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Chapter 11—Being with Others: Forming Relationships in Young and Middle Adulthood
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. Which characterizes most friendships?
a. They are based on choice and high reciprocity.
b. They are based on choice and low reciprocity.
c. They are based on no choice and high reciprocity.
d. They are based on no choice and low reciprocity.
Answer: A
2. Friendship relationships differ from love relationships in that they are
a. less emotionally intense and less sexual.
b. less emotionally intense and more sexual.
c. more emotionally intense and less sexual.
d. more emotionally intense and more sexual.
Answer: A
3. The initial stage in friendship development is called
a. buildup.
b. continuation.
c. acquaintanceship.
d. deterioration.
Answer: C
4. Siegfried and Roy have been friends for many years. In the past few months, however, they
seem to have less in common, and Roy has been thinking more about hanging out with a
potential new friend. Siegfried and Roy appear to be in the ____ stage of friendship
development.
a. buildup

b. continuation
c. acquaintanceship
d. deterioration
Answer: D
5. Eric and Jon have been friends for many years, but recently their friendship could be
described as in the deterioration stage. Which factor is most likely to bring the relationship to
the ending stage?
a. Eric and Jon move away from each other.
b. Eric develops a mental disorder.
c. Eric and Jon find new friends.
d. Jon gets married, and Eric remains single.
Answer: C
6. People tend to have the most acquaintances/friends during
a. young adulthood.
b. middle adulthood.
c. late adulthood.
d. latest adulthood.
Answer: A
7. Sanford’s friendships tend to be based on self-disclosure and intimacy. This exemplifies
the ____ component of friendship.
a. contextual
b. sociability
c. shared
d. affective
Answer: D

8. How could Gene’s relationship with Peggy reflect the communal component of adult
friendship?
a. He could view her quirky personality as a source of amusement.
b. He could support her interest in skydiving by going along with her on a jump.
c. He could disclose his love for her.
d. He could indicate loyalty by defending her even though she is wrong.
Answer: B
9. The fact that Bert’s friend Ernie keeps him amused by telling funny stories best illustrates
the _____ dimension of friendship.
a. shared
b. affective
c. sociability
d. communal
Answer: C
10. A relative strength of online friendships involves the ability of the user to
a. know exactly who they are dealing with.
b. control the level of intimacy in the relationship.
c. ensure compatibility.
d. meet in a less anonymous manner than in face-to-face friendships.
Answer: B
11. Which person is least likely to have a strong friendship with her brother?
a. Gwen, who is 10
b. Stephanie, who is 20
c. Helen, who is 45
d. Georgia, who is 80

Answer: C
12. Calliope is a typical woman who works in an office and likes to play handball. Who is
most likely to be her friend?
a. Athena, who also likes to play handball
b. Hera, who works in the same office
c. Aphrodite, who is someone in whom Calliope can confide
d. Venus, who likes to party
Answer: C
13. The text authors suggest that the strong intimate sharing component that characterizes
female friendships but not male friendships is due to females having more comfort with their
a. sexuality.
b. language skills.
c. intellect.
d. vulnerability.
Answer: D
14. Hansel (a male) and Gretel (a female) are best friends. If their cross-gender friendship is
typical of most, Hansel’s biggest misperception concerning Gretel would likely be
a. overperceiving Gretel’s level of sexual interest in him.
b. overperceiving Gretel’s need for emotional intimacy in the friendship.
c. underperceiving Gretel’s intelligence.
d. underperceiving Gretel’s jealousy.
Answer: A
15. Which is not one of the three components of love, according to Sternberg?
a. Intimacy
b. Sociability

c. Commitment
d. Passion
Answer: B
16. Juliet wants Romeo physically, and she wants him badly! Juliet is most likely
experiencing
a. intimacy.
b. passion.
c. commitment.
d. companionate love.
Answer: B
17. When discussing his new girlfriend, Mickey says, “I can tell her everything about
myself.” Mickey clearly feels ____ toward his girlfriend.
a. commitment
b. passion
c. infatuation
d. intimacy
Answer: D
18. The phrase, “till death do you part,” which is often said during marriage services, offers a
good example of
a. passion.
b. romantic love.
c. commitment.
d. consummate love.
Answer: C

19. Rhett and Scarlet have a relationship characterized by a lifetime of marriage characterized
by little physical desire and no sharing of thoughts or feelings. This relationship is best
described as one of strong
a. intimacy.
b. passion.
c. commitment.
d. infatuation.
Answer: C
20. While Victor and Victoria have very strong sexual feelings for each other, they have little
interest in intimacy or commitment. This type of relationship is best described as
a. infatuation.
b. friendship.
c. consummate love.
d. companionate love.
Answer: A
21. Toni and Tim have just gotten married. Which component of love is most likely to be
stronger 20 years from now than it is today?
a. Commitment
b. Passion
c. Intimacy
d. Infatuation
Answer: A
22. The “intimacy” component of love is most similar to the ____ theme of adult friendships.
a. sociability
b. shared or communal nature

