evolutionary psychologists suggest that rough-and-tumble play evolved to A. provide physical exercise. B. help children jockey for dominance in their peer group. C. assess an opponent's strength. D. provide practice in skills used in fighting and hunting. Answer: B. help children jockey for dominance in their peer group. 46. Boys spend twice as much time participating in team sports as girls do, and the disparity widens as children grow. Overall, 9-13 year olds' participation in organized sports is about _____________ percentage. A. 26 B. 38 C. 17 D. 78 Answer: B. 38 47. By 9 years of age, girls tend to spend more time on _____________ than boys do. A. sports B. video games C. homework D. cell phones Answer: C. homework 48. Research supports which of the following statements about childhood obesity? A. Adoption studies suggest that heredity is not an important factor in obesity. B. Children with overweight parents tend to be overweight. C. A positive correlation exists between activity level and weight gain. D. Television viewing is weakly associated with weight gain. Answer: B. Children with overweight parents tend to be overweight. 49. Research has demonstrated that obesity is caused by A. inherited tendencies, such as a defective appetite-control gene. B. prenatal malnutrition. C. inactivity owing to sedentary lifestyles. D. all of the above. Answer: C. inactivity owing to sedentary lifestyles. 50. Children who watch _____________ hours of television a day are 4.6 times as likely to be overweight as those who watch 2 or less hours. A. 2.5 B. 3 C. 4 D. 5 Answer: D. 5 51. A common medical problem of overweight children is high _____________. A. cholesterol B. insulin levels C. blood pressure D. All of the above are true. Answer: D. All of the above are true. 52. Jason has a cold. His pediatrician tells his mother that the cold will probably last for two days. Given the short-term nature of Jason's illness, we would say that he suffers from a(n) _____________ medical condition. A. chronic B. acute C. transitional D. age-related Answer: B. acute 53. Eight-year-old Agnes was diagnosed with asthma three years ago. Her condition is referred to as a(n) _____________ medical condition. A. chronic B. acute C. degenerative D. longitudinal Answer: A. chronic 54. An average school-age child experiences _____________ bouts a year with colds, the flu, or viruses. A. 1 to 2 B. 4 to 5 C. 6 to 7 D. 9 to 10 Answer: C. 6 to 7 55. According to a nationwide survey of 200,000 households, _____________ percent of children under the age of 18 have chronic medical conditions. A. 6 B. 12.8 C. 18 D. 25 Answer: B. 12.8 56. Christopher has been having sudden attacks of coughing, wheezing, and breathing difficulties for the past seven months. A likely diagnosis for Christopher's condition is A. respiratory failure. B. panic attacks. C. asthma. D. pneumonia. Answer: C. asthma. 57. From 1980 to 1995, the incidence of asthma has _____________. A. decreased. B. increased. C. more than doubled. D. remained stable. Answer: C. more than doubled. 58. Ty is experiencing increased thirst and urination, hunger, weight loss, blurred vision, and fatigue. Ty's doctor will most likely test him for _____________. A. hypertension B. diabetes C. asthma D. cancer Answer: B. diabetes 59. Which child is most likely to stutter? A. a 7-year-old girl B. a 6-year-old boy C. a 10-year-old boy D. a 12-year-old girl Answer: C. a 10-year-old boy 60. Which of the following factors is LEAST likely to be a cause of stuttering? A. faulty training in articulation and breathing B. defective feedback about one's own speech C. pressure from parents to speak properly D. modeling of a playmate who stutters Answer: D. modeling of a playmate who stutters 61. Variations in school-age children's health are the result of A. differences in families' knowledge of health habits and preventive care. B. differences in families' income and the diets they eat. C. differing beliefs and attitudes about health and healing among various cultural and ethnic groups. D. all of the above. Answer: D. all of the above. 62. Poor children, a disproportionate number who are minorities, are more likely than other children to A. be in fair or poor health B. have chronic conditions C. experience delayed medical care D. experience all of the above. Answer: D. experience all of the above. 63. _____________ is (are) the leading cause of death in middle childhood. A. Medical errors B. Illnesses C. Accidents D. Poisoning Answer: C. Accidents 64. To decrease childhood injuries, it is recommended that parents A. use child seats and/or seatbelts. B. have children use bike helmets. C. have working fire detectors in the home. D. attend to all of the above. Answer: D. attend to all of the above. 65. Which is NOT a typical behavior of children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)? A. Going beyond the bounds of normal childhood behavior B. Excessive shyness C. Frequent loss of temper D. Fighting, snatching things, and hostility toward authority Answer: B. Excessive shyness 66. Wyatt has been diagnosed with conduct disorder (CD). What is NOT a typical behavior of children with this disorder? A. Setting fires B. Excessive shyness C. Truancy D. Fighting, snatching things, and hostility toward authority Answer: B. Excessive shyness 67. Colton has a history of getting into fights, being expelled from school, and recently broke into a house in his neighborhood. He has also been brought home by the police on several occasions for damaging public property. Based on what you have read in the text, it sounds like Colton may have _____________. A. conduct disorder B. generalized anxiety disorder C. oppositional defiant disorder D. autism Answer: A. conduct disorder 68. Tabitha worries about everything: school, grades, earthquakes and many other things. She is excessively concerned about how she is regarded by others. Based on what you have read in the text, it sounds like Tabitha may have _____________. A. conduct disorder B. generalized anxiety disorder C. obsessive compulsive disorder D. depression Answer: B. generalized anxiety disorder 69. Felicia has repeated intrusive thoughts and shows repetitive behaviors tied to those thoughts. Based on what you have read in the text, it sounds like Felicia may have _____________. A. conduct disorder B. generalized anxiety disorder C. obsessive compulsive disorder D. depression Answer: C. obsessive compulsive disorder 70. Social phobia affects _____________ percent of children. A. 2 B. 5 C. 10 D. 15 Answer: B. 5 71. Which of the following statements about anxiety is FALSE? A. School phobia may be a type of separation anxiety. B. Anxiety disorders tend to run in families. C. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a manifestation of anxiety. D. Anxiety is more common among boys than girls. Answer: D. Anxiety is more common among boys than girls. 