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Chapter 1—The Study of Human Development
1. Who is most likely interested in the study of human development?
a. Dr. Harvey, who studies the brain cells of infants
b. Dr. Hatfield, who studies eating disorders
c. Dr. Deal, who studies how political attitudes change with age
d. Dr. Hersh, who studies elderly patients with Alzheimer’s disease
Answer: C
2. Which most accurately reflects the nature of the scientific study of human development?
a. Multidisciplinary
b. Focus on groups, not individuals
c. Nontheoretical
d. Emphasis on stability over change
Answer: A
3. Which question best captures the spirit of most individuals who study human development
with regard to the nature/nurture question?
a. How do genes and environmental factors interact in the development of memory
b. Which human behaviors are determined genetically, and which are determined by
environmental factors?
c. At what age do environmental factors surpass genetic factors as most important in human
d. Which genes are responsible for childhood behavior, and which genes are responsible for
adult behavior?
Answer: A
4. Which term does not belong in this group?

a. Experiential
b. Nurture
c. Environmental
d. Hereditary
Answer: D
5. Since Dr. Kim takes a strong nature position concerning the origins of mental retardation,
she would most likely hypothesize that her son’s mental retardation is due to
a. her parenting style.
b. his genes.
c. his exposure to a toxic chemical prior to birth.
d. random chance.
Answer: B
6. The notion that development is best described in terms of a series of abrupt shifts in
behavior best fits with the _____ approach.
a. Nature
b. Nurture
c. continuity
d. discontinuity
Answer: D
7. When discussing child development, Olaf uses terms like the “terrible 2s” and the “tranquil
3s.” These ideas are most compatible with a ____ view.
a. context-specificity
b. hereditary
c. continuity
d. discontinuity

Answer: D
8. Dr. Fletcher is attempting to determine whether adult criminals were rule breakers
throughout their childhood, or whether they suddenly turned to a life of crime. Her research is
most concerned with which issue of human development?
a. Nature versus nurture
b. Universal versus context-specific development
c. Biological versus sociocultural forces
d. Continuity versus discontinuity
Answer: D
9. Yacef is interested in determining whether children develop virtually the same way in
Algeria as they do in other parts of the world. Yacef’s research deals primarily with the
____________ issue of human development.
a. psychological versus biological forces
b. universal versus context-specific development
c. nature versus nurture
d. continuity versus discontinuity
Answer: B
10. Sara believes that memory processes develop the same way in all children. Sara is most
likely to support a _____ position regarding human development.
a. universal
b. nurture
c. discontinuous
d. non-normative
Answer: A
11. When Kayla says “It doesn’t matter if they are French, Swedish, or Chinese, kids are
kids,” she is espousing a ____ position concerning human development.

a. discontinuous
b. universal
c. nurture
d. context-specific
Answer: B
12. Sophia notices that children seem to mature socially much faster in Argentina than in the
United States. Sophia is most likely to support a ________ position regarding human
a. nature
b. discontinuous
c. context-specific
d. continuous
Answer: C
13. Lotte is listening to a lecture in which her professor states, “Genetic and cultural factors
are important, but they alone cannot explain the development of human beings.” Lotte’s
professor seems to be supporting
a. the biopsychosocial framework.
b. the position that development is continuous.
c. the notion of universality.
d. discontinuity.
Answer: A
14. Dr. Arantes uses a biopsychosocial framework for understanding human development.
Which position is she most likely to endorse on the nature versus nurture issue?
a. Nature is most important.
b. Nurture is most important.
c. Nature and nurture both play important roles in human development.

d. Neither nature nor nurture is important in the study of human development.
Answer: C
15. Because Dr. Jefferson is interested in researching how people of different ages are
affected by events, it would be most accurate to say that Dr. Jefferson is most interested in
studying _____ forces.
a. psychological
b. biological
c. life-cycle
d. sociocultural
Answer: C
16. When asked why her sister Yvonne ended up in jail, Penny says, “She was always a
mean, aggressive person. She really liked hurting people.” Penny is relying on ________
forces to explain Yvonne’s development.
a. sociocultural
b. normative age-graded
c. normative history-graded
d. psychological
Answer: D
17. If you were going to study only psychological influences of human development, you
would not research
a. self-esteem.
b. the effects of television on development.
c. the effects of depression on development.
d. cognitive processes.
Answer: B