c. passion
d. affective
Answer: D
23. According to Kahlil Gibran, author of The Prophet, the two sides of love are
a. passion and intimacy.
b. fear and friendship.
c. ecstasy and pain.
d. sex and caring.
Answer: C
24. The assortative mating theory proposes that initial mate selection is based primarily on
a. similarity.
b. instincts.
c. random factors.
d. love.
Answer: A
25. When deciding on a potential mate, Fletcher says, “I just need to find someone a lot like
me.” This statement fits very well with ____ theory.
a. sociocultural
b. assortative mating
c. crystallization
d. blended family
Answer: B
26. Which statement best reflects the principle of assortive mating?
a. Opposites attract
b. Love the one you’re with

c. Birds of a feather flock together
d. You can’t teach an old dog new tricks
Answer: C
27. Kalminjn and Flap (2001) found that ____ tended to promote strong homogamy in
relationships.
a. meeting other members of one’s family
b. living in the same neighborhood
c. meeting in school
d. seeking a mate with different characteristics than yourself
Answer: C
28. Surveys indicate that nearly ________ couples in the United States meet online.
a. 1 in every 5
b. 1 in every 10
c. 1 in every 15
d. 1 in every 20
Answer: A
29. Surveys indicate that nearly ________ couples in the Australia meet online.
a. 1 in every 5
b. 1 in every 10
c. 1 in every 15
d. 1 in every 20
Answer: B
30. Surveys indicate that nearly ________ couples in Spain and the United Kingdom meet
online.
a. 1 in every 5

b. 1 in every 10
c. 1 in every 15
d. 1 in every 20
Answer: D
31. Research suggests that women tend to
a. choose masculine men for short-term relationships and more feminine-looking men for
long-term relationships.
b. choose feminine-looking men for short-term relationships and more masculine men for
long-term relationships.
c. choose older men for short-term relationships and younger men for long-term relationships.
d. choose younger men for short-term relationships and older men for long-term
relationships.
Answer: A
32. Physical attractiveness is
a. unimportant in love relationships for both males and females.
b. unimportant in love relationships for females but important for males.
c. important in love relationships for females but unimportant for males.
d. important in love relationships for both males and females.
Answer: D
33. According to research by Buss and colleagues, a(n) ____ man looking for a prospective
mate would be most concerned about the woman’s cooking competence and chastity status.
a. Chinese
b. Italian
c. Swedish
d. British

Answer: A
34. Arnold is a highly educated, intelligent young man with a less than pleasing disposition.
As such, he is most likely to be viewed as an excellent potential mate
a. in every culture in the world.
b. nowhere in the world.
c. in some cultures but not in other cultures.
d. only in the United States.
Answer: C
35. In their cross-cultural study of mate selection, Buss and colleagues found that the
characteristic of ____ showed the most variation as to whether it was important to mate
selection.
a. intelligence
b. chastity
c. physical attractiveness
d. social status
Answer: B
36. Who is most likely to have a positive internal working model of herself and a negative
model of others?
a. Bee, who has a secure romantic attachment
b. Carla, who has a dismissing romantic attachment
c. Gail, who has a preoccupied romantic attachment
d. Sela, who has a fearful romantic attachment
Answer: B
37. According to research cited in your text, approximately ____ percent of marriages in
India are arranged and among urban professionals, and approximately _____ percent rated
their marriage as “very successful.”

a. 5; 75
b. 75; 5
c. 80; 95
d. 95; 80
Answer: C
38. Research on the biology of physical attraction suggests that neurochemicals related to
____ underlie the feeling of exhilaration that often is experienced when you fall in love.
a. barbiturates
b. hallucinogens
c. amphetamines
d. narcotics
Answer: C
39. When discussing his relationship with his wife Amber, Travis says, “I have this very
strong sense of commitment and tranquility.” Researchers have suggested that the
neurophysiological basis of this feeling may be due to brain chemicals related to
a. cocaine.
b. morphine.
c. alcohol.
d. cannabis.
Answer: B
40. A relationship in which one individual becomes violent or aggressive toward the other is
classified as a(n) ____ relationship.
a. abusive
b. consummate
c. reciprocal

d. homogenous
Answer: A
41. The defining belief among individuals experiencing “battered woman’s syndrome” is that
a. the abuse is tied to a sense of personal high self-esteem.
b. the abuse is not harmful to them.
c. the abuser is acting out of unconditional love.
d. they are powerless to get away from the abuse.
Answer: D
42. Which of Deanna’s statements indicates that she is likely experiencing “battered woman’s
syndrome?”
a. “I just hit my husband.”
b. “I cannot escape this abusive relationship.”
c. “I often hit my husband.”
d. “I am sometimes afraid of my husband.”
Answer: B
43. O’Leary (1993) presents a continuum of aggressive behavior in abusive relationships
anchored by ____ on one end and ____ on the other end.
a. physical aggression; verbal aggression
b. severe aggression; murder
c. verbal aggression; murder
d. physical aggression; murder
Answer: C
44. Worldwide, about 10 percent to about ____ percent of women report being physically
assaulted or raped.
a. 25

