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Chapter 7—Expanding Social Horizons: Socioemotional Development in Middle Childhood
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. Liam is learning the values, behaviors, and roles of his culture. In other words, Liam is
experiencing
a. direct instruction.
b. counterimitation.
c. authoritative parenting.
d. socialization.
Answer: D
2. Early psychologists like Watson viewed _____ as “all powerful” concerning the
development of a child.
a. parents
b. peers
c. teachers
d. siblings
Answer: A
3. According to the systems view of families, how many of the following influence a child’s
development: neighborhood, school, religious organizations, extended family?
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4
Answer: D
4. Marissa is a researcher who believes that to understand childrearing, you must get beyond
looking solely at how parents treat their children and look at the behavior of the children, the
behavior of their siblings, the behavior of the parents toward each other, and the

neighborhood in which the child lives. It is most likely that Marissa supports a ____ view of
childrearing.
a. psychodynamic
b. blended family
c. systems
d. counterimitation
Answer: C
5. The two main dimensions of parental behavior are
a. dominance and counterimitation.
b. counterimitation and warmth.
c. warmth and control.
d. control and dominance.
Answer: C
6. Which parenting style might best be described as “low warmth and high control?”
a. Authoritarian
b. Permissive
c. Uninvolved
d. Authoritative
Answer: A
7. Dick and Wendy want their children to work hard. They have rules and expect their
children to obey them without question. Dick and Wendy are most likely _____ parents.
a. uninvolved
b. authoritarian
c. authoritative
d. permissive

Answer: B
8. The _____ parenting style is best described as both controlling and warm.
a. authoritarian
b. authoritative
c. permissive
d. uninvolved
Answer: B
9. When Ki-Jana asks his parents if he can buy a car, his parents say no but sit down and
explain to him the reasoning behind their decision. His parents express affection toward him
and tell him that they may consider the matter at some later time. Which parenting style best
describes Ki-Jana’s parents?
a. Authoritarian
b. Permissive
c. Uninvolved
d. Authoritative
Answer: D
10. A permissive parent is best thought of as
a. cold and controlling.
b. warm and controlling.
c. cold and uncontrolling.
d. warm and uncontrolling.
Answer: D
11. Sally and Dan are quick to express affection toward their son, Zach, and accept most of
his behavior. In fact, Zach has never once been punished. Sally and Dan are exhibiting a(n)
____ style of parenting.
a. authoritative

b. authoritarian
c. uninvolved
d. permissive
Answer: D
12. When all of his buddies call home to tell their parents they will be getting home late from
the game, Dieter doesn’t bother, saying, “My mom and dad are too busy to care about me.
They don’t care how late I’m out—in fact, they never even ask where I’m going.” If Dieter is
right, his parents are most likely exhibiting a(n) ____ parenting style.
a. uninvolved
b. authoritarian
c. permissive
d. authoritative
Answer: A
13. When you hear someone say, “Those neighbor kids are neglected. Even when the parents
are home, they do virtually nothing,” which parenting style should come to mind?
a. Authoritarian
b. Permissive
c. Uninvolved
d. Authoritative
Answer: C
14. Which parenting style is best characterized as “indifferent?”
a. Authoritarian
b. Authoritative
c. Permissive
d. Uninvolved

Answer: D
15. After having read a book on parenting styles, if you wished to raise a friendly and selfreliant child, you would try to adopt a(n) _____ parenting style.
a. permissive
b. authoritative
c. uninvolved
d. authoritarian
Answer: B
16. Because they have a permissive parenting style, you would predict that Alan and Sue’s
son would
a. earn high grades in school.
b. have limited self-control.
c. be self-reliant.
d. have control over his behavior.
Answer: B
17. Children who are aggressive tend to come from families with _________ parenting styles.
a. authoritarian or authoritative
b. uninvolved or authoritarian
c. authoritative or permissive
d. permissive or uninvolved
Answer: B
18. Matthew’s parents are very warm and exert a moderate amount of control over his life.
Matthew’s parents are most likely
a. Latin American.
b. Chinese.

c. European American.
d. immigrant Chinese.
Answer: C
19. In which country would individuality in children be most acceptable to parents?
a. Panama
b. China
c. Taiwan
d. The United States
Answer: D
20. As a typical parent in Latin America, Maria would place great emphasis on developing a
strong sense of _____ in her children.
a. self-reliance
b. family ties
c. emotional restraint
d. free-thinking
Answer: B
21. What basic premise underlies Chinese parenting?
a. Love is more important than control.
b. Scream but never hit.
c. Keep your emotions in check.
d. Children are not responsible for their actions.
Answer: C
22. Which parenting style tends to be most common for American parents of lower
socioeconomic status?
a. Permissive

b. Authoritative
c. Authoritarian
d. Uninvolved
Answer: C
23. _____ occurs when a parent tells a child what to do, when to do it, and why it should be
done.
a. Counterimitation
b. Punishment
c. Infant-directed language
d. Direct instruction
Answer: D
24. Rather than simply ordering his son to take out the garbage, Ahmad says, “Son, take out
the garbage now. It’s really full and I’m getting ready to make dinner, so I’ll need more space
in the garbage bags.” Ahmad’s statement is an example of
a. direct instruction.
b. counterimitation.
c. disinhibition.
d. negative reinforcement trap.
Answer: A
25. Which technique is always based on modeling?
a. Negative reinforcement trap
b. Counterimitation
c. Instrumental aggression
d. Direct instruction
Answer: B

