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This Document Contains Chapters 14 to 15 Chapter 14 Psychosocial Development in Middle Childhood Multiple Choice Questions 1. Broad, inclusive self-concepts that integrate various aspects of the self are called A. industry versus inferiority. B. self-esteem. C. ideal self. D. representational systems. Answer: D. representational systems. 2. Self-esteem reflects a child's assessment of her or his A. ideal self. B. real self. C. global self-worth. D. representational systems. Answer: C. global self-worth. 3. Randolph says, "I am fast at getting my homework done, but I'm slow at doing chores around the house. I guess I'm a sometimes speedy, sometimes slow person." Randolph's ability to think of himself in more than one dimension relies on the maturation of A. object permanence. B. representational systems. C. second-order thinking. D. formal operational thinking. Answer: B. representational systems. 4. According to Erikson, a major determinant of self-esteem is a child's view of his or her capacity to A. be liked. B. not feel guilty when initiating an action. C. complete productive work. D. form relationships. Answer: C. complete productive work. 5. Lonny feels inferior to most of his friends, but he does feel that he is well-liked by younger children. Lonny's sentiments are best thought of as an example of his A. achievement motivation. B. self-regulation. C. self-awareness. D. representational system. Answer: D. representational system. 6. Children's self-concepts in middle childhood are _____________ they are in earlier periods of development. A. more repressed than B. simpler than C. more complex than D. the same as Answer: C. more complex than 7. Marcy views herself as being generally capable and competent in most aspects of her life. Marcy has a high degree of A. purpose. B. trust versus mistrust. C. global self-worth. D. personal identity. Answer: C. global self-worth. 8. The developmental task of middle childhood is resolving the conflict of A. initiative versus shame and guilt. B. productivity versus self-doubt. C. industry versus inferiority. D. industry versus passivity. Answer: C. industry versus inferiority. 9. Grace, 17, volunteers at an after-school program and every year she collects money to send to political refugees. She also participates in a tutoring program with her school to help children with learning and behavioral problems. According to Erikson, what can be said about Grace's self-esteem? A. It is impossible to predict her self-esteem based solely on her civic engagement. B. Her self-esteem is high, because helping those less fortunate helps to build it. C. Her self-esteem is low, so she surrounds herself with people who are worse off than she is. D. Her self-esteem is average, since she is probably doing these things in order to get into a good college. Answer: B. Her self-esteem is high, because helping those less fortunate helps to build it. 10. Eight-year-old Tanya has just learned how to use a computer word-processing program that allows her to write papers for school. According to Erikson, Tanya's mastery of this skill should lead to feelings of A. competence. B. hope. C. will. D. purpose. Answer: A. competence. 11. The virtue that develops with successful resolution of Erikson's fourth psychosocial crisis is A. work ethic. B. industriousness. C. competence. D. confidence. Answer: C. competence. 12. By what age do children typically show pride and shame? A. 2 or 3 B. 4 or 5 C. 7 or 8 D. 10 or 11 Answer: C. 7 or 8 13. The ability to stifle the impulse to show negative emotion at inappropriate times is called A. internalized conflict. B. effortful control. C. situational behavior. D. conflicting expression. Answer: B. effortful control. 14. In middle childhood, empathy _____________ and prosocial behavior _____________. A. decreases; decreases B. increases; increases C. increases; decreases D. decreases; increases Answer: B. increases; increases 15. Parents who wish to exert a positive influence on their children's emotional growth should A. encourage their children to express feelings constructively. B. discourage their children from sharing their feelings too openly. C. minimize the seriousness of negative situations. D. show disapproval of negative emotions. Answer: A. encourage their children to express feelings constructively. 16. As discussed in your textbook, which of the following is NOT an African American extended-family tradition? A. Living near or with kin B. Strong sense of family obligation C. Little contact with relatives D. Mutual aid Answer: C. Little contact with relatives 17. Coregulation is A. another word for discipline. B. another term for authoritative parenting. C. the virtue resulting from successful resolution of Erikson's crisis of middle childhood. D. a transitional stage of middle childhood in which parent and child share control. Answer: D. a transitional stage of middle childhood in which parent and child share control. 18. Which of the following coregulation attempts is an appeal to moral values? A. "A big boy like you shouldn't sit on the train while an elderly person stands." B. "If you go another day without bathing, we'll be able to smell you coming." C. "What happened to the helpful boy who was here yesterday?" D. "Aren't you glad your father loves you enough to remind you to wear your boots?" Answer: A. "A big boy like you shouldn't sit on the train while an elderly person stands." 19. Nine-year-old Stephanie is beginning to internalize the values of her parents and society. Although her parents exercise general supervision over her, when she is not with them she exercises her own form of self-supervision. This phenomenon is called A. coregulation. B. virtue of competence. C. self-regulation. D. self-control. Answer: A. coregulation. 20. Since the early 1960s, mothers have been going out into the workforce in large numbers. Some have joined the job market for economic reasons, others for self-fulfillment. Today, over _____________ percent of mothers of school-age children in the United States are in the workforce. A. 50 B. 25 C. 70 D. 90 Answer: C. 70 21. In general, the more satisfied a mother is with her employment status, the more effective she is likely to be as a parent. However, the effect of her work on her child can depend on the child's A. personality. B. age. C. temperament. D. all of these. Answer: D. all of these. 22. What percentage of school-aged children regularly care for themselves at home without adult supervision for at least part of the day? A. 2 percent B. 9 percent C. 25 percent D. 40 percent Answer: B. 9 percent 23. Which of the following statements is correct regarding poverty and children? A. In the United States, the African American population has the highest percentage of children living in poverty. B. In the United States, the Latino population has the highest percentage of children living in poverty. C. Poverty affects children's self-esteem, but it does not seem to affect their peer relations or conduct. D. Poverty rates are highest in single-father households, regardless of ethnicity. Answer: A. In the United States, the African American population has the highest percentage of children living in poverty. 24. Based upon McLoyd's findings, many parents who live in poverty use A. authoritative child rearing. B. inconsistent discipline. C. strict but warm child rearing. D. coregulation. Answer: B. inconsistent discipline. 