b. 40
c. 55
d. 70
Answer: D
45. The causes of aggressive behavior become more ____ as the level of aggressive behavior
increases.
a. complex
b. simple
c. obvious
d. external
Answer: A
46. According to O’Leary’s (1993) model, ____ would have the largest number of potential
underlying causes.
a. verbal aggression
b. physical aggression
c. severe aggression
d. murder
Answer: D
47. Which statement is true?
a. Women are not as violent as men in heterosexual relationships but are more violent in
homosexual relationships.
b. Men are not as violent as women in heterosexual relationships but are more violent in
homosexual relationships.
c. Women are not as violent as men in either heterosexual relationships or homosexual
relationships.

d. Men are not as violent as women in either heterosexual relationships or homosexual
relationships.
Answer: C
48. In the United States, _____ rated a woman in an abusive relationship more positively if
she left the man.
a. European-American women living in the South
b. Latina-American women living in the South
c. European-American women living in the North
d. no women
Answer: C
49. Which statement concerning cross-cultural violence is true?
a. In some cultures, a woman is rated positively if she remains in an abusive relationship.
b. Chinese Americans do not recognize physical aggression as a form of domestic violence.
c. In Arab countries, abused women have the legal right to kill abusive husbands without fear
of legal reprisal.
d. While it is considered a form of abuse in the United States, South Asian immigrants view
complete social isolation of a spouse as an honor.
Answer: A
50. In the United States, about _____ percent of women between ages 20 and 24 are married.
a. 30
b. 40
c. 50
d. 60
Answer: A
51. Which statement concerning singlehood, marriage, and sex differences in the United
States is true?

a. Males feel more societal pressure to marry.
b. Males marry at a later age.
c. Females seldom have unresolved feelings about remaining single.
d. Females tend to “marry down” to males with lower social and educational status.
Answer: B
52. Which statement concerning African Americans, European Americans, and Latinos in
America is true?
a. African Americans are most likely to be single during young adulthood.
b. Latinos are actively encouraged to avoid marriage in young adulthood.
c. The main cause of singlehood for European Americans is a shortage of marriageable
European-American males.
d. The rate of singlehood in the United States is unaffected by ethnic factors.
Answer: A
53. Singlehood is
a. increasing in African-American and Latino-American women.
b. increasing in African-American and decreasing in Latino-American women.
c. decreasing in African-American and increasing in Latino-American women.
d. decreasing in African-American and Latino-American women.
Answer: A
54. For most people, the decision to remain permanently single is
a. made in the teenage years.
b. due to the untimely death of their “one true love.”
c. driven by economic factors.
d. the result of gradual circumstances, not a lifestyle choice.
Answer: D

55. An in-depth study of never-married women in their 30s identified three major distinct
groups. Which was not one of the groups?
a. Distressed and longing to be married with children
b. Struggling with issues of sexual orientation before deciding on marriage
c. Wanting both to be married and to be single
d. Single and happily satisfied
Answer: B
56. Ken and Barbie are sexually active singles who are discussing the idea of moving in
together. They are definitely contemplating
a. forming an extended family.
b. homogamy.
c. cohabitation.
d. assortative mating.
Answer: C
57. Compared to 1970, the number of cohabitating couples in the United States had ____ by
the year 2000.
a. decreased significantly
b. decreased slightly
c. increased slightly
d. increased significantly
Answer: D
58. In 1970, _____ couples in the United States were cohabitating. In 2002, _____ couples in
the United States were cohabitating.
a. 3 million; 3.5 million
b. 3.5 million; .5 million

c. .5 million; 5.5 million
d. 55 million; .5 million
Answer: C
59. Part-time or limited cohabitation is usually undertaken because of
a. a strong desire to marry.
b. religious reasons.
c. convenience or sexual accessibility.
d. pregnancy.
Answer: C
60. Chole announces to her long-time boyfriend that they should cohabitate as a step toward
marriage. This indicates that Chole is interested in
a. limited cohabitation.
b. part-time cohabitation.
c. premarital cohabitation.
d. a substitute marriage.
Answer: C
61. Which might best be characterized as a “trial marriage?”
a. Limited cohabitation
b. Substitute marriage
c. Premarital cohabitation
d. Part-time cohabitation
Answer: C
62. The primary difference between limited and premarital cohabitation involves
a. intention to marry.
b. the duration of the cohabitation.

c. the degree of sexual involvement.
d. tax benefits.
Answer: A
63. Liz and Richard are 35-year-olds who have lived together for a long time. After the birth
of their first child, they decided to get married. Given this description, Liz and Richard’s
cohabitation pattern suggests that they live in which country?
a. United states
b. Jamaica
c. Sweden
d. China
Answer: C
64. In the United States, cohabitation has
a. increased threefold in the past 30 years.
b. decreased threefold in the past 30 years.
c. increased tenfold in the past 30 years.
d. decreased tenfold in the past 30 years.
Answer: C
65. Like almost 99 percent of their age peers, 30-year-olds Alan and Barb are cohabitating
before getting married. Given this statistic, Alan and Barb most likely live in
a. Australia.
b. Sweden.
c. Indonesia.
d. Brazil.
Answer: B