26. Fugi watches her older sister getting yelled at after she throws an apple across the kitchen.
Fugi is now less likely to throw an apple across the kitchen herself. This kind of learning
through observation would be best described as
a. time-out.
b. direct instruction.
c. counterimitation.
d. a negative reinforcement trap.
Answer: C
27. Julie watches her sister swing her pet cat by the tail and sees her gets punished by her
parents for that behavior. Consequently, Julie learns not to swing her pet cat by the tail.
Which term best describes this scenario?
a. A negative reinforcement trap
b. Counterimitation
c. Indulgent parenting
d. Direct instruction
Answer: B
28. Whenever Roger says “please,” his father gives Roger what he asks for. This in turn
increases Roger’s use of the word “please.” Giving in to Roger’s requests appears to be a
form of
a. reinforcement.
b. punishment.
c. counterimitation.
d. inhibition.
Answer: A
29. After his mother hears him swear, Conrad gets his mouth washed out with soap. If this led
to reduction in swearing, his mom’s strategy would be described as a form of

a. counterimitation.
b. time-out.
c. punishment
d. negative reinforcement trap.
Answer: C
30. Which pairing is most likely to fall victim to the “negative reinforcement trap”?
a. Mother and daughter
b. Mother and son
c. Father and daughter
d. Father and son
Answer: B
31. The main problem with a negative reinforcement trap is that it
a. is only effective with very young children.
b. involves aversive consequences.
c. ends up increasing the incidence of an unwanted behavior.
d. requires an age-peer model.
Answer: C
32. Ian’s mother tells him to stop watching TV and do his homework. Ian then begins to
whine about wanting to watch more TV to the point that his mother gives in and lets him
watch more TV as long as he stops whining. Consequently, Ian’s whining behavior increases
in frequency. This sequence is best described as
a. punishment.
b. counterimitation.
c. direct instruction.
d. a negative reinforcement trap.

Answer: D
33. Simon spanks his son Paul in order to get him to stop acting aggressively. Which outcome
is least likely in the long term?
a. Paul will become fearful of Simon.
b. Paul will become more aggressive.
c. Paul will stop being aggressive.
d. Paul will not internalize the social rules concerning aggressive behavior.
Answer: C
34. What statement about time-out is true?
a. It is based on modeling.
b. It is a reinforcement technique.
c. It bypasses many of the pitfalls of punishment.
d. It produces disinhibition.
Answer: C
35. When Esther misbehaves, her mother makes her go sit by herself in a small, quiet,
unstimulating area of the house. Esther’s mother is probably using
a. direct instruction.
b. socialization.
c. time-out.
d. an indifferent parenting style.
Answer: C
36. If you’re going to use time-out, make sure that
a. the time-out location is close to where the child misbehaved.
b. you explain the reasons for the time-out to the child.
c. the time-out period is at least a half-hour long.

d. you model the appropriate behavior to the child.
Answer: B
37. Parental conflict
a. usually has no negative effects on children.
b. can make a child feel that the family is unstable.
c. often has positive effects on a child’s development.
d. is not a normal part of most marriages.
Answer: B
38. Which statement about marital issues and child development is true?
a. Chronic parental conflict seldom spills over into child-parent relationships
b. Parental conflict cannot positively impact a child
c. Children’s self-esteem typically raises when a parent becomes unemployed
d. Parents can act as gatekeepers who deny or limit the participation of the other parent
Answer: D
39. Which best describes the relationship between parenting styles and children’s
temperaments?
a. Parenting styles cause temperaments.
b. Parenting styles may develop as the result of temperament.
c. Temperaments develop as the result of parenting styles.
d. Temperament and parenting styles are unrelated.
Answer: B
40. Which six-year-old is most likely to be distressed by the fact that she has a new baby
brother?
a. Annabella, whose parents pay less attention to her
b. Noni, who has two older sisters

c. Monique, who has one older brother
d. Patsy, whose dad has become more involved in parenting
Answer: A
41. Once the youngest sibling gets to be about ____, he or she will start talking more to older
siblings than to mom.
a. 6 months old
b. 1 year old
c. 2 years old
d. 4 years old
Answer: D
42. Which pair of siblings is most likely to get along very well?
a. William (a boy) and Beth (a girl)
b. Mary (who is temperamentally emotional) and Lisa (who is not temperamentally
emotional)
c. Ruth (a girl) and Greta (a girl)
d. Sam (who is temperamentally emotional) and Trevor (who is also temperamentally
emotional)
Answer: C
43. Which advice should you give to parents who are trying to reduce their children’s sibling
conflict?
a. “Admit that you have a ‘favorite.’”
b. “Try to keep your marital problems to yourself.”
c. “Next time try and not have your children so close together in age.”
d. “It would be helpful if you didn’t have all girls.”
Answer: B

