Preview (9 of 28 pages)

Preview Extract

Chapter 10 Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Multiple Choice Questions 1. Between the ages of 2 and 7, children enter Piaget's _____________ stage of cognitive development. A. operational B. deferred imitation C. preoperational D. sensorimotor Answer: C. preoperational 2. The preoperational stage of cognitive development marks a major qualitative leap in thinking because it ushers in A. object permanence. B. logical reasoning. C. the use of symbolic thought. D. transductive reasoning. Answer: C. the use of symbolic thought. 3. In Piaget's theory, a symbol refers to a(n) _____________. A. mental representation B. physical object C. inanimate object D. written word Answer: A. mental representation 4. Four-year-old Lenny is playing outside in the snow when he suddenly asks his father for a cup of hot chocolate. According to Piaget, Lenny's ability to think about hot chocolate, even though there is none around, shows that he is capable of A. transductive reasoning. B. symbolic function. C. delayed gratification. D. operational thought. Answer: B. symbolic function. 5. According to Piaget, a mental representation to which a person has attached meaning is called a(n) A. symbol. B. operation. C. function. D. transformation. Answer: A. symbol. 6. Which of the following involves the use of the symbolic function? A. Deferred imitation B. Pretend play C. Language D. All of these Answer: D. All of these 7. Which of the following scenarios does NOT exemplify the symbolic function? A. While Arthur's father is brushing his sister's hair, Arthur brushes his toy dog. B. On Sunday morning, Betsy watched her father make pancakes. On Tuesday, she made pancakes with modeling clay. C. Carmen uses an overturned pot as a drum and two wooden spoons as drumsticks. D. Riding a bus with his mother, Darren suddenly announces, "I want some alphabet soup!" Answer: A. While Arthur's father is brushing his sister's hair, Arthur brushes his toy dog. 8. Gannon and Cole ride their bikes around the driveway making train sounds. They tell their parents that they are train conductors. They are engaging in what kind of play? A. Pretend play B. Symbolic play C. Fantasy play D. All of the above Answer: D. All of the above 9. Tatiana's older sister, Jenny, wore a witch costume for Halloween. Even though Jenny looked like a witch, Tatiana understood that she was really her sister. This achievement of preoperational thought requires A. the use of symbols. B. the understanding of identities. C. the understanding of cause and effect. D. empathy. Answer: A. the use of symbols. 10. Children often do not use deductive or inductive reasoning; they just jump from one idea to another and see causes where none exist. This is referred to as _____________. A. egocentrism B. animism C. irreversibility D. transductive reasoning Answer: D. transductive reasoning 11. Sarah was mean to her brother, Adam. When Adam got sick, Sarah concluded that she made her brother sick. This is an example of A. irreversibility. B. transductive reasoning. C. egocentrism. D. animism. Answer: B. transductive reasoning. 12. _____________ is the preoperational child's tendency to mentally link particular experiences with or without a logically causal relationship. A. Theory of mind B. Egocentrism C. Transduction D. Animism Answer: C. Transduction 13. Three-year-old Austin is playing with his cars. He puts all the red cars in one area and the rest of the cars in another area. This is an example of A. classification. B. conservation. C. irreversibility. D. theory of mind. Answer: A. classification. 14. Piaget discussed the limitations of thought that are attributed to the preoperational stage. Which of the following is NOT a limitation? A. Centration B. Induction C. Focusing on states D. Irreversibility Answer: B. Induction 15. According to Piaget, which of the following characteristics is NOT part of preoperational thought? A. Egocentrism B. Reversibility C. Centration D. Transductive reasoning Answer: B. Reversibility 16. Preoperational children tend to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others, leading to illogical conclusions. Piaget called this tendency A. egocentrism. B. classification. C. centration. D. transduction. Answer: C. centration. 17. Many children can classify by two criteria, such as color and shape, by the age of A. 12 months. B. 18 months. C. 2 years. D. 4 years. Answer: D. 4 years. 18. Renee pours a glass of milk for her doll, telling her mother that her doll is very thirsty. The attribution of life to a non-living object is called A. conservation. B. centration. C. egocentrism. D. animism. Answer: D. animism. 19. Four-year-old Karl tells his father, "I told the wind to blow, so it made my kite fly." This is an example of A. animism. B. irreversibility. C. conservation. D. centration. Answer: A. animism. 20. Derek's parents are happy to be buying a new car, but he is not enthusiastic. He tells his parents that it is not fair that they are getting rid of the old car after all the car has done for them. Derek is demonstrating _____________ in his thinking. A. centration B. conservation C. animism D. irreversibility Answer: C. animism 21. Around the ages of 9 to 11 months, children develop the concept of more or less and bigger and smaller. This concept is called A. conservation. B. centration. C. transduction. D. ordinality. Answer: D. ordinality. 