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Chapter 13—Making It in Midlife: The Biopsychosocial Challenges of Middle Adulthood
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. Fifty-year-old Esmeralda has been a heavy smoker since her youth. In addition, she lives in
a sunny climate and always has a deep tan. You would expect that she has ____ than most
other people her age.
a. more gray hair
b. a larger middle-aged bulge
c. more wrinkles
d. less hair
Answer: C
2. The metabolic slowdown common to individuals in their early 30s and mid-50s will lead to
____ in many males.
a. gray hair
b. a middle-aged bulge
c. wrinkles
d. hair loss
Answer: B
3. Osteoporosis is best thought of as involving a loss of bone
a. brittleness.
b. porousness.
c. hormones.
d. mass.
Answer: D
4. As Dr. Benton is looking at an X-ray of bones in your leg, his comment, ___________,
would indicate that you may have osteoporosis.

a. “I see less mass than normal”
b. “I see excessive encapsulation”
c. “I see a significant increase in density”
d. “I see very little plaque”
Answer: A
5. Who is at the greatest risk of currently experiencing osteoporosis?
a. Martha, who is a 20-year-old female
b. George, who is a 30-year-old male
c. Mary, who is a 60-year-old female
d. Abe, who is a 70-year-old male
Answer: C
6. _____ is the leading cause of broken bones in older women.
a. Osteoarthritis
b. Rheumatoid arthritis
c. Osteoporosis
d. Car accidents
Answer: C
7. Forty-five-year-old Marilyn, who is very concerned about osteoporosis, seeks medical
advice from her physician. Which advice would her physician be least likely to give?
a. “Let’s try increasing your alcohol consumption.”
b. “Let’s try increasing your estrogen level.”
c. “Let’s try increasing your exercise rate.”
d. “Let’s try increasing your calcium consumption.”
Answer: A
8. The rate of osteoporosis is directly affected by the metabolism rate of vitamin

a. A
b. B
c. C
d. D
Answer: D
9. Connie is a knowledgeable individual so when her physician tells her that she will be put
on a biophosphonate, Connie realizes that she most likely has
a. menopause.
b. high blood pressure.
c. cancer.
d. osteoporosis.
Answer: D
10. Which is best characterized as a “wear-and-tear” disease?
a. Osteoporosis
b. Osteoarthritis
c. Rheumatoid arthritis
d. Menopause
Answer: B
11. Sixty-year-old Wendell is being examined by his physician. Wendell’s symptoms include
joint pain that has gradually increased. When his doctor says, “Your pain is due to the
damage to your cartilage caused by severe use over your lifetime,” you should correctly
conclude that Wendell will be diagnosed with
a. the climacteric.
b. rheumatoid arthritis.
c. osteoporosis.

d. osteoarthritis.
Answer: D
12. Misha often experiences severe swelling and joint pain in her fingers and wrists each
morning. This pattern of symptoms is most likely due to
a. rheumatoid arthritis.
b. osteoarthritis.
c. the climacteric.
d. osteoporosis.
Answer: A
13. Rheumatoid arthritis _____ osteoarthritis.
a. is another name for
b. impacts different joints than
c. always precedes
d. is a noninflammatory version of
Answer: B
14. One difference between osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis is that
a. osteoarthritis is not painful.
b. osteoarthritis typically occurs in adolescence.
c. there is more swelling of the joints in rheumatoid arthritis.
d. women are more likely to be affected by rheumatoid arthritis.
Answer: C
15. Which statement concerning rheumatoid arthritis is true?
a. Individuals with rheumatoid arthritis need to avoid aspirin.
b. Rheumatoid arthritis is inherited.
c. Symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis come and go.

d. Rheumatoid arthritis affects large joints (e.g., hips) but not small joints (e.g., fingers).
Answer: C
16. The defining element of “the climacteric” involves the loss of
a. the natural ability to produce children.
b. cancer-fighting agents.
c. emotional stability.
d. blood flow through the circulatory system.
Answer: A
17. While at a checkup, 40-year-old Betty listens as her physician, Dr. White, describes
Betty’s current health. Which of Dr. White’s statements would suggest that Betty is
experiencing the climacteric?
a. “Do genetic disorders run in your family?”
b. “I hope that you have all the children you want.”
c. “The loss of memory will be slow but significant.”
d. “Some of your blood cells have begun to alter their shape.”
Answer: B
18. Forty-five-year-old Claire stopped menstruating some time ago. She is disappointed
because she really wanted to have more children. What would a competent physician tell her?
a. “Sorry, your childbearing days are now behind you.”
b. “Just stop taking hormones and you could get pregnant again.”
c. “It may be possible for you to have more children via in vitro fertilization.”
d. “If you do HRT, you have a good chance of getting pregnant.”
Answer: C
19. As women reach the climacteric, their menstruation cycles
a. continue regularly for the remainder of their lives.