44. Research on sibling relationships in African-American families indicates that these
relationships are most positive when children have
a. many siblings.
b. high IQs.
c. sisters.
d. a strong sense of ethnic identity.
Answer: D
45. In which way are adopted children different from children living with their biological
parents?
a. They have different temperaments.
b. They have more maladjusted mother-infant attachments.
c. They are more likely to have problems adjusting to school.
d. They are delayed in terms of cognitive development.
Answer: C
46. Which adopted child is most likely to have the most problems?
a. Steve, who was adopted right after birth
b. Chuck, who was adopted when he was two years old
c. Ann, who was adopted when she was four years old
d. Lydia, who was adopted when she was eight years old
Answer: D
47. Priscilla is pregnant. She and her husband Elvis have very high expectations for this child
and will be more affectionate, but also more punitive, toward this child than they will toward
any other. This is most likely this couple’s _____ baby.
a. first
b. second

c. third
d. fourth
Answer: A
48. As the third child born in his family, Fletcher should expect that his parents will ____
than they did with his oldest sibling.
a. use stiffer disciplinary methods
b. set higher academic goals
c. be more affectionate
d. set more realistic expectations
Answer: D
49. Which child is most likely to succeed academically and go to college?
a. Teri, who is first born
b. Martha, who is second born
c. Dorothy, who is third born
d. Vanessa, who is the youngest child
Answer: A
50. Which is true of only children relative to children with siblings?
a. They are more likely to be “spoiled brats.”
b. They are more selfish.
c. They are more egotistical.
d. They are smarter and more mature.
Answer: D
51. In China, only children are most accurately described as
a. “rejected.”
b. “little emperors.”

c. “great wall flowers”
d. “similar to kids with siblings.”
Answer: D
52. The impact of being a child of divorced parents often persists into adulthood and includes
the greater likelihood of
a. never marrying.
b. marrying at a young age.
c. being less satisfied with life.
d. being more optimistic about marriage.
Answer: C
53. Why did the harmful impacts of divorce appear to have increased in the 1990s?
a. Divorce was so uncommon that children of divorce were seen as very different.
b. Divorce settlements were more “vicious” than they were in the past.
c. Joint versus single custody had become more of the norm.
d. The gap between single- and two-parent family incomes was widening.
Answer: D
54. Anjali’s parents are divorced. Anjali spends weekends with his father and the rest of the
week with his mother. In legal terms, this arrangement is an aspect of what is known as
a. an indifferent-uninvolved parenting style.
b. direct instruction.
c. a blended family.
d. joint custody.
Answer: D
55. Which statement concerning divorce is true?
a. Children tend to fare best with opposite-sex custodial parents.

b. Predivorce family conflict has little impact on development; it is what happens after the
divorce that matters.
c. In recent years, the number of fathers being granted custody has decreased.
d. The reduction of income in the post-divorce single parent family can have a negative
impact on development.
Answer: D
56. Which is the most effective way for parents to reduce the negative impact of divorce on a
child?
a. Reinforce the idea that in life you cannot control what happens to you
b. Make sure that only one parent is actively involved with the child’s life
c. Ask the child to help mediate disputes between you and your ex-spouse
d. Don’t view the love of your child as a competition between you and your ex-spouse
Answer: D
57. Brooke’s family consists of her biological mother, biological sister, and step-father. This
kind of unit is known as
a. a clique.
b. a negative reinforcement trap.
c. a blended family.
d. joint custody.
Answer: C
58. Which best exemplifies a “blended family?”
a. A family with two parents and one child, where one parent is Caucasian and the other is
African American
b. A family with two adopted children, where one child is Caucasian and the other is African
American
c. A family in which parents have joint custody of at least one child