18. Benoit is interested in studying the effects of various biological forces on human
development. Which of these topics is probably of least interest to him?
a. Cognition
b. Brain maturation
c. Menopause
d. Exercise
Answer: A
19. According to your text, which kind of developmental force has received the most
a. Biological
b. Sociocultural
c. Psychological
d. Biopsychosocial
Answer: C
20. Which does not constitute a “psychological force?”
a. Perception
b. Intelligence
c. Personality
d. Heredity
Answer: D
21. Julio is interested in studying how family relationships affect development. Julio is
probably most interested in studying ________ influences.
a. psychological
b. sociocultural
c. non-normative

d. biological
Answer: B
22. Daisy and Rose are identical twins who were separated at birth. Daisy was raised in the
United States, whereas Rose spent her childhood in Austria. Which force would likely
explain most of the differences between their behaviors as teens?
a. Psychological
b. Nature-based
c. Biological
d. Sociocultural
Answer: D
23. Your friend David has decided to start studying human development because he hates
studying biology. According to your text, will David find happiness in his new area of
a. Yes, because he can focus on psychological factors and ignore sociocultural and biological
b. Yes, but only if he enjoys studying sociocultural factors.
c. No, because studying biological influences is a necessary component to understanding
d. No, because normative age-graded influences are all biological.
Answer: C
24. Which is a problem encountered by researchers assessing the effects of sociocultural
a. The lack of genetic distinction between individuals from different racial backgrounds
b. Culture appears to have little impact on cognitive development
c. Changing ethnic labels (e.g., black American to African American)
d. The inability to apply results to the population being studied

Answer: C
25. Which best describes the relationship between biological, psychological, and
sociocultural forces in human development?
a. Unimportant
b. Interactive
c. Independent
d. Non-normative
Answer: B
26. Marcelia has been promoted and is moving her family to a new city in a different part of
the country. Though 4-year-old Fernando is very happy and makes the transition easily, 12year-old Jorge is unhappy and has a very difficult time adjusting to the move. Both children
generally adapt well to change. Which single set of factors best explains the different
responses of Fernando and Jorge to the move?
a. Biological factors
b. Sociocultural factors
c. Personality factors
d. Life-cycle factors
Answer: D
27. When Alfonso says, “It would have been tough to be a father at age 21, but being one at
age 28 is super,” he is noting the important role that ______ factors play in human
a. biological
b. life-cycle
c. Sociocultural
d. Psychological
Answer: B

28. Which best exemplifies the basic premise of life-cycle forces?
a. Biological forces play little role once a person reaches puberty.
b. Unconscious desires are the basis for most human behavior.
c. Early experiences may influence behavior throughout one’s development.
d. The forces that influence human behavior are too complex to identify through empirical
Answer: C
29. Connie is a second-grade teacher who notices that her students behave differently than the
fourth-graders during recess. She comes up with several connected ideas to explain why the
two groups behave differently. Connie’s ideas would best be described as ____________.
a. an experiment
b. a theory
c. a study
d. a mesosystem
Answer: B
30. A _________ is an organized set of ideas that is designed to explain development.
a. theory
b. prediction
c. correlation coefficient
d. structured observation
Answer: A
31. Psychodynamic theories place the least emphasis on the ________ portion of the
biopsychosocial framework.
a. life-cycle
b. psychological

c. Sociocultural
d. Biological
Answer: D
32. When asked to explain why children sometimes act violently, Dr. Zylar responds,
“Generally speaking, these children are driven by conflicts between what they wish to do and
what society wishes them to do.” It is most likely that Dr. Zylar would be a proponent of
_____________ theory.
a. psychodynamic
b. social cognitive
c. Ecological
d. cognitive-developmental
Answer: A
33. Mick’s biggest challenge in life is to think of his life as satisfactory and that it is worth
living (i.e., he needs to get some satisfaction). According to psychosocial theory, Mick is
probably in the _________ stage of life.
a. young adulthood
b. adolescence
c. late life
d. birth to 1 year
Answer: C
34. Who is best associated with psychosocial theory?
a. Erikson
b. Bandura
c. Watson
d. Freud
Answer: A

35. The epigenetic principle is a key component of ___________ theory.
a. social cognitive
b. ecological
c. information-processing
d. Psychosocial
Answer: D
36. The fact that hope is important in early childhood, that development of identity is most
important in adolescence, and that wisdom is most important in late life is an example of
a. external societal demands.
b. the epigenetic principle.
c. naturalistic observation.
d. identity versus identity confusion.
Answer: B
37. What would Erikson say is the stage in life where the biggest challenge involves
committing to another in a loving relationship?
a. Childhood
b. Adolescence
c. Young adulthood
d. Old adulthood
Answer: C
38. The argument that each psychosocial strength has its own special age period of specific
importance is the cornerstone of _____ theory of development.
a. Bandura’s
b. Erikson’s
c. Skinner’s

d. Vygotsky’s
Answer: B
39. How would Erik Erikson respond to the statement, “A midlife crisis is a normal part of
the human life cycle”?
a. He would agree.
b. He would disagree and point out that there is no “normal” progression of human
c. He would disagree and point out that “crises” are not a normal part of human development.
d. He would say nothing since he focused on development between birth and adolescence.
Answer: A
40. The basic premise of _____ is that the consequences of a behavior determine the
likelihood of the behavior being repeated in the future.
a. the life-span perspective
b. the epigenetic principle
c. universal development
d. operant conditioning
Answer: D
41. After completing his history assignment, Nico is excused from having to wash the dishes,
a task he detests. Nico’s parents are attempting to use _________ to increase Nico’s studying.
a. positive reinforcement
b. Punishment
c. extinction
d. negative reinforcement
Answer: D
42. Lynne always wants to go visit her grandparents because when she visits they give her a
new toy. The grandparents have ________ her visiting behavior.

