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Chapter 07 Cognitive Development during the First Three Years Multiple Choice Questions 1. The _____________ approach to cognitive development attempts to measure intelligence quantitatively. A. psychometric B. Piagetian C. information-processing D. behaviorist Answer: A. psychometric 2. Researchers use the _____________ approach to cognitive development when they focus on the quality of cognitive functioning at different stages of life. A. psychometric B. Piagetian C. information-processing D. behaviorist Answer: B. Piagetian 3. Lucas is interested in the basic mechanics of learning, especially how behavior changes in response to experience. Lucas's interest is consistent with the _____________ approach. A. Piagetian B. behaviorist C. psychometric D. dialectical Answer: B. behaviorist 4. Fred is involved in a heated argument with Gene. Gene believes that the stages of a child's cognitive development are worthy of study. Fred sarcastically comments that this field of study is nothing more than speculation about the mind and that all that really matters is what you observe individuals doing. Gene is taking a _____________ approach, while Fred is a proponent of the _____________ approach. A. behaviorist; psychometric B. Piagetian; behaviorist C. psychometric; Piagetian D. Piagetian; information-processing Answer: B. Piagetian; behaviorist 5. Alfred has a mathematics background and believes strongly in quantitative measures of variables. Jeanne insists that many important developmental outcomes are more qualitative than numerical. It would appear that Alfred supports the _____________ approach to studying cognitive development, whereas Jeanne endorses the _____________ approach. A. Piagetian; psychometric B. psychometric; Piagetian C. behaviorist; psychometric D. Piagetian; behaviorist Answer: B. psychometric; Piagetian 6. The _____________ approach to cognitive development focuses on perception, learning, memory, and problem solving. A. information-processing B. behaviorist C. neuroscience D. social-contextual Answer: A. information-processing 7. The _____________ approach to cognitive development examines the impact of the environment on learning processes. A. information-processing B. psychometric C. psychodynamic D. social-contextual Answer: D. social-contextual 8. Learning is a result of A. experience. B. ability. C. maturation. D. all of these. Answer: D. all of these. 9. In classical conditioning, the subject exhibits a(n) _____________ response to what at one time was a _____________ stimuli. A. automatic; neutral B. voluntary; neutral C. automatic; biological D. programmed; biological Answer: A. automatic; neutral 10. Two-year-old Monica was playing with a balloon when it popped in her face and frightened her. Now when she sees a balloon, she starts to cry. This type of learning is called A. habituation. B. operant conditioning. C. classical conditioning. D. latent learning. Answer: C. classical conditioning. 11. Two-year-old Rhonda received an injection from a doctor who had a beard and wore glasses. Now she fears any man who has a beard and wears glasses. Rhonda's fear is a result of A. operant conditioning. B. classical conditioning. C. maturation. D. habituation. Answer: B. classical conditioning. 12. As a child, Juan always enjoyed Sunday outings with his grandparents. Juan rarely felt happier than when he got into his grandparents' car and pulled away from his house. At the time, his grandmother loved to listen to one particular singer on the radio. Although this all happened more than 20 years ago, whenever Juan hears a song by that musician, he gets a warm feeling as he is reminded of those Sundays. Which of the following best explains this phenomenon? A. Classical conditioning B. Habituation C. Operant conditioning D. Maturation Answer: A. Classical conditioning 13. Amy knows that when she stands quietly by her grandfather's chair, he will reach over and tickle her under her chin. When a child learns to behave in a specific way to obtain a specific result, what is occurring? A. Habituation B. Classical conditioning C. Operant conditioning D. Social learning Answer: C. Operant conditioning 14. In operant conditioning, the learner A. acts on the environment. B. is passive. C. does not respond to a stimulus. D. responds favorably to punishment. Answer: A. acts on the environment. 15. Linda has learned that if she sits on the floor and cries, her father will give her a piece of candy. This is an example of A. habituation. B. classical conditioning. C. operant conditioning. D. social learning. Answer: C. operant conditioning. 16. Whenever 1-year-old Greg says "Da-Da," his father comes over and picks him up. Soon, Greg is saying "Da-Da" constantly. This example illustrates _____________, and Greg being picked up serves as the _____________. A. classical conditioning; conditioned stimulus B. habituation; reinforcer C. classical conditioning; unconditioned response D. operant conditioning; desired effect Answer: D. operant conditioning; desired effect 17. Infants can remember information best when A. they are in a relaxed state, such as just before falling asleep. B. memory retrieval occurs in the same context as memory storage. C. the mother is present during the storage of the memory. D. food is used to reinforce learning. Answer: B. memory retrieval occurs in the same context as memory storage. 