22. Ms. Wang is working with her first-grade students on a math problem. She asks them who has more crayons: Jamie who has five crayons or Juan who has seven. Ms. Wang assumes that her students have acquired _____________. A. ordinality B. conservation C. centration D. animism Answer: A. ordinality 23. Callie does not realize that she needs to turn the book so that her father can see it. She can see it just fine. This is an example of A. the theory of mind. B. transductive reasoning. C. egocentrism. D. the dual-representation hypothesis. Answer: C. egocentrism. 24. Young children are unable to see things from another's point of view. Piaget calls this limitation A. transductive reasoning. B. egocentrism. C. decentration. D. irreversibility. Answer: B. egocentrism. 25. Emma, age 3, runs into the room to show her parents a picture she has drawn. While holding the paper with the drawing facing her, she says, "See my picture?" Her parents, able to see only the back of the paper, ask to see the drawing. Emma just holds the paper closer to them without turning it around. Emma's behavior demonstrates A. a focus on states. B. transductive reasoning. C. animism. D. egocentrism. Answer: D. egocentrism. 26. Andrew is listening to some music through headphones, and no one else can hear it. When his mother walks into the room he says, "Mommy, do you like this song?" Andrew's question indicates _____________ thinking. A. presymbolic B. egocentric C. animistic D. irreversible Answer: B. egocentric 27. Piaget tested children's egocentrism by using the _____________ task. A. clay B. animism C. conservation-of-liquid D. three-mountains Answer: D. three-mountains 28. Ivan watches his mother take some clay from a small box. She rolls the clay into a long, thin shape. Ivan says, "But, Mommy, now the clay will not fit back in the box!" Ivan's statement illustrates A. decentration. B. irreversibility. C. egocentrism. D. ordinality. Answer: B. irreversibility. 29. Timothy does not understand that transforming the shape of a liquid (by pouring it from one container into another) does not change the amount of liquid. This represents which limitation in preoperational thought? A. Transductive reasoning B. Egocentrism C. Animism D. Conservation Answer: D. Conservation 30. Sheena knows what her mother will think when she comes into the room and sees the mess that she and her friends have made. Sheena's awareness of her mental processes and those of other people is called _____________. A. egocentrism B. decentering C. theory of mind D. conservation Answer: C. theory of mind 31. Recent studies on children's theory of mind suggest that A. Piaget was right in concluding that children younger than age 6 cannot distinguish between thoughts or dreams and real physical entities. B. most 3-year-olds can tell the difference between a boy who has a cookie and a boy who is thinking about a cookie; they know which boy can touch, share, and eat the cookie. C. young children realize that the mind is continuously active. D. the understanding that other people can have false beliefs does not develop for most children until middle childhood. Answer: B. most 3-year-olds can tell the difference between a boy who has a cookie and a boy who is thinking about a cookie; they know which boy can touch, share, and eat the cookie. 32. According to Piaget, children do not develop an understanding of their own mental processes until they are _____________ years old, though more recent research sets the average age lower. A. 2 B. 6 C. 7 D. 11 Answer: B. 6 33. Which of the following statements regarding theory of mind is FALSE? A. Children with strong social skills are better able to recognize false beliefs. B. Children with siblings are better able to recognize false beliefs. C. Theory of mind is mostly influenced by environmental experiences. D. Empathy usually arises earlier in children whose families talk a lot about feelings and emotions. Answer: C. Theory of mind is mostly influenced by environmental experiences. 34. _____________ is the ability to understand that others have mental states, and the ability to judge others' feelings and intentions. A. Empathy B. False beliefs C. Fast mapping D. Social cognition Answer: D. Social cognition 35. A disorder in which children lack a theory of mind is A. Down syndrome. B. autism. C. Klienfelter's. D. Angelman's syndrome. Answer: B. autism. 36. According to Piaget, children first understand the distinction between appearance (what seems to be) and reality (what is) at about the age of _____________ years. A. 1 to 2 B. 3 to 4 C. 5 to 6 D. 7 to 8 Answer: C. 5 to 6 37. At preschool, Ms. Thomas often feels as though she has spent the morning with twice the number of students that she actually has. It seems that everyone has invited their imaginary friend to spend the morning. Which of the following statements regarding imaginary companions is FALSE? A. Imaginary companions are more common among first-born and only children. B. Boys are more likely than girls to have imaginary companions. C. Girls' imaginary playmates are usually other children, whereas boys' are more often animals. D. Children with imaginary companions are more likely to engage in pretend play than those who do not have imaginary companions. Answer: B. Boys are more likely than girls to have imaginary companions. 