66. Ole and Lena are a cohabitating couple in Norway, while Jack and Diane are a
cohabitating couple in the United States. Cross-cultural research would predict that
a. Ole and Lena will only marry if they have children.
b. Ole and Lena will believe that they are living in sin.
c. Jack and Diane will be unlikely to ever marry.
d. Jack and Diane will be at significantly less risk for divorce should they marry.
Answer: A
67. Al and Peg are a typical American couple who have cohabitated for many years. If they
later marry each other, they are likely to be ____ than other married couples who did not
cohabitate.
a. less at risk for divorce
b. wealthier
c. more religious
d. less happy
Answer: D
68. How many of the following are rights that some countries extend to cohabiting partners:
pension rights, insurance benefits, distribution of property?
a. 0
b. 1
c. 2
d. 3
Answer: D
69. Gay and lesbian couples tend to differ from heterosexual couples in
a. the degree to which partners split household responsibilities.
b. the degree to which partners share power in the relationship.

c. the degree to which partners communicate effectively.
d. the degree to which partners share the same demographic characteristics.
Answer: D
70. Based on statistics, which pair would you expect to have had the most past short-term
relationships?
a. William and Kirk, who are a gay male couple
b. Debbie and Alan, who are a heterosexual couple
c. Claire and Brooke, who are a lesbian couple
d. Joan and Crawford, who are a bisexual couple
Answer: A
71. Which statement concerning homosexual and heterosexual couples in the United States is
true?
a. Gay couples tend to receive more family support than heterosexual couples.
b. Both gay and heterosexual males tend to view love and sex as synonymous.
c. Gay couples have the same legal rights as heterosexual couples.
d. Both lesbian and heterosexual females view money as a way to maintain a sense of
independence from their partners.
Answer: D
72. Currently, _____ countries provide gay and lesbian couples with the same legal rights as
heterosexual couples.
a. no
b. few
c. many
d. most
Answer: B

73. How has the median age of first marriage in the United States changed from 1970 to
2009?
a. It has dropped by about four years.
b. It has remained constant.
c. It has risen by about four years.
d. It has risen by about eight years.
Answer: C
74. Each of these women has just married for the first time. Who is most likely to get
divorced?
a. Lucy, who is 17
b. Lacy, who is 23
c. Lanny, who is 29
d. Laurie, who is 35
Answer: A
75. When discussing their marriage, Meg and Ryan agree that what appears to keep them
together and happy is the fact that they share many of the same values. This exemplifies
_____, which is a good predictor of marital success.
a. monogamy
b. singlehood
c. homogamy
d. nesting
Answer: C
76. Elliot and Elizabeth are both politically liberal, vegetarian, like to socialize, and are
agnostic. Which concept best describes these similarities?
a. Exchange theory
b. Homogamy

c. Limited cohabitation
d. Familism
Answer: B
77. Homogamy is ____ with marital satisfaction.
a. unrelated
b. positively related
c. inversely related
d. negatively related
Answer: B
78. According to exchange theory, the key factor in determining whether an exchange will
increase marital satisfaction is the
a. length of time the individuals have been married.
b. age of the participants.
c. potential monetary cost of the exchange.
d. perceived equity of the exchange.
Answer: D
79. Katie and Rob are seeing a marriage counselor, Dr. McMurray, to ask her advice about
how to save their relationship. Dr. McMurray tells them that the reason they are having
trouble is because “neither of you perceive that you are getting as much out of the
relationship as you are putting into it.” This statement indicates that Dr. McMurray is a
proponent of
a. homogamy.
b. cohabitation.
c. exchange theory.
d. the family life cycle.
Answer: C

80. According to exchange theory, which couple would be most satisfied?
a. Megan, who makes a lot of money but is not much of a caregiver, and Hunter, who is
excellent at raising their children but not much of a moneymaker
b. Ashley and Brock, who have exchanged passionate love for fatuous love
c. Eden and Adam, who decide to put off marriage until they both get jobs
d. Honda, who wants children, and Harley, who gives in to her demands
Answer: A
81. Which best describes the typical pattern of marital satisfaction from honeymoon through
retirement?
a. High to low to high
b. High to medium to low
c. Medium to high to low
d. Low to medium to high
Answer: A
82. According to the vulnerability-stress-adaptation model of marriage, marital quality
a. is a dynamic process resulting from a couple’s ability to handle stress.
b. declines when couples are “too” alike.
c. is predicted by the age of the couple at marriage.
d. means there is one strong member of a couple and one weak member.
Answer: A
83. Which least exemplifies the early stage of most marriages?
a. Husband and wives sharing activities
b. Husbands being very concerned with their wives maintaining close ties with friends
c. Global adoration of a spouse’s qualities
d. First marital stress involving monetary matters