b. become irregular and gradually stop altogether.
c. become more and more irregular, but they never completely stop.
d. stop all at once.
Answer: B
20. How are menopause and the climacteric related?
a. Menopause typically ends right before the climacteric.
b. The climacteric typically ends right before menopause.
c. Menopause occurs during the climacteric.
d. Menopause and the climacteric are unrelated.
Answer: C
21. Shelly is a 46-year-old woman whose menstrual cycle has changed and is now more
irregular and infrequent. Which term best describes Shelly’s condition?
a. Menopause
b. Midlife crisis
c. Perimenopause
d. Encapsulated
Answer: C
22. Which are hormonal-related symptoms of menopause?
a. Poor respiration and hot flashes
b. Hot flashes and vaginal dryness
c. Vaginal dryness and joint stiffness
d. Joint stiffness and poor respiration
Answer: B
23. The text notes that in _____, “menopausal syndrome” is thought to be the result of
women with too much time on their hands.

a. Japan
b. Iraq
c. Nigeria
d. Chile
Answer: A
24. For Beth, menopause just ended. Which change should she expect?
a. Enlarged vaginal walls
b. Enlarged external genitalia
c. Reduced vaginal lubrication
d. Reduced possibility of painful intercourse
Answer: C
25. The primary reason that elderly women show a decline in sexual activity involves
a. a normal physiological lack of interest.
b. failure to achieve orgasm.
c. the lack of a willing or appropriate partner.
d. pain associated with vaginal changes.
Answer: C
26. In 2008, a 70-year-old woman gave birth to a baby that was conceived through
a. an egg from a surrogate mother.
b. hormone replacement therapy.
c. artificial insemination.
d. in vitro fertilization.
Answer: D
27. Declining levels of estrogen typically do not increase the risk of

a. osteoporosis.
b. memory loss.
c. weight loss.
d. cardiovascular disease.
Answer: C
28. Albine’s physician has just informed her that she will need to begin hormone replacement
therapy. In addition to estrogen, what hormone should Albine expect to be replaced?
a. Dopamine
b. Testosterone
c. Serotonin
d. Progesterone
Answer: D
29. Results from the Women’s Health Initiative study begun in 1991 revealed that the risk for
_____ decreased in those taking estrogen plus progestin.
a. hip fractures
b. blood clots
c. breast cancer
d. heart attack
Answer: A
30. Yasmin is told that she will be taking selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs).
What medical condition is most likely being treated?
a. High blood pressure
b. Menopause
c. Breast cancer
d. Rheumatoid arthritis

Answer: B
31. Which appears to best explain the reason that Asian-American women report the fewest
menopausal symptoms?
a. They have genetically higher levels of estrogen
b. Their small stature creates less pressure on bones and joints
c. They use alternative medications
d. They are the most likely to use HRT
Answer: C
32. Tom has always wanted to be a father but has not yet found an acceptable partner. He is
now 35 years old, healthy, and beginning to be concerned about how much longer he will
remain fertile. When he asks his doctor about this, his doctor tells him that he will probably
be capable of fathering a child
a. until he is about 45 years old.
b. until he is about 65 years old.
c. until he is about 85 years old.
d. for the rest of his life.
Answer: D
33. Some males experience an age-related decline in ____ resulting in menopause-like
symptoms.
a. testosterone
b. dopamine
c. estrogen
d. progestin
Answer: A
34. As a typical middle-aged male, Rasheed will most likely experience
a. a brief increase in sperm production.

b. a shorter resolution phase.
c. a prostate gland that becomes enlarged.
d. more perceived demand to ejaculate.
Answer: C
35. The loss of an available partner in older age
a. is a factor in the decrease in sexual intercourse for both men and women.
b. is a factor in the decrease in sexual intercourse for men but not for women.
c. is a factor in the decrease in sexual intercourse for women but not for men.
d. is not a factor in the decrease in sexual intercourse for men or women.
Answer: A
36. Who is likely to experience the most job-related stress?
a. Tina, who has complete control over her job
b. Lena, who has moderate control over her job
c. Katrina, who has some control over her job
d. Deena, who has no control over her job
Answer: D
37. For which occupation would you expect the least stress-related health problems?
a. Social worker
b. CEO of a computer company
c. Truck driver
d. Waiter
Answer: B
38. Compared to the average middle-aged man, the average middle-aged woman tends to
a. rate stressful experiences less negatively and to report more stress in family areas.

b. rate stressful experiences more negatively and to report more stress in family areas.
c. rate stressful experiences less negatively and to report more stress in financial areas.
d. rate stressful experiences more negatively and to report more stress in financial areas.
Answer: B
39. The stress and coping paradigm focuses on the interactive relationship between
a. person and environment.
b. mind and body.
c. hormones and neurotransmitters.
d. family and work.
Answer: A
40. Analyzing how a person thinks about her job and how that job situation ends up affecting
the individual both psychologically and physically would be an example of an application of
the
a. encapsulation pattern.
b. Type A behavior pattern.
c. stress and coping paradigm.
d. generativity versus stagnation paradigm.
Answer: C
41. Joy reads a note on her desk that says, “Joy, come to my office immediately. Signed, The
Boss.” Joy immediately interprets this message as a threat to her job and her livelihood and is
not sure she can deal with it. Joy’s interpretation of this note exemplifies
a. coping.
b. an appraisal.
c. stagnation.
d. filial obligation.