25. Over the past few decades, what has been the trend regarding the percentage of children under 18 living with two parents in the United States? A. The number is decreasing. B. The number has stabilized. C. The number is increasing. D. The number is fluctuating; no significant trends are evident. Answer: A. The number is decreasing. 26. According to your textbook, a father's degree of involvement with his children tends to be related to the child's A. well-being. B. religious beliefs. C. relationship with his siblings. D. future career satisfaction. Answer: A. well-being. 27. How many children under the age of 18 in the United States are involved in divorces each year? A. Fewer than 100,000 B. About 500,000 C. Nearly 750,000 D. More than 1 million Answer: D. More than 1 million 28. Which of the following is an influence on a child's adjustment to divorce? A. The manner in which parents handle issues like custody and visitation B. The child's age or maturity C. The child's relationship with a stepparent D. All of the above are true. Answer: D. All of the above are true. 29. The Johnsons are contemplating divorce. They contacted a counselor to see what they could learn about potential effects on their children. Compared to older children of divorce, younger children A. are less anxious. B. have less realistic perceptions of what caused the divorce. C. are less likely to blame themselves. D. tend to prefer living with their fathers. Answer: B. have less realistic perceptions of what caused the divorce. 30. The number of single-parent families in the United States has more than doubled since 1970 because of rising rates of divorce and because of parenthood outside of marriage. Approximately _____________ percent of African American children today live with only one parent. A. 50 B. 34 C. 28 D. 16 Answer: A. 50 31. Studies have found that children in one-parent families tend to do less well socially and academically than do children of two-parent families. Which of the following is NOT a factor contributing to this trend? A. Popularity of children B. Economic status of family C. Children's household responsibilities D. Support and discipline experienced by children Answer: A. Popularity of children 32. According to research, which of the following statements about stepfamilies, or blended families, is FALSE? A. Children's loyalty to the absent parent may interfere with the formation of ties to the stepparent. B. Girls are more likely than boys to accept a stepfather as a parent. C. Stepmothers are more involved with their stepchildren than stepfathers. D. Many stepparents assume a "hands-off" attitude toward children of the custodial parent. Answer: B. Girls are more likely than boys to accept a stepfather as a parent. 33. Approximately how many children in the United States live with at least one lesbian or gay parent? A. 100,000 B. 9 million C. 20 million D. 30 million Answer: B. 9 million 34. When he was a baby, Charlie was adopted by a homosexual couple in New York. Now at age 17, numerous studies show that Charlie has a 1 in 3 likelihood of A. becoming homosexual. B. having academic or behavioral problems. C. experiencing an inability to form satisfying and lasting romantic relationships. D. None of these; there are no consistent differences between children raised by homosexual parents and children raised by heterosexual parents. Answer: D. None of these; there are no consistent differences between children raised by homosexual parents and children raised by heterosexual parents. 35. Which of the following statements is correct regarding adopted and non-adopted children? A. Adopted children have significantly more problems with adjustment than non-adopted children. B. Most adjustment problems that adopted children have seem to surface around middle childhood. C. Adopted children demonstrate less prosocial behavior than non-adopted children. D. All of the above are true. Answer: B. Most adjustment problems that adopted children have seem to surface around middle childhood. 36. Adoptions where parties share information or have direct contact are called _____________ adoptions. A. non-secret B. open C. shared D. direct Answer: B. open 37. Which of the following statements regarding the care of younger siblings by older ones in developing countries is correct? A. Siblings often form weak bonds since the older children simply see themselves as babysitters. B. Parents in developing countries treat children of all ages equally. C. Competition and fighting among siblings is virtually nonexistent in developing countries. D. Older children, particularly girls, are expected to parent younger children. Answer: D. Older children, particularly girls, are expected to parent younger children. 38. Which of the following factors influences sibling relationships and roles? A. Birth order B. Spacing C. Gender D. All of these Answer: D. All of these 39. Which of the following pairs of siblings is most likely to squabble as children? A. Alexander and his brother Anthony B. Bernadette and her sister Betty C. Clayton and his sister Christina D. All of these pairs of siblings are equally likely to squabble. Answer: A. Alexander and his brother Anthony 40. Longitudinal research suggests that changes in sibling relationships are most likely to occur when one sibling is between the ages of A. 4 and 5. B. 6 and 7. C. 7 and 9. D. 11 and 14. Answer: C. 7 and 9. 41. As an infant, Louie had what most people would describe as a "difficult" temperament. However, Louie is now 6 years old and his father has established a mutually affectionate, cooperative relationship with him. As their relationship has improved, Louie has also behaved more affectionately and cooperatively with his younger brother, who reciprocates. Which of the following is correct in regards to this situation? A. Louie no longer has a "difficult" temperament. B. Louie has indirect influence on his brother. C. Sibling relationships are more important than parent-child relationships. D. Older siblings tend to direct younger siblings' behavior. Answer: B. Louie has indirect influence on his brother. 42. When you use phrases like "they are all alike" or "you know how they are," you are showing an unfavorable attitude toward outsiders based on group membership. This bias is called A. discrimination. B. an in-group homogeneity bias. C. prejudice. D. out-group heterogeneity bias. Answer: C. prejudice. 43. In middle childhood, peer groups A. help children develop social skills. B. allow children to test and adopt values independent of their parents. C. may encourage conformity and prejudice. D. perform all of the above. Answer: D. perform all of the above. 44. Which of the following statements regarding positive effects of peer groups in middle childhood is FALSE? A. Peer groups help youngsters develop a sense of identity. B. The peer group provides an opportunity to learn leadership and communication skills. C. The peer group encourages nonconformity. D. The peer group helps children develop the skills needed for intimacy. Answer: C. The peer group encourages nonconformity. 45. The Corcorans decided to put their son David in a private school because they were disappointed in the behavior of his friends. Which of the following is most likely to be a negative effect of peer groups during middle childhood? A. Because children compare themselves with their peers rather than with a broader range of people, they gauge their own abilities unrealistically. B. Because members of a peer group tend to be similar, the peer group narrows children's perspectives. C. At a time when children are most susceptible to peer pressure, the peer group exerts pressure to conform. D. The peer group creates emotional insecurity because it distances children from the comfort provided by adults. Answer: C. At a time when children are most susceptible to peer pressure, the peer group exerts pressure to conform. 