38. Compared to children who have no imaginary companions, children who do have imaginary companions A. are usually socially isolated. B. have fewer friends at preschool. C. are more fluent with language. D. do not like playing with real friends. Answer: C. are more fluent with language. 39. Information-processing theorists refer to the process of putting information into memory as A. retrieval. B. storage. C. encoding. D. recognition. Answer: C. encoding. 40. When information is needed, David searches his mind looking for the answer and then writes it down. David's search is referred to as A. retrieval. B. storage. C. encoding. D. recognition. Answer: A. retrieval. 41. Information being encoded or retrieved is kept in a short-term "storehouse," which is referred to as A. working memory. B. permanent storage. C. sensory memory. D. recognition. Answer: A. working memory. 42. Recognition memory is A. better developed than is recall memory in early childhood. B. the ability to reproduce knowledge from memory. C. more efficient in early childhood than in middle childhood, when recall memory takes over. D. fully developed by the age of 3. Answer: A. better developed than is recall memory in early childhood. 43. _____________ is the ability to identify something encountered previously, and _____________ is the ability to reproduce knowledge from memory. A. Recall; recognition B. Recollection; recognition C. Recognition; recall D. Recognition; recollection Answer: C. Recognition; recall 44. Jeremy has memorized the route that his bus takes to school. He can describe it in detail to his father. This is an example of A. prospective memory. B. generic memory. C. recognition. D. episodic memory. Answer: B. generic memory. 45. _____________ is memory that produces a script of familiar routines to guide behavior. A. Generic memory B. Recall and recognition C. Autobiographical memory D. Episodic memory Answer: A. Generic memory 46. Three-year-old Molly's family took her to the circus six months ago, and she still remembers meeting the clowns. Which type of memory is Molly demonstrating? A. Recognition B. Episodic C. Generic D. Scripts Answer: B. Episodic 47. Which type of childhood memory begins at about age 2 and involves the use of scripts? A. Autobiographical B. Generic C. Episodic D. Implicit Answer: B. Generic 48. Because of its lack of reliability, _____________ memory has become an important issue in lawsuits involving charges of child abuse. A. episodic B. autobiographical C. generic D. implicit Answer: A. episodic 49. Autobiographical memory A. is the first type of memory to form. B. is personal and best constructed alone. C. is a type of episodic memory. D. helps children recall insignificant events. Answer: C. is a type of episodic memory. 50. Studies of autobiographical memory indicate that A. it typically begins before 3 years of age. B. it is dependent on the development of language. C. social interaction has little to do with its development. D. firstborns develop autobiographical memory more slowly than their siblings. Answer: B. it is dependent on the development of language. 51. Danielle is 7-years-old and is beginning to develop memories that will form her personal life history. These memories are specific and long lasting. They are _____________ memories. A. episodic B. autobiographical C. implicit D. generic Answer: B. autobiographical 52. According to the social interaction model for memory retention, which of these statements is FALSE? A. A highly elaborative style elicits more detailed information. B. The social interaction model holds that children collaboratively construct autobiographical memories. C. Low elaborative style allows children to embellish more and they are therefore better able to recall detailed memories. D. Elaborative talk provides verbal labels for events, giving memories orderly structure for children. Answer: C. Low elaborative style allows children to embellish more and they are therefore better able to recall detailed memories. 53. The idea that children construct autobiographical memories through conversations with adults about shared events is called the _____________ model. A. shared memory B. social interaction C. cognitive memory D. script Answer: B. social interaction 54. Which of the following is the best example of the social interaction model of memory? A. Tommy remembers his experience on a roller coaster. B. Tommy remembers riding with his mother on a roller coaster. C. Because of a frightening ride, Tommy hates roller coasters. D. After Tommy and his mother rode the roller coaster, they talked about the experience and now he remembers it well. Answer: D. After Tommy and his mother rode the roller coaster, they talked about the experience and now he remembers it well. 55. One of the differences that was identified when children of different cultures were asked to remember an experience was that A. American children were guided more with leading questions than Chinese children. B. Chinese children's accounts were very long, detailed, and self-guided. C. American and Chinese children left out many important facts. D. Chinese mothers tended to ask more leading questions. Answer: D. Chinese mothers tended to ask more leading questions. 