Answer: B
42. Coping is defined as
a. any attempt to deal with stress.
b. any attempt to deal with stress that is repeated on at least two occasions.
c. any rational attempt to deal with stress.
d. any successful attempt to deal with stress.
Answer: A
43. Heather is experiencing a great deal of stress. She has tried relaxation training, thinking
about life events in a different way, and even talking to her friends. All of these strategies are
best classified as attempts at
a. repression.
b. coping.
c. stagnation.
d. appraisal.
Answer: B
44. Stress has been shown to decrease
a. angina.
b. cholesterol levels.
c. risk for irritable bowel syndrome.
d. estrogen levels.
Answer: D
45. Type A is to Type B as
a. set is to subset.
b. hassle is to appraisal.
c. intense is to calm.

d. introversion is to extroversion.
Answer: C
46. Tabitha often gets frustrated. She honks her horn and yells at other drivers and will throw
her racket if she gets beat playing tennis. Tabitha would probably be best described as
a. Type A.
b. generative.
c. Type B.
d. conscientious.
Answer: A
47. Which personality variable is most associated with cardiovascular disease?
a. Extroversion
b. Type A
c. Type B
d. Generativity
Answer: B
48. If there were a phrase that would describe Stacy, it would be “laid back.” She rarely gets
frustrated or angry, could care less about “climbing the corporate ladder,” and is satisfied
taking “life as it comes.” Stacy is best described as exhibiting
a. neuroticism.
b. Type B behavior.
c. stagnation.
d. Type A behavior.
Answer: B
49. Research on Type A and Type B personalities provides support for the notion that
a. psychological factors can be related to physical health.

b. neurotransmitters are important determinants of behavior.
c. sociocultural factors such as television can make life more stressful.
d. elderly individuals are just as prone to stress as younger people.
Answer: A
50. Sylvester has a Type A behavior pattern and Stallone has a Type B behavior pattern.
Which statement is true?
a. Stallone has a greater risk of suffering from cardiovascular disease.
b. Stallone likely has a much higher cholesterol count.
c. Sylvester is more likely to be a smoker.
d. Sylvester has a better recovery prognosis following a heart attack.
Answer: D
51. What appears to be the main reason why your Type A or Type B behavioral pattern
influences your recovery rate following a heart attack?
a. It is a good predictor of the type of genetic factors known to cause future attacks.
b. It affects how much physicians like being around you when you are a patient.
c. It appears to influence your motivation to follow post-attack health suggestions.
d. The two types vary by sex, as do recovery rates.
Answer: C
52. Which statement is true?
a. Low levels of self-esteem predict low levels of stress
b. High levels of self-esteem predict low levels of stress
c. High levels of self-esteem predict high levels of stress
d. Stress and self-esteem are unrelated concepts
Answer: B
53. Exercise

a. is not related to physical health.
b. can significantly slow the aging process.
c. is beneficial to health but does not affect the aging process.
d. should be avoided by people over 50 years old.
Answer: B
54. Aerobic exercise is defined as a pulse rate between ____ percent of a person’s maximum
rate.
a. 40-70
b. 50-80
c. 60-90
d. 70-100
Answer: C
55. Which runner is engaging in aerobic exercise?
a. John, a 20-year-old whose heart rate is 210
b. Denver, a 40-year-old whose heart rate is 100
c. Sean, a 50-year-old whose heart rate is 130
d. Austin, a 90 years old whose heart rate is 50
Answer: C
56. A person’s maximum heart rate is calculated by subtracting his or her age from
a. 100.
b. 160.
c. 220.
d. 280.
Answer: C

57. Max engages in regular aerobic exercise. Relative to those who do not exercise, Max is
likely to
a. be more depressed.
b. function better cognitively.
c. show inhibited oxygen consumption.
d. have higher blood pressure.
Answer: B
58. ____ intelligence is defined as involving the skills and knowledge necessary for adapting
to one’s physical and social environment.
a. Fluid
b. Traditional
c. Practical
d. Unexercised
Answer: C
59. Though Elsa does not score particularly high on traditional intelligence tests, she is very
good at understanding income tax forms, can deal well with all different kinds of people, and
is a good troubleshooter around the home and office. Elsa exhibits
a. Type B behavior.
b. fluid intelligence.
c. high unexercised ability.
d. practical intelligence.
Answer: D
60. Dr. Zorba is giving 44-year-old Annette an intelligence test. Annette finds that she really
likes answering the questions because they seem to be based on her life experiences. Dr.
Zorba is most likely attempting to assess Annette’s
a. practical intelligence.

b. generativity.
c. ego resilience.
d. fluid intelligence.
Answer: A
61. Which is the best example of a measure of practical intelligence?
a. The MMPI
b. The Stanford-Binet
c. Knowing how to balance a checkbook
d. Knowing the square root of every number less than 100
Answer: C
62. In most people, practical intelligence
a. begins to decline appreciably in young adulthood.
b. begins to decline appreciably in middle age.
c. begins to decline appreciably in old age.
d. never declines.
Answer: C
63. Dharma is upset with the lack of manners her husband Greg displays while eating, so she
looks away or leaves the table each time her husband behaves this way. Dharma’s response is
best classified as
a. a cognitive analysis.
b. passive-dependent.
c. avoidant thinking.
d. problem-focused action.
Answer: B