46. In middle childhood, _____________ have more friends, and _____________ have closer friends. A. boys; boys B. girls; girls C. boys; girls D. girls; boys Answer: C. boys; girls 47. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding peer influences on gender development? A. In middle childhood, groups are segregated by gender. B. In middle childhood, groups are based on likes and dislikes rather than gender. C. Girls and boys talk to each other differently. D. Peer groups help children to learn gender-appropriate behaviors. Answer: B. In middle childhood, groups are based on likes and dislikes rather than gender. 48. With regard to the typical composition of peer groups in middle childhood, which of the following statements is correct? A. Peer groups are usually all boys or all girls, because children of the same sex have common interests. B. Peer groups usually consist of both girls and boys, because at this age youngsters have not yet become self-conscious about differences between the sexes, and girls and boys are still at about the same level of maturity. C. Because peer groups are generally neighborhood-based, ages of members usually differ by three to four years. D. Because peer groups are almost always school-based, members are almost always the same age. Answer: A. Peer groups are usually all boys or all girls, because children of the same sex have common interests. 49. The Titan twins are the most popular girls in the third grade. Behaviors that influence popularity are derived from A. a child's individual abilities (for example, cognitive and social skills). B. family relationships. C. cultural values. D. all of the above. Answer: D. all of the above. 50. Popular children tend to have parents who have adopted which of Baumarind's parenting styles? A. Authoritarian B. Permissive C. Authoritative D. Dismissive Answer: C. Authoritative 51. A recent cross-cultural study in China found that in today's quasi-capitalist society, a trait that was prized as recently as 1990 is now "rejected." Which of the following traits do teachers and peers now view negatively? A. Cooperativeness B. Aggressiveness C. Shyness D. Sociability Answer: C. Shyness 52. Unpopular children tend to make friends with A. younger children. B. other unpopular children. C. children from other classrooms or schools. D. all of the above. Answer: D. all of the above. 53. If you were to summarize Selman's work regarding friendships, which of the following statements would you use? A. A child's perception of friendship develops in stages. B. Friendship seems to be an innate byproduct of evolution. C. Friendship develops along with psychosexual maturation. D. All of the above are true. Answer: A. A child's perception of friendship develops in stages. 54. Selman's research on children's friendships indicated that most school-age children are in stage A. one. B. two. C. three. D. four. Answer: B. two. 55. The small minority of children who do not learn to control their physical aggression tend to remain physically aggressive throughout childhood, and also have both social and psychological problems. Studies have shown that their aggression _____________ these problems. A. causes B. is a reaction to C. is unrelated to D. It is unclear what role aggression plays in these problems. Answer: D. It is unclear what role aggression plays in these problems. 56. Children who engage in _____________ aggression frequently see other children as trying to hurt them, and they strike out angrily either in retaliation or in self-defense. A. hostile B. proactive C. instrumental D. relational Answer: A. hostile 57. Johnny is a middle school student and Raymond is a kindergartner. Based on their ages, Johnny is more likely to engage in _____________ aggression, while Raymond is more likely to exhibit _____________ aggression. A. social; physical B. indirect; direct C. instrumental; hostile D. hostile; instrumental Answer: C. instrumental; hostile 58. During the school years, the nature of aggression changes as _____________ aggression increases and _____________ decreases. A. instrumental; hostile B. instrumental; relational C. relational; hostile D. hostile; instrumental Answer: D. hostile; instrumental 59. The tendency for some individuals to perceive others as trying to hurt them and to strike out in retaliation or self-defense is A. normal in middle childhood. B. passive. C. not commonly seen in middle childhood. D. called hostile attribution bias. Answer: D. called hostile attribution bias. 60. In the United States, about _____________ out of 10 television programs portray violence, usually glamorized, glorified, or trivialized. A. 2 B. 3 C. 6 D. 9 Answer: C. 6 61. According to classic research in social psychology, children are more likely to imitate aggressive movie role models if they A. believe the violence on the screen is real. B. identify with the aggressive role model. C. watch without parental supervision. D. all of these. Answer: D. all of these. 62. Which statement is true about bullying in U.S. schools? A. Cyberbullying is becoming increasingly common. B. Many schools report student bullying at least once a week. C. Bullying is more common in middle school than in elementary or high school. D. All of these are true. Answer: D. All of these are true. 63. Children who are victims of bullying tend to have A. little trouble adjusting to school. B. lower than average athletic skills. C. low self-esteem. D. a large, supportive group of friends. Answer: C. low self-esteem. 64. The correlation between victimization by a bully and self-esteem shows us that bullying victims tend to have low self-esteem. From this correlation we can conclude A. that low self-esteem causes victimization. B. that low self-esteem is caused by victimization. C. that low self-esteem causes bullying. D. None of these; correlation does not prove causation. Answer: D. None of these; correlation does not prove causation. 65. Who proposed the concept of the "hurried" child? A. Jean Piaget B. David Elkind C. Michael Rutter D. Erik Erikson Answer: B. David Elkind 66. Karut is growing up in a home and a neighbourhood with constant, pervasive violence. He often has trouble sleeping, he cannot concentrate on his homework, and he has been sent home three times already this year for fighting. According to your textbook, what else is Karut likely to experience? A. A harsh awakening out of the violence through a single, life-changing event B. A focusing of this violent energy on his studies to escape his negative environment C. Problems attaching to others for fear of more hurt and loss D. All of the above are likely. Answer: C. Problems attaching to others for fear of more hurt and loss 67. Which of the following statements about resilient children is FALSE? A. Exposure to a number of stressful factors at the same time develops and strengthens their ability to cope. B. They tend to have an emotionally supportive relationship with at least one adult. C. They tend to be adaptable and have high self-esteem. D. They often have successful experiences that compensate for their unfortunate circumstances. Answer: A. Exposure to a number of stressful factors at the same time develops and strengthens their ability to cope. 68. Resilient children are those who A. "bounce back" from unfortunate circumstances that would impair most children's development. B. have authoritative parents. C. receive positive and effective treatment for emotional disorders. D. have successfully resolved Erikson's crisis of middle childhood. Answer: A. "bounce back" from unfortunate circumstances that would impair most children's development. 