a. reinforced
b. extinguished
c. punished
d. extinguished
Answer: A
43. In operant conditioning theory, reinforcement is to punishment as
a. increasing is to decreasing.
b. giving is to taking.
c. unwanted is to wanted.
d. good is to bad.
Answer: A
44. If a behavior is effectively being reinforced it will
a. eventually go away.
b. increase in frequency.
c. improve self-esteem.
d. be imitated by others.
Answer: B
45. Zhang is attempting to alter the behavior of his son by controlling the consequences of his
son’s actions. Zhang is practicing
a. social learning theory.
b. negative reinforcement.
c. operant conditioning.
d. ecological theory.
Answer: C
46. An effective punishment

a. causes some physical pain.
b. follows a reinforcer.
c. reduces the likelihood that a behavior will occur in the future.
d. eventually becomes ineffective.
Answer: C
47. Morticia finds that whenever she talks to her daughter about her obnoxious behavior, the
obnoxious behavior increases in frequency. Apparently, Morticia’s talks are ____ her
daughter’s obnoxious behavior.
a. punishing
b. reinforcing
c. suppressing
d. having no effect on
Answer: B
48. Dr. Gauche likes to make fun of student comments in class. She finds that every time she
does this, students make fewer comments the rest of the class period. Apparently, Dr.
Gauche’s jokes are ____ the students for talking in class.
a. punishing
b. negatively reinforcing
c. positively reinforcing
d. imitating
Answer: A
49. Imitation is most closely related to the concept of
a. positive reinforcement.
b. life-cycle forces.
c. selective optimization.

d. observational learning.
Answer: D
50. Even though Brenda was never reinforced directly for doing so, she increased the
frequency of her swearing after she saw her friend Elizabeth get a lot of attention after she
swore. This is most likely an example of
a. observational learning.
b. operant conditioning.
c. punishment.
d. self-efficacy.
Answer: A
51. Melissa is doing a study where volleyball players are interviewed about their role on the
team and perceived capabilities for playing in Saturday’s game. Melissa seems to be
assessing the ___________ of the volleyball players.
a. life-cycle forces
b. exosystems
c. internal maturational plans
d. self-efficacy
Answer: D
52. Alberto believes he can successfully ski down a steep mountain. Bandura would be most
likely to say that Alberto has
a. reached formal operations.
b. high self-efficacy.
c. resolved the industry versus inferiority stage.
d. been negatively reinforced.
Answer: B

53. Mr. Link tries to help his students learn how to be assertive by having them watch how
other students can be successful by acting assertively. Mr. Link is using principles of ____ to
help his students.
a. social learning theory
b. operant conditioning
c. cognitive-developmental theory
d. psychosocial theory
Answer: A
54. Who would most likely explain a child’s maladaptive behavior by saying, “They probably
saw some TV character do that”?
a. Ginger, who is a behaviorist
b. Gilligan, who is a social learning theorist
c. Thurston, who is a Freudian theorist
d. Mary Ann, who is a Piagetian theorist
Answer: B
55. Who developed social cognitive theory?
a. Piaget
b. Skinner
c. Bronfenbrenner
d. Bandura
Answer: D
56. Dr. Sefky says: “Sure, reinforcement and punishment are important, but how people
interpret reinforcement and punishment is even more important.” Given this statement, Dr.
Sefky’s view is most likely to agree with
a. operant conditioning.
b. social cognitive theory.

c. psychosocial theory.
d. psychodynamic theory.
Answer: B
57. Social cognitive theory and operant conditioning are similar in that they both
a. view the individual as an active processor of information.
b. believe that experience is important in determining behavior.
c. place a greater emphasis on nature than on nurture.
d. stress discontinuity.
Answer: B
58. Whose theory of development is best exemplified by the idea that children construct their
own knowledge and this constructed knowledge changes with age/experience?
a. Piaget
b. Bronfenbrenner
c. Erikson
d. Skinner
Answer: A
59. Brandon’s developmental psychology teacher believes human development is best
conceptualized as progressing discontinuously through several qualitatively different stages
of thinking. His instructor is likely a(n)
a. Piagetian.
b. social learning theorist.
c. ecological theorist.
d. behaviorist.
Answer: A
60. What is the correct order of Piaget’s stages of development?