56. Parents show a great deal of concern about their children's intellectual development very early on. Which of the following statements regarding early childhood and intelligence tests is FALSE? A. Because children at this stage are more proficient with language, a large number of verbal items appear on intelligence tests. B. Verbal tests are more reliable than nonverbal tests. C. A common misconception is that IQ scores represent a fixed quantity of inborn intelligence. D. Culture has little influence on IQ scores and other tests designed to measure intelligence. Answer: D. Culture has little influence on IQ scores and other tests designed to measure intelligence. 57. Compared with intelligence tests for infants and toddlers, tests for preschoolers take on a new dimension as emphasis is placed on assessing A. social skills. B. verbal skills. C. gross motor skills. D. sensory and motor coordination. Answer: B. verbal skills. 58. Which of the following is NOT a test used to measure the intelligence of children? A. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children B. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales C. Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence D. Gardner-Denver Test of Multiple Intelligences Answer: D. Gardner-Denver Test of Multiple Intelligences 59. Which of the following statements is NOT true of socioeconomic status and IQ? A. Family income is associated with cognitive development. B. The correlation between SES and IQ is not well-documented. C. Economic circumstances affect health, stress, parenting practices, and home environment. D. Regardless of income, genetic and environmental factors are both at play when it comes to intelligence. Answer: B. The correlation between SES and IQ is not well-documented. 60. Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development describes scaffolding as A. temporary parental support provided to a child as he/she attempts to complete a task. B. support most needed by children of low ability. C. a technique that reflects parental sensitivity to children's competence. D. all of the above. Answer: D. all of the above. 61. Vygotsky's zone of proximal development could also be called the zone of _____________. A. potential development B. achievement C. achieved aptitude D. prescribed development Answer: A. potential development 62. Ena is an average 3-year-old. By this age, we would expect her to be able to use about _____________ different words. A. 100 to 500 B. 900 to 1,000 C. 3,000 to 6,000 D. 12,000 to 20,000 Answer: B. 900 to 1,000 63. First-grade teachers have found that by the age of 6, their students typically have a spoken vocabulary of _____________ words. A. 900 to 1,000 B. 2,600 C. 12,000 D. 20,000 Answer: B. 2,600 64. Yesterday, 5-year-old Josh heard his father say, "Water accumulates on the roof when it rains." It was the first time he had ever heard the word "accumulate." Today, Josh told his mother, "My toys accumulate in my room." Josh is exhibiting _____________. A. egocentrism B. social speech C. fast mapping D. syntax Answer: C. fast mapping 65. A child's ability to understand what a new word means, despite hearing it only once or twice, is called _____________. A. transduction B. insight C. pragmatics D. fast mapping Answer: D. fast mapping 66. Which of the following statements regarding fast mapping is FALSE? A. Names of actions seem to be easier to fast map than names of objects. B. It takes several exposures to a word's use before a child absorbs its meaning. C. Linguists are not sure how fast mapping works. D. Fast mapping explains how children expand their vocabularies so quickly. Answer: C. Linguists are not sure how fast mapping works. 67. Jimena is a typical 3-year-old. Like most of her preschool playmates, she can correctly use A. complex, multi-clause sentences. B. plurals, past tense, and pronouns such as "I," "you," and "me." C. 20 or more words in a sentence. D. and understand compound sentences. Answer: B. plurals, past tense, and pronouns such as "I," "you," and "me." 68. At age _____________, children's language first becomes more adult-like as they incorporate compound and complex sentences, employ all parts of speech, and use prepositions and articles. A. 3 to 4 B. 5 to 7 C. 8 to 9 D. 10 to 12 Answer: B. 5 to 7 69. _____________ refers to the practical knowledge needed to use language for communicative purposes. A. Pragmatics B. Social speech C. Grammar D. Private speech Answer: A. Pragmatics 70. Abdul is growing up in a family where humor is important. He always tries to participate by telling his own jokes. They invariably lack humor and timing, but the family laughs along with him regardless. One day at the dinner table, Abdul tells a joke successfully for the first time, using intonations, timing, and humor. It appears that Abdul is developing _____________. A. grammar B. private speech C. pragmatics D. syntax Answer: C. pragmatics 71. Speech intended to be understood by a listener is called _____________ speech. A. inner B. one-on-one C. formative D. social Answer: D. social 72. Vygotsky viewed private speech as A. a rare occurrence among normal preschool-age children. B. egocentric and self-centered. C. a critical component of language during the sensorimotor stage. D. a tool important to the transition between early social speech and thinking in words. Answer: D. a tool important to the transition between early social speech and thinking in words. 