d. A family in which a divorced mom with a son marries a widowed dad with two daughters
Answer: D
59. Doreen is a single, divorced mother of a five-year-old boy. Will remarrying be good for
her son?
a. No, as he will more likely feel rejected by his mother
b. No, as step-fathers are typically a burden for the boy
c. Yes, if the step-father is warm and involved
d. Yes, no matter what the step-father is like
Answer: C
60. Olivia was divorced three years ago and has custody of her preadolescent children (one
boy and one girl). Olivia is now planning to remarry. Who will have the most difficulty
adjusting to this new blended family?
a. Olivia’s son
b. Olivia’s daughter
c. Olivia
d. The new step-father
Answer: B
61. As a new step-father, Jackson should
a. show interest, but not get too involved in the lives of his new step-children.
b. establish clear boundaries with both his step- and biological children.
c. establish himself as the authority with both his step- and biological children.
d. show affection first toward his children, then his new spouse.
Answer: A
62. Concerning blended families,

a. children in blended families tend to experience fewer incidence of depression but more
anxiety.
b. the likelihood of divorce is slightly lower than for first marriages.
c. children often fear that the step-parent will disturb their relationship with the biological
parent.
d. noncustodial fathers tend to maintain closer contact with their children.
Answer: C
63. Marcia’s parents frequently tell her she is “an idiot” and often make her look foolish in
front of her friends. This sort of abuse would best be described as
a. psychological.
b. physical.
c. socialization.
d. neglect.
Answer: A
64. Authorities will sometimes find children near death due to the fact that their parents have
not fed them or protected them from environmental conditions such as the weather. These
children are most accurately labeled as victims of
a. physical abuse.
b. neglect.
c. psychological abuse.
d. negative reinforcement trap.
Answer: B
65. Five-year-old Badia’s parents are not taking care of his medical needs. Badia is suffering
from
a. physical abuse.
b. psychological abuse.

c. neglect
d. hostile aggression.
Answer: C
66. When George gets angry with his children, he cannot control his emotions and he often
strikes them, causing bruises and even broken bones. George is guilty of ____ his children.
a. sexually abusing
b. neglecting
c. psychologically abusing
d. physically abusing
Answer: D
67. By far the most frequent sort of child abuse would be categorized as
a. neglect.
b. sexual.
c. physical.
d. psychological.
Answer: A
68. Who is most likely to spank her child?
a. Rose, who is a Swedish parent
b. Tulip, who is an American parent
c. Lilly, who is a Japanese parent
d. Blossom, who is a Chinese parent
Answer: B
69. Which social condition appears to foster maltreatment of children?
a. Fragile-X syndrome
b. Poverty

c. Alcoholism
d. ADHD
Answer: B
70. Who is most likely to abuse his child?
a. Louis, who relies on the time-out technique to punish his children
b. Derek, who was never abused when he was a child
c. Joe, who is socially isolated from friends and relatives
d. Scott, who is wealthy
Answer: C
71. How many of the following would be at risk for child abuse: a step-child, a sick child, a
child with a parent deployed in a combat zone?
a. 0
b. 1
c. 2
d. 3
Answer: D
72. What is not one of the effects of being an abused child?
a. Better emotional regulation
b. Delayed cognitive development
c. Aggressive behavior toward peers
d. Depression
Answer: A
73. The odds of ____ increase in a person who has been abused as a child.
a. divorce
b. attempting suicide

c. being an authoritative parent
d. high academic performance
Answer: B
74. A child who is able to respond resourcefully in a new situation is said to have high levels
of
a. ego resilience.
b. instrumental aggression.
c. counterimitation.
d. co-rumination.
Answer: A
75. Which statement best exemplifies ego resilience?
a. “I am a good person.”
b. “Parents should be able to discipline their children any way they see fit.”
c. “Even though I have never been in this situation before, I can handle it.”
d. “It is hard for me to take the point of view of someone who thinks differently than I do.”
Answer: C
76. Which would likely lead to a significant drop in the incidence of physical child abuse?
a. Having the entire world adopt an attitude toward childrearing like that seen in the United
States
b. Wipe out poverty
c. Eliminate government intervention into parenting issues
d. Encourage parents to adopt an authoritarian style
Answer: B
77. What has research shown to be useful in preventing child abuse?
a. Jail time and censure of abusive parents

b. Early childhood intervention programs
c. Encouragement of parents to use more physical punishment
d. Removal of the father from the lives of the children
Answer: B
78. A friendship is both
a. mandatory and independent.
b. mandatory and mutual.
c. voluntary and independent.
d. voluntary and mutual.
Answer: D
79. Clive says that Erik is his best friend because “we like to play with each other, and Erik
always lets me use his soccer ball.” It is most likely that Clive is ______ years old.
a. 2
b. 5
c. 12
d. 16
Answer: B
80. Which aspect of friendship tends to be new to children aged 8-11?
a. Sharing activities
b. Trust
c. Sharing toys
d. Mutual liking
Answer: B
81. The statement, “we share our feelings” is most likely to be made by a
a. 3-year-old.