a. Sensorimotor, concrete operational, preoperational, formal operational
b. Preoperational, formal operational, concrete operational, sensorimotor
c. Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
d. Preoperational, sensorimotor, formal operational, concrete operational
Answer: C
61. When describing the development of his son Pitt, Brad says, “The best way to describe it
is in terms of a slow computer with a small memory getting faster processor and more storage
space.” This type of description would suggest that Brad adheres to a(n) _______ approach to
a. operant conditioning
b. ecological theory
c. Piagetian
d. information-processing
Answer: D
62. Rutger believes that, rather than progressing through a sequence of stages, mental
processes gradually get more complex and efficient. Rutger is most likely a proponent of
a. Piaget’s theory.
b. Kohlberg’s theory.
c. information-processing theory.
d. Erikson’s theory.
Answer: C
63. What type of theorist would most likely describe human cognitive development using the
analogy of “mental software?”
a. An information-processing theorist
b. An Eriksonian
c. An operant conditioning theorist

d. A social learning theorist
Answer: A
64. Dr. Strauss is a developmental psychologist who is interested in Vygotsky’s theory. What
sort of forces are probably of most interest to Dr. Strauss?
a. Biological
b. Psychological
c. Life cycle
d. Sociocultural
Answer: D
65. Who would have the least amount of interest in children’s thinking?
a. An information-processing theorist
b. A Skinnerian theorist
c. A Vygotskian theorist
d. A Piagetian theorist
Answer: B
66. The biggest difference between Vygotsky’s approach to development and that of Piaget
and the information-processing approach is that Vygotsky placed more emphasis on
a. the impact of culture.
b. stages of development.
c. thinking.
d. unconscious thoughts.
Answer: A
67. When Dr. Bentley is asked to explain troubled adolescents, she says, “The only way to
explain the problems of adolescents is to study them in relation to their parents and the
culture that surrounds them.” Dr. Bentley is most likely a proponent of ____ theory.

a. Psychodynamic
b. cognitive developmental
c. ecological
d. social cognitive
Answer: C
68. Which theorist is best associated with an ecological approach to human development?
a. Freud
b. Piaget
c. Erikson
d. Bronfenbrenner
Answer: D
69. Mary has only one child, one-year-old Shelly, and has stayed home for most of Shelly’s
life. From an ecological perspective, Mary is best thought of as part of Shelly’s
a. mesosystem.
b. exosystem.
c. macrosystem.
d. microsystem.
Answer: D
70. According to ecological theorydevelopmentalists, the people closest to a developing child
represent their
a. microsystem.
b. macrosystem.
c. macrosystem.
d. exosystem.
Answer: A

71. Louis discovers that the experiences he has in his developmental psychology class help
him to deal with the children he works with at a daycare center. This relationship is best
described by Bronfenbrenner’s notion of
a. mesosystem.
b. exosystem.
c. macrosystem.
d. microsystem.
Answer: A
72. A researcher who wants to study how state welfare programs influence parenting
behaviors would be primarily studying
a. microsystems.
b. exosystems.
c. mesosystems.
d. operant conditioning.
Answer: B
73. The AIDS epidemic has dramatically influenced dating behavior in the 2000s. From an
ecological perspective, this influence is best thought of as part of the culture’s
a. mesosystem.
b. exosystem.
c. macrosystem.
d. microsystem.
Answer: C
74. When Tina was given a huge salary increase, she was able to get things for her children
that they had always needed and move into a nicer home. Bronfenbrenner would state that
this increase in the mother’s salary is an example of the impact of the children’s
a. exosystem.

b. mesosystem.
c. macrosystem.
d. microsystem.
Answer: A
75. Matti finds himself unable to adjust to college because he doesn’t seem to have the study
skills necessary to earn passing grades. Matti’s predicament would probably best be
explained by
a. psychosocial theory.
b. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory.
c. the competence-environmental press theory.
d. Kohlberg’s theory of moral development.
Answer: C
76. Who is most likely to support a life-span perspective?
a. Corynne, who believes that childhood is the most important stage of development
b. Claire, who thinks that to understand adults you must consider prior development
c. Simone, who agrees with Piaget
d. Danielle, who agrees with Vygotsky
Answer: B
77. Whose theory is best associated with a life-span perspective emphasizing research on
adult development?
a. Bandura
b. Baltes
c. Bronfenbrenner
d. Piaget
Answer: B

78. Marcia is 80 years old and is learning how to speak French and play the guitar for the first
time. This new skill development is a good example of
a. multiple causation.
b. historical context.
c. plasticity.
d. multidirectionality.
Answer: C
79. Jackson’s knowledge of economics has grown over the years, while at the same time his
ability to play hockey has deteriorated. Jackson’s experience best exemplifies
a. multiple causation.
b. historical context.
c. plasticity.
d. multidirectionality.
Answer: D
80. Multidirectionality, plasticity, historical context, and multiple causation are all key
features of the ________ perspective.
a. life-span
b. cognitive-developmental
c. psychosocial
d. Ecological
Answer: A
81. The fact that a teen growing up during the Vietnam War will develop in a different
manner than a teen growing up during the Iraq War is best explained in terms of
a. multidirectionality.
b. multiple causation.

c. plasticity.
d. historical context.
Answer: D
82. Lisa is getting ready to apply for graduate school. In order to focus on this goal, she is
resigning from her posts as editor of the campus newspaper and president of her sorority.
These changes in Lisa’s life are an example of
a. compensation.
b. elective selection.
c. loss-based selection.
d. self-efficacy.
Answer: B
83. The selective optimization with compensation model is primarily associated with the
_____ perspective.
a. cognitive-developmental
b. ecological
c. psychodynamic
d. life-span
Answer: D
84. Professor Linwood always makes a point of learning the names of all the students in her
class. She used to always be able to do this in her head but has recently found that she needs
note cards to help her remember. This change in behavior is best described as
a. loss-based selection.
b. elective selection.
c. compensation.
d. the epigenetic principle.
Answer: C