Answer: B
84. Early in marriages,
a. women tend to be “blinded” by love and ignore their husbands’ flaws.
b. women tend to be more concerned with keeping ties with their friends.
c. men tend to seldom admit that there are problems in the relationship.
d. men tend to be unconcerned about financial issues.
Answer: B
85. Which statement concerning children and marital satisfaction is true?
a. Couples with children show a decline in marital satisfaction while those without children
show an increase.
b. Couples who are child-free due to infertility tend to have high levels of marital satisfaction.
c. African-American couples tend to show little increased conflict due to the birth of a child.
d. The birth of a child is usually viewed as a positive event even though it is associated with a
decrease in marital satisfaction.
Answer: D
86. Heather is only moderately happy with her marriage. Because of that, she is thinking
about having a baby to make her marriage more satisfying. Is this a good idea?
a. Yes, because marital satisfaction increases with the birth of a baby.
b. Maybe, because when both parents want a baby, marital satisfaction increases after the
birth of the baby.
c. No, as having a child typically decreases marital satisfaction.
d. It is uncertain, as there is no specific relationship between marital satisfaction and the birth
of a child.
Answer: C
87. Which statement concerning marital satisfaction and having children is true?
a. Childless couples show no decline in marital satisfaction over time

b. The fussier the child, the less the drop in satisfaction as parents devote more time to
childcare
c. A decline in overall satisfaction is a common pattern for with-child and childless couples
d. Marital satisfaction following the birth of a child decreases in European Americans but
increases in African Americans
Answer: C
88. The “empty nest” is most likely to occur for parents in
a. adolescence.
b. young adulthood.
c. middle age.
d. old age.
Answer: C
89. To qualify as “emotionally divorced,” a couple must
a. experience a divorce.
b. seriously consider divorcing.
c. live in different locations.
d. fail to rebound in happiness.
Answer: D
90. Troy and Helen are both 55 and have been married for 20 years. However, they have
grown apart and essentially live as housemates. Troy and Helen are best classified as
a. emotionally divorced.
b. empty nested.
c. being in part-time cohabitation.
d. being in a substitute marriage.
Answer: A

91. Which couple is probably the happiest?
a. Henry and Anne, who have just had their first baby
b. Hank and Alice, who have two adolescent children
c. Harold and Abbey, whose children have just left home
d. Harvey and Amy, who have just retired
Answer: D
92. According to research presented in your text, what can be done to keep a marriage happy
for a long time?
a. Be up front about what bothers you about your spouse
b. Do not intrude on your spouse’s private life
c. Be forgiving
d. Confide in friends
Answer: C
93. Which is the most common form of family in Western societies?
a. Empty-nest family
b. Extended family
c. Step-family
d. Nuclear family
Answer: D
94. Marina and Kevin have two children, one boy and one girl, and the four of them live
together in one house. This type of family is called a(n)
a. empty-nest family.
b. extended family.
c. step-family.
d. nuclear family.

Answer: D
95. Which of these would be considered a nuclear family?
a. Mary, who is a single mother and lives with her two children
b. Sinead and Sean, who are a married couple
c. Tammy and Rick, who live with their two children and Tammy’s parents
d. Cleo, who lives alone
Answer: A
96. What is the most common type of family in the world?
a. Nuclear family
b. Blended family
c. Interracial family
d. Extended family
Answer: D
97. Which constitutes an “extended family?”
a. Two parents and one child
b. Two parents and six children
c. Two parents, one child, and one grandfather
d. Two cohabitating (but not married) adults
Answer: C
98. Jim and Kim are a married couple with two children. Kim’s aunt Rita lives with them as
well. What terms best describes this family?
a. Extended
b. Homogenous
c. Nuclear
d. Familism

Answer: A
99. Concerning family types, nuclear is to extended as
a. biological parent is to adoptive parent.
b. two generations is to three or more generations.
c. no children is to having children.
d. cohabitation is to marriage.
Answer: B
100. In the United States, _____ of pregnancies are unplanned.
a. very few
b. about one-quarter
c. over half
d. nearly all
Answer: C
101. It is estimated that it will cost middle-income parents about ____ to raise a child born in
2007 from birth through high school.
a. $80,000
b. $180,000
c. $280,000
d. $800,000
Answer: C
102. Alan and Darla are married and have decided not to have any children. They should
expect to
a. be less wealthy than couples with children.
b. have less freedom than couples with children.
c. be viewed negatively, especially by women.