72. Yvonne is tired all the time, has sleep issues, and has physical complaints with no apparent cause. Based on what you have read in the text, it sounds like Yvonne may have _____________. A. conduct disorder B. generalized anxiety disorder C. obsessive compulsive disorder D. depression Answer: D. depression 73. Quentin is receiving treatment for an emotional disturbance. His therapist has him express himself through a variety of mediums and with a myriad of materials. Based on what you have read in the text, it sounds like Quentin is receiving _____________. A. individual psychotherapy B. family therapy C. art therapy D. behavior therapy Answer: C. art therapy 74. Miriam is receiving treatment for an emotional disturbance. Her therapist is using a system of rewards to get her to change her behaviors from undesirable ones to desirable ones. Based on what you have read in the text, it sounds like she is receiving _____________. A. individual psychotherapy B. family therapy C. art therapy D. behavior therapy Answer: D. behavior therapy 75. Nadine is receiving treatment for an emotional disturbance. Her therapist has her talk about her feelings and her personality. Based on what you have read in the text, it sounds like he is receiving _____________. A. individual psychotherapy B. family therapy C. art therapy D. behavior therapy Answer: A. individual psychotherapy Essay Questions 76. Physical development slows down considerably in middle childhood. Describe some gender differences in school-age children's physical development. List some of the ethnic variations that a teacher might see in a diverse classroom setting. Answer: In middle childhood, gender differences in physical development include boys typically having more muscle mass and strength compared to girls. Ethnic variations in a diverse classroom setting may include differences in height, body composition, and rates of physical maturation, influenced by genetic factors and cultural backgrounds. Teachers should be sensitive to these variations to create inclusive and supportive learning environments for all students. 77. Mr. and Mrs. McCarthy are concerned about their son's short stature as he approaches middle childhood. Up until now, their doctors have taken a "wait and see" attitude. What can be done to treat stunted growth in middle childhood? Describe some of the controversies associated with this type of treatment. Answer: To treat stunted growth in middle childhood, doctors may recommend growth hormone therapy if a child's growth is significantly below average. Controversies include potential side effects like joint pain or increased risk of certain cancers, as well as ethical concerns about enhancing height for non-medical reasons. Treatment decisions should consider the child's overall health, potential benefits, and risks involved. 78. Undernourished children suffer physical, cognitive, and psychosocial developmental problems during childhood. Describe the components of proper nutrition in middle childhood. Explain the effects of poor nutrition on a child's cognitive development. Answer: Proper nutrition in middle childhood includes a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and adequate hydration. Poor nutrition, such as insufficient intake of essential nutrients like vitamins and minerals, can impair cognitive development by affecting memory, attention, and problem-solving abilities. This deficiency may lead to decreased academic performance and delayed cognitive skills in affected children. 79. Coaches and directors of after-school programs should keep several things in mind when overseeing a program for youth sports. List some of these concerns. Keep in mind that your answer should include both physical and emotional factors that apply to youth sports. Answer: When overseeing youth sports programs, coaches and directors should prioritize safety, ensuring proper equipment and supervision to prevent injuries. They should also focus on skill development, providing age-appropriate training that promotes growth without excessive pressure. Emotional well-being is crucial, fostering a supportive environment that emphasizes teamwork and positive reinforcement. Additionally, program leaders should encourage balanced competition and fair play to promote sportsmanship among young athletes. 80. Obesity has become a national crisis in the United States. Describe environmental factors that are contributing to the crisis. List some of the treatment methods, for use both at home and at school, which can help combat childhood obesity. Answer: Environmental factors contributing to childhood obesity include easy access to unhealthy foods like fast food and sugary snacks, sedentary lifestyles due to increased screen time and reduced physical activity opportunities, and lack of access to safe outdoor spaces for exercise. Treatment methods include promoting healthy eating habits through nutritious school meals and home-cooked meals, integrating physical activity into daily routines at school and home, educating families about portion control and balanced nutrition, and fostering supportive environments that encourage active play and sports participation. 81. Obesity tends to run in families. How can parents who have not been able to control their own weight help their children? Answer: Parents can help their children by modeling healthy behaviors, such as nutritious eating habits and regular physical activity. They can involve the entire family in meal planning and preparation, emphasizing balanced nutrition and portion control. Creating a supportive home environment that prioritizes active lifestyles and limits sedentary behaviors, like screen time, can also positively influence children's health habits despite familial predispositions to obesity. 82. Define the meaning of both acute and chronic childhood medical conditions. Give several examples of each. In your answer, demonstrate how each condition affects the healthy development of school-age children. Answer: Acute childhood medical conditions are sudden and typically short-term illnesses or injuries, such as the flu, fractures, and acute asthma attacks. They can disrupt school attendance and require immediate treatment to prevent complications affecting academic performance and overall well-being. Chronic conditions, such as asthma, diabetes, and ADHD, persist over time and often require ongoing management. They can impact school-age children by requiring regular medical monitoring, accommodations in school settings, and potentially affecting social interactions and emotional well-being due to the chronic nature of the condition. 83. Describe how cultural and socioeconomic factors affect health care in middle childhood. Answer: Cultural factors influence health care in middle childhood by shaping beliefs about illness, treatment preferences, and access to culturally competent care. Socioeconomic factors impact health care through disparities in access to resources like medical insurance, preventive care, and nutritious food, influencing overall health outcomes and well-being during this developmental stage. 