85. Dana studies how individuals’ life goals change as people get older and how individuals
maintain and enhance these goals. Dana is most likely a proponent of the ____ model.
a. social cognitive
b. ecological
c. epigenetic
d. selective optimization with compensation
Answer: D
86. Orlaith is interested in studying the impact of growing up during the Great Depression on
the saving and spending habits of individuals. Orlaith’s perspective is best described as a
____ perspective.
a. life-course
b. life-span
c. social cognitive
d. Psychosocial
Answer: A
87. Aislinn wonders if the attack on New York on September 11, 2001 will impact the career
goals of individuals who were adolescents at the time of the attack. This kind of question is
one that best reflects a(n) _________ perspective.
a. cognitive-developmental
b. life-course
c. social cognitive
d. operant conditioning
Answer: B
88. Which research study would you most expect to see from a researcher with a life-course
a. The effect of smoking on neurotransmitter systems and memory

b. How memory processes change from infancy to old age
c. Growing up in the 1960s, and its influence on drug-taking behavior in middle adulthood
d. Sex differences in marital satisfaction
Answer: C
89. The fact that George is worried about how the recession will impact his current job status
is best associated with
a. individual timing of life events in relation to external historical events.
b. the synchronization of individual transitions with collective familial ones.
c. the impact of earlier life events on current conditions.
d. history determining the outcome of life.
Answer: A
90. The notion of “balancing” work and home-life responsibilities is best associated with
a. individual timing of life events in relation to external historical events.
b. the synchronization of individual transitions with collective familial ones.
c. the impact of earlier life events on current conditions.
d. history determining the outcome of life.
Answer: B
91. Patti studies the behavior of preschool children by watching them play at a local daycare
center. While doing this, she is careful to find a spot where she will be completely unnoticed
by the individuals she is observing. Patti is most likely using a ________ approach to
studying the children.
a. structured observation
b. correlational
c. self-report
d. naturalistic observation

Answer: D
92. Carrie is most interested in studying adolescent behavior occurring at a high school prom.
Which method is most likely to help her accomplish this goal?
a. Structured observation
b. Naturalistic observation
c. Self-report
d. Experiment
Answer: B
93. Which must always occur in a real-life setting?
a. Experiment
b. Structured observation
c. Naturalistic observation
d. Systematic observation
Answer: C
94. Carrie takes notes on the behaviors exhibited by college students attending a frat party.
This study would best be described as
a. longitudinal.
b. systematic observational.
c. experimental.
d. sequential.
Answer: B
95. Dr. Lund stages a fire drill at the elementary school in order to study how children
respond to potential emergency situations. Dr. Lund’s method would best be described as
a. structured observation.

b. naturalistic observation.
c. self-report.
d. experiment.
Answer: A
96. Dr. Ims studies how children think about television by asking them to answer several
questions related to their television viewing. It is most likely that Dr. Ims’s research involves
using a(n) _________ method.
a. naturalistic observation
b. structured observation
c. experiment
d. self-report
Answer: D
97. Which method of measuring behavior is most likely to be used in combination with other
behavioral measures?
a. Physiological measures
b. Self-reports
c. Naturalistic observation
d. Sampling behavior with tasks
Answer: A
98. Which method of measuring behavior is most effective at directly studying brain activity?
a. Physiological measures
b. Self-reports
c. Naturalistic observation
d. Sampling behavior with tasks
Answer: A

99. Dr. Nuriama is interested in studying the way people spend their time when they are in
their own homes alone. Which method is Dr. Nuriama most likely to use for this study?
a. Physiological measures
b. Naturalistic observation
c. Structured observation
d. Self-reports
Answer: D
100. Dr. Simpson’s students were rightfully upset when he used very accurate weight scales
(assessing the poundage of each pupil) to determine their grades in a developmental
psychology class because his method of assessment lacked
a. sufficient sample size.
b. reliability.
c. validity.
d. the ability to identify practice effects.
Answer: C
101. Which word is the best description of the meaning of the term “reliability?”
a. Ethical
b. Valid
c. Cross-sectional
d. Consistency
Answer: D
102. Harold is upset with his grade on his developmental psychology test, and says, “I bet if I
would’ve taken that test at another time I would have done much better.” Harold’s complaint
deals most directly with the questionable _______ of the test.
a. validity
b. sample