73. When children talk aloud to themselves with no intent of communicating with anyone else, their speech is referred to as _____________. A. infantile B. private C. social D. abnormal Answer: B. private 74. Sebastian, a 4 year-old male, is at the pool when he sees a large woman wearing a black and white bathing suit. He yells "Orca!" as she gets in the pool. This demonstrates issues in what area of spoken language? A. Phenomes B. Syntax C. Semantics D. Pragmatics Answer: D. Pragmatics 75. Language development is delayed in about _____________ percent of preschool-aged children. A. 5-8 B. 10-15 C. 15-20 D. 20-22 Answer: A. 5-8 76. Annie was delayed in acquiring language as a child. Which of the following factors could have played a role in this delay? A. She may have had a hearing problem. B. She may not have experienced much linguistic input at home. C. She may have a cognitive limitation. D. All of the above are true. Answer: D. All of the above are true. 77. Which of the following statements about delayed language development is FALSE? A. Many children who speak late eventually catch up with their peers. B. It is often unclear why some children speak later than others. C. Children with delayed language development almost always lack linguistic input at home. D. Children with delayed language development may have problems with fast mapping. Answer: C. Children with delayed language development almost always lack linguistic input at home. 78. To understand what is on the printed page, children first need to master certain pre-reading skills. The development of these skills is called A. language acquisition. B. emergent literacy. C. phoneme-grapheme correspondence. D. word transfer. Answer: B. emergent literacy. 79. Which of the following is NOT an effective way to help preschool children become literate? A. Avoid using new and unfamiliar words. B. Focus dinner-table talk on the day's activities. C. Talk with children about books. D. Read to children. Answer: A. Avoid using new and unfamiliar words. 80. Preschools in China emphasize _____________ more than preschools in the United States. A. social development B. emotional growth C. physical development D. academic preparation for schooling Answer: D. academic preparation for schooling 81. A local preschool is trying to incorporate a more child-centered approach to its curriculum. This approach emphasizes A. preparation for future academics. B. preparation for a future role in society. C. social and emotional growth. D. standardized testing. Answer: C. social and emotional growth. 82. In _____________, preschools are expected to provide academic preparation for schooling. A. India B. China C. United States D. Canada Answer: B. China 83. What is true of the Reggio Emilia Approach to early childhood education? A. It originated in Italy post-World War II. B. It is a less formal model than Montessori. C. The founding director was a social constructivist. D. All of the above are true. Answer: D. All of the above are true. 84. Which of these statements regarding the Montessori Method to early childhood education is FALSE? A. Maria Montessori was influenced by philosophers like Rousseau who encouraged alternative teaching methods. B. Montessori was Italy's first female physician and interested in methods for teaching children with special needs. C. The Montessori method is based on the belief that children's natural intelligence involves rational, spiritual, and empirical aspects. D. All of the above are true. Answer: D. All of the above are true. 85. Large-scale preschool programs have been developed nationwide because estimates indicate that _____________ percent of children in poor urban areas enter school poorly prepared to learn. A. 33 B. 50 C. 66 D. 90 Answer: C. 66 86. The best-known compensatory preschool program for children of low-income families in the United States is A. the Montessori preschool. B. the Perry Preschool Project. C. Project Head Start. D. the Chicago Child Parent Centers. Answer: C. Project Head Start. 87. Which of the following statements about Project Head Start is FALSE? A. Head Start follows a "whole child" approach. B. The program includes medical, dental, and mental health care. C. Head Start children do better on intelligence tests than non-Head Start children from comparable backgrounds. D. Long-term positive effects of compensatory preschool programs have not been documented. Answer: D. Long-term positive effects of compensatory preschool programs have not been documented. 88. The most successful Head Start programs have been those A. that last at least a year. B. with the most parental involvement. C. with the largest number of children. D. with the highest staff-to-child ratio. Answer: B. with the most parental involvement. 