b. 5-year-old.
c. 10-year-old.
d. 15-year-old.
Answer: D
82. Girls are more likely to be concerned about the faithfulness of their friends because their
friendships are more likely based on
a. socialization.
b. helping each other.
c. intimacy.
d. common interests.
Answer: C
83. Pablo is a troubled eight-year-old. He is very upset about the fact that he lost his cap.
Pablo is most likely to seek support from
a. his teacher.
b. his close friends.
c. his mother.
d. a police officer.
Answer: C
84. Laura is 14 years old, and is extremely upset about the fact that someone made fun of her
in class. Laura is most likely to seek support from
a. her teacher
b. her close friends.
c. her mother.
d. her father.
Answer: B

85. Tito would be more likely to have friends of a different race if
a. he lived in a diverse neighborhood.
b. he attended a segregated school.
c. his friends were older.
d. his friends had different attitudes than his own.
Answer: A
86. Who possesses a characteristic that makes them less likely to be a friend with 12-year-old
Isabel, who is Mexican American?
a. Toni, who is also 12 years old
b. Bobbi, who is also a female
c. Roni, who is also Mexican American
d. Tina, who views school differently
Answer: D
87. The fact that friends spend a lot of time discussing personal problems is referred to as
a. co-rumination.
b. ego-resilience.
c. dominancy hierarchy.
d. the negative reinforcement trap.
Answer: A
88. Which statement indicates that co-rumination is occurring?
a. “I like ice cream.”
b. “I think that being by myself and drinking this malt is about the best thing I can do for
me.”
c. “I know that you are also having trouble staying slim.”
d. “When I go out to dinner and order a salad, I always ask for cottage cheese.”

Answer: C
89. Co-rumination would most likely take place between
a. girl friends.
b. boy friends.
c. girl acquaintances.
d. boy acquaintances.
Answer: A
90. Glenna hangs around two other friends who are the same sex and have similar attitudes
and interests. This group of friends would most accurately be described as a
a. group.
b. crowd.
c. gang.
d. clique.
Answer: D
91. Crowd is to clique as
a. set is to subset.
b. friends are to rivals.
c. black is to white.
d. attitude is to behavior.
Answer: A
92. Jane is identified by others at school as being part of “The Elite,” a fairly large group of
students who are very popular, get good grades, and are involved in extracurricular activities.
“The Elite” are best described as a
a. gang.
b. clique.

c. crowd.
d. band.
Answer: C
93. Sixteen-year-old Yvonne is a member of the “Jocks,” the highest status crowd at school. It
is most likely that Yvonne has
a. low self-esteem.
b. average self-esteem.
c. high self-esteem.
d. no friends.
Answer: C
94. Who would likely have the highest self-esteem?
a. Vincent, who has high status in a clique of his school’s most “in” crowd
b. Kasen, who has high status with one of the most “in” kids in school
c. Niv, who has high status in her school’s most “in” crowd
d. Namid, who has high status with teachers in her school
Answer: C
95. Anthea’s parents include her in most family discussions. This has to increase the
likelihood of Anthea being in the____ crowds.
a. popular or jock
b. normal or brainy
c. brainy or druggie
d. normal or popular
Answer: B
96. Jerry is a member of the “druggie” crowd. His parents were most likely
a. authoritarian.

b. authoritative.
c. permissive.
d. popular.
Answer: C
97. In a group based on a dominance hierarchy, you can expect
a. increased internal conflict.
b. equal status for all members.
c. a single leader.
d. few active members.
Answer: C
98. Yuri is the leader of a group called “The Wannabes.” All the other members know that
Yuri is in charge, and they respect that. What is the best term to describe this type of group
structure?
a. Clique
b. Crowd
c. Dominance hierarchy
d. Friendship
Answer: C
99. There is a group in town made up of girls who like golf. The leader of the group is most
likely to be
a. Annika, who is the best golfer in the group.
b. Michelle, who has the most outgoing personality.
c. Sela, who is the wealthiest person in the group.
d. Grace, who is the best student in the group.
Answer: A

100. In a typical group of six-year-old boys, who would you expect to be the leader?
a. The smartest kid
b. The strongest kid
c. The richest kid
d. The funniest kid
Answer: B
101. What single factor appears to be most influential in determining whether an adolescent
will “cave in” to peer pressure?
a. The degree to which appropriate standards of behavior are clear-cut
b. The degree to which you can get into trouble for engaging in the act
c. The degree to which parents oppose the act
d. The degree to which the act requires effort
Answer: A
102. In which situation is Rita most likely to be influenced by peer pressure?
a. Determining what clothes to wear to the prom
b. Deciding whether to scream “fire” in a crowded movie theater
c. Determining how she should cook macaroni and cheese
d. Deciding whether she should sleep at night
Answer: A
103. Clyde is quite a character. He is very well liked by some people in his class but is very
much disliked by some others. Clyde is a good example of a(n) ____ child.
a. popular
b. rejected
c. Average
d. Controversial