64. When confronted with a problem in his relationships with his wife, Frank scoffs it off,
saying “Ahhh, that’s not really an issue... it will work itself out.” This is probably best
classified as
a. a cognitive analysis.
b. avoidant thinking.
c. passive-dependent behavior.
d. problem-focused action.
Answer: B
65. McGuyver is trapped in a room with seemingly no way out. While contemplating his
escape, he thinks about how part of the bed in the room could be used to make a helicopter.
This practical thought is best classified as
a. problem-focused action.
b. a cognitive analysis.
c. avoidant thinking.
d. denial.
Answer: B
66. Which would best be classified as an instrumental task?
a. Taking an IQ test
b. Teaching at a college
c. Climbing Mount Everest
d. Driving to work
Answer: D
67. According to research by Blanchard-Fields (2007), _____ would be most likely to be
dealt with via avoidance-denial by middle-aged adults.
a. death of a spouse
b. buying groceries

c. mowing the lawn
d. writing a thank you note
Answer: A
68. Who is most likely to deal with an instrumental problem using a problem-focused
strategy?
a. 10-year-old Buddy
b. 20-year-old Holly
c. 30-year-old Ray
d. 40-year-old Charles
Answer: D
69. Based on research, which of the following statements best summarizes how middle-aged
adults solve problems?
a. Middle-aged adults solve all problems with a problem-focused approach.
b. Middle-aged adults solve all problems with a passive-dependent approach.
c. Middle-aged adults solve problems similarly regardless of the emotional issues involved.
d. Middle-aged adults solve problems differently depending on the type of problem.
Answer: D
70. What description does not accurately describe the skills that people with high practical
intelligence have?
a. People with higher practical intelligence come up with more efficient ways to solve
problems in daily life.
b. People with higher practical intelligence are able to deal with change more quickly.
c. People with higher practical intelligence are able to persuade people to change the way
they do things.
d. People with higher practical intelligence plan more effectively to prevent problems.
Answer: D

71. The mechanics of intelligence best fits with which description?
a. Experienced-based
b. Neurophysiological
c. Content-rich
d. Culturally dependent
Answer: B
72. The ____ of intelligence is most likely to be affected by the culture in which you were
raised.
a. process of thinking
b. mechanics
c. information processing
d. pragmatics
Answer: D
73. Mechanics of intelligence is to pragmatics of intelligence as
a. thoughts are to hormones.
b. Type A is to Type B.
c. fluid is to crystallized.
d. real life is to theoretical
Answer: C
74. The “biological process of thinking” would be best associated with
a. neuroticism.
b. the mechanics of intelligence.
c. cultural influences.
d. the pragmatics of intelligence.
Answer: B

75. Which term does not belong with the rest?
a. Pragmatics of intelligence
b. Mechanics of intelligence
c. Psychological force impact on intelligence
d. Sociocultural force impact on intelligence
Answer: B
76. Which best exemplifies a sociocultural impact on intelligence?
a. Learning how to drive by practicing driving
b. Americans who fear those from the Middle East following the 9/11 attacks
c. An increase in synaptic connections that results in a higher test score
d. Learning to cook by reading a cookbook
Answer: B
77. Which describes the normal pattern of pragmatics and mechanics intelligence
development between ages 25 and 70?
a. Both pragmatics and mechanics increase with age
b. Both pragmatics and mechanics decrease with age
c. Pragmatics remains constant while mechanics decreases
d. Mechanics remains constant while pragmatics decreases
Answer: C
78. Paula is an expert on the history of rock music while Donald is a novice. This means that
Paula ____ than Donald.
a. is less curious about rock music
b. is more intelligent
c. uses more steps in the thinking process when coming up with answers about rock music
d. is more effective at determining correct solutions concerning rock music

Answer: D
79. How is expert problem-solving different from problem-solving by a novice?
a. Novices are more curious
b. Experts come to solutions faster
c. Novices follow fewer rules
d. Experts demonstrate less flexibility in thought
Answer: B
80. Expert performance tends to peak ____ and ____.
a. in young adulthood; drop off significantly thereafter
b. in young adulthood; drop off slightly thereafter
c. in middle adulthood; drop off significantly thereafter
d. in middle adulthood; drop off slightly thereafter
Answer: D
81. If asked to list the “processes of thinking,” you should avoid saying,
a. “memory.”
b. “information processing.”
c. “resilience.”
d. “fluid intelligence.”
Answer: C
82. _____ occurs when the processes of thinking become connected to the products of
thinking.
a. Agreeableness
b. Encapsulation
c. Generativity
d. Openness

Answer: B
83. How does encapsulation assist older thinkers?
a. It helps compensate for declining processes of thinking
b. It increases the capacity of short-term memory
c. It allows them to begin to deal with abstract ideas
d. It increases convergent thinking while inhibiting divergent thinking
Answer: A
84. Though her ability to think about other things has declined significantly, 74-year-old
Judy’s ability to interpret the law continues to make her an excellent attorney and judge.
Judy’s ability to process information has most likely become ____ with her knowledge of the
law.
a. stagnated
b. appraised
c. encapsulated
d. crystallized
Answer: C
85. One negative effect of encapsulation is the
a. inability to solve practical problems.
b. loss of the ability to explain why you came to a correct solution.
c. increase in time needed to solve a task.
d. loss of expertise.
Answer: B
86. Which statement between adult learners and their younger counterparts is true?
a. Adults are more willing to learn about abstract problems.
b. Adults tend to be more motivated by internal factors.