69. Which of the following does NOT contribute as a protective factor? A. Good family relationships B. Child's temperament or personality C. Cognitive functioning D. Greater experience with past stressors (e.g., low SES, parental stress) Answer: D. Greater experience with past stressors (e.g., low SES, parental stress) Essay Questions 70. Compare and contrast Erikson's findings about self-concept and self-esteem. How do representational systems fit in, if at all? Answer: Erikson's theory distinguishes self-concept as one's perception of personal characteristics, while self-esteem relates to the emotional evaluation of one's worth. Representational systems, such as those described by Piaget and Vygotsky, contribute by shaping how children construct and interpret their self-concept and self-esteem through cognitive frameworks and social interactions. 71. Describe some of the signs of school-age children's emotional growth. Answer: Signs of emotional growth in school-age children include improved ability to regulate emotions, increased empathy and understanding of others' perspectives, development of friendships based on mutual interests and values, and enhanced resilience in coping with challenges or setbacks. 72. Explain the development of coregulation during middle childhood. Answer: Coregulation during middle childhood involves children gradually gaining independence in managing their emotions and behaviors with guidance from adults. They learn to self-regulate through observing and imitating adult strategies, such as using calming techniques or seeking support when needed. This developmental process fosters greater autonomy while still relying on adult guidance for emotional stability and decision-making. 73. Explain the effects of poverty on family atmosphere and psychosocial development in middle childhood. Answer: Poverty can strain family atmosphere by increasing stress levels, limiting access to resources like healthcare and education, and fostering unstable living conditions. Psychosocial development in middle childhood may be hindered by decreased opportunities for social interaction, lower academic achievement due to inadequate resources, and heightened risk of emotional and behavioral challenges stemming from economic hardships. 74. Explain the effects of divorce and various custody arrangements on a child's development. How is a father's role important for children's development? Answer: Divorce can disrupt a child's development by causing emotional distress, instability, and changes in family dynamics. Various custody arrangements, like joint custody or sole custody, can impact a child's adjustment and relationships with parents. A father's active involvement in a child's life is crucial, providing emotional support, role modeling, and contributing to positive social and cognitive development through nurturing and consistent engagement. 75. How do siblings influence and get along with one another in middle childhood? Answer: In middle childhood, siblings often influence each other's social and emotional development through both positive interactions and occasional conflicts. They may develop closer bonds based on shared experiences and mutual support, while also learning negotiation and conflict resolution skills. Sibling relationships can contribute to social competence and emotional resilience, shaping lifelong dynamics and support systems. 76. How do children's relationships with peers change in middle childhood, and how do they choose their friends during this period? Answer: In middle childhood, children's relationships with peers become more stable and complex, shifting towards forming close friendships based on mutual interests and personality compatibility. They increasingly value loyalty, trust, and shared activities in selecting friends, moving away from purely proximity-based friendships seen in earlier years. Peer interactions during this period promote social skills, empathy, and a sense of belonging crucial for emotional development. 77. Explain the differences between hostile aggression, instrumental aggression, and social (or relational) aggression. Give examples of each. Answer: Hostile aggression involves harming others out of anger or frustration, such as hitting someone during a fight on the playground. Instrumental aggression aims to achieve a goal or obtain a resource, like pushing a peer aside to be first in line for a game. Social (or relational) aggression involves damaging relationships or social status, such as spreading rumors to exclude a classmate from a group activity. 78. Bullying is a serious issue in many U.S. schools. Explain the various types of bullying and the typical characteristics of bullies and victims. What are some ideas on how to ameliorate bullying in schools? Answer: Types of bullying include verbal (name-calling), physical (hitting), social (exclusion), and cyberbullying (online harassment). Bullies often exhibit aggression, lack empathy, and seek power over others, while victims may display anxiety, withdrawal, or physical symptoms. Schools can address bullying by implementing clear policies, promoting positive behavior through education and counseling, fostering a supportive environment, and encouraging bystander intervention to prevent and report bullying incidents. 79. Discuss the characteristics of Elkind's "hurried" child. In your answer, include contributing factors, and give an example of a hurried child. Answer: Elkind's concept of the "hurried" child describes a child pushed to achieve beyond developmental readiness, often due to parental or societal pressure. Contributing factors include overscheduling with extracurricular activities and high academic expectations. An example is a 7-year-old pressured to excel in multiple sports and academic clubs, leaving little time for unstructured play or relaxation. True/False Questions 80. Self-concept often becomes more realistic as children enter middle childhood. Answer: True 81. According to Erikson, the conflict that one must address in middle childhood is industry versus inferiority. Answer: True 82. School-age children typically have not internalized shame and pride yet. Answer: False 83. There is little relationship between parent's reactions to displays of negative emotions and child's emotional growth. Answer: False 84. By middle childhood, parent-child relationships are generally hostile. Answer: False 85. Development of coregulation may affect the way a family handles conflict and discipline. Answer: True 86. Children show more favorable adjustment in traditional two-parent families then in divorced, single-parent, and stepfamilies. Answer: True 87. Children living with only one parent are at heightened risk of behavioral and academic problems. Answer: True 88. Girls tend to have more problems than boys in adjusting to divorce and single-parent living. Answer: False 89. Studies show that children living with gay or lesbian parents are more likely to have negative