Answer: D
104. Angelica is well liked by most of her classmates. She would be best described as
a. average.
b. neglected.
c. controversial.
d. popular.
Answer: D
105. Blake is somewhat liked by some of his classmates and somewhat disliked by others.
Blake is probably best described as a(n) _____ child.
a. average
b. controversial
c. neglected
d. rejected
Answer: A
106. Which child is best described as an “average child”?
a. Georgi, who is well liked by most of her classmates
b. Natalya, who has some classmates that like her somewhat and others that dislike her
somewhat
c. Yuri, who is ignored by his classmates
d. Donald, who is disliked by most all of his classmates
Answer: B
107. As a “neglected” child, Juno should expect to be _____ by her peers.
a. bullied
b. disliked
c. ignored

d. feared
Answer: C
108. What type of child is disliked by the majority of their peers?
a. Rejected
b. Controversial
c. Neglected
d. Average
Answer: A
109. Eric’s classmates don’t particularly hate him; they just never pay any attention to him.
Eric would probably be best described as
a. controversial.
b. rejected.
c. neglected.
d. average.
Answer: C
110. Liked is to popular children as disliked is to ____ children.
a. controversial
b. rejected
c. average
d. neglected
Answer: B
111. What is the best advice you could give to an adolescent trying to gain popularity among
his or her school peers?
a. “Be quiet.”
b. “Be nice.”

c. “Be subservient.”
d. “Be aggressive.”
Answer: B
112. In which culture would shyness be a predictor of peer popularity?
a. Israel
b. Canada
c. China
d. Shyness is not valued in any culture
Answer: C
113. Children who are rejected by their peers have often been
a. disciplined inconsistently by their parents.
b. raised in environments that lacked a sense of intimidation.
c. raised by parents with an authoritative style.
d. the victims of time-out procedures.
Answer: A
114. A common reason for being a rejected child lies in his or her parent’s
a. high poverty status.
b. poor intellect.
c. inconsistent disciplinary style.
d. over affection.
Answer: C
115. Sinead is a one-year-old. Which behavior would you most likely see her display?
a. Relational aggression
b. Hostile aggression

c. Instrumental aggression
d. Prejudice
Answer: C
116. Rita is incredibly aggressive on the hockey rink but is very nice to everyone when she
isn’t competing. What term best describes Rita’s “on-ice” aggression?
a. Relational aggression
b. Hostile aggression
c. Neglect
d. Instrumental aggression
Answer: D
117. Mabel likes to hit other children for no other purpose than to see them get hurt and feel
scared. What term best describes Mabel’s behavior?
a. Hostile aggression
b. Instrumental aggression
c. Relational aggression
d. Counterimitation
Answer: A
118. Which best describes hostile aggression?
a. Provoked attempt to humiliate
b. Unprovoked attempt to humiliate
c. Provoked attempt to attain a goal
d. Unprovoked attempt to attain a goal
Answer: B
119. Randy is a seven-year-old who exhibits a high degree of hostile aggression. What is he
most likely to be like when he is in high school?

a. More hostile aggressive but not greater in instrumental aggression than his same-age peers
b. About as aggressive as his same-age peers
c. More aggressive than his same-age peers
d. More instrumentally aggressive but not greater in hostile aggression than his same-age
peers
Answer: C
120. Casey is a chronic victim of bullies. What is one way research suggests to decrease the
likelihood that Casey will continue to be victimized?
a. Try to externalize the fear experienced while being bullied
b. Increase his own hostile aggressiveness
c. Help him make more friends
d. Put him in time-out
Answer: C
121. Does watching TV violence really affect the behavior of children?
a. No, it has no effect on overt violent behavior.
b. Not really. It may make them a little scared for a while but has no long-term effects.
c. It might if the children are ADHD before they watch the violence.
d. Yes, it tends to be associated with more aggressive behavior.
Answer: D
122. Playing violent video games while identifying with aggressive characters in the game
____ aggressive behavior.
a. is inversely correlated with
b. is positively correlated with
c. is unrelated with
d. reduces the incidence of