84. Briefly describe three of the most common mental health conditions and their effect on children's development. What kinds of psychological treatments are available to families who are coping with mental illness? Answer: Three common mental health conditions in children include anxiety disorders, which can impair social functioning and academic performance; depression, which may lead to withdrawal and decreased interest in activities; and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), impacting focus and behavior. Psychological treatments such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), play therapy, and family therapy are available to support families coping with these conditions, aiming to improve coping skills, communication, and overall well-being. True/False Questions 85. Physical development in middle childhood is more middle childhood than in earlier years. Answer: False 86. Sometimes in the case of short children without a hormone deficiency, a synthetic growth hormone may be prescribed. Answer: True 87. The widespread use of fluoride has done little to help oral care in middle childhood. That is why a controversy exists. Answer: False 88. Brain growth in middle childhood is characterized by an increase in white matter and a decrease in gray matter. Answer: True 89. Proper nutrition is essential for normal growth. Answer: True 90. Many children lack enough sleep for healthy growth and development. Answer: True 91. Almost half of American children have a TV in their bedroom. Answer: True 92. Approximately 1 in 50 children under 18 snores. Answer: False 93. About 10 percent of school children's free play is "rough-and-tumble." Answer: True 94. Many children, mostly girls, engage in organized and competitive sports. Answer: False 95. Research comparing children today to children in the early 1980s has found that today's youth spend less time on outdoor activities and more time on homework. Answer: True 96. An evolutionary advantage to rough-and-tumble play is that it provides a way to establish dominance in the peer group. Answer: True 97. Middle childhood is a relatively safe period; the death rate is the lowest in the life span. Answer: True 98. Concern with body image, especially among young girls, may lead to eating disorders. Answer: True 99. Diabetes rates are decreasing in the United States. Answer: False 100. Disease is the leading cause of death in middle childhood. Answer: False 101. Disruptive behavioral disorders are most common among young children. Answer: False 102. The most common mental health issue in middle childhood is anxiety disorders. Answer: False 103. Anxiety disorders are more common among girls than boys. Answer: True 104. Research suggests that behavioral therapies are more effective than non-behavioral methods. Answer: True Chapter 13 Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood Multiple Choice Questions. 1. According to Piaget's theory of cognitive development, 7- to 11-year-old children are in the _____________ stage of development. A. sensorimotor B. formal operational C. preoperational D. concrete operational Answer: D. concrete operational 2. Mia can complete all levels of conservation tasks and reverse processes mentally but she cannot use hypo deductive or inductive reasoning. According to Piaget, Mia is most likely at what stage of cognitive development? A. sensorimotor B. formal operations C. preoperational D. concrete operations Answer: D. concrete operations 3. For years, Tommy and his younger brother Billy argued every night at dinner over who was to get the bigger glass, even though both glasses held the same amount of liquid. One glass was tall and thin, and the other was short and wide, and each boy always wanted to have the "bigger" glass for himself. One evening, to the delight of his parents, Tommy said to his mother, "Let Billy have the taller glass. I know they both hold the same amount." According to Piaget, this event is indicative of which stage of cognitive development? A. sensorimotor B. solid operations C. preoperational D. concrete operations Answer: D. concrete operations 4. Lindsey is 8-years-old and is in the concrete operations stage of development. Compared to her 5-year-old brother, Lindsey can better understand A. spatial relations. B. numbers and mathematics. C. conservation. D. all of the above. Answer: D. all of the above. 5. Mohammad has arranged a selection of blue paints from darkest to lightest. Piaget would say that Mohammad is demonstrating: A. centration. B. seriation. C. transitive inference. D. conservation. Answer: B. seriation. 6. The ability to arrange items according to one or more relevant dimensions is called A. seriation. B. centration. C. decentration. D. horizontal décalage. Answer: A. seriation. 7. The ability to understand the relationship between two objects by knowing the relationship between each of them to a third is called A. centration. B. transitive inference. C. seriation. D. conservation. Answer: B. transitive inference. 8. Patty knows that Tysen, her friend from school, is taller than she is. She also knows that she is taller than her new friend Joseph, whom she met at summer camp. Without seeing the two of them together, Patty realizes that Tysen is taller than Joseph. Piaget would say that this demonstrates: A. centration. B. conservation. C. seriation. D. transitive inference. Answer: D. transitive inference. 9. _____________ is an understanding of the relationship between a whole and its parts. A. Class inclusion B. Transitive inference C. Seriation D. Conservation Answer: A. Class inclusion 10. Catrina can arrange a group of sticks in order from the shortest to the longest and can insert an intermediate size stick into the proper place. This activity demonstrates Catrina's achievement in A. conservation. B. seriation and transitive inference. C. inductive and deductive reasoning. D. number and mathematics. Answer: B. seriation and transitive inference. 11. Starting with observations about particular members of a class and then drawing general conclusions is called A. inductive reasoning. B. deductive reasoning. C. class inclusion. D. transitive inference. Answer: A. inductive reasoning. 12. Moira's mother told her that all the girls in the third-grade were very nice. So, when Moira sat down to eat with her classmate Henna, she believed that she would be nice. Moving from a general premise about a class to a conclusion about a particular member of the class is called A. transitive inference. B. class inclusion. C. deductive reasoning. D. inductive reasoning. Answer: C. deductive reasoning. 13. Roberto says, "All dogs bark. Spot is a dog. Therefore, Spot barks." This is an example of A. conservation. B. transitive inference. C. inductive reasoning. D. deductive reasoning. Answer: D. deductive reasoning. 14. By age _____________ years, children can typically determine whether a ball and a sausage are the same weight. This an example of a conservation of substance problem. A. 5 or 6 B. 7 or 8 C. 9 or 10 D. 11 or 12 Answer: B. 7 or 8 15. _____________ explains why children can master different types of conservation problems at different ages. A. Inductive reasoning B. Deductive reasoning C. Transitive inference D. Horizontal décalage Answer: D. Horizontal décalage 16. Carmella knows that a given amount of spaghetti remains the same whether the spaghetti is in long strands or broken into short pieces. She has acquired an understanding of A. conservation. B. centration. C. compensation. D. horizontal décalage. Answer: A. conservation. 