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Chapter 12—Work and Leisure: Occupational and Lifestyle Issues in Young and Middle Adulthood
1. In his book The Prophet, Gibran (1923) stated that “____ is love made visible.”
a. Sex
b. a smile
c. work
d. birth
Answer: C
2. If Will is an average adult, the main reason for him working is so that he can
a. demonstrate creativity.
b. earn a living.
c. make new friends.
d. exercise his authority over others.
Answer: B
3. According to Lips-Wiersma (2003), which is not one of the four common meanings people
derive from work?
a. Developing self
b. Economic independence
c. Union with others
d. Serving others
Answer: B
4. According to Holland, people choose occupations that optimize
a. income.
b. socialization.

c. fit with personality.
d. intellect.
Answer: C
5. Holland categorizes occupations using the dimensions of
a. interpersonal settings and lifestyle.
b. lifestyle and income.
c. income and education level.
d. education level and interpersonal settings.
Answer: A
6. People tend to ____ college courses and majors that fit their personalities.
a. avoid
b. like
c. dislike
d. fail
Answer: B
7. When looking within a specific occupation (e.g., construction worker), you would expect
to find ____ differences between the personalities of males and female workers.
a. virtually no
b. small but significant
c. moderate
d. major
Answer: A
8. Barack Obama was used as an example of a “____” concerning occupational development.
a. dead ender
b. two timer

c. fast tracker
d. inside outer
Answer: C
9. Who would most likely be giving a speech titled “Understanding the Continuum of
Vocational Maturity?”
a. John Holland
b. Donald Super
c. Nancy Betz
d. Jan Sinnott
Answer: B
10. Super’s theory of occupational development places individuals along a continuum of
a. job satisfaction.
b. occupational priorities.
c. comparable worth.
d. vocational maturity.
Answer: D
11. Vocational maturity is best associated with
a. Piaget’s stages of cognitive development.
b. the amount of congruence between occupation behaviors and age.
c. Freud’s psychosexual stages.
d. the income level that one attains.
Answer: B
12. Which developmental task would most likely characterize Dave, who is in his mid-teens?
a. Implementation
b. Stabilization

c. Consolidation
d. Crystallization
Answer: D
13. Super would predict that 23-year-old Sophie is most likely in the ____ phase of
developmental tasks.
a. maintenance
b. implementation
c. Establishment
d. Deceleration
Answer: B
14. Though Jenny has not decided on a career, she has taken a number of temporary jobs in
hopes of finding something she really likes. Jenny is most likely in Super’s ____ phase of
developmental tasks.
a. Deceleration
b. Stabilization
c. implementation
d. maintenance
Answer: C
15. The selection of a specific occupational marks the beginning of the ____ stage of
occupational development.
a. maintenance
b. implementation
c. stabilization
d. decline
Answer: C

16. Last year, 25-year-old Mark took his first job in an industry he has chosen to pursue.
Mark is probably in Super’s ____ phase of developmental tasks.
a. implementation
b. maintenance
c. stabilization
d. consolidation
Answer: C
17. Since being promoted to an executive position a few years ago, Alison continued to find
ways to work her way up the corporate ladder. Alison is most likely in Super’s ____ phase of
developmental tasks.
a. retirement
b. consolidation
c. specification
d. implementation
Answer: B
18. The concept of “career advancement” is best associated with the _____ task.
a. stabilization
b. implementation
c. crystallization
d. consolidation
Answer: D
19. According to Super, the most likely trigger for occupational evolution involves a change
a. income.
b. marital status.

c. self-concept.
d. health.
Answer: C
20. Which statement concerning occupational development is true?
a. Research does not support either Super’s claims that it is a developmental process nor
Holland’s emphasis on the importance role of personal characteristics
b. Research does not support Super’s claims that it is a developmental process but does
support Holland’s emphasis on the importance role of personal characteristics
c. Research supports Super’s claims that it is a developmental process but not Holland’s
emphasis on the importance role of personal characteristics
d. Research supports both Super’s claims that it is a developmental process and Holland’s
emphasis on the importance role of personal characteristics
Answer: D
21. Mona has just reached age 30 and has realized that she has not come close to achieving
her career expectations. If she is typical for her gender, her most likely response would be to
a. move ahead toward a higher managerial position.
b. go back to school.
c. change job expectations.
d. get married.
Answer: C
22. Kurt always had visions of a very extravagant, luxurious, happy life as a rock star. When
he finally became a rock star, he found it to be lonelier and far less satisfying than he had
imagined. Kurt is experiencing
a. the glass ceiling.
b. occupational priorities.
c. a dream.