Answer: B
123. Graham watches television for many hours every day. Dan does not watch television at
all. It is most likely that
a. Graham has more stereotyped views of men and women.
b. Dan will be more aggressive.
c. Dan will be bullied by his peers.
d. Graham has a more realistic view of the elderly.
Answer: A
124. If he is a typical child, when five-year-old Tonka hears a commercial that says, “This is
the best toy in the whole world!” he
a. would not understand what it means.
b. knows that the company is simply trying to sell something.
c. believes that the company is lying.
d. believes the commercial is telling the truth.
Answer: D
125. Researchers have found that watching _________ increased the likelihood that a child
gained important mathematics skills.
a. Super Why!
b. Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood
c. The Dinosaur Train
d. The Mighty Morphin Power Rangers
Answer: C
126. Which is not a criticism of the effects of television on children?
a. Difficulty learning to read
b. Difficulty concentrating

c. Short attention spans
d. Less creative thinking
Answer: A
127. Hiroko watches shows that display and encourage being friendly and helpful to other
people. After watching this, Hiroko is more likely to
a. act friendly.
b. act aggressively.
c. be depressed.
d. act the same way she always has.
Answer: A
128. Researchers have found that watching ________ increased the likelihood of a child
behaving in a prosocial manner.
a. Bill Nye the Science Guy
b. Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood
c. The Mighty Morphin Power Rangers
d. Friends
Answer: B
129. What would be the most effective way to increase the impact of prosocial television
programs on children’s behavior?
a. Put more cartoons on the air
b. Eliminate commercials
c. Put more prosocial programs on the air
d. Eliminate adult-oriented programs
Answer: C

130. One of the problems with relying on prosocial television programs to encourage
prosocial behaviors in children is that
a. prosocial programs have no effect on behavior.
b. children do not like programs that promote prosocial behavior.
c. prosocial programs only affect the behavior of girls.
d. prosocial programs are far outnumbered by violent programs.
Answer: D
131. Children who watch more _____ on TV seem better prepared to enter school than
preschoolers who watch less frequently.
a. News
b. Sesame Street
c. cartoons
d. commercials
Answer: B
132. Mary and Orlaith are high school students. Orlaith gets mostly “A” grades, and Mary
gets mostly “B”s. Which of these aspects of their pasts is most likely?
a. Orlaith watched more Sesame Street than Mary.
b. Mary watched more television than Orlaith.
c. Orlaith watched more violent programs than Mary.
d. Mary watched more Mr. Rogers’ Neighborhood than Orlaith.
Answer: A
133. Which statement is most accurate regarding the cognitive impact of watching television?
a. Television causes children to have short attention spans.
b. There is no strong evidence that TV watching by itself has negative effects on children.
c. Children who watch television become lazy thinkers.

d. Watching television leads to increased activity levels and stifles the creativity of children
who watch it.
Answer: B
134. Six-year-old Yoko’s description of her friend Gretchen is most likely to include which
adjective?
a. Mean
b. Understanding
c. Funny
d. Tall
Answer: D
135. The use of ________ in descriptions of people tends to increase as we age.
a. general information
b. personality traits
c. possessions
d. concrete features
Answer: B
136. Amy describes her friend Duffy by saying, “She’s fun to be around because she’s funny
and has good ideas, but she’s often insensitive to how others feel.” Amy is most likely about
____ years old.
a. 2
b. 7
c. 10
d. 16
Answer: D

137. When Sami is asked about what other people think of her, she has a very difficult time
answering, because she can’t seem to take her friend’s perspective when looking at herself.
What would Piaget call Sami’s difficulty?
a. Prejudice
b. Relational aggression
c. Egocentrism
d. Inhibition
Answer: C
138. In what stage of perspective-taking are children most egocentric?
a. Social-informational
b. Societal
c. Undifferentiated
d. Self-reflective
Answer: C
139. Helen is upset because she thinks that her teacher views her argument with Mary as
being silly. According to Selman, Helen is most likely in the ____ stage of perspectivetaking.
a. third-person
b. societal
c. undifferentiated
d. self-reflective
Answer: A
140. Prejudice is best described as
a. a limitation placed on a person because he or she belongs to some group.
b. hating yourself because of who you are.

c. a negative view of others based on their group membership.
d. the ability to put yourself into the “shoes” of another person.
Answer: C
141. Once Jim finds out that Henri is from France, he immediately dislikes him because he
thinks French people are not trustworthy. What term best describes Jim’s view of Henri?
a. Relational aggression
b. Hostile aggression
c. Socialization
d. Prejudice
Answer: D
142. During adolescence, as preference for your own group intensifies, the likelihood of
prejudice
a. gets higher.
b. gets lower.
c. stays the same.
d. reduces to zero.
Answer: A
143. Which explanation best explains the reason for changes in prejudice during adolescence?
a. Adolescents tend to believe that members of other groups would never be interested in
joining their group.
b. Adolescents tend to believe that members of other groups would never be accepted by
members of the other group.
c. Adolescents develop a more negative view of their own group and a more positive view of
other groups.
d. Adolescents develop a more positive view of their own group and a more negative view of
other groups.

