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Chapter 14—The Personal Context of Later Life: Physical, Cognitive, and Mental Health Issues
1. As a demographer, Sherwood would be most interested in studying
a. how the number of young people in a population has changed over the past 50 years.
b. the number of neural connections contained in the central nervous system.
c. the distinction between presbyopia and presbycusis.
d. implicit memory.
Answer: A
2. Chatava is a professional who does research to determine the numbers of people in
different countries, their ages, and how these numbers might change in the years to come.
Chatava would best be described as a
a. social worker.
b. metabolic theorist.
c. demographer.
d. cartographer.
Answer: C
3. In order to depict the number of people of different ages in the population, Dr. Gillen
would be best served using a graphing technique called a(n)
a. demography.
b. presbycusis.
c. external aid.
d. population pyramid.
Answer: D
4. In 1950, the population distribution of the United States resembled a(n)

a. rectangle.
b. square.
c. pyramid.
d. upside down pyramid.
Answer: C
5. As the over-80 population increases dramatically in the next 40 years, which will probably
be most affected in the United States?
a. Defense systems
b. Housing
c. Social service systems
d. Transportation systems
Answer: C
6. If you were in charge of developing programs aimed at elderly individuals in the United
States, for which group would you least plan to expand services in the next decade?
a. Native Americans
b. Asian Americans
c. European Americans
d. Pacific Islanders
Answer: C
7. Which industrialized nation is expected to show the most dramatic increase in the percent
of its population over age 65?
a. United States
b. Sweden
c. China
d. Japan

Answer: D
8. According to your text, the United States is ____ financially for the increasing numbers of
a. very well prepared
b. well prepared
c. somewhat prepared
d. unprepared
Answer: D
9. Marty asks his doctor, “How long do you think I can live, doc?” Marty is asking for
information regarding his
a. longevity.
b. average life expectancy.
c. useful life expectancy.
d. maximum life expectancy.
Answer: A
10. Longevity appears to be determined
a. exclusively by genetic factors.
b. exclusively by environmental factors.
c. jointly by genetic and environmental factors.
d. by unexplained factors.
Answer: C
11. Average life expectancy is also known as the ____ life expectancy.
a. mean
b. median
c. modal

d. maximum
Answer: B
12. In the country of Casfeldt, 50 percent of the population who died in 2002 were older than
85. Thus, 85 would be the _____ life expectancy.
a. maximum
b. useful
c. average
d. modal
Answer: C
13. Which American is just about to reach the current average life expectancy for their sex?
a. Garth, a male who just turn 60
b. Reba, a female who just turned 70
c. Faith, a female who just turned 80
d. Billy Ray, a male who just turned 90
Answer: C
14. Elijah asks his doctor how long he can plan to live without any major medical problems
or impairments. Elijah is asking about _____ life expectancy.
a. maximum
b. useful
c. average
d. modal
Answer: B
15. Useful life expectancy is defined as the number of years an individual
a. lives free from debilitating chronic disease or impairment.
b. is capable of contributing within the workforce.

c. is able to reproduce.
d. can live on his or her own (i.e., has not moved to a nursing home or retirement
Answer: A
16. Which headline concerns maximum life expectancy?
a. Women Continue to Outlive Men
b. Most Humans Retain Vitality through Age 90
c. World’s Oldest Human Celebrates 120th Birthday
d. Average American Now Dies at Age 80
Answer: C
17. Within the U.S. population, which is likely to be the shortest estimate of longevity?
a. Maximum life expectancy
b. Average life expectancy
c. Useful life expectancy
d. All these estimates are the same length
Answer: B
18. Based on data gathered from the Human Genome Project, researchers have attempted to
increase longevity and health through
a. cloning.
b. transplanting of key organs (e.g., heart and liver).
c. implanting genetically “corrected" genes.
d. encouraging diets lower in saturated fats.
Answer: C
19. Genetic factors appear to play _____ role in determining whether people reach
centenarian status.