d. have more marital dissatisfaction than couples with children.
Answer: C
103. The average age at which a woman gives birth to her first child has changed because of
_____ and women postponing having children for career purposes.
a. an increase in teen birthrate
b. a decrease in teen birthrate
c. an increase in the age of menopause
d. a decrease in the age of menopause
Answer: B
104. Ashley is 35 years old and just had her first baby. She is less likely to ____ than younger
mothers.
a. spend time with the baby
b. be anxious about being a parent
c. be sensitive to her baby’s needs
d. be affectionate toward her baby
Answer: B
105. Thirty-six-year-old Alexander and 25-year-old Jonathan are typical first-time fathers.
We would expect that
a. Alexander will spend more time with his child than Jonathan.
b. Alexander and Jonathan will spend about the same amount of time with their children.
c. Jonathan will spend more time with his child than Alexander.
d. Jonathan will spend more time with his child if his child is male and Alexander’s is female.
Answer: A
106. Who is least likely to do household chores?
a. Ronnie, an African-American male

b. Bonnie, an African-American female
c. Donnie, a European-American male
d. Connie, a European-American female
Answer: C
107. The strong sense of tribalism traditionally found in ____ families tends to lead to strong
ties between children, parents, and grandparents.
a. European-American
b. Native-American
c. African-American
d. Latino
Answer: B
108. It would be most reasonable to predict that a child raised by ____ parents would be most
competitive.
a. Native-American
b. Latino-American
c. Asian-American
d. European-American
Answer: D
109. Which ethnic group tends to have fewer two-parent families?
a. Latino families
b. European-American families
c. Asian families
d. Ethnicity is unrelated to parent configuration
Answer: A
110. Which statement best describes familism?

a. Go forth and multiply as often as possible
b. Violence aimed at specific members of the family
c. Family needs are more important than individual needs
d. The intentional desire to remain childless
Answer: C
111. When Anthony says, “I really don’t want to take the new job in Minnesota, but the move
would be the best thing for our family,” he is exemplifying
a. patriarchal decision-making.
b. cohabitation.
c. a single married perspective.
d. familism.
Answer: D
112. Which statement concerning Latino families is true?
a. Familism is a defining characteristic of Latino families.
b. Latino families tend to view extended families in a negative light.
c. Latino families are more likely to be two-parent households than are European-American
families.
d. Due to their nature, Latino families tend to provide poor childcare.
Answer: A
113. The opposite of familism is
a. homogamy.
b. individuality.
c. nuclear.
d. adoption.
Answer: B

114. Parents of multiracial children tend to __________ than parents of single-race children.
a. worry less about their children being rejected by others due to their race
b. use authoritarian parenting methods
c. experience less marital stress
d. provide more economic resources to their children
Answer: D
115. Studies of the parenting of multiracial children in the United States and New Zealand
found that
a. a parent from a racial minority group played the largest role in guiding the child’s
development of his or her ethnic identity.
b. moms played the largest role in guiding the child’s development of ethnic minority
identity, even when that child was not of that ethnic group.
c. dads played the largest role in guiding the child’s development of ethnic minority identity,
even when that child was not of that ethnic group.
d. parents of these children tend to see their children through “ethnic blinders” and do not
typically attempt to instill their children with a sense of ethnic identity.
Answer: B
116. In the United States, the out-of-wedlock birthrate
a. is highest in African Americans.
b. is highest in Latinos.
c. is highest in European Americans.
d. does not vary by ethnicity.
Answer: A
117. In the United States, who is least likely to marry to legitimize a pregnancy?
a. Mindi, who is Latino
b. Bindi, who is European American

c. Cindi, who is African American
d. Lindi, who is Asian American
Answer: C
118. Which statement about single parents is true?
a. They are financially better off than their married counterparts
b. Trying to be a peer versus a parent has great benefits and few drawbacks
c. Most single divorced parents wait at least two years before dating
d. Divorced single parents often experience feelings of failure and guilt
Answer: D
119. The greatest worry of most adoptive, foster, and step-parents is that the adoptive child in
their life will
a. not physically resemble them.
b. fail to bond with them.
c. lack intelligence.
d. be carrying some undetected genetic disorder.
Answer: B
120. Which statement is true?
a. Step-parents should encourage their step-children to avoid contact with their noncustodial
parent.
b. Children in blended families tend to have better mental health than children in nondivorced
families.
c. Step-parents need to be highly sensitive to the needs of a step-child concerning contact
with noncustodial parent(s).
d. Adopted children should be discouraged from contacting their biological parents.
Answer: C

121. Due to the nature of their task, foster parents must
a. induce immediate attachments in infants with which they have had minimal contact.
b. be willing to allow for ambiguity in the attachment relationship between themselves and
their foster child.
c. act as if every child that enters their home will eventually be their own.
d. discourage any court-ordered visits from noncustodial parents.
Answer: B
122. Kiko is being raised by lesbian parents. How is this experience most likely to impact her
own sexual orientation?
a. Her odds of having a homosexual orientation are 10 times greater than those for a girl
being raised by heterosexual parents.
b. Her odds of having a homosexual orientation are four times greater than those for a girl
being raised by heterosexual parents.
c. Her odds of having a homosexual orientation are twice that of a girl being raised by
heterosexual parents.
d. Her odds of having a homosexual orientation are similar to those of a girl being raised by
heterosexual parents
Answer: D
123. When compared to heterosexual fathers, gay fathers appear to be more concerned with
a. ensuring that their children do not become homosexuals.
b. providing their children with a nonsexist, nurturing environment.
c. raising physically strong daughters.
d. encouraging their children to avoid sports and pursue the arts.
Answer: B
124. Which married couple is most likely to get divorced?
a. Pierre and Christine, who are from South Africa