c. Younger learners tend to have a larger variety of experiences on which they can build.
d. Younger learners have a higher need to know why they should learn something.
Answer: B
87. At which age is the debate of personality stability versus change most heated?
a. The teen years
b. Young adulthood
c. Middle age
d. Old age
Answer: C
88. Costa and McCrae’s model of personality, which includes dimensions like
conscientiousness, neuroticis0m, and openness to experience, is commonly referred to as the
____model.
a. humanistic
b. centrality
c. five-factor
d. psychodynamic
Answer: C
89. What are the five factors in the five-factor model?
a. Types of intelligence
b. Abilities
c. Stress and coping processes
d. Dimensions/traits
Answer: D
90. An individual low on the ____ characteristic would likely be described as even-tempered
and comfortable.

a. neuroticism
b. openness to experience
c. conscientiousness
d. agreeableness
Answer: A
91. Regis is asked to describe what it is like to work with Kathy Lee. In response, he says,
“She is mean, anxious, and really self-conscious.” This description best matches a person
scoring high on Costa and McCrae’s ____ personality dimension.
a. neuroticism
b. openness to experience
c. extroversion
d. agreeableness
Answer: A
92. If Barney is accurately described as being very even-tempered and unemotional, he would
likely score very low on a test of
a. openness to new experience.
b. agreeableness.
c. encapsulation.
d. neuroticism.
Answer: D
93. Newt is known for being very opinionated, extremely sociable, and loving a challenge.
According to the Five-Factor model, Newt is best thought of as being
a. neurotic.
b. introverted.
c. extroverted

d. agreeable.
Answer: C
94. Since she has what Costa and McCrae would classify as a “highly extroverted”
personality, you would expect that Samantha would be described by others as
a. “a psychopath.”
b. “nice as you could imagine.”
c. “lazy and disorganized.”
d. “loving the spotlight.”
Answer: D
95. Kevin is described by friends as having a great imagination and being willing to try
anything once. Given this description, Kevin would most likely score very high on a scale of
a. agreeableness.
b. openness to experience.
c. neuroticism.
d. conscientiousness.
Answer: B
96. Which belongs on a list of traits of someone who scores low on an openness to experience
assessment?
a. Prefers stimulating environments
b. Antagonistic
c. Ambitious
d. Uncurious
Answer: D
97. Since she has what Costa and McCrae would classify as an “agreeable” personality, you
would expect that Marcy would be described by others as a

a. “wallflower.”
b. “party animal.”
c. “meanie.”
d. “joy to be around.”
Answer: D
98. A low score on the ____ personality dimension has been associated with having a Type A
personality.
a. agreeableness
b. openness to experience
c. neuroticism
d. extroversion
Answer: A
99. On which personality dimension would someone who is stingy, critical, and suspicious
score the lowest?
a. Neuroticism
b. Extraversion
c. Agreeableness
d. Conscientiousness
Answer: C
100. Ruth is determined to become president of the corporation. She works more than 10
hours per day, is meticulous in her work, and sticks with the most difficult projects until they
are completed. Ruth would most likely score highly on a scale that measured
a. conscientiousness.
b. agreeableness.
c. extroversion.

d. openness to experience.
Answer: A
101. Ahmed is in charge of hiring new employees for his company. He wants to hire people
who are very organized, responsible, and will work hard for the company. In which trait is
Ahmed most interested?
a. Agreeableness
b. Extroversion
c. Conscientiousness
d. Openness to experience
Answer: C
102. Which person is most likely to experience difficulty getting along with others?
a. Reuben, who is low on conscientiousness
b. Tabitha, who is low on neuroticism
c. Juan, who is low on extroversion
d. Marina, who is low on agreeableness
Answer: D
103. Which best describes the findings from most longitudinal studies of personality
stability?
a. Personality traits are fairly stable across adulthood.
b. Individuals become more psychopathic with age.
c. Personality traits at age 20 predict virtually nothing at age 60.
d. Individuals become more extroverted and open to experience with age.
Answer: A
104. Harvey is 32 years old, extroverted, very conscientious, and not open to experience.
Based on the longitudinal research of Costa and McCrae’s personality dimensions, what will
Harvey be like when he is 62 years old?

a. Extroverted, conscientious, and open to experience
b. Not extroverted, conscientious, and not open to experience
c. Extroverted, conscientious, and not open to experience
d. Extroverted, not conscientious, and not open to experience
Answer: C
105. Research suggests that during middle age,
a. personality as reported by both self-report and by a spouse changes dramatically.
b. personality as reported by self-report changes dramatically and by a spouse remains stable.
c. personality as reported by a spouse changes dramatically and by self-report remains stable.
d. personality as reported by both self-report and by a spouse remains stable.
Answer: D
106. Which statement is true regarding the study of the Big Five conducted by Srivastava and
colleagues (2003)?
a. It was an experimental study
b. It supported the notion that the Big Five are “set in plaster”
c. There were several ethical concerns with the study
d. It was a cross-sectional study
Answer: D
107. Which statement is true regarding the findings of the Big Five study conducted by
Srivastava and colleagues (2003)?
a. Agreeableness decreased over time
b. Extraversion increased over time
c. Neuroticism changed over time for women
d. Conscientiousness was stable over adulthood
Answer: C