18. Developmental scientists have proposed several explanations for why most people cannot remember anything that happened to them before about 2 years of age. Which of the following has NOT been offered as an explanation for this phenomenon? A. Early events are not retained because the brain is not developed enough to store those memories. B. Early memories are stored but then repressed because they are emotionally troubling. C. Children cannot store memories until they have words to talk about them. D. The introduction of television too early prevents retention of memories until after two years old. Answer: D. The introduction of television too early prevents retention of memories until after two years old. 19. The modern intelligence test originated with _____________ and was used to identify children who could not handle academic work and needed special instruction. A. Nancy Bayley B. Alfred Binet C. Jean Piaget D. J. B. Watson Answer: B. Alfred Binet 20. The psychometric study of intelligence involves all the following EXCEPT A. identifying the different abilities that make up intelligence. B. measuring the relative amounts of different intellectual abilities that individuals possess. C. predicting the future academic performance of individuals. D. assessing qualitative differences in intellectual functioning over the life span. Answer: D. assessing qualitative differences in intellectual functioning over the life span. 21. Which is generally accepted to be true of intelligence testing today? A. The test consists of questions or tasks designed to show how much of the measured ability a person has. B. The test is normative in its approach. C. The precise nature of intelligence has been debated for many years. D. All of these are true. Answer: D. All of these are true. 22. Dr. Wilson is using a standardized test to determine the reasoning and comprehension abilities of 4-year-olds compared to other test takers. Dr. Wilson is measuring the children's A. qualitative intelligence. B. intelligence quotient. C. literacy stage. D. scheme level. Answer: B. intelligence quotient. 23. Dr. Leon, a college professor, is explaining to students why it is difficult to assess the intelligence of infants. Which key reason should he include in his lecture? A. All infants seem to show the same level of ability. B. If infants fail to give the "expected" response, the reasons for the "failed" response may be unclear. C. Intelligence does not develop until after infancy. D. There are no tests that will reveal an infant's intelligence. Answer: B. If infants fail to give the "expected" response, the reasons for the "failed" response may be unclear. 24. For children between the ages of 1 month and 3 1/2 years, the Bayley Scales of Infant Development produces a(n) A. IQ score. B. report of mental, motor, and behavioral development. C. developmental assessment that correlates with adult abilities. D. measure of reflex development. Answer: B. report of mental, motor, and behavioral development. 25. The Mortons' pediatrician has asked them to have their son Donny assessed by a development psychologist using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Which of the following descriptions would likely fit Donny? A. A 4-month-old who seems to be very shy B. A 2-year-old who has not yet spoken any words C. A 3-year-old who developed language at an early age D. A newborn who suffered anoxia during delivery Answer: B. A 2-year-old who has not yet spoken any words 26. Which is NOT a developmental area assessed by the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development? A. Language development B. Cognitive development C. Logic skills development D. Motor skills development Answer: C. Logic skills development 27. Developmental quotients are most useful when used to describe which of the following? A. Neurological deficits B. Learning problems C. Emotional disturbances D. All of these Answer: D. All of these 28. Social workers are sometimes trained to administer the HOME, which assesses the effect of a child's home environment on A. physical development. B. emotional health. C. intellectual development. D. future career success. Answer: C. intellectual development. 29. HOME is an instrument for evaluating the effect of a child's home environment on A. physical development. B. emotional health. C. cognitive development. D. future career success. Answer: C. cognitive development. 30. Based on research using the HOME measure, which of the following has the greatest influence on children's cognitive development? A. Socioeconomic status B. Ethnic group C. Developmental problems in infancy D. Parental responsiveness Answer: D. Parental responsiveness 31. HOME examiners rate parents on which of the following? A. Expressions of affection B. Number of books in the home C. Parents' involvement in children's play D. All of these Answer: D. All of these 32. _____________ is a systematic process of providing therapeutic and educational services to families that need help in meeting young children's developmental needs. A. Cognitive advancement B. Infant support C. Early intervention D. Developmental priming Answer: C. Early intervention 33. The most effective early education interventions include those that A. start and continue throughout preschool. B. take a comprehensive approach. C. are tailored to individual differences and needs. D. All of these are true. Answer: D. All of these are true. 34. Dr. Kelly examines how children think and how their cognition changes in stages as they move from preschool to adolescence. She is using the _____________ approach. A. behaviorist B. Piagetian C. psychometric D. information-processing Answer: B. Piagetian 35. The Piagetian approach focuses on A. qualitative changes in cognition. B. quantitative differences in intelligence. C. establishing norms for intelligence tests. D. the relationship between brain development and sensorimotor function. Answer: A. qualitative changes in cognition. 36. Kaitlyn spends her day discovering the world by putting almost everything she touches in her mouth. She is in Piaget's _____________ stage. A. sensorimotor B. preoperational C. concrete operational D. formal operational Answer: A. sensorimotor 37. The sensorimotor stage A. covers the period from birth to 6 months of age. B. consists of the period from birth to about the age of 2 years. C. occurs throughout the first four years of life. D. lasts from birth until six years of age. Answer: B. consists of the period from birth to about the age of 2 years. 38. One-year-old Jonathan has cookies for snack every afternoon. During snack time, whenever his dog Abby approaches, Jonathan quickly puts his cookie into his mouth. We may conclude that Jonathan has developed an organized pattern of behavior that Piaget referred to as a(n) A. operation. B. scheme. C. gestalt. D. circular reaction. Answer: B. scheme. 39. In Piaget's theory, a _____________ is a simple behavior that is repeated often. A. scheme B. circular reaction C. reflex D. conditioned response Answer: B. circular reaction 40. Emma loves to place her cheek on the window because it feels cool to the touch. She learns to repeat this action to get a pleasurable sensation. According to Piaget, she has acquired a(n) A. adaptation. B. circular reaction. C. unconditioned response. D. symbolic representation. Answer: B. circular reaction. 