b. Junko and Katja, who are Ukranian
c. Beavis and Madonna, who are American
d. Rosina and Carmelo, who are French
Answer: C
125. About ____ percent of marriages in the United States involves “marriage for life” (i.e.,
no divorce).
a. 30
b. 40
c. 50
d. 60
Answer: C
126. Lisa and Phil are more likely to end up divorced if they are
a. both European Americans.
b. both Hispanic Americans.
c. both African Americans.
d. from different ethnic backgrounds.
Answer: D
127. As a typical American male, which of Todd’s reasons for filing for divorce would be the
most typical?
a. “I hate my in-laws.”
b. “My wife is one of those Women’s Lib’ers.”
c. “I drink too much.”
d. “My wife had an affair.”
Answer: D
128. Expression of negative emotions toward a spouse is positively correlated with

a. early divorce.
b. later divorce.
c. marital satisfaction.
d. expression of positive emotions.
Answer: A
129. Jillian and Nick often express negative emotions toward each other, which means they
are most likely to experience
a. early divorce.
b. later divorce.
c. marital satisfaction.
d. infidelity.
Answer: A
130. Britany and Kevin ended up divorcing due to the fact that neither could tolerate each
other’s nagging and smoking habits. This rationale would best be described as a(n) ____
reason for getting divorced.
a. interpersonal problems
b. assertive mating
c. macro-level
d. demographic variable
Answer: A
131. The purpose of a “covenant marriage” is to make _____ to occur.
a. divorce less likely
b. divorce more likely
c. marriage less likely
d. marriage more likely

Answer: A
132. What statement indicates that a couple is considering a “covenant marriage?”
a. “We must both convert to the same religious faith before marriage.”
b. “Before getting this divorce, you should expect to wait through a two-year separation
period or prove that I am having an affair.”
c. “This is a much easier route than the traditional ‘no-fault’ divorce.”
d. “Remember that this is being done knowing that it will benefit the children.”
Answer: B
133. The National Healthy Marriage Center and National Center for Marriage Research are
both focused on
a. reducing the number of marriages.
b. improving marriage education.
c. promoting covenant marriages.
d. mitigating the negative impacts of divorce.
Answer: B
134. In most divorce cases,
a. neither party feels disappointed or rejected.
b. only the wife feels disappointed or rejected.
c. only the husband feels disappointed or rejected.
d. both parties feel disappointed or rejected.
Answer: D
135. Dylan has been divorced for five years, but still is preoccupied with his former spouse,
has not developed any new friendships, and is an emotional mess. Dylan is best described as
having a “divorce ____.”
a. hangover

b. fixation
c. breakthrough
d. covenant
Answer: A
136. Which factor seems to be the best predictor of healthy postdivorce relationships?
a. High income levels
b. An inability to forgive the ex-spouse
c. Having children
d. Low preoccupation with the ex-spouse
Answer: D
137. During middle age, if a women initiates a divorce, she would most likely feel
a. vulnerable.
b. optimistic.
c. depressed.
d. angry.
Answer: B
138. The chances for remarrying for a housewife in middle or late life are generally ____ the
chances for remarrying when divorcing young.
a. about the same as
b. worse than
c. better than
d. worse for men and better for women than
Answer: B
139. Shiela is a recently divorced woman who has custody of her two young daughters.
Shiela’s biggest problems are most likely to be

a. social.
b. psychological.
c. biological.
d. financial.
Answer: D
140. The main purpose of the Collaborative Divorce Project is to
a. assist same-sex marriage partners when they “divorce.”
b. encourage legislators to consider all divorces and being “no fault.”
c. address custody issues involving younger children.
d. ensure that more couples stay married.
Answer: C
141. The Bulduc, Caron, and Logue (2007) study on the impact of divorce on college
students found that divorce
a. increased the incidence of eating disorders.
b. decreased a student’s use of illegal drugs and alcohol.
c. brought students closer to their mothers.
d. had no discernable positive or negative effects.
Answer: C
142. The divorce rate in second marriages involving step-children is about _____ the rate for
first marriages.
a. three times lower than
b. the same as
c. three times higher
d. ten times higher
Answer: C

143. Unless they are poor, __________________________________ than men.
a. women are more likely to initiate a divorce and more likely to remarry
b. women are more likely to initiate a divorce and less likely to remarry
c. women are less likely to initiate a divorce and more likely to remarry
d. women are less likely to initiate a divorce and less likely to remarry
Answer: B
TRUE/FALSE
1. The fact that friends are a source of recreation exemplifies the affective dimension of
friendship.
Answer: False
2. Men are more likely to base their friendships on intimate, emotional sharing than women.
Answer: False
3. Sternberg’s love component of commitment focuses on the mutual sharing of thoughts and
actions with a partner.
Answer: False
4. The theory of assortative mating is based on the concept that “opposites attract.”
Answer: False
5. Physical attractiveness matters less in online and speed dating compared to traditional
dating.
Answer: False
6. Female chastity is a highly desired trait in virtually all cultures.
Answer: False
7. The rate of satisfaction of couples in arranged marriages is very low.
Answer: False
8. An abusive relationship only requires violent actions by one member of the couple.