c. reliability
d. population
Answer: C
103. Validity is to reliability as
a. study is to experiment.
b. cause is to correlation.
c. positive is to negative.
d. accuracy is to consistency.
Answer: D
104. Which research finding supports the idea that a new intelligence test is valid?
a. Individuals earn the same score on the test every time they take it.
b. Individuals score higher on the test when they are older than when they were younger.
c. Scores on the new intelligence test are correlated with scores on another valid intelligence
d. Most individuals score high on the new intelligence test.
Answer: C
105. Which statement is always true?
a. A population is larger than a sample.
b. A population consists of a single sample.
c. A sample is another term for a population.
d. A sample is a cultural concept while a population is a social concept.
Answer: A
106. Virtually all studies done in psychology rely on studying people representative of a
larger group. The groups of people who participate in these studies are most commonly
known as

a. samples.
b. populations.
c. mesosystems.
d. independent variables.
Answer: A
107. Population is to sample as
a. small is to large.
b. reliability is to validity.
c. micro is to macro.
d. set is to subset.
Answer: D
108. In a correlational study variables are always studied
a. as they exist naturally.
b. after some manipulation.
c. during an experiment.
d. at the population level.
Answer: A
109. Harvey is interested in doing a study to determine whether or not a statistically
significant relationship exists between participating in college athletics and self-efficacy for
academic work. Because Harvey is not particularly interested in determining a cause-andeffect relationship, he would be best advised to do a(n) ____ study.
a. cross-sectional
b. correlational
c. experimental
d. naturalistic observation

Answer: B
110. Based on a study that finds that self-esteem is negatively correlated with college grades,
which person would you predict would have the highest grades?
a. Michael, who has very high self-esteem
b. Davey, who has average self-esteem
c. Peter, who has very low self-esteem
d. It’s impossible to predict
Answer: C
111. You read a research article that concludes that the higher a student’s self-esteem, the
worse he performs in school. This sort of relationship would best be characterized as
a. a negative correlation.
b. no relationship.
c. positive correlation.
d. cause and effect.
Answer: A
112. Which correlation coefficient value indicates the strongest relationship?
a. -.23
b. .57
c. .15
d. -.82
Answer: D
113. After grading the first exam, your developmental psychology instructor says, “Those
students who actually came to class did much better than those of you who showed up once a
week.” Given this information, you would suspect that the correlation between attendance
and grades would be closest to ______.
a. +.09

b. + .9
c. + 9
d. + 90
Answer: B
114. The value of a(n) _________ can range from -1.0 to 1.0.
a. correlation coefficient
b. dependent variable
c. independent variable
d. sample
Answer: A
115. Mario is going to do a correlational study dealing with playing video games and
intelligence. Because he is using this particular method, he will not be able to
a. measure the variables quantitatively.
b. determine the direction of the relationship between these two variables.
c. determine the magnitude of the relationship between these two variables.
d. determine whether changes in one of these variables causes changes in the other.
Answer: D
116. Shuntelle is interested in studying the relationship between self-esteem and school
grades. She wants to be able to quantify this relationship but wants to avoid any ethical
concerns regarding the manipulation of these variables. What sort of method is the best
option for Shuntelle?
a. Correlational
b. Natural observation
c. Experiment
d. Physiological

Answer: A
117. If Hamid wants to do one study to determine whether or not playing violent video games
causes children to act more aggressively, he would be best served by doing a(n)
a. experiment.
b. correlational study.
c. longitudinal study.
d. cross-sectional study.
Answer: A
118. Zsuzsi is conducting a study to determine whether skateboarding causes a reduction in
intelligence. In this experiment, skateboarding is the
a. control group.
b. independent variable.
c. dependent variable.
d. cohort effect.
Answer: B
119. In an experiment designed to determine whether taking vitamin A before attending a
social event improves self-esteem, what is the dependent variable?
a. Vitamin A
b. The social event
c. The level of self-esteem
d. The age of the participants
Answer: C
120. Which type of variable is manipulated by an experimenter?
a. Dependent
b. Independent

c. Confounding
d. Extraneous
Answer: B
121. A researcher has a hypothesis that hostility toward women is created by viewing
pornography. If the researcher does an experiment to test this, what would be the independent
a. Scores on a “hostility toward women” scale
b. Being placed in a control group
c. The viewing of pornography
d. The sex of the subjects
Answer: C
122. You are doing a study to determine whether smoking nicotine prior to taking a
psychology test affects performance on that test. What is the independent variable in your
a. The psychology test
b. The participants in your study
c. Smoking nicotine
d. It depends on where the study is conducted
Answer: C
123. In an experiment, the dependent variable is the behavior that is being
a. manipulated.
b. controlled.
c. correlated.
d. observed.
Answer: D