41. Circular reactions A. are primitive reflexes. B. consist of continuous cycles of waking and sleeping. C. are initially discovered by chance. D. are another form of habituation. Answer: C. are initially discovered by chance. 42. According to Piaget, a baby who habitually sucks his thumb is demonstrating A. a primary circular reaction. B. a secondary circular reaction. C. a tertiary circular reaction. D. the coordination of secondary schemes. Answer: A. a primary circular reaction. 43. Infants who repeat actions to get results beyond their own bodies are engaging in A. primary circular reactions. B. secondary circular reactions. C. deferred imitation. D. sensorimotor conditioning. Answer: B. secondary circular reactions. 44. Eight-month-old Gina finds that when she pulls on the cord at the side of her playpen, her jumping jack goes up and down. So she pulls it again. Gina is in the substage called A. primary circular reactions. B. secondary circular reactions. C. coordination of secondary schemes. D. tertiary circular reactions. Answer: B. secondary circular reactions. 45. Sandra has learned to squeeze her stuffed bear to make it squeak. When her father gives her a new stuffed giraffe, she squeezes it in just the same way as she did the bear. Sandra's behavior is an example of A. primary reflexes. B. primary circular reactions. C. secondary circular reactions. D. coordination of secondary schemes. Answer: C. secondary circular reactions. 46. Baby Lydia likes to squeeze her rubber duck because it makes a noise when she does so. She enjoys the sound, but her hand often gets tired after a short time. She suddenly puts the rubber duck in her mouth and starts squeezing the toy between her teeth. It is much easier and the noise is even louder. This is an example of which of the following concepts? A. Primary circular reactions B. Secondary circular reactions C. Tertiary circular reactions D. Reflexive responses Answer: C. Tertiary circular reactions 47. Adam tries to get his bunny off the top of his toy box. After several failed attempts with his arm, he pushes it off with his foot. This example of a tertiary circular reaction involves A. doing three things at once. B. varying an action to see what will happen. C. repeating a behavior at least three times. D. manipulating symbols. Answer: B. varying an action to see what will happen. 48. The substage of sensorimotor development in which the child uses trial and error to find which one of his or her physical skills works best for a particular task is called A. primary circular reactions. B. secondary circular reactions. C. coordination of secondary schemes. D. tertiary circular reactions. Answer: D. tertiary circular reactions. 49. Paulo causes a piano to make sounds by hitting the keys with his fists. Later, he tries to make the piano play by hitting the keys with a stuffed animal. According to Piaget, this behavior is representative of A. tertiary circular reactions. B. the use of reflexes. C. primary circular reactions. D. secondary circular reactions. Answer: A. tertiary circular reactions. 50. The acquisition of _____________ is present in stage six of Piaget's sensorimotor stage. A. reflexes B. causality C. representational ability D. schemes Answer: C. representational ability 51. Alex watches his mother play tennis in the morning. Later, when he is alone, Alex picks up a stick and swings it like a tennis racquet, copying his mother's actions from earlier in the day. According to Piaget, Alex is in the _____________ substage of sensorimotor development. A. 3rd B. 4th C. 5th D. 6th Answer: D. 6th 52. A newborn who smiles at a smiling adult is engaging in _____________ imitation. A. mirror B. invisible C. deferred D. circular Answer: A. mirror 53. Researchers Meltzoff and Moore reported that babies less than 72 hours old appeared to imitate adults by opening their mouths and sticking out their tongues. This is consistent with other research that claims that A. Piaget's developmental timetable sequence is accurate. B. infants may develop earlier than Piaget proposed. C. infants may develop later than Piaget stated. D. early learning is the result of conditioning. Answer: B. infants may develop earlier than Piaget proposed. 54. Researchers Meltzoff and Moore reported that babies as young as 6 weeks of age are capable of deferred imitation. This is consistent with other research that claims that A. Piaget's developmental timetable sequence is accurate. B. infants may develop later than Piaget stated. C. infants may develop earlier than Piaget proposed. D. early learning is the result of conditioning. Answer: C. infants may develop earlier than Piaget proposed. 55. When infants engage in imitation that involves parts of their body that they cannot see, it is referred to as _____________ imitation. A. invisible B. visible C. motor D. sensorimotor Answer: A. invisible 56. According to research by Melzoff and Moore, children become capable of deferred imitation A. at an older age than Piaget suggested. B. at a much younger age than Piaget suggested. C. at the age Piaget suggested. D. minutes after birth. Answer: B. at a much younger age than Piaget suggested. 57. Willie sees his mother put a DVD into the DVD player. When she leaves the room, Willie tries to reach up and put a DVD in the same place. The form of behavior that involves imitation of actions babies no longer see in front of them is called A. invisible imitation. B. visible imitation. C. deferred imitation. D. social learning. Answer: C. deferred imitation. 58. A father talked on the telephone in front of his baby. The next day, the baby picked up a toy telephone and repeated his father's actions. According to Piaget, this is an example of A. deferred imitation. B. social learning. C. invisible imitation. D. reciprocal interaction. Answer: A. deferred imitation. 59. A researcher shows children little toys, and then he places the toys in a bus and "drives" the bus across the carpet. The researcher is trying to get the children to do the same. This is called A. object permanence. B. sensory imitation. C. elicited imitation. D. deferred imitation. Answer: C. elicited imitation. 