d. reality shock.
Answer: D
23. Angela was a teacher who spent lots of time preparing lessons and grading papers, but she
hadn’t expecting teaching to take so much of her time and energy. Her education had not
prepared her for what teaching would really be like. If she represents the average worker, her
most likely reactions would involve
a. resolve to change the system.
b. reality shock.
c. dropping her friendships.
d. suing the company.
Answer: B
24. When Debra started her new job, she met Rosalind, an experienced worker who took
Debra “under her wing.” Rosalind gave Debra many pointers and was always there when
Debra had a question about what to do or why she needed to do it. Rosalind served as a ____
for Debra.
a. mentor
b. career plateau
c. realistic type
d. conventional type
Answer: A
25. According to Kram (1985), the mentor relationship begins with ____ and ends with ____.
a. cultivation; separation
b. initiation; redefinition
c. cultivation; redefinition
d. initiation; separation
Answer: B

26. Mutt and Jeff both work at the glue factory. Recently, Mutt, who is a more experienced
worker, has begun to establish a protégé-mentor relationship with Jeff. As this process has
just begun, it is best characterized as being in the ____ phase.
a. initiation
b. separation
c. redefinition
d. cultivation
Answer: A
27. During the cultivation phase of the mentor relationship, mentors _____ protégés.
a. are introduced to
b. end relationships with
c. do their most work with
d. transform their relationships with
Answer: C
28. Thelma and Louise have been mentor and protégé for five years. In the past few weeks,
they have begun to spend less time together. This suggests that they may have just entered the
____ phase of the mentoring relationship.
a. initiation
b. separation
c. redefinition
d. cultivation
Answer: B
29. Bonnie and Clyde had a mentor-protégé relationship that lasted years. They now no
longer view this as a mentor-protégé relationship but one of equal-status colleagues. This
suggests that their relationship is in the _____ phase.
a. initiation

b. separation
c. redefinition
d. cultivation
Answer: C
30. Serving as a mentor has helped Jaclyn feel like she’s contributed significantly to the longterm success of the organization. This role has helped her fulfill aspects of Erikson’s phase of
a. identity.
b. basic trust.
c. generativity.
d. intimacy.
Answer: C
31. How are mentoring and generativity related?
a. Mentoring is one avenue for achieving generativity.
b. Generativity causes mentoring.
c. Individuals who mentor are less likely to express generativity.
d. Mentoring is done by the employee, and generativity is done by the employer.
Answer: A
32. Julie is a female lawyer who has a mentor. Compared to her female colleagues who have
no mentors, Julie is more likely to
a. consider changing occupations.
b. experience more work-family conflict.
c. be less intent to continue to practice law.
d. make more money.
Answer: D

33. Priscilla is having a difficult time finding a female who will mentor her on her new
middle management position. This is most likely occurring because
a. there are few women in management positions who could mentor her.
b. few female managers want to mentor new employees.
c. most women want to mentor male employees.
d. research has found that women do not benefit from mentoring.
Answer: A
34. Which statement concerning mentors is true?
a. A poor mentor is worse than having no mentor at all.
b. The best mentors are given to, not chosen by, a protégé.
c. A mentor of the opposite sex is a recipe for disaster.
d. Any mentoring, even bad mentoring, can only help in one’s career.
Answer: A
35. Job satisfaction is defined as
a. positive feelings resulting from appraisal of one’s work.
b. any type of feeling resulting from appraisal of one’s work.
c. a motor behavior taken to improve one’s job performance.
d. any behavior engaged in to improve one’s job performance.
Answer: A
36. Job satisfaction in individuals with a good fit between themselves and their occupation
tends to
a. increase with age.
b. remain stable across time.
c. decrease with age.
d. follow no clear pattern.

Answer: A
37. According to the Klassen, Usher, and Bong’s (2010) study of job satisfaction across
cultures, lower teacher satisfaction was related to
a. higher amounts of efficacy and lower levels of stress.
b. lower amounts of efficacy and high levels of stress.
c. higher levels of stress and high importance of collectivism.
d. lower levels of stress and low importance of collectivism.
Answer: B
38. Which of the following is true regarding the predictors of job satisfaction crossculturally?
a. Predictors of job satisfaction are different across countries.
b. The degree to which predictors predict job satisfaction depends on age.
c. Predictors of job satisfaction are the same across countries.
d. Some predictors of job satisfaction transcend countries, while others do not.
Answer: D
39. When assessing job satisfaction, middle-aged workers tend to be most satisfied with
intrinsic aspects of their job like
a. their rate of pay.
b. the amount of vacation time they have earned.
c. their perceived amount of job control.
d. the amenities they have earned.
Answer: C
40. Which statement about the development of job satisfaction is true?
a. Blue-collar workers’ level of job satisfaction rises quicker than that of white-collar