108. Which statement best describes a methological problem with the study of the Big Five
conducted by Srivastava and colleagues (2003)?
a. The responses were based on self-report rather than observed traits.
b. The use of Internet sites provides a representative sample.
c. They drew cause-and-effect conclusions based on correlational data.
d. You cannot generalize on the basis of case study data.
Answer: A
109. Which statement would be the most legitimate criticism of the study of the Big Five
conducted by Srivastava and colleagues (2003)?
a. The sample was not large enough.
b. The use of Internet sites provides a non-representative sample.
c. They drew cause-and-effect conclusions based on correlational data.
d. You cannot generalize on the basis of case study data.
Answer: B
110. Erik Erikson believes that midlife involves a psychosocial crisis involving
characteristics of
a. trust versus mistrust.
b. generativity versus stagnation.
c. industry versus inferiority.
d. identity versus role confusion.
Answer: B
111. Which statement best reflects Erikson’s concept of generativity?
a. “Help the children, for they are our future.”
b. “If I have lived the good life, death will be welcomed.”
c. “I am comfortable with the love relationships in my life.”

d. “If you trust others, you trust yourself.”
Answer: A
112. Earlier in his career, Monte was most interested in climbing the corporate ladder and
making as much money as he could. Now, Monte is most interested in mentoring younger
business professionals, helping them become better at what they do, and thus helping the
company flourish. Which best describes the change in Monte?
a. A fun-seeking style
b. Generativity
c. A distant style
d. Openness to experience
Answer: B
113. How many of the following would be ways to demonstrating generativity: parenting,
mentoring, volunteering, shopping?
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4
Answer: C
114. An individual characterizing what Erikson called “stagnation” is unable to
a. make meaningful appraisals concerning hassles.
b. form a superego.
c. contribute to a society’s continuation.
d. think in an encapsulated manner.
Answer: C
115. Which of Diane’s traits would indicate that she is in a state of stagnation?

a. Vivid imagination
b. Self-indulgent
c. Energetic
d. Hostile
Answer: B
116. When he was much younger, Garnett was a star on his college basketball team. Now, he
is the assistant coach of the team. Even though he is too old to play pro basketball, he is
consumed by what could have been and still dreams of life as a professional basketball
player. As a result, Garnett is frequently frustrated by the younger players who to him seem
to be lazy and not utilizing their natural ability. Obviously, he is not a very good coach. What
term best describes Garnett’s situation?
a. Generativity
b. Filial obligation
c. Encapsulation
d. Stagnation
Answer: D
117. As a caring uncle, Ben derives a lot of satisfaction when his niece performs well in her
basketball games. Ben, however, has no real interest in actually teaching her how to improve
her basketball skills. McAdams would cite this as a good example of
a. extroversion.
b. generative action.
c. neuroticism.
d. generative concern.
Answer: D
118. Which statement is true in middle age?
a. Both generative concern and generative action relate to life satisfaction

b. Generative concern relates to life satisfaction but generative action does not
c. Generative action relates to life satisfaction but generative concern does not
d. Neither generative concern nor generative action relate to life satisfaction
Answer: B
119. An individual with high generativity would most likely have
a. a satisfactory marriage.
b. no children.
c. a depressed spouse.
d. few friends
Answer: A
120. The notion of a “midlife crisis” is
a. common in the popular press and supported by research.
b. uncommon in the popular press and supported by research.
c. common in the popular press and unsupported by research.
d. uncommon in the popular press and unsupported by research.
Answer: C
121. Which statement on “midlife crisis” is true?
a. Midlife crises are common in both males and females.
b. Midlife crises are not universal.
c. Midlife crises are typically triggered by generativity.
d. A midlife crisis usually has a profound effect on one’s gender-role identity.
Answer: B
122. The greatest personality resource that enables an individual to avoid a midlife crisis is
called
a. encapsulation.

b. Type A behavior.
c. introversion.
d. ego resilience.
Answer: D
123. What is the major role of a “kinkeeper?”
a. Keeping track of the family finances
b. Keeping a semiformal family history
c. Keeping a sense of “traditional family values”
d. Keeping family members in touch with one another
Answer: D
124. Kay always does her best to make sure her children, parents, in-laws, and siblings get
together for holidays, anniversaries, and birthdays. Kay would best be described as
a. Type A.
b. a cultural conservator.
c. a kinkeeper.
d. encapsulated.
Answer: C
125. Which of these individuals is most likely to be a “kinkeeper?”
a. Ben, a 20-year-old father
b. Evelyn, a 45-year-old mother
c. Charlie, a 45-year-old father
d. Stephanie, a 20-year-old mother
Answer: B
126. What are the “pieces of bread” on either side of the “sandwich generation?”
a. Job and family