Answer: True
9. Chinese Americans are highly likely to determine abuse in terms of psychological trauma.
Answer: False
10. In the United States, men tend to remain single longer during young adulthood.
Answer: True
11. Limited cohabitation is typically based on convenience and sexual accessibility.
Answer: True
12. While common in the United States, cohabitation is very rare in other parts of the world,
especially in Scandinavian countries.
Answer: False
13. In general, the same factors predict long-term success of couples regardless of sexual
orientation.
Answer: True
14. Unlike heterosexual males, homosexual men tend to view love and sex as synonymous.
Answer: False
15. In the United States, the median age of marriage has been declining for the past few
decades.
Answer: False
16. The birth of a child tends to lead to declines in marital satisfaction.
Answer: True
17. Parents with fussier babies have more marital problems.
Answer: True
18. An extended family consists of at least three generations.
Answer: True

19. Latino families are less likely than European-American families to be “two-parent”
families.
Answer: True
20. A unique element of foster parenting is the concern over the level of bonding that should
take place between a child and the foster parents.
Answer: True
21. The majority of children raised by lesbian couples later self-identify as gay or lesbian.
Answer: False
22. The divorce rate in the United States is one of the lowest in the world.
Answer: False
23. The display of negative emotions between spouses is a good predictor of divorce when it
occurs early in a marriage.
Answer: True
24. Many middle-aged women who initiate a divorce experience a sense of optimism.
Answer: True
25. The effects of experiencing divorce tend to be very short-lived if the child involved is in
college.
Answer: False
COMPLETION
1. The “A” in the ABCDE model of adult friendship development stands for _____.
Answer: acquaintanceship
2. The _____ or emotional basis of friendship is characterized by self-disclosure and
intimacy.
Answer: affective
3. Within a love relationship, the feeling that one can share one’s thoughts and actions with
another is referred to as the component of _____.

Answer: intimacy
4. The theory that the selection of one’s partner is based on similarity is referred to as _____
mating.
Answer: assortative
5. _____ syndrome occurs is situations when a woman believes that she cannot leave the
abusive situation.
Answer: Battered woman’s
6. Unmarried individuals who live together in a committed and intimate manner are said to be
_____.
Answer: cohabitating
7. Marital ________ is an umbrella term referring to the marital outcome
Answer: success
8. Marital ________ is a subjective evaluation of a couple’s relationship on a number of
different dimensions.
Answer: quality
9. Marital ________ is the degree to which a husband and wife accommodate to each other
over time.
Answer: adjustment
10. ______ refers to a couple having similar values and interests and is a good predictor of
marital satisfaction.
Answer: Homogamy
11. According to _____ theory, marriage involves contributions of one spouse that would be
difficult for the other spouse to provide.
Answer: exchange
12. The most common form of family in Western societies is the _____ family.
Answer: nuclear

13. A(n) _____ family consists of at least three generations (e.g., parents, children,
grandparents).
Answer: extended
14. The belief that the family comes before individual members of a family is called _____.
Answer: familism
15. The inability to let go of one’s spouse following a divorce is called “divorce _____.”
Answer: hangover
ESSAY
11. Describe Sternberg’s passion, intimacy, and commitment components of love. How do
these components typically change during the lifetime of a relationship?
Answer: Passion is the intense physiological desire felt in love. Intimacy is the degree of
sharing of one’s thoughts and actions. Commitment is the willingness for a couple to stay
together. Early in most relationships, passion is high and the other elements are lower. As
passion fades, it is hopefully replaced with intimacy. As time goes on, there tends to be an
increased sense of commitment.
12. Describe the following forms that cohabitation takes: limited cohabitation, premarital
cohabitation, and substitute marriage. How do these types of cohabitation differ with culture?
Answer: Limited (part-time) cohabitation is typically based on convenience, expense sharing,
and sexual access. There is no goal of marriage or sense of commitment. Premarital
cohabitation is best thought of as a “trial marriage,” which if successful, ends in marriage.
Substitute marriage is a long-term commitment without marriage. In some parts of the world
(e.g., Scandinavian countries, South America, and the Caribbean), cohabitation is common
and accepted. In many cases, marriage only occurs as a way to legalize a relationship
following the birth of a child. Cohabitation is less common in lower Africa and Asia.

Test Bank for Human Development : A Life-Span View
Robert V Kail, John C Cavanaugh
9781111834111, 9781337554831

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