a. no
b. a minimal
c. some
d. a major
Answer: D
20. Environmental toxins appear to play _____ role in determining longevity.
a. no
b. a minimal
c. some
d. a major
Answer: D
21. Which statement concerning the life expectancy of African Americans and European
Americans is true?
a. At birth, African Americans have a greater life expectancy than European Americans.
b. At age 45, African Americans have a greater life expectancy than European Americans.
c. At age 85, African Americans have a greater life expectancy than European Americans.
d. African Americans never have a greater life expectancy than European Americans.
Answer: C
22. Lo is a member of an ethnic minority group in the United States. Given this, how is her
longevity most likely to be negatively impacted?
a. The fact that she is a female is a risk factor for reduced longevity
b. She likely has less access to quality medical care
c. Her diet will likely lack the amount of lead necessary for proper cell development
d. She is significantly more likely to have AIDS
Answer: B

23. Which statement concerning sex differences in longevity is true?
a. In the U.S., women’s average longevity is about one year longer than that of men.
b. The reduction of death during childbirth has led to an increase in longevity of women over
the past century.
c. In industrial countries, factors like education and work opportunities do not appear to
impact longevity in women.
d. The rate of dying from one of the top 15 causes of death is significantly higher in women
than men.
Answer: B
24. If you wanted to visit the country with the lowest average life expectancy, you should
book a trip to
a. Uganda.
b. Fiji.
c. Sierra Leone.
d. Guyana.
Answer: C
25. Mickey is currently experiencing “the third age.” He could best be described as one of the
a. young-old.
b. oldest-old.
c. old-young.
d. young-young.
Answer: A
26. Fourth age is also characterized as
a. young-young.
b. young-old.

c. old-young.
d. oldest-old.
Answer: D
27. One common characteristic of the fourth age is
a. a high level of dementia.
b. a virtual absence of chronic stress.
c. establishment of one’s career.
d. a great probability of major improvement on physical strength/flexibility.
Answer: A
28. The third age is to the fourth age as
a. longevity is to health.
b. positive life experience is to negative life experience.
c. chronic is to acute.
d. afterlife is to life.
Answer: B
29. As you age, gravity will ultimately compress your spine, which will result in a loss of
height. This effect is best explained by the ____ theory of aging.
a. metabolic
b. cellular
c. wear-and-tear
d. programmed cell death
Answer: C
30. ____ is best explained by the wear-and-tear theory of aging.
b. A misshapen blood cell in sickle-cell disease

c. Joint deterioration during osteoarthritis
d. Alzheimer’s disease
Answer: C
31. The cellular theory of aging most focuses on
a. deterioration of cells over a lifetime.
b. the number of chromosomes in a cell.
c. the size of cells.
d. the sudden death of cells in one system
Answer: A
32. In explaining why people age and eventually die, Dr. Filipovsky talks about “free
radicals” and how their buildup produces tissue damage. Dr. Filipovsky is promoting a _____
theory of aging.
a. wear-and-tear
b. metabolic
c. cellular
d. programmed cell death
Answer: C
33. Telomeres are found exclusively on
a. the tips of chromosomes.
b. neurons.
c. cancer cells.
d. X and Y chromosomes.
Answer: A
34. What best describes the potential role of telomeres in the aging process?
a. They are the packets of fuel that feed each cell.

b. They are “glue” that binds together the base pairs of DNA molecules.
c. They are a portion of a chromosome that gets shorter until DNA replication is no longer
d. They are the scrubber cells that clear all debris from our arteries.
Answer: C
35. ____ are chemicals produced during normal cell metabolism that may cause cellular
damage that impairs functioning.
a. Neurofibrillary tangles
b. Neuritic plaques
c. Transient ischemic attacks
d. Free radicals
Answer: D
36. Which would most dramatically impact the levels of free radicals in one’s body?
a. Consuming antioxidants like vitamin E
b. Getting an injection of telomerase
c. Contracting sickle-cell anemia
d. Engaging in aerobic exercise
Answer: A
37. Wilbur has decided to increase his intake of antioxidants like vitamins A and E in order to
lower the development of certain age-related diseases and to live longer. The most recent
evidence in aging suggests that Wilbur
a. will both be less likely to develop certain age-related diseases and will live longer.
b. will be less likely to develop certain age-related diseases but will not live any longer.
c. will live longer but will not show any decrease in the susceptibility to age-related diseases.
d. will neither be less likely to develop certain age-related diseases nor will live longer.