b. Increases in job satisfaction are best predicted solely by a worker’s age.
c. Job satisfaction may be cyclical regardless of age.
d. When older workers begin to make work less of a focus in their lives, it takes more to keep
them satisfied with work.
Answer: C
41. Which statement concerning the relationship between age and job satisfaction is true?
a. Young workers are most satisfied with their jobs because they do not know anything better
than what they currently have.
b. Middle-aged workers with higher satisfaction may have resigned themselves to the fact
that things are unlikely to improve.
c. Older workers are least satisfied regardless of their occupation.
d. The higher paying the job, the higher the satisfaction, regardless of age.
Answer: B
42. A worker described as _____ would feel devalued.
a. burned out
b. alienated
c. plateauing
d. generative
Answer: B
43. If he is like most alienated workers, Rocky would be most likely to explain his feelings
about his job by saying,
a. “My pay is too low.”
b. “My job is meaningless; I’m nothing more than a replaceable part.”
c. “I could really use a mentor.”
d. “Most days on the job I really like my responsibilities, but there are some days I’d rather

Answer: B
44. Edsel is an autoworker on an assembly line. When asked to comment on his job, Edsel
says, “First, I am a nothing to this company. Second, my ‘do-nothing’ job serves no purpose
in the production of automobiles.” Edsel is best described as
a. burned out.
b. generative.
c. having poor occupational priorities.
d. alienated.
Answer: D
45. If Zack is like the alienated workers interviewed in Terkel’s (1974) classic study, he
would most likely describe himself as a
a. “ghost in the machine of industry.”
b. “cog in a faceless machine of industry.”
c. “machine head.”
d. “warrior ready to rage against the machine.”
Answer: B
46. Who is most likely to experience alienation and job dissatisfaction?
a. Fred, who is a skeptic
b. Barney, who is exhausted
c. Wilma, who is a cynic
d. Betty, who is an optimist
Answer: C
47. Which manager’s strategy for preventing alienation in company workers will probably
work best?
a. Judith’s, who wants to cut salaries to increase the likelihood that workers will continue
because they like their job, not because they make money

b. Michael’s, who wants to help alleviate job stress by making sure workers know nothing of
the day-to-day operations of the company
c. Colleen’s, who wants to include workers in the company’s decision-making process
d. Dennis’s, who wants to fire workers at random so that no one will ever know if they are
going to have a job tomorrow or not
Answer: C
48. The hot dog processing factory that Oscar works at recently instituted a total quality
management program to better include workers in the planning process. This was most likely
done in response to workers’ complaints about
a. alienation.
b. career plateauing.
c. age discrimination.
d. a glass ceiling.
Answer: A
49. Beatrice simply has no energy left for her job. She is totally unmotivated and feels
exploited by the company for which she works. She is best described as experiencing
a. alienation.
b. burn out.
c. job satisfaction.
d. vocational maturity.
Answer: B
50. Occupational burnout comes from excessive
a. feelings of exploitation.
b. disconnection from coworkers.
c. underutilization.
d. belief that one’s job really doesn’t matter to the company.

Answer: A
51. Who is most likely to experience burnout?
a. Michael, who is a factory worker
b. Natalie, who is a freelance worker
c. Tom, who is a psychologist
d. Juliana, who is a musician
Answer: C
52. One way to avoid burnout is to ____ workers’ expectations of themselves.
a. Raise
b. Eliminate
c. Lower
d. maintain
Answer: C
53. As the owner of a business worried about employee burnout, you should attempt to
a. reduce interoffice communication.
b. reassure workers that what they do at an individual level does not really impact the overall
c. provide regular feedback to workers about their performance.
d. add more bureaucratic paperwork.
Answer: C
54. In 2010, women made up roughly ____ percent of the U.S. workforce.
a. 27
b. 37
c. 47
d. 57

Answer: C
55. According to the U.S. Department of Labor, in order for an occupation to be classified as
“nontraditional for women,” women must comprise _____ percent or less of the total number
of people employed in that occupation.
a. 50
b. 25
c. 10
d. 5
Answer: B
56. Candice drives big-rig trucks for a living. How is she likely to be viewed by other adults?
a. Males and females will view her negatively.
b. Males will view her negatively; females will view her positively.
c. Males will view her positively; females will view her negatively.
d. Males and females will view her positively.
Answer: A
57. A woman in a nontraditional career would most likely be perceived as ____ by the
average person.
a. cold or quarrelsome
b. a positive role model
c. highly competent
d. gender confused
Answer: A
58. Compared to women working in traditional occupations, women in nontraditional
a. are less likely to believe that they are being sexually harassed.

b. are more likely to believe that they are being sexually harassed.
c. are less likely to experience sexual harassment.
d. are more likely to experience sexual harassment.
Answer: A
59. Devin was born in 1950. As such, he is best classified as part of the _____ generation.
a. lost
b. baby-boomer
c. generation X
d. millennial
Answer: B
60. How many of the following would be considered part of the millennials: Billy, born in
1970; Jilly, born in 1980; Dilly, born in 1990; Milly, born in 2000?
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4
Answer: B
61. Gen-X women
a. seldom start their own business.
b. often negotiate on more than just salaries.
c. reject the idea of home-based businesses.
d. tend to be unconcerned about childcare issues.
Answer: B
62. Piscione (2004) found that emotional stress in working women tended to increase
a. during their children’s summer breaks.