124. A publishing company does a study to determine whether using a study guide for a
textbook improves performance on psychology exams. In this study, grades on the
psychology exams would constitute the _______ variable.
a. correlational
b. independent
c. manipulated
d. dependent
Answer: D
125. Qualitative research differs from quantitative research because it
a. is conducted in the laboratory.
b. seeks to gain an understanding of what governs behavior.
c. is non-correlational.
d. relies heavily on statistical analysis.
Answer: B
126. Dr. Feldman is studying sibling rivalry. Each of his participants has been assessed every
five years since 1970. Dr. Feldman’s overall research design is best classified as
a. cross-sectional.
b. experimental.
c. longitudinal.
d. sequential.
Answer: C
127. You are reading the results of a study that tracked how a particular individual’s religious
beliefs changed over the course of her life. The study you are reading is most likely a(n)
_______ study.
a. longitudinal
b. cross-sectional

c. sequential
d. experimental
Answer: A
128. Denise is studying how attitudes toward government change over the course of life by
studying one group of people when they are 11, 21, 31, 41, 51, and 61 years old. What kind
of design is Denise using?
a. Sequential
b. Longitudinal
c. Cross-sectional
d. Experiment
Answer: B
129. Dr. Mitchell is very interested in how individual participants’ behaviors change over
time. If she wants to study this, she’ll have to do a(n) ________ study.
a. naturalistic observation
b. cross-sectional
c. experimental
d. longitudinal
Answer: D
130. Researchers studying of life satisfaction compared measures of life satisfaction over a
17-year period of time. This is an example of the use of a(n) ________ research design.
a. experimental
b. cross-sectional
c. longitudinal
d. sequential
Answer: C

131. Which of the following is not a problem related to longitudinal research?
a. It is difficult to generalize results to the larger population.
b. Participants may improve on the tests by taking them multiple times.
c. It’s expensive to keep collecting data on a large number of participants.
d. Participants may choose not to continue.
Answer: A
132. Which researcher is most likely doing a cross-sectional study?
a. Jim, who is studying several different-aged groups at the same time
b. Joey, who is using several physiological measures in his study
c. Jan, who is doing a correlational study
d. Jody, who is doing an observation of first-graders
Answer: A
133. Michael studies developmental differences in extroversion by testing 9-, 19-, 39-, and
59-year-old subjects all at the same time. Michael is performing a(n) ____ study.
a. sequential
b. longitudinal
c. experimental
d. cross-sectional
Answer: D
134. 3The fact that Tatiana likes to listen to the Hives (a 2000s band) and her grandmother
prefers listening to Bill Haley and the Comets (a 1950s band) is probably best explained by
a. age effects.
b. non-normative factors.
c. cohort effects.
d. time-of-measurement effects.

Answer: C
135. Smita studies two different cohorts over a 50-year period, testing each subject every five
years. Smita is using a ____ design.
a. longitudinal
b. cross-sectional
c. sequential
d. microgenetic
Answer: C
136. Greta wants to do a study on how self-efficacy changes over the life span. Her primary
concerns are economic. She needs to do the study in the way that will cost the least in terms
of time and money. Given these concerns, she is probably going to be best served doing a(n)
_________ study.
a. longitudinal
b. cross-sectional
c. sequential
d. experimental
Answer: B
137. The advantage of the _____ design is that it allows a researcher to synthesize data from
across numerous studies.
a. longitudinal
b. meta-analysis
c. cross-sectional
d. qualitative
Answer: B
138. Kelly is doing research on the effect of birth order on personality. Rather than collecting
data on a new set of subjects, she is analyzing hundreds of studies that have already been

done on this topic and is going to attempt to come up with an overall estimate of what all
these other studies have found. What sort of study is Kelly doing?
a. Experiment
b. Meta-analysis
c. Correlational
d. Longitudinal
Answer: B
139. Your developmental psychology teacher tells you that part of the course requirement is
that you will have to complete a meta-analytic study. This means that it is most likely that
you will be collecting data on _____________ in order to fulfill this requirement.
a. adult human subjects
b. children
c. previously published research
d. a variety of human and animal subjects
Answer: C
140. Which statement is not consistent with ethical research?
a. Subject responses should be confidential.
b. Never tell subjects if they’ve been deceived.
c. Minimize risks to subjects.
d. Give subjects the right to withdraw from the research without penalty.
Answer: B
141. According to the American Psychological Association, researchers must
a. eliminate all risk to participants
b. minimize risk to participants.
c. use deception if there are risks to participants.

d. pay participants if they are put at risk.
Answer: B
142. Results from individual research participants should be
a. confidential.
b. public.
c. coded by name.
d. ignored.
Answer: A
143. After completing their study, researchers send a copy of their findings to a scientific
journal in hopes of having it published. This reflects which step of the research process?
a. Developing hypotheses
b. Analyzing the data
c. Communicating research results
d. Applying the results of research
Answer: C
144. As a result of reading several research articles on the long-term effects of daycare, a
state legislature passes a new law mandating that all daycare providers modify their practices
to be in concordance with this research. This action reflects
a. how research can affect social policy.
b. the benefits of doing meta-analytic research.
c. the importance of longitudinal studies.
d. why correlational research is superior in some ways to experimental research.
Answer: A
145. Which statement best reflects the views of the text regarding research in developmental

a. Research findings can be important in shaping social policy.
b. Research findings are useful only to scientists who study the same topics.
c. Research findings may be interesting to nonscientists, but the information can rarely be
used in the real world.
d. Research in developmental psychology does not make much of a scientific contribution.
Answer: A
146. Stem cells that could be used to treat diseases such as Parkinson’s disease are taken from
a. adult human spinal cords.
b. human embryos.
c. animal brains.
d. plants.
Answer: B
147. Researchers believe that ____ may be able to successfully treat previously incurable
conditions such as paralysis and Alzheimer’s disease.
a. neurotoxins
b. stem cells
c. SSRIs
d. L-dopa
Answer: B
1. The continuity-discontinuity issue concerns whether there is just one path of development
or several.
Answer: False
2. If you believe in continuity, you believe that development is best characterized as
following a smooth progression.