Answer: B
38. Dr. Mbiti believes that people age because their muscles and arteries become less flexible
as they interact with certain proteins. Her lecture describing this position is most likely to
focus on
a. wear and tear.
b. cross-linking.
c. neurofibrillary tangles.
d. free radicals.
Answer: B
39. As a proponent of cross-linking theory, Dr. Rennie would be most interested in
a. brain cells.
b. muscles and arteries.
c. hormones.
d. telomeres.
Answer: B
40. If the programmed cell theory of aging is correct,
a. people under stress should die sooner than those not under stress.
b. a low-fat diet should extend life.
c. the elimination of free radicals should greatly extend life.
d. humans are born with a “prewired death clock.”
Answer: D
41. When you see a book titled How Neurons Communicate with Each Other, you could be
sure it would discuss
a. dendrites.
b. working memory.

c. internal aids.
d. cerebral vascular accidents.
Answer: A
42. When viewed through a microscope, a _____ would most resemble a spiral-shaped mass.
a. telomere
b. free radical
c. neurofibrillary tangle
d. neurotransmitter
Answer: C
43. While doing an autopsy of a brain, Dr. Howard shakes her head in disgust, saying, “This
is just awful.” When an assistant asks her what she sees, she says, “Two words ... deformed
axons.” What was the source of Dr. Howard’s disgust?
a. Neuritic plaques
b. Neurotransmitters
c. Presbycusis
d. Neurofibrillary tangles
Answer: D
44. If a neuron becomes extremely tangled,
a. a person will develop Parkinson’s disease.
b. information can no longer flow through the neuron.
c. electrochemical energy begins to flow from the axon to the dendrite instead of from the
dendrite to the axon.
d. it will not significantly affect neural functioning as such tangling is a sign of normal
Answer: B

45. While looking at slides of brain tissue in a physiology class, you see groups of damaged
neurons that have collected around a core of protein. What are you looking at?
a. Neurotransmitters
b. Neuritic plaques
c. Neurofibrillary tangles
d. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
Answer: B
46. Fifty-year-old Keith is informed by his doctor that his brain is showing signs of the initial
development of neuritic plaques and a few neurofibrillary tangles. This is
a. normal.
b. a definite indicator of Parkinson’s disease.
c. a definite indicator of Alzheimer’s disease.
d. a definite indicator of Huntington’s disease.
Answer: A
47. If your goal was to get the best image of a brain structure, you should use a
a. single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT).
b. computerized tomography (CT scan).
c. positron emission tomography (PET).
d. functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
Answer: B
48. Concerning brain imaging, MRI is to fMRI as
a. structure is to function.
b. internal is to external.
c. central nervous system is to peripheral nervous system.
d. explicit is to implicit.

Answer: A
49. What does not typically happen to the cardiovascular system as we age?
a. The heart begins to pump more blood per minute
b. The arteries stiffen
c. Fat deposits form in the heart and arteries
d. The amount of muscle tissue in the heart decreases
Answer: A
50. The defining characteristic of a cerebral vascular accident is
a. death.
b. neuritic tangling.
c. an interruption of blood flow to the brain.
d. the cessation of respiratory output.
Answer: C
51. A cerebral hemorrhage occurs when a blood vessel in the brain
a. tangles.
b. blocks.
c. ruptures.
d. stiffens.
Answer: C
52. What is a more common term used to describe a cerebral vascular accident?
a. Parkinson’s disease
b. Presbyopia
c. Presbycusis
d. Stroke