b. when they were perceived as “too much of a team player.”
c. when they had a mentor.
d. as their income increased.
Answer: A
63. When millennial-generation college women explore nontraditional career options, they
tend to
a. still commit more to traditional occupations.
b. change their political affiliation.
c. commit more to such alternatives.
d. not marry.
Answer: A
64. Research on women working in the corporate world indicated that one reason
professional women leave their job is that the common corporate structure does not value
a. an interdependent worker.
b. competence.
c. self-sufficiency.
d. competition.
Answer: A
65. Research on women working in the corporate world indicated that women professionals
are most likely to leave that career because they
a. become income driven.
b. need more education to be successful.
c. are pressured to by their husbands or boyfriends.
d. find themselves not being rewarded for the relational skills they value.
Answer: D

66. Which tends to be considered a feminine-valued characteristic?
a. Independence
b. Interdependence
c. Self-sufficiency
d. Competitiveness
Answer: B
67. A key reason for women leaving the workforce is that they feel
a. employers demand too much collaboration.
b. that employment is a masculine trait.
c. technologically inept.
d. disconnected from the workplace.
Answer: D
68. Marisa (who is European American) and her female friend Destiny (who is African
American) are both pursuing careers in traditionally male occupations. How is their
preparation likely to differ?
a. Marisa will become more educated than is necessary for the position
b. Destiny will become more educated than is necessary for the position
c. Marisa will not receive negative reactions to her decision
d. Destiny will not receive negative reactions to her decision
Answer: B
69. Occupational aspiration is best thought of as the job
a. you would like to get.
b. that you likely have.
c. your parents want you to have.
d. you will never attain.

Answer: A
70. Which of the following ethnic groups tends to have the lowest leadership aspirations?
a. African Americans
b. European Americans
c. Latino Americans
d. Research has failed to identify any ethnic differences in leadership aspiration
Answer: A
71. Compared to European Americans, Latino Americans
a. have similar work values.
b. have low occupational aspirations.
c. have lower work values.
d. are not as occupationally mature.
Answer: A
72. As a typical African-American manager, Raquel would most likely report that compared
to European-American managers, she experiences
a. more job choice.
b. more promotability.
c. less acceptance.
d. less career dissatisfaction.
Answer: C
73. _____ African-American protégés have European-American mentors.
a. Few
b. Some
c. Many
d. Most

Answer: D
74. As he has a same-ethnicity mentor, Chappell is likely to receive ____ than his friend
Dave who has a mentor from another ethnic group.
a. more direct financial assistance
b. more psychosocial support
c. less clear career advice
d. less push to move up the corporate ladder
Answer: B
75. In 2010, ____ women were in CEO positions of Fortune 500 companies in the United
a. 5
b. 10
c. 15
d. 30
Answer: C
76. The textbook defines gender discrimination as something that
a. involves the denial of a job.
b. only affects women.
c. is very uncommon.
d. is found only in ethnic minority populations.
Answer: A
77. Mr. French has been denied a job as a nanny solely because he is a male. This provides an
example of
a. gender discrimination.
b. sexual harassment.

c. burn out.
d. alienation.
Answer: A
78. When Bundy applies for a job as a shoe salesperson, he is told, “Right now, we are only
hiring females.” This is an example of
a. comparable worth.
b. gender discrimination.
c. a glass ceiling.
d. sexual harassment.
Answer: B
79. A “glass ceiling” is best described as a(n)
a. barrier preventing advancement in a company.
b. sex-based form of rapid advancement in a company.
c. example of the use of the reasonable woman standard.
d. method for encouraging mentoring of ethnic minority workers.
Answer: A
80. Fran finds that no matter what she does or how well she performs, she cannot get
promoted above a certain mid-management position in her company. Fran is most likely
a. burn out.
b. alienation.
c. role conflict.
d. a glass ceiling.
Answer: D
81. The “glass ceiling” for women is most pronounced in their inability to

a. attain a job in a traditionally male occupation.
b. enter the job force at any level.
c. keep a low-tier job.
d. rise to the highest level of management in a company.
Answer: D
82. Naomi feels trapped in her job. Even though she believes she has the ability and training
to move up in her work setting, there appear to be no opportunities for her to do so. Naomi is
a. a glass ceiling.
b. affirmative action.
c. work-family conflict.
d. vocational maturity.
Answer: A
83. What would break down a “glass ceiling?”
a. Hiring more females
b. Paying females at an equitable level to males
c. Faster promotion of women to upper-tier jobs
d. More female mentors
Answer: C
84. You are the head of a company with a “glass ceiling.” If you would like to eliminate this
problem, what should you do?
a. Be less democratic with your employees
b. Reduce access to mentors
c. Employ a less diverse workforce
d. Provide more feedback about promotions