89. Compared to kindergartens in the past, today's kindergarten is A. longer in terms of number of instructional hours. B. more focused on academic preparation. C. more likely to include critical evaluation of student performance. D. all of the above. Answer: D. all of the above. Essay Questions 90. Define symbolic function and, using an example, demonstrate how it can be linked to deferred imitation, pretend play, and language. Answer: Symbolic function refers to the ability to mentally represent objects and actions through symbols like words or images. For example, a child using a stick as a sword during pretend play demonstrates symbolic thinking. Deferred imitation involves remembering and imitating past actions, showing symbolic understanding. Language similarly relies on symbols to convey meaning through words and gestures, illustrating how symbolic function supports communication and imaginative play. 91. In preoperational thinking, children become more sophisticated in their use of symbolic thought, but they are not yet ready to use logic. Discuss both the advances that this stage brings to a child's cognitive development as well as the immature aspects, or limitations, that children experience. Answer: In preoperational thinking, children advance in symbolic thought, enabling language development, pretend play, and understanding of abstract concepts. They can engage in imaginative play and communicate effectively. However, limitations include egocentrism, where they struggle to consider others' perspectives, and centration, focusing on one aspect of a problem. These limitations hinder logical reasoning and understanding of conservation principles. 92. Describe what is meant by "theory-of-mind abilities." Explain how linguistic determinism, the ecological explanation, executive control, and bilingualism influence the development of theory of mind. Answer: Theory-of-mind abilities refer to understanding that others have beliefs, desires, and intentions that may differ from one's own. Linguistic determinism suggests language shapes thought, aiding theory-of-mind development. The ecological explanation posits that social interactions and experiences in different environments influence understanding others' perspectives. Executive control supports theory-of-mind by enabling perspective-taking and reasoning. Bilingualism enhances theory-of-mind by exposing children to diverse linguistic and cultural contexts, fostering empathy and perspective diversity. 93. Morgan seems to remember things and events that made a strong impression on him. However, memory of childhood events is rarely deliberate. Explain changes in memory during the period of early childhood. In your explanation, describe each of the following types of memory: generic memory, episodic memory, autobiographical memory, and the social-interaction model. Answer: In early childhood, memory undergoes significant development. Generic memory refers to generalized knowledge and skills, like knowing how to brush teeth. Episodic memory involves recalling specific events and experiences, developing as children age. Autobiographical memory relates to personal life events and emerges gradually, influenced by language and self-concept. The social-interaction model suggests memory is shaped through interactions with others, where stories and discussions help children organize and recall memories. 94. Discuss the problems involved with asking young children to give eyewitness accounts. What, if anything, can be done to ensure that their accounts are accurate? Answer: Asking young children for eyewitness accounts poses challenges due to suggestibility, limited vocabulary, and difficulty distinguishing reality from fantasy. To improve accuracy, interviewers should use open-ended questions, avoid leading prompts, and consider developmental abilities and language skills. Using neutral language and corroborating details with physical evidence or multiple perspectives can also enhance reliability in young children's accounts. 95. Compare traditional psychometric approaches to intelligence, such as the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, and Vygotsky's idea of the zone of proximal development. Answer: Traditional psychometric approaches to intelligence, like the Stanford-Binet and Wechsler scales, emphasize measuring cognitive abilities through standardized tests assessing reasoning, memory, and problem-solving skills. Vygotsky's zone of proximal development focuses on potential cognitive growth with guidance, highlighting social and cultural influences on learning rather than fixed abilities measured by tests. 96. What environmental factors can influence a child's intelligence test score? Answer: Environmental factors influencing a child's intelligence test score include socioeconomic status (SES), quality of education, parental involvement, nutrition, access to stimulating environments, and exposure to toxins or environmental stressors. Positive environments that encourage learning and provide emotional support tend to correlate with higher test scores. 97. Describe typical achievements in language development during early childhood. Discuss vocabulary, grammar and syntax, pragmatics, social speech, and private speech. Answer: During early childhood, language development sees significant achievements: Vocabulary expands rapidly, grammar and syntax become more complex, pragmatics (social rules of language use) develop, social speech adapts to different listeners and situations, and private speech aids in self-regulation and problem-solving, reflecting cognitive growth. 98. Vygotsky saw private speech as universal; however, studies have indicated a wide range of individual differences. Define private speech, and give examples. Answer: Private speech, according to Vygotsky, refers to the internal dialogue children engage in while problem-solving or regulating their behavior. It aids in planning, self-guidance, and understanding tasks. Examples include a child talking aloud while sorting toys by color or narrating steps while building blocks, demonstrating cognitive processes and self-regulation. 