Answer: D
53. Juliana has just suffered an interruption of blood flow to her brain. Her doctor has told her
that she has just experienced a(n) ____ and that they should now do what they can to prevent
the onset of a stroke.
a. transient ischemic attack
b. presbycusis
c. amyloid
d. circadian rhythm
Answer: A
54. After a series of strokes, Jerry is unable to recognize family members and has a very
difficult time understanding his native language. The most probable diagnosis is
a. Huntington’s disease.
b. neuritic plaques.
c. vascular dementia.
d. presbycusis.
Answer: C
55. The key factor in determining the impact of vascular dementia is
a. which areas of the brain are damaged.
b. the age of the individual involved.
c. which areas of the heart are damaged.
d. the sex of the individual involved.
Answer: A
56. What is not used as a diagnostic test for vascular dementia?
a. Computer tomography
b. Magnetic resonance imaging

c. Neuropsychological tests
d. Measurement of neurotransmitter levels
Answer: D
57. As a typical 80-year-old, Joan’s ____ would have decreased significantly since she was
a. lung size
b. ability to take a big, deep breath
c. chance for developing a COPD
d. chance for being short of breath following exercise
Answer: B
58. Carmen has a very difficult time breathing. Even after walking short distances, she is
gasping for air. Carmen is exhibiting symptoms of
a. Parkinson’s disease.
b. circadian rhythms.
c. presbycusis.
d. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Answer: D
59. Which does not belong?
a. Emphysema
b. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
c. Dysphoria
d. Asthma
Answer: C

60. Despite the fact that Feodor’s hands shake and he has a difficult time walking,
positioning, and moving his body to get in and out of chairs, he remains mentally sharp.
Feodor appears to have
a. Parkinson’s disease.
b. Alzheimer’s disease.
c. Huntington’s disease.
d. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Answer: A
61. After assessing Nalini’s brain, her physician comments, “You have significantly reduced
amounts of dopamine in your midbrain.” Since she is a nurse, Nalini would most likely
suspect that she has
a. Huntington’s disease.
b. Alzheimer’s disease.
c. Parkinson’s disease.
d. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Answer: C
62. After Winston has been diagnosed with Parkinson’s, his doctor would be most likely to
suggest that he begin a treatment involving
a. statins.
b. implanting a neurostimulator to act as a brain pacemaker.
c. the injection of amyloids into the affected area of his brain.
d. thioridazine.
Answer: B
63. Visual adaptation involves the ability to adjust to changes in
a. an object’s position.
b. an object’s distance.

c. illumination.
d. acceleration.
Answer: C
64. As we grow old, our
a. lenses tend to yellow and the muscles controlling the eye loosen.
b. lenses tend to blacken and the muscles controlling the eye loosen.
c. lenses tend to yellow and the muscles controlling the eye stiffen.
d. lenses tend to blacken and the muscles controlling the eye stiffen.
Answer: C
65. As he has presbyopia, Viggo has difficulty seeing
a. color.
b. far-away objects.
c. depth.
d. close objects.
Answer: D
66. When someone hands Russ a menu to read, he has to hold it at arm’s length in order to be
able to see the words well enough to read them. This behavior indicates that Russ is
a. presbycusis.
b. presbyopia.
c. telomeres.
d. neuritic plaques.
Answer: B

67. When visiting your eye specialist, you are informed that you have large opaque spots on
the lens of your left eye. As a knowledgeable student, you would know that this means that
you have
a. presbyopia.
b. glaucoma.
c. a cataract.
d. myopia.
Answer: C
68. Joyce’s doctor has just told her that the fluid in her eyes is not draining properly and that
she’ll have to administer eye drops to prevent experiencing damage from the pressure in her
eyes. Joyce has most likely been diagnosed with
a. diabetic retinopathy.
b. cataracts.
c. glaucoma.
d. macular degeneration.
Answer: C
69. While at her yearly medical checkup, Martha is informed that she has extremely high
pressure in her eye. This indicates that Martha likely has
a. presbyopia.
b. cataracts.
c. glaucoma.
d. macular degeneration.
Answer: C
70. The leading cause of functional blindness in older adults is the result of
a. glaucoma.
b. macular degeneration.