Answer: D
85. Between 1979 and 2006, the pay difference between equally trained males and females
a. grown slightly large.
b. decreased slightly.
c. decreased significantly.
d. been eliminated.
Answer: B
86. Robert and Julia are employed in the same occupation. If pay for the two follows the
pattern for the average American female and male, for every $100 earned by Robert, Julia
could expect to earn
a. $95.
b. $90.
c. $80.
d. $70.
Answer: C
87. Pay equity specifically involves equal pay for
a. all jobs.
b. equivalent jobs.
c. all ethnic groups.
d. both sexes.
Answer: B
88. Assistant Manager Tina just found out that she earns $10,000 per year less than Jeff,
another assistant manager with the same exact educational background and experience. Tina
is a victim of
a. reality shock.

b. work-family conflict.
c. comparable worth.
d. pay inequity.
Answer: D
89. Which of the following statements best describes the research on pay equity?
a. Women make less than men for the same job only in traditionally male occupations.
b. Women make less than men for the same job, even in traditionally male occupations.
c. There is a gap between what men and women are paid for the same job, but it emerges
about 10 years after college.
d. There is a gap between what men and women are paid for the same job, but it only occurs
after a woman has taken time out of the workforce.
Answer: B
90. Sexual harassment tends to occur when there is a(n) _____ difference between two
a. sex
b. power
c. educational
d. age
Answer: B
91. Who is most likely to be the victim of sexual harassment?
a. Vicki, who is a 25-year-old single woman
b. Candy, who is a 40-year-old married woman
c. Wendy, who is 40-year-old divorced woman
d. Suzie, who is a 55-year-old woman who is separated from her husband
Answer: A

92. Which statement about sexual harassment is true?
a. The incidence of harassment has been reliably identified
b. Harassment has little negative psychological impact
c. It does not occur in males
d. It can have negative consequences even when the degree of harassment is low
Answer: D
93. In which culture are women more likely to judge an interaction as more harassing than
a. Germany
b. Brazil
c. Australia
d. United States
Answer: D
94. The Oncale v. Sundowner Offshore Services Supreme Court case (1998) ruled that men
could be victims of sexual harassment and also established a precedent barring
a. teacher-student harassment.
b. same-sex harassment.
c. age discrimination.
d. workplace romance for those in government jobs.
Answer: B
95. The new standard for determining sexual harassment is the “_____” standard.
a. role conflict
b. reasonable person
c. glass ceiling
d. comparable worth

Answer: B
96. During a legal side bar, a judge comments, “But what would a reasonable person have
thought about it?” This trial is likely about
a. sexual harassment.
b. age discrimination.
c. pay equity.
d. a glass ceiling.
Answer: A
97. Troy is a 55-year-old worker who, despite having a very good work record, has been
passed up for promotion many times in favor of younger workers with lesser records. Troy is
most likely a victim of
a. the glass ceiling.
b. pay discrimination.
c. role conflict.
d. age discrimination.
Answer: D
98. Who has just reached the age at which he would receive protection under the U.S. Age
Discrimination in Employment Act of 1986?
a. Kingsley, who is 30
b. Luther, who is 40
c. Yasir, who is 50
d. Beasley, who is 60
Answer: B
99. A manufacturing company wants 55-year-old Neema to retire from her job, but she
refuses. In response, the company changes her job so that instead of having to stack 80 20-

pound packages an hour, she now has to stack 20 eight-pound packages. This best
a. sexual harassment.
b. age discrimination.
c. comparable worth.
d. a glass ceiling.
Answer: B
100. Which best exemplifies the concept of self-initiated occupational change?
a. Quitting a job to take on a more challenging job
b. Losing your job in an economic recession
c. Having a company send your job overseas
d. Losing your job to technology
Answer: A
101. Getting a more extensive education is one benefit of
a. the reasonable person standard.
b. the glass ceiling.
c. role conflict.
d. changing occupations.
Answer: D
102. Which best exemplifies career plateauing?
a. Taking on a new job in order to increase one’s salary
b. Signing up for a college course that may help you get a promotion
c. Experiencing a career dream
d. A longtime employee decides not to seek a promotion
Answer: D