60. Research on Piaget's cognitive concepts supports which of the following statements? A. Some abilities are present at an earlier age than Piaget noted. B. Infants may know an object exists even if they do not search for it. C. Children do not understand the concept of numbers before the age of 2. D. Both A and B are correct. Answer: D. Both A and B are correct. 61. Penny loves to play peekaboo with her baby brother. The realization that an object or person continues to exist even when out of sight is known as A. deferred representation. B. object permanence. C. deferred symbolism. D. attachment. Answer: B. object permanence. 62. Leo cries loudly every time his mother leaves the room. He seems to believe that she is never coming back. Leo has not yet developed A. anticipatory insight. B. emotional attachment. C. representational ability. D. object permanence. Answer: D. object permanence. 63. Research on object permanence suggests that A. a baby's failure to search for hidden objects is a result of his/her inability to perform the sequence of actions necessary for solving a problem. B. the violation-of-expectations technique cannot be used with babies younger than 8 months. C. infants as young as 4 months typically remember an object that they can no longer see. D. babies gaze longer at "possible" events than at "impossible" events. Answer: C. infants as young as 4 months typically remember an object that they can no longer see. 64. An 8- to 12-month-old infant searches for a hidden object in a place where she previously found it rather than in the place where she most recently saw someone hide it. This is an example of what Piaget referred to as A. sensorimotor thought. B. the development of object permanence. C. the A-not-B, error. D. none of these. Answer: C. the A-not-B, error. 65. In studies in the United States and Africa's Ivory Coast, DeLoache and colleagues observed infants using their hands to explore pictures. What is true about their observations? A. Children explored the pictures as though they were objects. B. Children patted, rubbed and grasped the pictures in an attempt to lift the depicted object off the page. C. Manual exploration of the pictures diminished by 15 months of age, hinting at the symbolic understanding of pictures. D. All of these are true. Answer: D. All of these are true. 66. Piaget's theory A. has continued to be accepted with modifications. B. has been found to be deeply flawed. C. has stimulated little recent research. D. was influential only in the 1950s and 1960s. Answer: A. has continued to be accepted with modifications. 67. Virginia has noticed that her baby no longer looks at the picture of the dinosaur on his bedroom wall. A baby's gradual loss of interest in a particular picture is evidence of A. habituation. B. classical conditioning. C. operant conditioning. D. cognitive regression. Answer: A. habituation. 68. Baby Stephanie stops sucking her thumb to listen to a tone. She resumes sucking and stops again when the tone sounds again. Later, after the tone has been repeated a number of times, she ignores it. This is an example of A. operant conditioning. B. classical conditioning. C. habituation. D. boredom. Answer: C. habituation. 69. Researchers study habituation in infants by A. pairing a neutral stimulus with a conditioned stimulus to produce a conditioned response. B. reinforcing infants' responses to stimuli so that the infants will continue to produce these responses. C. testing infants for development of object permanence. D. repeatedly presenting the same stimulus to see if an infant loses interest in it. Answer: D. repeatedly presenting the same stimulus to see if an infant loses interest in it. 70. A baby who experiences 100 presentations of a high-pitched tone no longer reacts to the sound by stopping the sucking response. When a new low-pitched tone is presented, the baby stops sucking. This cessation of sucking caused by the new tone is called A. dishabituation. B. disinhibition. C. nonadaptation. D. a conditioned response. Answer: A. dishabituation. 71. Doris noticed that her infant son Alex had become bored with the mobile hanging above his crib. When Doris hung new pictures on the mobile, Alex's responsiveness increased. Alex's behavior is an example of A. a circular reaction. B. violation of expectations. C. habituation. D. dishabituation. Answer: D. dishabituation. 72. Research on early visual preferences demonstrates that very young infants A. pay more attention to familiar patterns than to new ones. B. pay more attention to new patterns than to familiar ones. C. cannot discriminate between new patterns and familiar patterns. D. show no consistency in the attention they give to new and familiar patterns. Answer: B. pay more attention to new patterns than to familiar ones. 73. The length of time spent looking at a new stimulus compared with the length of time looking at familiar stimuli is called A. habituation. B. visual-recognition. C. visual preference. D. attention recovery. Answer: C. visual preference. 74. Research with babies less than 2 days old suggests that they seem to prefer all of the following EXCEPT A. curved lines. B. complex patterns. C. three-dimensional objects. D. familiar sights. Answer: D. familiar sights. 75. Derek is asked to reach into a box while blindfolded and hold a small rubber duck. Later, he is shown several pictures of different toys, including the duck, and is asked to choose the one that he handled earlier. If he chooses the duck picture, this action suggests that he is capable of A. polymodal attention. B. habituation. C. cross-modal transfer. D. novelty avoidance. Answer: C. cross-modal transfer. 76. The capacity for joint attention develops by about _____________ months. A. 6 B. 12 C. 18 D. 24 Answer: B. 12 77. Which is true of the visual expectation paradigm? A. Visual reaction time is measured. B. Visual anticipation is measured. C. Attentiveness and processing speed are measured. D. All of the above are true. Answer: D. All of the above are true. 78. Researchers study infants' information processing by considering all of the following EXCEPT A. visual references. B. habituation time. C. cross-modal transference. D. language development. Answer: D. language development. 