17. Molly, age 8, is shown a measuring cup full of cornmeal, which is then poured out onto a countertop and spread around. She is asked whether the spread-out cornmeal is the same as, or different from, the cornmeal when it was in the cup. Molly says, "It's just the same, because it's the same cornmeal." In Piaget's terminology, Molly understands the principle of A. identity. B. reversibility. C. horizontal décalage. D. categorization. Answer: A. identity. 18. Eight-year-old Lucas is shown a ball of brown clay, which is then rolled out into a large, flat disk. He is asked whether the disk contains the same amount of clay. "It's the same amount," Lucas says, "because I could just make it into a ball again." In Piaget's terminology, Lucas understands the principle of A. reversibility. B. identity. C. categorization. D. horizontal décalage. Answer: A. reversibility. 19. _____________ is the ability to consider more than one relevant aspect of a situation at the same time. A. Reversibility B. Horizontal décalage C. Elaboration D. Decentration Answer: D. Decentration 20. Jorge, age 7, can conserve substance but not weight or volume. According to Piaget, Jorge's conservation abilities demonstrate A. decentration. B. horizontal décalage. C. delayed development. D. that he is still in the preoperational stage. Answer: B. horizontal décalage. 21. Research indicates that few children before the age of _____________ years can solve simple story problems involving addition in which the starting amount is unknown. A. 4 to 5 B. 6 to 7 C. 8 to 9 D. 10 to 11 Answer: C. 8 to 9 22. Kevin, a middle school student, should be able to A. count in his head. B. add by counting up from the smaller number. C. do simple story problems. D. perform all of the above. Answer: D. perform all of the above. 23. When teachers develop classroom lessons that deal with the development of conservation, they must be aware that Piaget stressed the role of A. culture. B. experience. C. intelligence. D. maturation or age. Answer: D. maturation or age. 24. The development of children's moral values A. is unrelated to cognitive growth. B. occurs in stages. C. seems to be primarily dependent on temperament. D. is best described in terms of horizontal décalage. Answer: B. occurs in stages. 25. Piaget divided the development of children's moral reasoning into A. two major stages roughly corresponding to preoperational and concrete operational thinking. B. four major stages culminating in a morality of constraint. C. three major stages culminating with the concept of equity. D. none of these. Answer: C. three major stages culminating with the concept of equity. 26. Martin is angry because his sister broke his toy. He does not accept that it could have been an accident, and he wants his sister punished. He appears to be in Piaget's _____________ stage of moral development. A. first B. second C. third D. fourth Answer: A. first 27. In Piaget's first stage of moral development, a child A. respects opinions of peers. B. understands that rules can be changed. C. judges acts on the basis of intention. D. sees an act as either totally right or totally wrong. Answer: D. sees an act as either totally right or totally wrong. 28. Gordon, while trying to sneak a cookie before supper, knocked over a glass and broke it. Ramon, while helping set the table for supper, tripped and broke three glasses. Asked which child was naughtier, a child in Piaget's first stage of moral reasoning would probably reply that A. Gordon was naughtier. B. Ramon was naughtier. C. both were equally naughty, because both had destroyed property. D. neither was naughty, because neither had intended to break anything. Answer: B. Ramon was naughtier. 29. According to Piaget's theory, which of the following statements about moral development is FALSE? A. The development of moral values is a process that coincides with cognitive development. B. Moral development is related to outgrowing the egocentric thinking of childhood and being able to consider different viewpoints. C. Children move from flexible to rigid thinking in their moral development. D. People go through distinct stages of moral development. Answer: C. Children move from flexible to rigid thinking in their moral development. 30. In evaluating misbehavior, children in Piaget's first stage of moral reasoning are likely to A. see the intention behind an action rather than the physical consequences of an offense. B. see the physical consequences of an offense rather than the intention behind the act. C. favor mild punishment that helps the culprit understand why an act is wrong. D. see that more than one point of view may exist. Answer: B. see the physical consequences of an offense rather than the intention behind the act. 31. Which of Piaget's three stages of moral development corresponds to the concrete operational stage of cognitive development? A. Stage 1 B. Stage 2 C. Stage 3 D. There is no relationship between the two. Answer: B. Stage 2 32. Which of the following statements regarding selective attention in middle childhood is FALSE? A. School-age children can concentrate longer than younger children can B. School-age children cannot focus on and screen out irrelevant information better than younger children can C. Attentional development is primarily enabled by learning D. Attentional development is primarily enabled by neurological maturation Answer: C. Attentional development is primarily enabled by learning 33. _____________ refers to knowledge about the processes of memory. A. Working memory B. Sensory memory C. Mnemonics D. Metamemory Answer: D. Metamemory 34. All but which of the following are metamemory characteristics of kindergartners and first-graders? A. Knowing that people remember better if they study longer B. Knowing that people forget things with time C. Knowing that some things are easier to remember than others D. Knowing that relearning something is easier than learning it the first time Answer: C. Knowing that some things are easier to remember than others 35. Once Rita reached middle childhood, spelling tests became easier. She seemed to understand more about how her memory worked. In middle childhood, metamemory A. decreases. B. increases. C. is used only by the brightest children. D. has not yet begun to develop. Answer: B. increases. 36. Jimmy is trying to learn his phone number and address. He tells his mother, "Maybe if I say it to myself a hundred times, I will be able to remember it." Jimmy is demonstrating that he is beginning to appreciate A. protomemory. B. metamemory. C. sensory memory. D. elaboration. Answer: B. metamemory. 37. Mrs. Butler should use all but which of the following mnemonic strategies during spelling lessons with her fourth graders? A. Metamemory B. Rehearsal C. Organization D. Elaboration Answer: A. Metamemory 38. Kendra keeps saying her poem over and over again. This rehearsal is a strategy for A. keeping something in working memory. B. transferring information to long-term memory. C. categorizing information. D. retrieving information more effectively from long-term memory. Answer: A. keeping something in working memory. 