103. Although she is well-liked within the organization and in no danger of losing her job,
Tammy has not been promoted for some time due to the fact that she has not kept up with the
technological advances in her field. Tammy is most likely experiencing
a. the glass ceiling.
b. a career plateau.
c. burn out.
d. vocational maturity.
Answer: B
104. Career plateauing would least likely be the result of
a. a lack of challenge in one’s job.
b. lack of promotion opportunity.
c. a decision to not seek job advancement.
d. losing your job due to downsizing.
Answer: D
105. Jeremy has worked for the same marketing company for several years. Because he has
not really put an effort into keeping his computer skills up-to-date, he really has no chance at
advancing beyond his present position. Which term best describes what Jeremy is
a. Job satisfaction
b. Career plateauing
c. The glass ceiling
d. Alienation
Answer: B
106. A company’s policy for having a glass ceiling for Latino workers would most likely lead
to ____ for middle management Latino workers.
a. age discrimination

b. gender harassment
c. pay equity
d. career plateauing
Answer: D
107. In order to help their employees move from one job to another, and in order to meet the
challenges of a global economy, corporations must offer ____ as part of their employee
development programs.
a. retraining
b. glass ceilings
c. occupational priorities
d. comparable worth
Answer: A
108. Oscar is very worried about losing his job. Felicia feels comfortable that her job is
completely secure. Based on research on job insecurity, it is likely that Oscar is
a. less wealthy than Felicia.
b. more vocationally mature than Felicia.
c. less physically well than Felicia.
d. less intelligent than Felicia.
Answer: C
109. Research on stress and employment status has shown that
a. individuals who believe that they will lose their jobs show similar stress levels to those
who have actually lost their jobs.
b. the mere threat of unemployment has little impact on mental health.
c. due to job demands, employed workers show more stress than unemployed workers.
d. using emotional avoidance is an effective strategy for reducing stress related to the
possibility of unemployment.

Answer: A
110. Which would be an emotion-focused coping mechanism concerning possible job loss?
a. Retraining yourself to ensure getting a new job
b. Reducing the stress you are experiencing
c. Confronting your employer about the job loss
d. Suing the company for wrongful termination
Answer: B
111. A study by McKee-Ryan and colleagues (2005) indicated that the negative impact
following unemployment can be eliminated through
a. career counseling.
b. reemployment.
c. reeducation.
d. career plateauing.
Answer: B
112. Loss of a job is most likely to negatively impact men who are
a. college-aged.
b. early in their career.
c. middle-aged.
d. retirement-aged.
Answer: C
113. Who is most likely to be negatively affected by losing his job?
a. Nate, who is 23 years old
b. Bill, who is 28 years old
c. Marty, who is 46 years old
d. Bruce, who is 68 years old

Answer: C
114. Marcus is an African American and Tom is a European American. Who will experience
more distress when he loses his job?
a. Tom
b. Marcus
c. Both Marcus and Tom are likely to experience a great deal of stress
d. Neither Tom nor Marcus will experience any stress
Answer: C
115. The best advice for managing occupational transition is to
a. not approach the situation with a sense of healthy urgency.
b. only consider next career moves if specific prospects are available.
c. be cautious of stop-gap employment.
d. identify unrealistic goals first and realistic thereafter.
Answer: C
116. In the United States, just over ____ percent of two-parent households have two working
a. 20
b. 40
c. 60
d. 80
Answer: C
117. Research has indicated that the most critical factors in determining whether a formerly
employed woman with a preschooler returns to work is her financial need and her level of
a. vocational maturity.
b. maternal instinct.

c. attachment to her job.
d. self-esteem.
Answer: C
118. Which statement is true?
a. Caring for an older parent is less stressful than caring for a child
b. Caring for a child is less stressful than caring for an older parent
c. Caring for a child or an older parent are both stressful
d. Neither caring for a child nor caring for an older parent leads to stress
Answer: C
119. Work-based childcare is
a. uncommon in most countries, including the United States
b. uncommon in most countries, but becoming common in the United States
c. no better than nonwork-based childcare in terms of mothers’ transition back to work.
d. better than nonwork-based childcare in terms of mothers’ transition back to work.
Answer: D
120. Gail is a work supervisor who is very supportive of her workers’ needs in regard to
childcare and other family issues. Because of this, it is likely that Gail’s workers will
a. report more job satisfaction.
b. report more job-family conflict.
c. experience greater burn out.
d. be more likely to alter their “reasonable person” standard.
Answer: A
121. How many of the following employer working conditions are related to more optimal
job performance by parents with children: job sharing, higher productivity demands,
inflexible schedules, autonomy?

a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4
Answer: B
122. The 1993 Family Medical Leave Act gave people the right to
a. unpaid time off to care for dependents.
b. sue for gender discrimination.
c. paid daycare for infants under the age of 18 months.
d. sue for sexual harassment.
Answer: A
123. A Swedish study showed that most fathers who took parental leave when their child was
a. never returned to work.
b. were more likely to continue their involvement in childcare.
c. increased their work involvement.
d. took primary responsibility for their child’s care.
Answer: B
124. Carrie is a full-time physician and Ken is a full-time school teacher. Who likely does
most of the housework and childcare?
a. Carrie
b. Ken
c. Carrie and Ken probably do about the same amount of housework
d. It is likely that most housework and childcare is done by their children
Answer: A