c. presbyopia.
d. cataracts.
Answer: B
71. For maximum visual acuity to occur, light must be focused directly on the
a. optic nerve.
b. pons.
c. rods.
d. fovea.
Answer: D
72. Hank has just been informed that he is a diabetic. As a knowledgeable physician, he
realizes that his risk for developing ____ has also increased.
a. macular degeneration
b. Cataracts
c. retinopathy
d. glaucoma
Answer: C
73. The most normative hearing-related change in adulthood involves the inability to hear
a. high-pitched tones.
b. voices.
c. bass sounds.
d. loud tones.
Answer: A
74. Presbycusis is the most common age-related
a. form of dementia.
b. type of hearing problem.

c. visual disorder.
d. variety of COPD.
Answer: B
75. Hilde is buying a bulb that will light up when someone rings her doorbell. She is buying
this because although she can hear people fairly well during normal conversations, she has a
very difficult time hearing the high-pitched sound of the doorbell. Hilde is most likely
a. Parkinson’s disease.
b. Huntington’s disease.
c. presbycusis.
d. COPD.
Answer: C
76. Presbycusis can be the result of
a. excessive cell development in the cochlea.
b. a deformed outer ear.
c. loss of neurons in the auditory pathway.
d. the consumption of excessive levels of vitamin E.
Answer: C
77. Presbycusis can occur due to all of the following except
a. diminished supply of nutrients to the cells in the receptor area.
b. atrophy and degeneration of receptor cells.
c. loss of neurons in the auditory pathway.
d. softening of the vibration structures in the receptor area.
Answer: D

78. Dr. Aoyama has to prescribe a syrupy medication for one of her elderly patients. She has
two choices: one that smells bad but tastes good or one that smells good but tastes bad. Since
her patient is 75 years old, and assuming she wants to prescribe the medicine that is most
tolerable, which medicine should she prescribe?
a. The one that smells bad
b. The one that tastes bad
c. Either one, because people that old have little or no sense of taste or smell
d. If the patient is male, she should prescribe the one that tastes bad; if the patient is female,
she should prescribe the one that smells bad
Answer: A
79. You are hired by a social service agency to do safety inspections of the apartments of
older adults. What would you not want to see in these apartments?
a. Night-lights by their beds
b. Handrails on both sides of stairways
c. Throw rugs on floors
d. Nonskid mats in bathtubs
Answer: C
80. Which sleep complaint would you least expect from an older adult?
a. “I just can’t get to sleep at night.”
b. “Once I go to sleep, I sleep way too long.”
c. “I only slept four hours last night.”
d. “If I don’t get enough sleep at night, I am just worthless the next day.”
Answer: B
81. While at a conference dealing with issues related to aging, Eve is interested in learning
about how sleep patterns change in late life. She will be best served by attending a
presentation entitled “____ and the Elderly.”

a. Circadian Rhythms
b. Neuritic Plaques
c. Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors
d. Selectivity
Answer: A
82. Salvatore is a typical older adult who eats a well-balanced diet. Chances are he will
a. not have to take any vitamin supplements.
b. have to take protein supplements.
c. have to take vitamin C supplements.
d. have to take calcium supplements.
Answer: A
83. As a person reaches old age, the metabolic rate declines. How should older people adjust
their diets to compensate for this change?
a. Reduce the amount of protein in their diet
b. Consume the amount of carbohydrates in their diet they did when younger
c. Take vitamin supplements
d. Increase their intake of fiber
Answer: B
84. Who is most likely to develop cancer within the next year?
a. Jadwiga, who is 43 years old
b. Cristina, who is 58 years old
c. Chun, who is 73 years old
d. Efra, who is 88 years old
Answer: D