79. When a baby is first habituated to seeing an event as it would normally happen and then sees it in a way that conflicts with his/her beliefs, it is known as A. inhibitory control. B. violation of expectations. C. visual recognition. D. cross-modal transfer. Answer: B. violation of expectations. 80. The research method that is based on an infant's tendency to look longer at surprising phenomena rather than at familiar phenomena is known as A. deferred imitation. B. violation of expectations. C. counterintuitive perception. D. conditioned head turning. Answer: B. violation of expectations. 81. Baillargeon's studies of babies' understanding of physical phenomena suggest that A. infants may have innate learning mechanisms that help them make sense of the world. B. infants in the sensorimotor period are unaware of causality. C. the ability to reason about physical phenomena develops independently of the development of motor abilities and experience. D. maternal responsiveness has little influence on early cognitive development. Answer: A. infants may have innate learning mechanisms that help them make sense of the world. 82. Baillargeon and DeVos showed babies possible and impossible events involving moving carrots, a track, and a screen. They found that babies A. looked longer at the possible events. B. looked longer at the impossible events. C. looked equally long at possible and impossible events. D. became distressed when viewing the impossible event. Answer: B. looked longer at the impossible events. 83. Wynn's study using Mickey Mouse dolls indicated that 5-month-olds A. looked longer at surprising solutions than at expected results. B. have reached Piaget's sixth sensorimotor stage. C. are unable to subtract small numbers of objects. D. are able to add small numbers of objects. Answer: D. are able to add small numbers of objects. 84. Leah has been amusing her parents with her ability to remember new words, people's names, and the names of her dolls. This type of intentional memory that allows children to recall and declare facts, names, and events is known as _____________ memory. A. explicit B. implicit C. expressive D. purposeful Answer: A. explicit 85. _____________ memory refers to remembering that occurs without effort or even conscious awareness. A. Implicit B. Explicit C. Practiced D. Repressed Answer: A. Implicit 86. The short-term storage of information that the brain actively processes is referred to as _____________ memory. A. episodic B. semantic C. implicit D. working Answer: D. working 87. Research on memory suggests that 10-month-old Isabelle A. is probably still utilizing a primitive form of memory known as pre-explicit memory. B. has not yet developed the capacity for implicit memory. C. has begun to develop the capacity for working memory. D. can only remember information for a few seconds. Answer: C. has begun to develop the capacity for working memory. 88. The relatively late appearance of working memory in children seems to be largely responsible for the A. slow development of object permanence. B. atrophy of the prefrontal cortex between 6 and 12 months of age. C. development of long-term memory. D. inability of children to walk until they are approximately a year old. Answer: A. slow development of object permanence. 89. _____________ considered guided participation important and thought of learning as a collaborative process. A. Piaget B. Vygotsky C. Bronfenbrenner D. Chomsky Answer: B. Vygotsky 90. Amos is trying to teach his son Tim to tie his shoes. He demonstrates the procedure and then talks his son through the steps until Tim can perform the task on his own. Vygotsky referred to these activities that help bridge the gap between the child's understanding and the adult's understanding as A. interference. B. unresponsiveness. C. guided participation. D. reciprocal interaction. Answer: C. guided participation. 91. Which of the following descriptions regarding the concept of guided participation is false? A. Guided participation brings the child's understanding closer to that of the adult. B. Guided participation requires reinforcement to work C. Guided participation decreases the range of the child's zone of proximal development on that particular task. D. Guided participation varies from culture to culture. Answer: B. Guided participation requires reinforcement to work 92. _____________ is a communication system based on words and grammar and _____________. A. Psycholinguistics; language B. Literacy; psycholinguistics C. Language; cognitive development D. Language; psycholinguistics Answer: C. Language; cognitive development 93. The communicative use of sounds by infants is called A. holophrase speech. B. representational speech. C. prelinguistic speech. D. "motherese." Answer: C. prelinguistic speech. 94. Helen spends all day listening to her baby babbling and cooing. She believes that she and her baby are having "conversations." The baby is practicing A. "motherese." B. prelinguistic speech. C. linguistic speech. D. nonsymbolic speech. Answer: B. prelinguistic speech. 95. Seven-month-old Benjamin babbles and coos but has not produced a word. The sounds he makes constitute _____________ speech. A. presyntactic B. holophrase C. circular D. prelinguistic Answer: D. prelinguistic 96. Jana knows that the conversations she and her cooing baby are having communicate A. ideas. B. feelings. C. symbols. D. words. Answer: B. feelings. 97. Infants first communicate their emotions at A. birth, by crying. B. 6 months of age, by babbling. C. 12 months of age, by imitating sounds. D. 18 months of age, by using words. Answer: A. birth, by crying. 98. Three-month-old Francella likely communicates happiness through A. holophrases. B. cooing. C. babbling. D. imitation. Answer: B. cooing. 99. Viran is almost 4 months of age. Like a typical infant of his age, he seems to enjoy A. "trying out" sounds from all human languages. B. producing sounds that match the ones he hears. C. babbling strings of consonants. D. deliberately imitating sounds with linguistic meaning. Answer: B. producing sounds that match the ones he hears. 100. Silvia spends hours saying "da-da-da-da." This is an example of A. babbling. B. telegraphic speech. C. a holophrase. D. a language acquisition device. Answer: A. babbling. 