125. If Melissa and Gilbert are a typical married couple, then considering the division of
household labor,
a. Gilbert will be unwilling to engage in any housework chores.
b. Melissa would be more satisfied with the division if she were occasionally allowed to
perform a “male” task.
c. Gilbert would be for splitting the household chores on the basis of time spent on each task.
d. Melissa would be more involved in housework if she were employed outside the home.
Answer: C
126. If Jim and Nell are a typical heterosexual couple, Nell will be happiest if Jim helps by
a. mowing the lawn.
b. fixing various household gadgets.
c. maintaining the automobiles.
d. washing clothes.
Answer: D
127. A movie producer is looking for someone to play the role of a domestic servant. She
wants to cast someone who has significant experience with all kinds of housework in their
everyday life. Based on this criterion, who is least likely to get the role?
a. Julie, a European-American female
b. Jed, a European-American male
c. Matt, an African-American male
d. Alonzo, a Hispanic-American male
Answer: B
128. The greatest discrepancy in household task performance in heterosexual couples is
found when males endorse _____ gender roles for themselves.
a. feminine
b. masculine

c. androgynous
d. no
Answer: B
129. Tim is in a terrible bind. He has promised his son that he would go to his concert but is
now expected to meet a job candidate at the airport at the same time. Tim is experiencing
a. a glass ceiling.
b. occupational priorities.
c. career plateauing.
d. work-family conflict.
Answer: D
130. Which best describes the typical relationship between occupational and family roles?
a. Competing
b. Similar
c. Conflicting
d. Unrelated
Answer: A
131. Which of the following activity indicates the most equitable division of labor between
a. Vacuuming the carpet
b. Repairing the drain
c. Responding to the doorbell
d. Decorating the living room
Answer: A
132. Who is likely to be experiencing the most stress related to work-family conflicts?
a. Lana, who has four children

b. Lisa, who has three children
c. Laura, who has one child
d. Lori, who has no children
Answer: A
133. Which couple is likely to be experiencing the most inter-role conflict?
a. Willy and Tina, who do not have any children
b. Shaun and Joanna, who have two preschool-age children
c. Karen and Jim, whose children are now in college
d. Michelle and Kenny, who are both retired
Answer: B
134. Which dual-career conflict statement is true?
a. Dual-career couples tend to have the fewest work role conflicts.
b. Burn out from work and parenting has a greater impact on working women.
c. The amount of time a couple spends together is the most important predictor of conflict.
d. The United States is one of the few countries in which the division of labor between men
and women is so equitable that it does not lead to conflict.
Answer: B
135. To qualify as “leisure,” an activity must
a. involve physical exertion.
b. be discretionary.
c. involve some monetary payment
d. be creative.
Answer: B
136. Who is least likely involved in a leisure activity?
a. Kermit, who is bowling because his boss wants him to bowl

b. Larry, who writes short stories for fun
c. Brian, who listens to music to help him relax
d. Glenn, who makes fishing lures as a creative hobby
Answer: A
137. Pursuing a leisure activity very seriously may become a problem only if
a. it is supported by others.
b. it includes daydreaming.
c. it interferes with work.
d. it involves interpersonal relationships.
Answer: A
138. When Bono says, “I have thought about it for a long time, and I believe that I would be a
great rock and roll star,” he is exhibiting
a. extrinsic motivation.
b. work-family conflict.
c. perceived competence.
d. docility.
Answer: C
139. Compared to middle-aged adults, young adults tend to
a. participate in a smaller range of activities and prefer those activities with a lower level of
b. participate in a smaller range of activities and prefer those activities with a higher level of
c. participate in a larger range of activities and prefer those activities with a lower level of
d. participate in a larger range of activities and prefer those activities with a higher level of

Answer: D
140. Longitudinal studies show that as one gets older, leisure activities tend to become less
a. family oriented.
b. complex.
c. sedentary.
d. physically challenging.
Answer: D
141. Which is not a benefit of leisure activities?
a. They enable us to forget about our past
b. They distract us from negative events
c. They can be used as a means of personal transformation
d. They generate optimism about the future
Answer: A
142. Research has found that
a. the positive impacts of a vacation can be eliminated by the workload created by the
b. participation in leisure activities tend to weaken family attachments.
c. there is a negative correlation between frequency of leisure activities and social
d. the more extreme leisure activity a spouse chooses, the less likelihood of it creating family
Answer: A
1. What someone does for a living has a big impact on his or her need to derive meaning from