psychosocial outcomes. Answer: False 90. The peer group becomes less important in middle childhood. Answer: False 91. Peer groups help a child develop self-concept but also may foster conformity. Answer: True 92. In middle childhood, boys tend to have closer friends but girls have more friends. Answer: False 93. Popular children tend to have good cognitive abilities and social skills. Answer: True 94. Hostile aggression is a means to an end. Answer: False 95. The hostile attribution bias is a tendency to misinterpret other people's actions as more aggressive. Answer: True 96. In middle childhood, victims of bullying tend to be argumentative and provocative. Answer: True 97. Elkind argues that by "hurrying" a child we are increasing stress for children today. Answer: True 98. Parents who report being burned out at work are more likely to have kids that report they are burned out at school. Answer: True 99. Protective factors to stress in middle childhood are cognitive ability, family relationships, personality, and compensating experiences. Answer: True Chapter 15 Physical Development and Health in Adolescence Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following terms represents the social construction for the developmental transition between childhood and adulthood? A. Young Adulthood B. Adolescence C. Puberty D. Menarche Answer: B. Adolescence 2. The process by which a person attains sexual maturity and the ability to reproduce is called _____________. A. the adolescent growth spurt B. adrenarche C. puberty D. all of the above Answer: C. puberty 3. Shelley, age 12, is undergoing rapid physiological growth, and her reproductive functions and sex organs are maturing. This is referred to as _____________. A. maturation B. puberty C. coming-of-age D. menarche Answer: B. puberty 4. Adolescence is generally considered to begin with the _____________. A. onset of puberty B. adolescent growth spurt C. first nocturnal emission for boys, and menarche for girls D. attainment of sexual maturity Answer: A. onset of puberty 5. Which of the following statements is NOT one of the reasons why, in modern industrial societies, it is unclear when adolescence ends? A. Complex industrial societies require a long period of education, which postpones adulthood beyond the attainment of physical maturity. B. Most of these societies have no definitive markers to establish adulthood. C. Puberty in these societies is beginning much later than it used to, because young people are less active and less physically fit. D. Vocational apprenticeships are rare or absent in these societies. Answer: C. Puberty in these societies is beginning much later than it used to, because young people are less active and less physically fit. 6. When was adolescence first defined as a separate stage of life in the Western world? A. The 19th century B. The 20th century C. The 1970s D. Post-World War II Answer: B. The 20th century 7. Which of the following statements about adolescence in the United States today is FALSE? A. American adolescents face hazards to their physical well-being. B. American adolescents face hazards to their mental health. C. About three in five adolescents will deal with major problems in adolescence. D. Physical hazards of adolescence include early pregnancy and high death rates from accidents, homicide, and suicide. Answer: C. About three in five adolescents will deal with major problems in adolescence. 8. Boys have higher levels of _____________ and girls have higher levels of _____________. A. androgen; estrogen B. testes; estrogen C. estrogen; androgen D. estrogen; testosterone Answer: A. androgen; estrogen 9. The rush of hormonal activity associated with puberty seems to depend on reaching a critical amount of _____________ necessary for successful reproduction. A. estrogen B. neurotransmitters C. androgens D. body fat Answer: D. body fat 10. The secretion of gradually increasing levels of androgens, mainly dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), influences _____________. A. the growth of body and pubic hair B. the development of body odor C. faster body growth D. all of the above Answer: D. all of the above 11. Increased levels of _____________ may signal the pituitary and sex glands to increase their secretion of hormones. A. DHEA B. GnRH C. leptin D. GPR54 Answer: C. leptin 12. The hormones that stimulate maturation are called _____________ in girls and _____________ in boys. A. estrogen; testosterone B. androgen; testosterone C. testosterone; estrogen D. androgen; estrogen Answer: A. estrogen; testosterone 13. Jenna is experiencing an increased output of her oil- and sweat-producing glands. What other physiological changes is she probably experiencing at this time? A. growth of pubic hair B. the beginning of body growth C. menarche D. the appearance of underarm hair Answer: D. the appearance of underarm hair 14. Most girls first begin to show growth of breasts and pubic hair between the ages of _____________. A. 6 and 14 B. 8 and 15 C. 10 and 14 D. 15 and 16 Answer: A. 6 and 14 15. Ana's breasts are just starting to develop, she is beginning to grow some pubic hair, and her body is growing rapidly. If she is an average American female, Ana is approximately how old? A. 9 B. 13 C. 15 D. 17 Answer: A. 9 16. In boys, the first signs of puberty often begin around age A. 9 B. 10 C. 12 D. 14 Answer: A. 9 17. Which of the following is a primary sex characteristic? A. Underarm hair B. Breasts C. Pubic hair D. Ovaries Answer: D. Ovaries 18. Pubic hair is one of the _____________. A. signs of menarche B. signs that a young person is capable of reproduction C. primary sex characteristics D. secondary sex characteristics Answer: D. secondary sex characteristics 19. Which of the following is NOT a secondary sex characteristic? A. Axillary hair B. Pubic hair C. Voice changes D. Seminal vesicles Answer: D. Seminal vesicles 20. The sequence of pubertal events is _____________. A. extremely inconsistent in order and timing B. fairly consistent in order but not in timing C. consistent in both order and timing D. consistent in girls but inconsistent in boys Answer: B. fairly consistent in order but not in timing 21. Which of the following changes is the first sign of puberty in boys? A. Growth of the penis B. Enlargement of the testes and scrotum C. Growth of axillary hair D. A change in voice Answer: B. Enlargement of the testes and scrotum 22. Connor, who is going through puberty, is experiencing enlargement of his breasts. Connor must _____________. A. not worry because this is normal and temporary B. seek psychotherapy C. have hormone tests right away D. prepare himself for a delay in sexual maturation Answer: A. not worry because this is normal and temporary 23. Between the ages of 11 and 13, the average girl is _____________ than boys. A. taller B. heavier C. stronger D. All of the above are true. Answer: D. All of the above are true. 24. Fourteen-year-old Warren has undergone a rapid increase in height and weight. Warren is experiencing _____________. A. coming-of-age B. the adolescent growth spurt C. menarche D. the secular trend Answer: B. the adolescent growth spurt 25. Phillipe is 16 and has just begun his adolescent growth spurt. How old would you predict he will be when the growth spurt ends? A. 13 B. 15 C. 18 D. 21 Answer: C. 18 26. An adolescent generally reaches sexual maturity _____________. A. when the primary sex characteristics appear B. at the onset of puberty C. at the onset of the adolescent