101. Charles is a typically developing child. When Charles was about _____________ months old, he began to imitate sounds deliberately. A. 3 to 4 B. 6 to 8 C. 9 to 10 D. 12 Answer: C. 9 to 10 102. Babies become increasingly aware of the sounds of their language and its phonological rules at _____________ of age. A. 3 to 4 months B. 6 to 8 months C. 1 year D. 2 years Answer: C. 1 year 103. At approximately what age are babies first able to distinguish different speech sounds? A. From birth B. 3 weeks after birth C. 6 weeks after birth D. 12 weeks after birth Answer: A. From birth 104. The basic sounds of an infant's native language are called A. graphemes. B. phonemes. C. phonetics. D. morphemes. Answer: B. phonemes. 105. The first types of gestures to emerge in an infant's repertoire are _____________ gestures. A. conventional social B. representational C. presemantic D. symbolic Answer: A. conventional social 106. Ozzy is celebrating his first birthday. After he blows out the candles, he blows a kiss to his grandmother. Ozzy's attempt to communicate with his grandmother is called a A. conventional social gesture. B. representational gesture. C. symbolic gesture. D. telegraphic gesture. Answer: A. conventional social gesture. 107. Wendy, who is 15-months-old, is asked by her father if she is tired. Wendy lies down and acts as if she is sleeping to communicate her desire to be put to bed. This type of nonverbal message is referred to as a _____________ gesture. A. conventional social B. symbolic C. mediational D. presymbolic Answer: B. symbolic 108. When does a child usually say his/her first word? A. 3 to 5 months B. 6 to 8 months C. 10 to 14 months D. 16 to 18 months Answer: C. 10 to 14 months 109. Derek says, "Wa," meaning "I want some water." This is an example of A. a monophrase. B. a holophrase. C. a synonym. D. "motherese." Answer: B. a holophrase. 110. Most children speak in two-word sentences by the age of _____________ months. A. 8 B. 10 C. 14 D. 24 Answer: D. 24 111. Which of the following is an example of telegraphic speech? A. "Cookie." B. "Want cookie." C. "I want a cookie." D. "I want a chocolate chip cookie." Answer: B. "Want cookie." 112. Language that includes short sentences that omit many parts of speech, but still conveys meaning, is described as A. referential. B. telegraphic. C. expressive. D. overgeneralized. Answer: B. telegraphic. 113. "Mommy go now" is an example of _____________ speech. A. syntactic B. overextended C. underextended D. telegraphic Answer: D. telegraphic 114. Two-year-old Mindy is beginning to speak sentences using articles and prepositions. She is developing A. holophrases. B. syntax. C. overextensive speech. D. telegraphic speech. Answer: B. syntax. 115. Characteristics of early speech include all of the following EXCEPT A. simplification. B. overextension. C. understanding grammar without being able to express it. D. use of "parentese." Answer: D. use of "parentese." 116. Ginger, age 18 months, calls all four-legged animals "kitty." This is an example of which characteristic of children's early speech? A. Use of holophrases B. Simplification C. Overextending D. Overregularization Answer: C. Overextending 117. A child who calls a dog a "bow-wow" and also calls a cat a "bow-wow" is A. overextending. B. overregularizing. C. using a monophrase. D. using syntax. Answer: A. overextending. 118. Kelly, age 2 years, says "Brrr! My feets are cold!" This is an example of A. simplification. B. overextension. C. underextension. D. overregularization. Answer: D. overregularization. 119. Fran says, "Yesterday, I sitted on the floor." This is an example of _____________ grammatical rules. A. underextending B. hyperextending C. overregularizing D. paraphrasing Answer: C. overregularizing 120. According to _____________ theory, language is acquired by imitation and reinforcement of specific sounds. A. Piagetian B. psychometric C. nativism D. learning Answer: D. learning 121. Learning, or behavioral, theorists maintain that language is learned through A. classical conditioning. B. habituation. C. nativism. D. reinforcement. Answer: D. reinforcement. 122. Chomsky's proposal that humans possess a language-acquisition device is most consistent with a(n) _____________ view of language acquisition. A. learning theory B. nativist C. empiricist D. prelinguistic Answer: B. nativist 123. Noam Chomsky defined a language-acquisition device as a(n): A. perceptual mechanism that allows reinforcement to strengthen commonly used words. B. mechanism that enables the brain to infer linguistic rules from the language it hears. C. inborn mechanism that helps children to understand the meanings of words. D. teaching method that helps children to become literate. Answer: B. mechanism that enables the brain to infer linguistic rules from the language it hears. 124. _____________ suggests that human beings have an inborn capacity or mechanism for acquiring language. A. Learning theory B. Nativism C. Behaviorist theory D. Social-learning theory Answer: B. Nativism 125. Which of the following statements would NOT be cited as evidence that supports the nativist perspective? A. Children learn the grammar of their own language by repeating sounds their parents praise them for making. B. Almost all children master their native language without formal teaching. C. Linguistic advances, such as the onset of babbling, occur in similar ways for hearing and deaf babies. D. Newborns are born with perceptual mechanisms that match the requirements of language. Answer: A. Children learn the grammar of their own language by repeating sounds their parents praise them for making. 126. Nativists would cite which of the following to support their view of language development? A. The human brain contains a language structure that is larger on one left side than on the right side. B. Children learn their own language without formal teaching. C. Deaf children make up their own sign language without models. D. All of these are true. Answer: D. All of these are true. 127. The concept of a language acquisition device in the human brain is part of which theory of language development? A. Behaviorist theory B. Social-learning theory C. Piagetian theory D. Nativism Answer: D. Nativism 128. In about 98% of the population, the _____________ is dominant for language. A. left hemisphere B. right hemisphere C. medulla oblongata D. brain stem Answer: A. left hemisphere 129. In terms of language development, the game of "Peekaboo!" helps stimulate an infant's sensitivity to A. loud noises. B. sibling's feelings. C. social exchange. D. memory repression. Answer: C. social exchange. 