Answer: False
2. Holland believes that people choose occupations that best fit with their personalities.
Answer: True
3. Men are more likely to have artistic and social personalities.
Answer: False
4. The implementation stage of vocational maturity begins with the selection of a specific
Answer: False
5. Super’s theory applies to individuals who enter and remain in the same career their entire
Answer: True
6. During the cultivation phase of the mentor-protégé relationship, the relationship ends or is
Answer: False
7. Mentoring is one way to address the issue of generativity suggested by Erikson.
Answer: True
8. Women tend to have a more difficult time finding adequate mentors.
Answer: True
9. Job satisfaction is best predicted by age, as the older a worker is, the higher the
Answer: False
10. Alienated employees tend to view their work as meaningless.
Answer: True
11. Burnout tends to result in an increase in occupational idealism.
Answer: False

12. An effective way for employers to reduce burn out is to have employees raise
expectations of themselves.
Answer: False
13. Professional working women are more likely to leave a corporation that does not value
interdependence and collaboration.
Answer: True
14. Most African-American protégés have African-American mentors.
Answer: False
15. Female workers are more likely than male workers to encounter a glass ceiling.
Answer: True
16. The wage gap between males and females has been rapidly narrowing since the 1970s.
Answer: False
17. Fewer than 1 percent of workplace sexual harassment cases involve a male victim.
Answer: False
18. Employment prospects for middle-aged people are lower than for young adults.
Answer: True
19. When workers experience career plateauing, they may decide not to seek a promotion.
Answer: True
20. People who believe that they are going to lose their job experience similar levels of stress
as those who are actually unemployed.
Answer: True
21. When workplace supervisors adopt a supportive stance regarding daycare, employees
have lower absenteeism and higher job satisfaction.
Answer: True
22. As the result of recent changes in cultural attitudes, the division of labor between
heterosexual couples in the United States is now virtually equal.

Answer: False
23. The larger the number of children in a family, the more work-family conflict.
Answer: True
24. An individual’s leisure repertoire tends to be determined by that person’s perceived
competence and psychological comfort.
Answer: True
1. _____ is the degree to which your occupational behaviors match those expected of people
your age.
Answer: Vocational maturity
2. Super’s _____ occupational developmental task involves taking a series of temporary jobs
to find out about work roles.
Answer: implementation
3. A worker who is matched with a mentor is referred to as a(n) _____.
Answer: protégé
4. If Rachel experiences many positive feelings about the work she does, she would be
described as experiencing high job _____.
Answer: satisfaction
5. Because George feels like his job is meaningless and does not see any connection between
what he does and the final product that is produced, he is likely to be experiencing _____.
Answer: alienation
6. A worker experiencing _____ is depleted of energy, motivation, and a loss of occupational
Answer: burn out
7. Zach refuses to hire Monica simply because she is a woman. Zach’s behavior is an
example of gender _____.

Answer: discrimination
8. A person experiences a _____ when he or she feels like it’s impossible to rise above a
certain job level within a company.
Answer: glass ceiling
9. The “_____” standard is often used in sexual harassment cases to determine whether a
particular behavior is offensive.
Answer: reasonable person
10. Denying an individual a promotion due to that person’s age is called _____.
Answer: age discrimination
11. The U.S. Age Discrimination in Employment Act begins to protect workers over age
Answer: 40
12. Tammi received her final promotion five years ago and cannot be promoted again.
Tammi’s status is best described as career _____.
Answer: plateauing
13. In the United States, _____-American males tend to perform the least amount of
Answer: European
14. Jackie constantly feels like her job is taking her away from what she should be doing for
her children and vice versa. She is most likely experiencing a(n) _____ conflict.
Answer: work-family
15. _____ activities are discretionary activities that include things you would do for
enjoyment or to relax.
Answer: Leisure
11. What is age discrimination, and how can it manifest itself in the workplace?

Answer: Age discrimination involves denying a job or promotion to an individual solely on
the basis of his or her age. According to the U.S. Age Discrimination in Employment Act of
1986, workers over age 40 are legally protected. Age discrimination often occurs during
hiring decisions and is often covert. Example of techniques include using retirement
incentives to get rid of older workers, setting physical or mental criteria that would work
against older workers, or relying on age-based stereotypes in raise, promotion, or hiring
12. Many people say that they would like to lead a life of leisure. React to this statement by
defining leisure, describing developmental changes in leisure activities, and discussing the
benefits of engaging in leisure activities.
Answer: Leisure is defined as a discretionary activity that includes simple relaxation,
activities for enjoyment, and creative pursuits. In addition, some differentiate between
preoccupations (more like daydreams) and interests (ideas and feelings about things you are
curious about or would like to do). Developmentally, younger people tend to engage in a
wider variety of leisure activities that tend to be more intense than the activities engaged in
during middle age. Also, the activities engaged in tend to remain stable over time. Leisure
activities can promote better mental health and lower the risk of mortality. They also serve as
a buffer against negative life events by distracting us from these events, generating optimism
about the future, connecting us to our past, and acting as vehicles of personal transformation.

Test Bank for Human Development : A Life-Span View
Robert V Kail, John C Cavanaugh
9781111834111, 9781337554831

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