growth spurt D. after the adolescent growth spurt ends Answer: D. after the adolescent growth spurt ends 27. After the period of rapid adolescent growth, females tend to have a more rounded appearance than males, which is mainly due to _____________. A. menstruation B. overeating C. layers of fat under the skin D. androgen production Answer: C. layers of fat under the skin 28. The trend toward earlier attainment of adult height and sexual maturity, which began a century ago, is an example of a _____________ trend. A. behavioral B. psychosocial C. secular D. retrospective Answer: C. secular 29. The secular trend refers to _____________. A. earlier sexual activity B. better nutrition and health care C. earlier physical and sexual maturity D. lengthening adolescence through education Answer: C. earlier physical and sexual maturity 30. Puberty began for Molly when she was 9 years old. Her mother began puberty at 11, and her grandmother at 13. This is an example of a _____________ trend. A. cross-sectional B. sexual C. physiological D. secular Answer: D. secular 31. In boys, the principal sign of sexual maturity is the _____________. A. ability to maintain an erection B. first nocturnal emission C. growth of the penis D. production of sperm Answer: D. production of sperm 32. A nocturnal emission is _____________. A. a sign of maladjustment B. always associated with erotic dreams C. associated with the end of male puberty D. a normal occurrence during adolescence Answer: D. a normal occurrence during adolescence 33. A nocturnal emission _____________. A. is called a wet dream B. signals the onset of menarche C. can occur early in girls in stressful environments D. occurs in about 30 percent of pubescent boys Answer: A. is called a wet dream 34. Menstruation is the _____________. A. release of a mature ovum from the ovaries B. monthly shedding of tissue from the lining of the uterus C. onset of puberty in girls D. readiness for conception during ovulation Answer: B. monthly shedding of tissue from the lining of the uterus 35. Menarche is the _____________. A. first menstruation in girls B. period when primary sex characteristics mature C. period when secondary sex characteristics appear D. onset of puberty in girls Answer: A. first menstruation in girls 36. Research suggests that family relationships might be related to the timing of sexual maturation. Based on this research, which girl would you predict to mature last? A. Adrianna, who has an unaffectionate, uninvolved father B. Beth, who is being raised by a single mother C. Carol, who is exposed to many unrelated male adults D. DeeDee, who has a close, supportive relationship with her father Answer: D. DeeDee, who has a close, supportive relationship with her father 37. Jung tends to worry about being liked, is very cautious in his actions, and feels most comfortable following the rules. He is also popular with his peers and good-natured. According to research from the text, Jung is probably a(n) _____________. A. depressed teenager B. late-maturing boy C. early-maturing boy D. preadolescent Answer: C. early-maturing boy 38. Compared to late-maturing boys, early-maturing boys are _____________. A. likely to be more self-conscious and insecure B. more likely to have conduct or behavioral disorders C. better prepared to deal with the changes of adolescence D. more likely to have poor social and coping skills Answer: B. more likely to have conduct or behavioral disorders 39. Alice is an adolescent who tends to be shy and introverted, lacks poise, and feels unhappy about having menstrual periods. Alice is probably _____________. A. sexually active B. underweight C. an early-maturing girl D. a late-maturing girl Answer: C. an early-maturing girl 40. Early-maturing girls are at increased risk of _____________. A. behavioral problems B. mental health problems C. sexual activity D. all of the above Answer: D. all of the above 41. _____________ maturation is associated with an increase of risky behavior in _____________. A. Early; boys and girls B. Early; girls only C. Late; boys and girls D. Late; boys only Answer: A. Early; boys and girls 42. The most rapid period of brain development occurs during _____________. A. early childhood B. middle childhood C. adolescence D. early adulthood Answer: C. adolescence 43. Adolescents tend to use the _____________ in the temporal lobe of the brain for emotional reactions. A. prefrontal cortex B. amygdala C. hippocampus D. thalamus Answer: B. amygdala 44. The _____________ lobe is in charge of the more accurate, reasoned choices associated with adulthood. A. parietal B. frontal C. temporal D. occipital Answer: B. frontal 45. Sergio is a high school student whose ability to reason and think abstractly appears to be increasing. These higher-order skills are due to the development of the _____________. A. prefrontal cortex B. amygdala C. hippocampus D. thalamus Answer: A. prefrontal cortex 46. Even moderate physical activity has health benefits if done regularly for at least _____________ minutes almost every day. A. 15 B. 30 C. 45 D. 60 Answer: B. 30 47. _____________ out of 10 early and mid-adolescents consider themselves healthy. A. Five B. Seven C. Nine D. Ten Answer: C. Nine 48. Compared to low-income adolescents, well-off adolescents are likely to possess all the following characteristics except _____________. A. being better educated B. drinking and smoking less C. having healthier diets D. being more physically active Answer: B. drinking and smoking less 49. Which of the following is a lifestyle factor that influences adolescent obesity? A. Poverty B. Faulty regulation of metabolism C. Inability to recognize body cues about hunger D. Development of an abnormally large number of fat cells Answer: A. Poverty 50. Approximately how many hours of sleep do average adolescents need? A. 6 to 7 hours B. Less than 7 hours C. At least 8 hours D. 10 hours Answer: C. At least 8 hours 51. Sixteen-year-old Latasha does not get enough sleep. Which of the following is most likely to be true in this scenario? A. She is at-risk for depression. B. She may do poorly in school. C. She may come from a family with less educated and older parents. D. All of the above may be true. Answer: D. All of the above may be true. 52. The brain's natural sleep cycle is controlled by the hormone called _____________. A. melatonin B. ceratonin C. DHEA D. REM Answer: A. melatonin 53. Seventeen-year-old Quentin requires _____________ hours of sleep each night for healthy development and functioning. A. 6-7 B. Less than 7 C. At least 8 D. 10 Answer: C. At least 8 54. About 34 percent of U.S. teens have a body mass index (BMI) at or above the _____________ percentile. A. 85th B. 11th C. 90th D. 60th Answer: A. 85th 55. The number of overweight young people has increased _____________ percent over the past two decades. A. 100 B. 200 C. 300 D. 400 Answer: C. 300 56. Obesity in adolescence _____________. A. affects about 25 percent of young people B. has declined in the past two decades owing to greater health consciousness among young people C. usually continues later in life D. is caused solely by too little physical activity and poor eating habits Answer: C. usually continues later in life 57. Which of the following statements regarding body image is FALSE? A. Girls' increase in body fat at puberty leads to more dissatisfaction with their bodies, whereas boys become more satisfied with their increasing muscularity. B. Fashion magazines, which promote unrealistic ideals of thinness, contribute to girls' dissatisfaction with their bodies. C. About one-quarter of girls are dieting or think they should be. D. Relationships with parents may be a factor that influences adolescent body image. Answer: C. About one-quarter of girls are dieting or think they should be. 58. Which statement is NOT true about changing body images during adolescence? A. Boys and girls both grow increasingly dissatisfied by their appearances. B. Cultural influences emphasize women's appearances which may contribute to girls' increasing dissatisfaction with their appearances. C. Parental attitudes and media images play a greater part than peer influences in encouraging weight concerns. D. Eating disorders among boys and young men are on the rise. Answer: A. Boys and girls both grow increasingly dissatisfied by their appearances. 