39. Bob is asked to remember to get a loaf of bread at the store, so he repeats over and over, "bread, bread, bread." His memory strategy is an example of the technique called A. retrieval. B. elaboration. C. encoding. D. rehearsal. Answer: D. rehearsal. 40. Delia is going grocery shopping for her mother but has lost her shopping list. She tries to recall the items on the list by grouping them under fruits, vegetables, canned goods, and bakery goods. Delia is using A. external memory aids. B. rehearsal. C. elaboration. D. organization. Answer: D. organization. 41. Lucy is trying to remember all the things that she has to do after school. She develops a little story in her head that includes all of her after-school tasks. Which memory strategy links items together in a story or scene? A. Organization B. Rehearsal C. Elaboration D. Retrieval Answer: C. Elaboration 42. Freddie is trying to learn the names of the first five presidents of the United States. To help him, his mother makes up a story using the five names and then teaches the story to Freddie. She is using the mnemonic device of A. external memory aids. B. elaboration. C. rehearsal. D. organization. Answer: B. elaboration. 43. As children get older, they improve their memory by A. developing better strategies. B. using strategies more effectively. C. tailoring their strategies to meet specific needs. D. using all of the above. Answer: D. using all of the above. 44. The _____________ is the most widely used intelligence test for school-age children today. A. Otis-Lennon School Ability Test B. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children C. Otis-Wechsler Intelligence Scale D. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale Answer: B. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children 45. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children provides three scores. Which of the following is NOT one of these scores? A. Memory capacity B. Verbal ability C. Performance ability D. Total intelligence score Answer: A. Memory capacity 46. By the time a child reaches the first grade, scores on intelligence tests are A. good predictors of school achievement, especially for highly verbal children. B. good predictors of school achievement for most children but not for highly verbal ones. C. poor predictors of school achievement for most children, especially highly verbal children. D. poor predictors of school achievement for all children. Answer: A. good predictors of school achievement, especially for highly verbal children. 47. _____________ tests do not measure a child's native ability, they _____________ intelligence from what children already know. A. Intelligence; infer B. Intelligence; assume C. Achievement; estimate D. Achievement; reassert Answer: A. Intelligence; infer 48. The Nelsons were against having their son, Cayden, tested at school. The teacher told them that a significant advantage of taking an intelligence test is that it A. helps identify children who are especially bright and children who need special help. B. assesses ability directly rather than inferring it from how much a child has learned. C. evaluates not only academic ability but also many other aspects of intelligence, including social skills, musical and artistic skills, and self-knowledge. D. will be timed, permitting an assessment of the speed at which a child's brain functions. Answer: A. helps identify children who are especially bright and children who need special help. 49. One problem with administering intelligence tests to school-age children is that A. these tests have not been standardized. B. IQ scores seem unrelated to school performance. C. these tests may be culturally biased. D. these tests only measure social skills. Answer: C. these tests may be culturally biased. 50. African Americans have a tendency to score lower than white Americans on IQ tests. Most modern educators maintain that these lower scores reflect A. differences in education, cultural traditions, and other circumstances that affect self-esteem and motivation. B. genetic differences. C. educators' reliance on culture-free tests. D. the failure of Head Start programs. Answer: A. differences in education, cultural traditions, and other circumstances that affect self-esteem and motivation. 51. Research indicates that _____________ children, on average, score 15 points lower than white children on intelligence tests. A. African American B. Hispanic C. Asian American D. None of these; there are no racial or ethnic differences in average IQ score. Answer: A. African American 52. Which of the following environmental factors may have a negative effect on intelligence test scores? A. Improper nutrition B. Lack of intellectual stimulation C. Below-standard living conditions D. All of the above Answer: D. All of the above 53. According to your textbook, researchers have found that it is impossible to design a _____________ intelligence test, so they have encouraged developers to produce _____________ tests. A. culture-fair; culture-free B. culture-free; culture-fair C. non-standardized; culture-free D. standardized; culture-fair Answer: A. culture-fair; culture-free 54. Which of the following is NOT part of Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences? A. Spatial intelligence B. Linguistic intelligence C. Musical intelligence D. Intuitive intelligence Answer: D. Intuitive intelligence 55. Omar is a remarkable gymnast, hoping for a spot on the Olympic Team. According to Gardner, Omar would score high on _____________ intelligence. A. bodily-kinesthetic B. intrapersonal C. interpersonal D. naturalist Answer: A. bodily-kinesthetic 56. Victor has good spatial intelligence. This thrills his father, who has been trying to get him to consider which of the following occupational areas? A. Hunting, fishing, farming, and cooking B. Architecture, carpentry, and city planning C. Science, business, and medicine D. Writing, editing, and translating Answer: B. Architecture, carpentry, and city planning 57. Mrs. Howard has set up different stations in her classroom for a mathematics lesson. Each station emphasizes a different way of learning such as music, discussion, body movements, floor layouts, and metacognitive exercises. This approach is consistent with A. Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence. B. Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. C. standardized assessment practices. D. the Wechsler's intelligence scale. Answer: B. Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. 58. Which of the following is NOT one of the basic elements of Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence? A. Componential intelligence B. Experiential intelligence C. Contextual intelligence D. Naturalist intelligence Answer: D. Naturalist intelligence 59. The intelligence test that seeks to measure componential, experiential, and contextual elements of intelligence through multiple-choice and essay questions is the A. Gardner Multiple Intelligences Assessment. B. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. C. Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. D. Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test. Answer: D. Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test. 60. With regard to the kinds of abilities evaluated by IQ tests, Robert Sternberg and other critics of these tests maintain that IQ tests A. place too little emphasis on verbal skills. B. neglect non-academic aspects of intelligence such as social skills and self-knowledge. C. overemphasize the creative side of intelligence, such as musical or artistic talent. D. place too much emphasis on practical shrewdness ("street smarts"). Answer: B. neglect non-academic aspects of intelligence such as social skills and self-knowledge. 61. Mr. Roberts has decided to use a philosophical model when designing his social studies curriculum for the next semester. Each major topic area will be covered by having students utilize analysis, application, and insight. Which of the following theorists would most likely support Mr. Robert's approach? A. Howard Gardner B. Robert Sternberg C. B. F. Skinner D. Alfred Binet Answer: B. Robert Sternberg 62. Which word best describes Sternberg's experiential element of intelligence? A. Analytical B. Creative C. Practical D. Spatial Answer: B. Creative 63. The major area of linguistic growth in middle childhood is in A. vocabulary. B. grammar. C. syntax. D. pragmatics. Answer: D. pragmatics. 64. _____________ is the proficiency of reading and writing in two different languages. A. Bilingualism B. Biliteracy C. English-immersion D. Dyslexia Answer: A. Bilingualism 65. Sergio speaks Spanish but is learning English skills. While he is in the process of learning a new language, he is being taught the concepts of his lessons in Spanish so that he can understand them without getting too far behind. Which of the following terms would best describe the type of instruction Sergio is receiving? A. Bilingual education B. Dual-language learning C. English immersion D. Spanish immersion Answer: A. Bilingual education 66. Pablo, who speaks Spanish, is in a second-language education class where he interacts with English-speaking and Spanish-speaking students in both English and Spanish. This method of second-language education is best described as A. English-immersion. B. two-way learning. C. bilingual education. D. biliteracy training. Answer: B. two-way learning. 67. The process of phonetic analysis, by which a printed word is converted to spoken form before retrieval from long-term memory, is called A. metacogniton. B. decoding. C. metamemory. D. rehearsal. Answer: B. decoding. 68. Reading that emphasizes decoding of unfamiliar words is also called the _____________ approach. A. whole-language B. phonetic C. word analysis D. metamemory Answer: B. phonetic 69. Mrs. Carruthers advocates the whole-language approach to reading. Which of the following statements is she LEAST likely to make? A. Children learn to read and write naturally, through their own discoveries. B. Phonetic instruction hampers the natural process of learning language. C. A child should learn to sound out and "decode" unfamiliar words. D. A child should use contextual clues when figuring out unfamiliar words. Answer: C. A child should learn to sound out and "decode" unfamiliar words. 70. Regarding reading and comprehension in middle childhood, which of the following statements is correct? A. The whole-language approach has been embraced by all educators as the solution for reading problems in children. B. Metacognition interferes with a child's comprehension. C. The developmental processes that improve reading comprehension are similar to those that improve memory. D. Reading comprehension is best taught through systematic phonics instruction. Answer: C. The developmental processes that improve reading comprehension are similar to those that improve memory. 71. Chris is focusing on and reviewing his understanding of what he has been reading. He is using a _____________ strategy. A. phonetic B. whole -language C. metacognitive D. rehearsal Answer: C. metacognitive 72. In research that was based on Vygotsky's social interaction model, which children were likely to write stories with fewer errors? A. Children working independently B. Friends working in pairs C. Children working in small groups of three or four D. Children working in large groups of ten or more Answer: B. Friends working in pairs 73. Hanna is a student who is high in self-efficacy. Which of the following statements about her is FALSE? A. Hanna is likely to try hard in school. B. Hanna believes that she regulates her learning. C. Hanna learns, but it is mostly because of her teachers. D. Hanna is successful in school. Answer: C. Hanna learns, but it is mostly because of her teachers. 74. Research on gender differences in school performance indicates that girls tend to A. have better classroom behaviors. B. have less confidence. C. be less likely to repeat grades. D. experience all of the above. Answer: D. experience all of the above. 75. Children who do well in school generally have parents who A. help them with their homework every night. B. become close friends with the child's teacher. C. become actively involved in their education. D. use extrinsic motivation. Answer: C. become actively involved in their education. 76. Children who do well in school often have parents who are _____________ and who stress _____________ rewards for doing good work. A. authoritative; extrinsic B. permissive; intrinsic C. authoritative; intrinsic D. authoritarian; extrinsic Answer: C. authoritative; intrinsic 77. Mr. Denton wants to foster the development of intrinsic motivation in his son. Which of the following behaviors would most likely encourage this? A. praise for effort B. praise for a good grade C. money for good grades D. punishment for poor grades Answer: A. praise for effort 78. How does socioeconomic status affect educational attainment? A. It influences the family atmosphere. B. It limits the choice of neighbourhoods a child lives in. C. It plays a part in the way that parents rear their children. D. All of the above are true. Answer: D. All of the above are true. 79. A network of community resources that children and families can draw upon is called the _____________ capital. A. antipoverty B. capital C. social D. wage Answer: C. social 80. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 emphasizes A. expanded flexibility. B. accountability. C. parental options. D. all of the above. Answer: D. all of the above. 81. Research suggests that homework is most effective when A. it is extensive and time consuming. B. it is moderate and geared towards children's developmental levels. C. it is only used in middle and high school. D. There is little research supporting any benefits of homework. Answer: A. it is extensive and time consuming. 82. Early teacher identification of children who exhibit social problems may improve children's A. skill and drill approach. B. whole math approach. C. academic outcome. D. all of these. Answer: C. academic outcome. 83. _____________ is the automatic advancement of children from one grade to another even if they do not meet academic standards for the grade they are leaving. A. Culture-fair advancement B. Two-way learning C. Social promotion D. Acceleration Answer: C. Social promotion 84. During a parent-teacher conference with the Smiths, Mrs. Thompson expresses concern about their daughter Mary's academic progress. Mary has fallen so far behind that Mrs. Thompson suggests the possibility of having Mary repeat fourth grade. The process of holding students back rather than passing them to the next grade is called A. retention. B. academic prevention. C. social delay. D. demotion. Answer: A. retention. 