130. When children grow up in a bilingual home, they develop the ability to switch from one language to another, which is called code A. differentiation. B. interchange. C. mixing. D. switching. Answer: D. switching. 131. "Parentese" includes all the following characteristics EXCEPT: A. the use of short words and simple sentences. B. high-pitched speech. C. rapid speech. D. repetition. Answer: C. rapid speech. 132. Characteristics of child-directed speech, or "parentese," include all of the following EXCEPT A. speaking in a low-pitched voice. B. speaking slowly. C. repeating words. D. speaking "baby talk." Answer: A. speaking in a low-pitched voice. 133. Babies learn speech best from A. television. B. recordings. C. practice in overextension. D. communication with someone. Answer: D. communication with someone. 134. Which of the following is NOT one of the reading styles that adults use with children? A. Describer style B. Authoritarian style C. Comprehender style D. Performance-oriented style Answer: B. Authoritarian style 135. Tanya tells her mother a story before going to bed. She is the "storyteller," while her mother is the active listener. This is similar to what reading style? A. Describer B. Authoritarian C. Comprehender D. Performance-oriented Answer: A. Describer Essay Questions 136. Compare and contrast classical conditioning and operant conditioning, and give an example of each as applied to infant learning. Answer: Classical conditioning involves associating a neutral stimulus with a reflexive response. For example, a baby might associate the sound of a rattle (neutral stimulus) with receiving milk (unconditioned stimulus), eventually eliciting a feeding response (conditioned response). Operant conditioning focuses on voluntary behaviors and their consequences. An example is when a baby learns to babble more frequently to receive positive reinforcement like smiles and attention from caregivers, increasing the likelihood of continued babbling. 137. Describe the methods used to measure the intelligence of infants and toddlers. What effect does early intervention have on intelligence? Answer: Methods used to measure infant and toddler intelligence include observing problem-solving skills, social interactions, and motor development. Early intervention, such as stimulating environments, responsive caregiving, and educational programs, can positively impact intelligence by fostering cognitive development, language skills, and social-emotional competence, laying a foundation for lifelong learning and achievement. 138. Explain infant development in the context of circular reactions. In your explanation, include primary, secondary, and tertiary circular reactions, and give an example of each. Answer: Infant development in the context of circular reactions refers to repetitive actions that infants engage in to explore their environment and learn. 1. Primary circular reactions: Involves repetitive actions focused on the infant's own body, such as sucking their thumb for comfort. 2. Secondary circular reactions: Actions that involve objects or people in the environment, like shaking a rattle to produce sound. 3. Tertiary circular reactions: Experimentation with variations of actions to explore outcomes, such as dropping objects from different heights to observe falling patterns. 139. Define Piaget's concept of object permanence, and describe the connection between object permanence and deferred imitation. Answer: Piaget's concept of object permanence is the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they are not visible or perceived directly. This cognitive milestone typically develops around 8-12 months of age. Object permanence is linked to deferred imitation, where infants remember and imitate actions they have observed, demonstrating their ability to mentally represent and recall objects and events even when they are not present. 140. Explain the connection between infants' information processing, speed of habituation, and future intelligence scores. Answer: Infants' information processing, including their ability to quickly habituate to stimuli, is linked to future intelligence scores. Faster habituation reflects efficient neural processing and cognitive flexibility, which are indicators of cognitive ability. Infants who habituate more quickly tend to demonstrate higher intelligence scores in childhood and beyond, suggesting a foundational aspect of cognitive development related to learning and adaptive behaviors. 141. Describe the role that technology plays in the development of children's language. What are the positive and the negative effects of television viewing on young children's language acquisition? Answer: Technology can influence children's language development positively and negatively. Positive effects include exposure to educational content and language-rich programs that can enhance vocabulary and language skills. However, excessive television viewing may lead to reduced verbal interaction and social engagement, potentially hindering language acquisition and interpersonal communication skills. Balancing screen time with interactive learning experiences and parental engagement is crucial for supporting healthy language development in young children. 142. Discuss the research pertaining to violation-of-expectations. How is it related to babies' thinking about characteristics of the real world? Answer: Research on violation-of-expectations involves presenting infants with unexpected events that contradict their understanding of the world, such as objects defying gravity or disappearing. Infants show prolonged looking or surprise when these events occur, indicating their ability to recognize discrepancies from their expectations. This suggests that babies possess early cognitive abilities to infer and predict basic physical principles, forming foundational understandings about the characteristics and rules of the real world. 