59. Terri is underweight, has stopped menstruating, is afraid of becoming fat, and is obsessed with food. She is probably _____________. A. anorexic B. bulimic C. an underachiever in school D. a late-maturing adolescent Answer: A. anorexic 60. Anorexia nervosa typically includes all of the following symptoms except _____________. A. a severe loss of body weight B. a distorted body image C. a preoccupation with food D. poor academic achievement Answer: D. poor academic achievement 61. Ashley's parents were shocked to discover that she had an eating disorder. Her weight is normal and she appears to eat appropriate meals when her parents are present. Before their discovery of her problem, they most likely would have described Ashley as _____________. A. having low self-esteem B. being a perfectionist C. being a good student D. all of these Answer: D. all of these 62. Theories surrounding anorexia claim that _____________. A. victims of this disorder have a complete disinterest in food B. people suffering with this disorder engage in early sexual activity C. there is evidence that anorexia can be traced back to medieval times D. all of the above are correct Answer: C. there is evidence that anorexia can be traced back to medieval times 63. Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder typically characterized by all of the following symptoms except _____________. A. regular eating binges followed by purging through laxatives or vomiting B. abnormal thinness C. shame, self-contempt, and depression D. a history of dieting and/or excessive exercise Answer: B. abnormal thinness 64. Which of the following statements regarding eating disorders is true? A. Bulimia is less common than anorexia. B. The majority of anorexics are female, and the majority of individuals who have bulimia nervosa are male. C. Approximately 3 percent of the population is made up of binge eaters. D. So much overlap exists between anorexia and bulimia that they are considered to be different aspects of a single disorder. Answer: C. Approximately 3 percent of the population is made up of binge eaters. 65. Which of these statements about bulimia are true? A. Bulimia affects about 1 to 2 percent of international populations. B. People with bulimia are usually within normal weight ranges. C. A bulimic person's binges are usually short-lived. D. All of these are true. Answer: D. All of these are true. 66. An effective treatment for bulimia might be _____________. A. isolation from family members with negative influences B. cognitive behavioral therapy C. a drug that decreases fat stores in the body D. a low-calorie diet Answer: B. cognitive behavioral therapy 67. Substance _____________ involves repeated, harmful use of a substance, whereas substance _____________ is a physical and/or psychological addiction. A. deprivation; abuse B. abuse; dependence C. dependence; abuse D. deprivation; dependence Answer: B. abuse; dependence 68. An upsurge in drug use occurred in the early _____________. A. 1960s B. 1900s C. 1990s D. 2000s Answer: C. 1990s 69. The most widely used illegal drug in the United States is _____________. A. marijuana B. crack cocaine C. heroin D. LSD Answer: A. marijuana 70. Heavy usage of marijuana can _____________. A. damage the brain, heart, lungs, and immune system B. impede memory, learning, perception, and judgment C. lessen motivation and interfere with schoolwork and other activities D. cause all of these Answer: D. cause all of these 71. Randy, who is 13, regularly drinks beer with three friends of the same age. How much more likely are the boys to become dependent on alcohol than if they had waited seven or eight years before they started drinking? A. Three times B. Four times C. Five times D. Six times Answer: B. Four times 72. Which of the following statements regarding tobacco smoking is FALSE? A. The rate of teen smoking has shown a recent decrease. B. A strong relationship exists between adolescents who smoke and parents who smoke. C. Early smoking may damage the DNA in the lungs. D. Over half of high school students are smokers. Answer: D. Over half of high school students are smokers. 73. Depression in young people may be manifested by which of the following moods? A. Irritability B. Boredom C. Inability to experience pleasure D. All of the above Answer: D. All of the above 74. Adolescent girls and adult women are more likely to suffer from depression than are males. Which of the following is a reason for this gender difference? A. Biological changes B. Difference in socialization C. Greater vulnerability to stress in social relationships D. All of the above may explain the gender difference. Answer: D. All of the above may explain the gender difference. 75. Which of the following is NOT one of the three major causes of death during adolescence? A. Accidents B. Cancer C. Homicide D. Suicide Answer: B. Cancer 76. The leading cause of death among American adolescents is _____________. A. suicide B. sexually transmitted diseases C. cancer D. motor vehicle accidents Answer: D. motor vehicle accidents 77. Firearm-related deaths of 15- to 19-year olds constitute more than _____________ percent of all homicides in that age group. A. 65 B. 75 C. 85 D. 95 Answer: C. 85 78. Suicide is the _____________ leading cause of death for U.S. adolescents ages 15 to 19. A. 1st B. 4th C. 8th D. 10th Answer: B. 4th 79. Which of the following statements regarding adolescent suicide is true? A. African American girls have the highest suicide rate. B. Native American boys have the highest rates in the United States. C. A teenager who has previously attempted suicide is unlikely to try again. D. Suicide rates are low among homosexual and bisexual adolescents. Answer: B. Native American boys have the highest rates in the United States. 80. Protective factors shown to reduce the risk of suicide include all of the following EXCEPT A. connectedness to family and school. B. emotional well-being. C. attention to physical attractiveness. D. parental availability to the child. Answer: C. attention to physical attractiveness. 81. Which of the following is NOT true of suicide? A. Young people who attempt suicide tend to have histories of emotional illness. B. Alcohol plays a part in half all teenage suicides. C. The prefrontal cortex has not been identified in postmortem brain studies of suicide victims. D. Protective factors include connectedness to family and school. Answer: C. The prefrontal cortex has not been identified in postmortem brain studies of suicide victims. Essay Questions 82. The developmental period of adolescence is often considered to be a social construction. Describe what this expression means, and explain its historical significance. Answer: The expression "social construction" in relation to adolescence means that the concept of adolescence as a distinct stage of life is shaped by cultural norms, values, and expectations rather than being solely biologically determined. Historically, this idea gained significance as societies began to recognize adolescence as a transitional phase between childhood and adulthood, marked by unique psychological, social, and educational needs, influencing laws, education systems, and societal expectations. 