b. Generativity and stagnation
c. Parents and children
d. Stress and coping
Answer: C
127. Nina feels like she is being pulled apart from two different directions. On the one hand,
she has her two daughters to take care of, and on the other hand, she now has to also take care
of her ailing mother and father. Which term best describes the situation in which Nina finds
herself?
a. Practical intelligence
b. High neuroticism
c. Cultural conservator
d. Sandwich generation
Answer: D
128. How could Silvia enter the “sandwich generation?”
a. Get married
b. Have her father move in with her while she is still caring for a child at home
c. Enter a nursing home
d. Have her youngest child finally go to college, leaving her at home with just her husband
Answer: B
129. Having a positive experience of an empty nest is most strongly influenced by
a. how well parents believe they did in their job as parents.
b. how quickly children move back into the house.
c. how much emotional support parents provide for their children.
d. how much financial help parents provide to their children.
Answer: A

130. Which 25-year-old is most likely to move back home with his or her parent?
a. A female with a college GPA of 2.5
b. A male with a college GPA of 2.5
c. A female with a college GPA of 3.5
d. A male with a college GPA of 3.5
Answer: B
131. How is gender related to caring for an aging parent?
a. A son or son-in-law is typically responsible for care
b. A daughter or daughter-in-law is typically responsible for care
c. Gender matters but which one provides care varies by culture
d. Gender does not influence who provides care
Answer: B
132. The comment, “My parents cared for me for 18 years; I really should not complain about
having to take care of them for a while when they are ill” provides an example of
a. kinkeeping.
b. generativity.
c. filial obligation.
d. introversion.
Answer: C
133. Filial obligation is based on a sense of
a. independence.
b. openness to experience.
c. stagnation.
d. responsibility.
Answer: D

134. You are a frail, elderly individual who needs care. If you are like most people in your
situation, it is most likely that you are being cared for by
a. a nursing home facility.
b. a hospital.
c. your siblings.
d. your children.
Answer: D
135. The two key sources of stress for adults caring for their parents include the child coping
with a parent’s functional decline and if the care
a. is temporary.
b. is perceived as infringing on the caregiver’s other responsibilities.
c. takes place in the parent’s home.
d. takes place in a private facility..
Answer: B
136. It is ____ for an adult child caregiver to feel resentful and angry at times about caring
for an aging parent.
a. very common
b. somewhat common
c. somewhat unusual
d. very unusual
Answer: A
137. Research has indicated that a woman’s employment status has ____ impact on her
decision to become a caregiver for a parent.
a. no
b. some

c. a moderate
d. a significant
Answer: A
138. Darla is a traditional European-American caregiver for a parent. Cecilia is a traditional
Hispanic-American caregiver for a parent. How are the two most likely to differ?
a. Darla is more likely to use prayer to relieve caregiver stress
b. Darla is likely to feel a stronger sense of filial obligation
c. Cecilia is more likely to feel a sense of burden
d. Cecilia is less likely to be depressed
Answer: D
139. Older adults who value _____ are most likely to express a desire to pay for caregiving
rather than asking a family member for help.
a. independence and extraversion
b. dependence and extraversion
c. dependence and autonomy
d. independence and autonomy
Answer: D
140. ____ of older adults who receive help with daily activities feel negatively about the help
they receive.
a. One-fourth
b. Three-fourths
c. One-half
d. Two-thirds
Answer: B
141. Caring for aging parents can be beneficial in all of the following ways except

a. it can bring adult children and parents closer together.
b. it can provide a way for adult children to give back to their parents.
c. it can feel rewarding to the aging parent.
d. it can feel rewarding to the adult child.
Answer: C
142. Adult children caring for aging parents frequently experience all of the following
negative repercussions except
a. employment issues.
b. burn out.
c. sleep disorders.
d. depression.
Answer: C
143. Attempts to categorize types of grandparents have not been very successful because
a. grandparents use different styles with different grandchildren.
b. measuring these styles has not been found to be valid.
c. styles of grandparenting do not seem related to the quality of the relationship.
d. grandparenting behavior differs during each interaction with the grandchild.
Answer: A
144. Which group is most likely to perceive grandparenthood as a central role?
a. African Americans
b. European Americans
c. Latino Americans
d. Native Americans
Answer: C

145. Ben and Sky are Hopi grandparents who want their grandchild to live with them for a
while so that they can be sure the grandchild learns the Hopi way. Ben and Sky exemplify the
____ style of grandparenting.
a. indulgence
b. cultural conservator
c. dispenser of family wisdom
d. reinvolvement with personal past
Answer: B
146. Which statement concerning how grandparent-grandchild relationships have changed
over the past few decades is accurate?
a. The incidence of grandparents as “surrogate parents” is decreasing.
b. More grandparents now live lives independent from their grandchildren.
c. Most modern grandparents now desire to rear their grandchildren.
d. Most grandparents today live in closer proximity to their grandchildren.
Answer: B
147. Which statement concerning custodial care of grandchildren by grandparents is true?
a. Almost 20 million U.S. grandparents have grandchildren living with them
b. In the U.S., grandparents automatically are granted legal guardianship of their
grandchildren
c. Rates of behavioral problems in children raised by grandparents is high
d. The most common reason for a grandparent raising a grandchild involves the death of both
parents
Answer: C
TRUE/FALSE
1. Most people gain weight between ages 30 and 50.
Answer: True