99. Citing research discussed in your textbook, answer the following question: Should the primary purpose of preschool be to provide a strong academic foundation or to foster social and emotional development? Answer: Research suggests that the primary purpose of preschool should prioritize fostering social and emotional development over a strong academic foundation. High-quality early childhood education that emphasizes emotional regulation, social skills, and relationships has been linked to better academic outcomes and overall well-being in children. 100. What are compensatory programs? Which of these programs have been the most successful, and why? What are some suggestions to further improve early-childhood education, and why is it important? Answer: Compensatory programs in early childhood education aim to address educational disadvantages and promote equality. Among them, high-quality preschool programs like Head Start have shown success by improving school readiness and long-term outcomes for disadvantaged children. Suggestions for improvement include increasing funding for quality preschools, enhancing teacher training, and focusing on holistic child development to ensure all children have equitable access to educational opportunities crucial for future success. 101. What are some of the benefits of early childhood education? Define universal preschool and discuss the proposed benefits of a universal preschool system. Describe the goals of The School of the Twenty-First Century. Answer: Early childhood education provides benefits such as improved school readiness, social skills development, and long-term academic success. Universal preschool refers to accessible early education programs for all children, aiming to reduce disparities and enhance readiness for formal schooling. Proposed benefits include narrowing achievement gaps, fostering equity, and supporting working families. The School of the Twenty-First Century aims to integrate early childhood education with family support services to enhance child development and parental involvement. True/False Questions 102. Children with imaginary friends have better storytelling skills than peers without imaginary friends. Answer: True 103. Justus does not realize that if a boy puts on girl clothes he is still a boy. This indicates that he is showing irreversibility. Answer: True 104. Kai holds up a picture he is drawing to the phone as he is talking to grandma and says, "Look what I drew!" This indicates Piaget's concept of egocentrism. Answer: True 105. Marcella's grandfather recently died. After the funeral, she asks her mom if grandpa is hungry. Marcella's question is an example of animism. Answer: True 106. To assess centration, Piaget presented children with the three-mountains task. Answer: False 107. Children with autism often have difficulty with theory-of-mind tasks. Answer: True 108. Magical thinking often is the result of confusion between reality and fantasy. Answer: False 109. By age 3 or 4, children fail to differentiate between fictional cartoon worlds. So if Mickey Mouse showed up on Sesame Street, they would be surprised. Answer: False 110. In an information-processing system, the flow of information moves from storage to encoding to retrieval. Answer: False 111. Someone tells you his name and as he is saying it, you cannot remember it. It most likely got lost in working memory. Answer: False 112. Athar is at a gas station when it is robbed. The police have him come down to the police station and pick photos out of a mug shot book. They are testing his recall of the robbery. Answer: False 113. An IQ score represents an inborn quality that a child has, intelligence. Answer: False 114. There is little relationship between IQ and socioeconomic status. Answer: False 115. Dynamic tests of intelligence emphasize potential rather than present achievement. Answer: True 116. When exposed to rhymes, 5-year-olds from wealthier families show more localization of language in the left hemisphere than children from poorer homes. Answer: True 117. In Spanish, you say "casa blanca," in English, "white house." These rules are an example of pragmatics. Answer: False 118. Aleksandra is sitting in church with her parents when she says, "That fat lady in front of us sure has a big hat!" This is an example of an inappropriate use of pragmatics. Answer: True 119. Valletta's parents enroll her in a school that is based on relationships with the environment, society, and people. Her classroom is beautiful and designed for a sense of well-being. Her parents have selected a Reggio Emilia school. Answer: True 120. Victor is in a class with many 3- to 6-year-olds. He works independently and at his own pace. He is most likely in a Montessori school. Answer: True 121. Kindergarten today is like first grade used to be. Answer: True Test Bank for A Child's World: Infancy Through Adolescence Diane E. Papalia, Gabriela Martorell, Ruth Duskin Feldman 9780078035432

Document Details

Related Documents

Close

Send listing report

highlight_off

You already reported this listing

The report is private and won't be shared with the owner

rotate_right
Close
rotate_right
Close

Send Message

image
Close

My favorites

image
Close

Application Form

image
Notifications visibility rotate_right Clear all Close close
image
image
arrow_left
arrow_right