83. What are some of the opportunities and risks of adolescence? Answer: Adolescence presents opportunities for identity exploration, developing autonomy, and forming meaningful relationships. However, it also entails risks such as experimentation with risky behaviors, peer pressure, and challenges in emotional regulation and decision-making, influencing long-term well-being and development. 84. Adolescence is a transition period. Describe the factors that mark the beginning and the end of adolescence. Answer: Adolescence typically begins with the onset of puberty, marked by physical changes such as the development of secondary sexual characteristics. It ends when individuals achieve economic independence, establish stable personal identities, and take on adult roles and responsibilities, signifying the transition into adulthood. 85. Explain the physical characteristics of pubertal development in both boys and girls. In your explanation, include the following terms: primary sex characteristics, secondary sex characteristics, and menarche. Answer: Pubertal development in girls involves primary sex characteristics like the growth of the ovaries and the onset of menarche, the first menstrual period. Secondary sex characteristics include breast development and the growth of pubic hair. In boys, primary sex characteristics include testicular enlargement and sperm production, while secondary sex characteristics encompass facial hair growth and deepening of the voice. 86. Explain the differences in adjustment of girls who mature early and those who mature late. Answer: Girls who mature early may face challenges such as social pressures, body image concerns, and early engagement in adult-like roles. They may also experience psychological stress due to being out of sync with peers. In contrast, girls who mature late may feel less prepared for social and academic demands, but often catch up in emotional maturity and self-confidence over time. 87. What brain developments occur during adolescence and how do they affect adolescent behavior? Answer: During adolescence, the brain undergoes significant development in areas related to impulse control, decision-making, and emotional regulation, particularly the prefrontal cortex. This maturation process can lead to heightened sensitivity to rewards and social stimuli, influencing risk-taking behaviors, peer relationships, and emotional responses during this transitional period. 88. How much physical activity do adolescents participate in? In your answer, discuss gender differences and possible solutions for the problems that exist. Answer: Adolescents often do not meet recommended physical activity levels, with girls generally being less active than boys. Solutions include promoting diverse physical activities that appeal to both genders, integrating exercise into school curricula, and fostering supportive environments at home and in communities to encourage regular physical activity among adolescents. 89. Explain anorexia and bulimia. Describe the characteristics of adolescents who struggle with these eating disorders, as well as the interventions that have been successful in controlling the disorders. Answer: Anorexia nervosa involves severe restriction of food intake, often leading to dangerously low body weight, while bulimia nervosa includes episodes of binge eating followed by purging behaviors like vomiting or excessive exercise. Adolescents with these disorders may exhibit perfectionism, distorted body image, and anxiety about weight. Successful interventions include cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), nutritional counseling, and family therapy to address underlying issues and promote healthy eating habits and body image. 90. What are some recent trends regarding adolescent drug abuse? Answer: Recent trends in adolescent drug abuse show increased use of vaping products, marijuana, and prescription medications. Concerns also include rising rates of opioid misuse and experimentation with synthetic drugs. Prevention efforts focus on education about risks, promoting healthy coping mechanisms, and enhancing parental and community support to deter substance abuse among adolescents. 91. Explain the factors involved with adolescent suicide. What gender differences exist, and what can be done to prevent suicide? Answer: Adolescent suicide is influenced by factors such as mental health issues (depression, anxiety), substance abuse, family dynamics, social isolation, and exposure to trauma or abuse. Gender differences include higher rates of suicide attempts among females, but higher rates of completed suicides among males. Prevention strategies involve promoting mental health awareness, providing access to counseling and support services, fostering open communication within families, and implementing school-based mental health programs. True/False Questions 92. The beginning and ending of adolescence is clearly marked in Western cultures but not in Eastern cultures. Answer: False 93. In the United States today, adolescence lasts about a decade. Answer: True 94. In many societies, there are rites of passage when adolescence is reached. Answer: True 95. Risky behaviors like smoking, drinking, and promiscuity are generally not established until late in adolescence. Answer: False 96. Puberty begins earlier in boys than girls. Answer: False 97. The adolescent growth spurt occurs at the same time for both males and females. Answer: False 98. Puberty ends typically when a person can reproduce. Answer: True 99. The secular explains declining religious involvement in U.S. adolescents. Answer: False 100. The average U.S. girl begins menarche around age 12 or 13. Answer: True 101. Puberty tends to be more favorable and easier to adjust to for females. Answer: False 102. Puberty marks the end of brain development. Answer: False 103. Adolescents are more likely to process emotions in the amygdala then adults who use the frontal lobe. Answer: True 104. One of the reasons for bad decision making in adolescents is the immaturity of the prefrontal cortex. Answer: True 105. The use of drugs and alcohol in adolescence is not likely to cause much damage due to plasticity. Answer: True 106. Girls are more likely than boys to get regular exercise in adolescence. Answer: False 107. The adolescent years are fraught with health concerns. Answer: False 108. Many adolescents do not get enough sleep because the high school schedule is incongruent with natural body rhythms. Answer: True 109. Outcomes for anorexia are generally more successful than for bulimia. Answer: False 110. Adolescent substance abuse and dependence have declined in recent years. Answer: True 111. The leading cause of death in adolescence is from firearms. Answer: False Test Bank for A Child's World: Infancy Through Adolescence Diane E. Papalia, Gabriela Martorell, Ruth Duskin Feldman 9780078035432

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