2. Use of calcium supplements may delay the onset of osteoporosis after menopause.
Answer: True
3. Osteoarthritis involves a loss of bone mass and the honeycombing of bone material.
Answer: False
4. Rheumatoid arthritis develops quickly but can be cured with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs.
Answer: False
5. Headaches and rapid heart rate are common physical symptoms of menopause.
Answer: True
6. After menopause, vaginal walls and the vagina both increase in size.
Answer: False
7. The most common form of HRT involves low doses of estrogen and testosterone.
Answer: False
8. During midlife, the prostate gland of males can enlarge and block the urinary track.
Answer: True
9. Culture appears to play no role in how people perceive stress.
Answer: True
10. Stress can trigger negative conditions like angina and arrhythmia.
Answer: True
11. Individuals with Type B personalities tend to be angry and aggressive.
Answer: False
12. In order to be engaging in aerobic exercise, a person’s pulse rate must be above 100
percent of his or her maximum heart rate.
Answer: False

13. Avoidant thinking involves rationalizing or reframing a problem to minimize its
seriousness.
Answer: True
14. The mechanics of intelligence are most closely associated with sociocultural forces.
Answer: False
15. Experts are always faster and use more rules than novices.
Answer: False
16. Encapsulation allows an aging person to compensate for declines in underlying abilities.
Answer: True
17. An individual high in extraversion will go out of his or her way to avoid interacting with
others.
Answer: False
18. Costa and McCrae argue that personality traits undergo significant changes between
young and old adulthood.
Answer: False
19. Erikson viewed the key crisis of midlife as one of stagnation versus generativity.
Answer: True
20. There is significant research support for the idea of a “midlife crisis.”
Answer: False
21. Kinkeepers help keep family members in touch.
Answer: True
22. Women are more likely than men to move back with their parents after college.
Answer: False
23. Someone high in filial obligation feels responsible for the care of his or her parents.
Answer: True

24. Caring for a parent typically coincides with women’s peak employment years.
Answer: True
25. Fictive adults functionally serve as surrogate grandparents.
Answer: True
COMPLETION
1. _____ is a disease characterized by severe loss of bone mass.
Answer: Osteoporosis
2. _____ arthritis results in severe joint inflammation and has symptoms that come and go in
repeating patterns.
Answer: Rheumatoid
3. The process during which middle-aged women pass from reproductive to nonreproductive
years, which includes menopause, is called _____.
Answer: climacteric
4. The process of giving women low doses of estrogen and progestin is referred to as _____
therapy.
Answer: hormone replacement
5. Any deliberate attempt to deal with some form of stress is referred to as _____.
Answer: coping
6. Individuals with Type _____ behavior pattern tend to be nonhostile and very patient.
Answer: B
7. _____ exercise requires maintaining a pulse rate between 60 and 90 percent of your
maximum heart rate.
Answer: Aerobic
8. The process of _____ allows an aging expert to compensate for declines in the process of
thinking.
Answer: encapsulation

9. People who score high on the five-factor dimension of _____ tend to be hostile, selfconscious, and vulnerable.
Answer: neuroticism
10. An individual who is very willing to work with others and who is viewed as very caring
would score high on the five-factor dimension of _____.
Answer: agreeableness
11. Erikson used the term _____ to describe the middle-aged focus on helping others in an
effort to ensure continuation of society by guiding the next generation.
Answer: generativity
12. A key factor in allowing middle-aged individuals to successfully handle midlife changes
is called ego _____.
Answer: resilience
13. Many middle-aged women take on the role of family _____ in which they assist in getting
everyone together for family gatherings and generally help family members keep in touch.
Answer: kinkeeper
14. Middle-aged adults simultaneously caring for children and parents are referred to as being
in the _____ generation.
Answer: sandwich
15. Adult children who feel a strong sense of responsibility to care for aging parents are said
to have a sense of _____obligation.
Answer: filial
ESSAY
11. What constitutes aerobic exercise, and what benefits does it provide during middle age?
Answer: Aerobic exercise is requires the maintenance of a pulse rate between 60 and 90
percent of a person’s maximum heart rate. The maximum heart rate is calculated by
subtracting one’s age from 220. Physical benefits of aerobic exercise include improving

blood pressure, strength, endurance, flexibility, and coordination. Psychological benefits of
aerobic exercise include lower levels of stress, better mood, and better cognitive functioning.
12. Describe generativity, kinkeepers, the sandwich generation, and filial obligation. Then
discuss the common theme that runs through each.
Answer: Erikson suggested that during middle age, some individuals exhibit generativity by
helping others in order to ensure the continuation of society by guiding the next generation. A
kinkeeper gathers family members together for celebrations and helps them keep in touch.
Members of the sandwich generation are caught in the middle of caring for both their
children and their parents. A filial obligation is an adult child’s sense of responsibility to care
for a parent in need. The common theme is one of care for the good of others.

Test Bank for Human Development : A Life-Span View
Robert V Kail, John C Cavanaugh
9781111834111, 9781337554831

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