85. Lisa is not doing well in the regular class environment and wants her parents to consider letting her enroll in a charter school. Compared to public schools, charter schools have A. larger classes. B. a standard "do the work and receive the grade" philosophy. C. little innovative programming. D. student outcomes that are in dispute. Answer: D. student outcomes that are in dispute. 86. Which of the following is NOT a benefit of having computers in the classroom? A. Computers open up new possibilities for individualized instruction. B. Computers and the World Wide Web offer opportunities for developing independent research skills. C. Research demonstrates that children who use computers in the classroom score better in international math and science competitions. D. In addition to being able to access large amounts of information, students can learn to critically evaluate the information they find. Answer: C. Research demonstrates that children who use computers in the classroom score better in international math and science competitions. 87. What is the leading known cause of mental retardation? A. Poor nutrition B. Environmental influences, such as the lack of nurturing by the mother C. Problems in pregnancy and childbirth, such as birth trauma D. Problems in embryonic development, such teratogen exposure or genetic disorders Answer: D. Problems in embryonic development, such teratogen exposure or genetic disorders 88. According to research, dyslexia A. affects more boys than girls. B. has no apparent genetic basis. C. is a language-processing disorder. D. is curable if caught early. Answer: C. is a language-processing disorder. 89. The most commonly diagnosed learning disability is A. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. B. dyslexia. C. mental retardation. D. autism. Answer: B. dyslexia. 90. Nick's third-grade teacher observes that he is impulsive, inattentive, unable to tolerate frustration, prone to temper tantrums, and unable to sit still during class. Which disorder does Nick meet the criteria for? A. Dyslexia B. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder C. Autism D. Mental retardation Answer: B. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder 91. The incidence of ADHD among school-age children worldwide is _____________ percent. A. 1 to 3 B. 2 to 11 C. 3 to 7 D. 8 to 12 Answer: B. 2 to 11 92. Recent research on ADHD suggests that: A. the disorder has a substantial genetic basis. B. children with ADHD have brain damage. C. a link probably exists between ADHD and food additives. D. vaccines cause this disorder. Answer: A. the disorder has a substantial genetic basis. 93. Which of the following characteristics is a definition of giftedness? A. An IQ score of 130 or higher B. Showing high potential or achievement in specific areas, such as mathematics or science C. Creative or productive thinking D. All of the above Answer: D. All of the above 94. The mental ability that is essential to creativity is known as A. convergent thinking. B. multidimensional thinking. C. metacognition. D. divergent thinking. Answer: D. divergent thinking. 95. Leigh is a highly gifted child who has skipped third grade and is now taking advanced courses in specific subjects. In which educational approach to teaching gifted children is Leigh participating? A. Inclusion B. Acceleration C. Enrichment D. Advancement Answer: B. Acceleration Essay Questions 96. Compare and contrast the cognitive abilities and limitations of preoperational versus concrete operational children. In your response, give a specific example of each type of thinking. Answer: Preoperational children (ages 2-7) exhibit egocentrism and lack conservation skills, unable to understand that quantity remains the same despite changes in appearance (e.g., pouring water into different-shaped glasses). Concrete operational children (ages 7-11) can conserve and use logical reasoning but struggle with abstract thought. For example, a preoperational child might think a tall, narrow glass holds more water than a short, wide one, while a concrete operational child understands they hold the same amount. 97. Piaget proposed that moral reasoning develops in three stages. List each of the three stages, and note the corresponding age range of the children in each stage. Describe each stage by explaining how a child in that stage would solve a moral dilemma. Answer: 1. Heteronomous morality (ages 4-7): Children believe rules are set by authority figures and are unchangeable. They base judgments on consequences rather than intentions, as seen when a child thinks breaking a vase accidentally is worse than breaking it on purpose. 2. Transitional period (ages 7-10): Children begin to understand rules can be modified and consider intentions along with consequences. They grasp that rules are agreements among people and may negotiate rules with peers. 3. Autonomous morality (ages 10 and older): Children view rules as flexible and based on mutual agreement. They consider intentions, fairness, and the well-being of others in moral decision-making, such as deciding not to cheat in a game because it's unfair to others. 98. In the context of middle childhood, describe the role of each of the following terms in memory and development: mnemonic strategies, external memory aids, rehearsal, organization, and elaboration. Answer: In middle childhood, mnemonic strategies like acronyms and visual imagery aid memory by creating memorable associations. External memory aids such as calendars and lists help organize tasks and events, enhancing time management skills. Rehearsal involves repeating information to encode it into memory, while organization categorizes information for easier retrieval. Elaboration connects new information with existing knowledge, deepening understanding and improving retention during cognitive development. 99. Define the term metamemory. Explain its relationship to mnemonic strategies, rehearsal, organization, and elaboration. Answer: Metamemory refers to an individual's awareness and understanding of their own memory processes. It involves monitoring and controlling memory functions. Metamemory influences the use of mnemonic strategies by guiding the selection of effective memory aids like acronyms or visual cues. It also enhances rehearsal by encouraging strategic repetition, promotes organization by guiding how information is structured for easier recall, and supports elaboration by prompting connections between new information and existing knowledge, thereby improving overall memory performance. 100. Parents are very interested in knowing what their children's IQ is. Describe the traditional approach that schools use to measure intelligence in childhood. Compare this approach to those of Robert Sternberg and Howard Gardner. Answer: Traditional approaches in schools measure childhood intelligence primarily through standardized tests like the Stanford-Binet or Wechsler scales, focusing on aspects such as verbal reasoning, perceptual reasoning, and working memory. Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory emphasizes analytical, practical, and creative intelligence, assessing diverse cognitive abilities beyond traditional measures. Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences proposes that intelligence includes distinct types such as linguistic, spatial, and interpersonal, advocating for a broader and more varied assessment framework compared to traditional IQ tests. 101. Explain the influence of schooling and ethnicity on the development and measurement of intelligence. Answer: Schooling influences intelligence development by providing structured learning environments that enhance cognitive skills and knowledge acquisition. Ethnicity can affect intelligence measurement due to cultural biases in testing and varying access to educational resources, impacting opportunities for academic growth and achievement. 102. Explain how schools meet the needs of students who are non-English-speaking. In your explanation, include the terms English-immersion, bilingual education, and two-way (dual-language) learning. What are the benefits of being bilingual? Answer: Schools meet the needs of non-English-speaking students through various approaches: English-immersion programs immerse students in English-language instruction to promote rapid language acquisition. Bilingual education maintains instruction in both the native language and English, fostering academic progress in both languages. Two-way (dual-language) learning integrates native English speakers with non-English speakers, promoting bilingualism and multicultural understanding. Benefits of bilingualism include enhanced cognitive flexibility, better academic performance, and improved job prospects in a global economy. 103. Explain the concepts of decoding and visually based retrieval. Answer: Decoding refers to the process of interpreting written or spoken language by recognizing and understanding individual words or symbols based on their sounds or meanings. Visually based retrieval involves recalling information from memory based on visual cues or images, often used in tasks like recognizing faces or recalling scenes from memory. 104. "No Child Left Behind" means that each child in school will be given the opportunity to learn, and the level of learning will be monitored and remediated when necessary. When children do not meet the objectives that have been set, school systems make difficult decisions about a student's future. Explain the apparent conflict between social promotion and retention. Answer: Social promotion refers to advancing students to the next grade regardless of academic performance, aiming to maintain age-appropriate peer groups and avoid stigmatization. Retention, on the other hand, involves holding students back a grade to ensure they meet academic standards before advancing, potentially impacting self-esteem and social dynamics. Balancing these approaches involves considering both academic progress and social-emotional development for each student. 105. Define the term learning disability. List and describe the types of disability that are included under this heading. In your answer, explain the following terms: mental retardation, dyslexia, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Answer: A learning disability is a neurological condition that affects the brain's ability to receive, process, store, or respond to information. Types include: • Mental retardation (Intellectual disability): Characterized by limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior. • Dyslexia: Affects reading skills, causing difficulties with decoding, fluency, and comprehension. • Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Involves challenges with attention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, impacting academic and social functioning. 106. The Martins' daughter Jeannette seems to learn things quickly and to always be a few steps ahead of the other children her age. The Martins think that she may benefit from a more stimulating environment. Define giftedness. How is giftedness assessed, and what can be done in schools to nurture it? Answer: Giftedness refers to exceptional intellectual ability or talent significantly above average. It is assessed through IQ tests, academic achievement, and evaluations of creativity and leadership potential. Schools can nurture gifted students by offering enriched or accelerated programs, individualized learning plans, opportunities for advanced coursework, and specialized support from teachers trained in gifted education. True/False Questions 107. Eight-year-old Sergio is in second grade. According to Piaget, Sergio is in the concrete operational stage of development. Answer: True 108. Children in the concrete operational stage can perform tasks using deductive reasoning. Answer: False 109. Paola can perform most conservation tasks now but still does not have a complete understanding yet. This is due to centration. Answer: False 110. Cultural experience and neurological development contribute to the rate of development of conservation. Answer: True 111. Memory improves in middle childhood due to the pruning of neurons in the prefrontal cortex. Answer: True 112. Speed of processing remains constant through middle childhood and increases in adolescence. Answer: False 113. Metamemory is basically thinking about thinking. Answer: True 114. Intelligence tests do a good job of predicting academic success. Answer: True 115. Some criticize IQ tests as being culturally biased BUT children from different cultures often do worse in schools so the tests are still predicting academic success. Answer: True 116. Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences is controversial because not everyone agrees that IQ has so many factors. Answer: True 117. "Street smarts" is a part of Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence. Answer: True 118. In middle childhood, the major area of linguistic growth is syntax. Answer: False 119. One of the reasons second-language learning is controversial is that there is little evidence that being bilingual is helpful and may even be harmful. Answer: False 120. Early phonics training is a more effective strategy for teaching beginning reading than the whole-language approach. Answer: True 121. Parents that are involved with their children's academics have children who achieve better. Answer: True 122. Socioeconomic status can influence parental beliefs, which, in turn, affects children's achievement in school. Answer: True 123. Most research suggests that homework should be moderate and only used once a child is in high school. Answer: False 124. The most common learning disability is dyslexia. Answer: True 125. An IQ of 120 or higher is needed for "gifted" classification. Answer: False 126. Creativity and IQ are closely linked. Answer: True Test Bank for A Child's World: Infancy Through Adolescence Diane E. Papalia, Gabriela Martorell, Ruth Duskin Feldman 9780078035432

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