143. Explain how social interaction with adults contributes to advanced cognitive competence. In your explanation, address both guided participation and the cultural context in which families interact with their children. Answer: Social interaction with adults, through guided participation, facilitates advanced cognitive competence by providing scaffolding and support in learning tasks. Adults guide children through cultural practices, such as language use and problem-solving methods, shaping cognitive skills. The cultural context influences these interactions, determining the values, norms, and expectations transmitted to children, thereby shaping their cognitive development and readiness for societal roles. 144. What are the major milestones of language development during the first three years? What can influence linguistic progress? Answer: Major milestones of language development in the first three years include: 1. Birth to 6 months: Cooing, babbling, and responding to familiar voices. 2. 6 to 12 months: First words, understanding simple commands, and using gestures. 3. 12 to 36 months: Vocabulary expansion, two-word phrases, and basic grammar. Factors influencing linguistic progress include exposure to language-rich environments, interactions with caregivers, genetic predispositions, and socio-economic factors impacting access to language stimulation. 145. Describe both similarities and differences in the ways that deaf children and hearing children acquire language skills (be sure to mention differences in deaf children of deaf families and deaf children of hearing families). How have aspects of learning theory and nativism been used to explain how deaf babies learn sign language? Answer: Deaf children acquire language similarly to hearing children in terms of early stages of cognitive and social development, using visual and tactile cues for communication. However, differences arise in the exposure and acquisition of spoken versus signed language, especially for deaf children born into hearing families who may experience delayed language development. Learning theory suggests that deaf babies learn sign language through reinforcement and shaping, while nativism posits that they have an innate capacity for language acquisition, evidenced by early proficiency in sign language among those born to deaf families. 146. Describe the differences between the nativist approach to language acquisition and the learning theorist approach. Explain why many theorists maintain that our language abilities are a result of both approaches. Answer: The nativist approach to language acquisition, associated with Noam Chomsky, argues that humans are born with innate language acquisition mechanisms, such as universal grammar, which enable rapid language learning. In contrast, the learning theorist approach, exemplified by B.F. Skinner, emphasizes environmental factors and learning through reinforcement and imitation. Many theorists advocate for a combined view, suggesting that language development results from both innate predispositions and environmental influences. This perspective acknowledges that while innate abilities provide a foundation for language acquisition, environmental interactions and experiences shape and refine language skills throughout development. True/False Questions 147. Sakura focuses her study of development on perception, memory and language. She is most likely taking a behavioral approach. Answer: False 148. A developmentalist who focuses on how behavior changes in response to experience is most likely taking a behavioral approach. Answer: True 149. In classical conditioning, an individual associates a behavior with a consequence or outcome. Answer: False 150. If one associates a needle with pain, it is most likely due to classical conditioning. Answer: True 151. If a baby learns to associate that when it cries mom and dad come running, it is most likely due to operant conditioning. Answer: True 152. There are no tests that will reveal an infant's intelligence. Answer: False 153. The Bailey Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Scale is used to determine an individual's IQ. Answer: False 154. The first of Piaget's stages of cognitive development is the preoperational stage. Answer: False 155. Piaget focuses heavily on the importance of reflexes and the development from involuntary to voluntary use of these mechanisms. Answer: True 156. For Piaget, several things mark the end of the sensorimotor stage of development, chiefly is representational ability. Answer: True 157. Piaget argues that deferred imitation is important because it requires a mental representation of the behavior or skill. Answer: True 158. Baby Willa watches while her mother hides a ball under a blanket. Baby Willa acts as though the ball no longer exists. This demonstrates that she has gained object permanence. Answer: False 159. One-year-old Raja observes her brother hiding a ball behind a pillow, and then retrieves the ball. After several times of playing this game, her brother hides the ball behind a potted plant. However, baby Raja continues to look for the ball behind the pillow. Raja is demonstrating the A not B error. Answer: True 160. I jingle my car keys in front of baby Sam. After a while, he looks away and is no longer interested. This is an example of dishabituation. Answer: False 161. Speed of habituation is related to intelligence. Answer: True 162. Babies prefer to look at faces compared to other visual stimuli. Answer: True 163. Your ability to recall the capitols of the 50 states is an ability tied to implicit memory. Answer: False 164. Tobias sits with his mother and watches her bake bread. She shows him what she is doing and he works in parallel to her watching and modeling. In this way, he learns how to bake bread. Vygotsky and Rogoff called this guided participation. Answer: True 165. Chomsky argued that the reason young children find learning language so easy is because they are born with a language acquisition device. Based on this, we would classify him as being a proponent of learning theory. Answer: False 166. Deaf babies learn language in much the same stages and sequence as hearing babies. Answer: True Test Bank for A Child's World: Infancy Through Adolescence Diane E. Papalia, Gabriela Martorell, Ruth Duskin Feldman 9780078035432

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