Answer: True
3. Someone taking a universal stance believes that there is only one path of development.
Answer: True
4. The influence of your family on your behavior would be considered a psychological force.
Answer: False
5. In a life-cycle model, the timing of an event has little influence on the type of impact it has
on behavior.
Answer: False
6. The epigenetic principle provides the basis for psychosocial theory’s sequence of stages.
Answer: True
7. Negative reinforcement increases the future likelihood of the behavior that it follows.
Answer: True
8. Self-efficacy focuses on a person’s beliefs about his or her abilities and talents.
Answer: True
9. Piaget’s theory emphasizes the manner in which children construct knowledge.
Answer: True
10. Information-processing theory rejects the notion of conceptualizing humans as having
mental hardware and software.
Answer: False
11. Vygotsky emphasized the role of cultural context on human development.
Answer: True
12. When explaining an individual’s behavior, proponents of ecological theory would say that
you have to consider factors outside of the child him- or herself.
Answer: True
13. A mesosystem provides connections across microsystems.

Answer: True
14. Plasticity refers to the fact that as we develop, some of our skills grow and others decline.
Answer: False
15. Compensation cannot involve the learning of a new skill.
Answer: False
16. In a naturalistic observation a researcher creates a setting designed to elicit a response.
Answer: False
17. A questionnaire is a written form of a self-report.
Answer: True
18. Determining whether a form of measurement is measuring what it is supposed to be
measuring is determining its reliability.
Answer: False
19. Teenagers would be included in a sample of the population that includes all individuals
between ages 5 and 50.
Answer: True
20. The strength of correlational research lies in its ability to determine cause.
Answer: False
21. In an experiment, the dependent variable is manipulated.
Answer: False
22. Longitudinal studies are more cost-effective than cross-sectional studies.
Answer: False
23. An advantage of cross-sectional studies is that they cannot be influenced by cohort
Answer: False
24. A meta-analysis involves the synthesis of results from numerous studies.

Answer: True
25. Outcomes of developmental research can have important implications for social policy.
Answer: True
1. The _____ issue involves the degree to which hereditary and environmental influences
determine behavior.
Answer: nature/nurture
2. _____ forces include all perceptual, cognitive, emotional, and personality factors that
affect development.
Answer: Psychological
3. Erik Erikson is best associated with _____ theory.
Answer: psychosocial
4. The belief that each psychosocial strength has its own specific period of importance is
based on the _____ principle.
Answer: epigenetic
5. A(n) _____ is a consequence that decreases the future likelihood of the behavior that it
Answer: punishment
6. In social learning theory, imitation is referred to as _____ learning.
Answer: observational
7. _____ theory describes cognition in terms of mental software and hardware.
Answer: Information-processing
8. In ecological theory, the _____ consists of the people and objects in an individual’s
immediate environment.
Answer: microsystem

9. According to Bronfenbrenner, the culture in which a person is raised represents his or her
Answer: macrosystem
10. The selective _____ with compensation model focuses on the impact of elective selection,
loss-based selection, and compensation.
Answer: optimization
11. The _____ perspective describes the ways in which various generations experience the
biological, psychological, and sociocultural forces of development in their respective
historical contexts.
Answer: life-course
12. In a(n) _____ observation study, people are observed as they behave spontaneously in
some real-life situation.
Answer: naturalistic
13. A subset of a population is called a(n) _____.
Answer: sample
14. In an experiment, the experimenter manipulates the _____ variable.
Answer: independent
15. A(n) _____ design is the best design to address the limitations of longitudinal and crosssectional designs.
Answer: sequential
11. Demonstrate and understanding of operant conditioning by differentiating between
positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment.
Answer: Positive reinforcement involves giving a reward in order to increase the likelihood
of a behavior reoccurring. Negative reinforcement involves taking away something
unpleasant in order to increase the likelihood of a behavior reoccurring. Punishment is any

consequence that decreases the likelihood of a behavior reoccurring. It can involve giving
something unwanted or taking away something wanted.
12. Salem has decided to do a correlational study on the relationship between smoking and
lung cancer. How might this research be conducted? What are the major disadvantages of this
type of research approach?
Answer: In a correlational study, two variables are studies as they exist in the natural world.
Thus, a researcher could find data on how many people smoke and how many of those people
have lung cancer. The main disadvantage is the inability to determine a cause-effect
relationship between smoking and lung cancer.

Test Bank for Human Development : A Life-Span View
Robert V Kail, John C Cavanaugh
9781111834111, 9781337554831

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