Answer: D
144. What advice should you give to a parent who is trying to discourage prejudice in his or
her child?
a. “Simply put your child in contact with individuals from other groups and lets things occur
on their own”
b. “Have your child role-play being members of another group”
c. “Work on strengthening your child’s feelings toward his or her own group”
d. “Let things alone, as attempts to reduce prejudice almost always result in increased
prejudice”
Answer: B
TRUE/FALSE
1. Authoritarian parents usually produce children who are the best adjusted.
Answer: False
2. Parenting styles vary both across cultures and within cultures.
Answer: True
3. Direct instruction involves telling a child when, what, and why he should do something.
Answer: True
4. The key to effective use of time-out lies in placing a child in an overstimulating
environment.
Answer: False
5. A child’s temperament can impact the type of parenting style exhibited by the parent.
Answer: True
6. Parents can reduce sibling issues by showing similar levels of affection and responsiveness
to all their children.
Answer: True
7. First-born children score higher on intelligence tests than later-born children.

Answer: True
8. Divorce is more difficult for adolescent children than for preschool children.
Answer: True
9. A “blended” family must consist of at least two people from different racial/ethnic
backgrounds.
Answer: False
10. Child abuse is more prevalent in the United States than in countries that do not condone
physically punishing children.
Answer: True
11. Poverty is a risk factor for child maltreatment.
Answer: True
12. Friendship involves mutual and voluntary liking.
Answer: True
13. Children whose friends are all members of the opposite sex are more likely to be well
adjusted than children whose friends are all members of the same sex.
Answer: False
14. A clique is larger than a crowd.
Answer: False
15. Peer pressure is never positive.
Answer: False
16. Controversial children are well liked by some of their classmates.
Answer: True
17. A neglected child is intensely disliked by classmates.
Answer: False
18. Hostile aggression is provoked.

Answer: False
19. Educational television programs have virtually no discernable impact on cognitive
development in children.
Answer: False
20. Children who watch a lot of television have shorter attention spans than children who do
not watch television.
Answer: False
21. Children’s descriptions of other people tend to get more conceptual as they get older.
Answer: True
22. Egocentrism can negatively impact the ability to understand others.
Answer: True
23. In Selman’s initial stage of perspective-taking, children appear unable to understand why
someone would want to do something different than they want to do.
Answer: True
24. Members of high status groups are more likely to be prejudiced.
Answer: True
COMPLETION
1. _____ parenting combines warmth and caring but little parental control.
Answer: Permissive
2. Learning what not to do by observing someone else is called _____.
Answer: counterimitation
3. Any action that discourages the reoccurrence of a response is a(n) _____.
Answer: punishment
4. When a parent unwittingly reinforces a behavior that he or she is trying to discourage has
fallen victim to the _____ trap.

Answer: negative reinforcement
5. If, after being divorced, both biological parents retain legal custody of their children, they
are said to have _____ custody.
Answer: joint
6. A(n) _____ family minimally consists of a biological parent, a child, and a step-parent.
Answer: blended
7. Ridiculing a child is best described as _____ abuse.
Answer: psychological
8. The ability of a child to respond adaptively and resourcefully to a new situation is called
ego-_____.
Answer: resilience
9. Voluntary and mutual liking between two people is the definition of _____.
Answer: friendship
10. _____ occurs when two friend spend much of their time discussing each other’s personal
problems.
Answer: Co-rumination
11. A(n) _____ consists of several similar cliques.
Answer: crowd
12. _____ children are liked by most of their classmates.
Answer: Popular
13. When aggression is unprovoked and appears to be solely done for the purpose of
humiliation, harassment, or intimidation, it is best classified as _____ aggression.
Answer: hostile
14. The concept of “she thinks that he thinks that” is best associated with _____ thinking.
Answer: recursive

15. _____ is having a negative view of others based on their membership in a specific group.
Answer: Prejudice
ESSAY
11. Use the dimensions of warmth and control to describe the four major types of parenting.
Which style seems to promote the best development in children? Explain.
Answer: The four parenting styles are authoritarian (high control, little warmth), authoritative
(fair degree of control and warmth), permissive (warmth but little control), and neglecting
(neither warm nor controlling). If your goal is an independent, intelligent, and self-reliant
child, then an authoritative style is the best. In cultures that are looking for more emotional
restraint and less individualism, a somewhat more controlling model would be best.
12. What is the difference between instrumental, hostile, and relational aggression? Also, who
are most likely to be victimized by such bullies?
Answer: Instrumental aggression occurs when a child uses aggressive acts to achieve some
specific goal (e.g., takes a ball from another child because she wants to play with the ball).
Hostile aggression is committed without provocation and with the intent of intimidating,
harassing, or humiliating another individual (e.g., hitting a younger child to make him fear
you). Relational aggression involves an attempt to undermine some social relationship (e.g.,
spreading a rumor about a person’s sex habits in order to break up a boyfriend-girlfriend
pair). Risk factors for being the victim of a bully include being easily irritated, being
withdrawn/submissive, and a lack of friends.

Test Bank for Human Development : A Life-Span View
Robert V Kail, John C Cavanaugh
9781111834111, 9781337554831

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