85. Research on the relationship between immigration, ethnicity, and health status of older
adults has shown that
a. immigration status has no impact on physical or mental health.
b. recent immigrants tend to have better health than U.S.-born individuals of the same
c. recent immigrants tend to have poorer health than U.S.-born individuals of the same
d. immigration status has a negative impact on physical health but not on mental health.
Answer: C
86. If you want to determine whether 80-year-old Maggie’s brain is active while she is
reading, you should use
a. magnetic resonance imaging.
b. positron emission tomography.
c. functional MRI.
d. a psychomotor test.
Answer: C
87. As Dr. Hallen is interested in ____, she does research in which she always measures the
reaction times of her subjects.
a. neurofibrillary tangles
b. selective attention
c. psychomotor speed
d. implicit memory
Answer: C
88. The only universal behavior change in aging that has been discovered is the fact that older
a. show improvements in vigilance.

b. exhibit dysphoria.
c. lose autobiographical memories.
d. have slower reaction times.
Answer: D
89. When older adults are asked to respond to an ambiguous question, you can expect
a. slower response rates.
b. mostly incorrect answers.
c. pseudodementia.
d. accurate and speedy responses.
Answer: A
90. If older adults practice making quick responses, reaction times
a. can be eliminated.
b. can be reduced.
c. will remain the same.
d. will actually be increased.
Answer: B
91. Psychomotor slowing is a good predictor of cognitive performance in older adulthood
a. for all tasks.
b. only on tasks that require little effort.
c. only on tasks that require great effort.
d. only on tasks that tap into episodic memory.
Answer: B
92. The Useful Field of View measure does an excellent job of assessing
a. an individual’s IQ.

b. one’s risk for Alzheimer’s disease.
c. the type of skills necessary to drive.
d. working memory.
Answer: C
93. Which is not one of the key functional areas assessed on the AAA Roadwise Review: A
Tool to Help Seniors Drive Safely Longer?
a. Leg strength
b. Head flexibility
c. Visual search
d. Hearing high-pitched sounds
Answer: D
94. The process of simultaneously holding and using information to solve a problem relies
most heavily on ____ memory.
a. working
b. long-term
c. sensory
d. implicit
Answer: A
95. In order to find a ballpark in a strange town, a player stops at a local gas station to get
directions. The attendant tells the player, “Go to the stoplight, take a right, go two blocks,
take a left, and the park will be a mile down the road on the left.” The player then gets in her
car and tries to remember the directions while driving to the park. The player is
demonstrating the use of
a. working memory.
b. psychomotor speed.
c. cross-linking.

d. transient ischemia.
Answer: A
96. The key characteristic of an explicit memory is that it is
a. naughty.
b. false.
c. not tied to a specific time.
d. deliberate.
Answer: D
97. In preparing for a date in court, Angeline commits to memory the details of the case. This
sort of conscious preparation and remembering of information is an example of ____
a. implicit
b. sensory
c. working
d. explicit
Answer: D
98. When Judy is asked, “What’s 2 + 2?” the answer just seems to pop into her head. This is
an example of
a. implicit memory.
b. attentional control.
c. cross-linking.
d. explicit memory.
Answer: A
99. Concerning memory, implicit is to explicit as
a. fact is to fiction.

b. unconscious is to intentional.
c. events are to people.
d. divided is to selective.
Answer: B
100. Gina is recalling the time last year that she hiked up a big hill in the rain with a group of
her friends. This memory would be best described as a(n) ____ memory.
a. implicit
b. vigilance
c. semantic
d. episodic
Answer: D
101. If you were taking a test to assess your episodic memory, what question would you be
least likely to be asked?
a. “What did you do on your last birthday?”
b. “Where were you on the 4th of July?”
c. “What happened the last time you went to the movies?”
d. “What is the capital of New Jersey?”
Answer: D
102. Jackie is playing a game in which she has to answer questions regarding the meaning of
10 random words. This sort of game would be most challenging to Jackie’s
a. implicit memory.
b. episodic memory.
c. semantic memory.
d. selective attention.
Answer: C

103. You would expect the greatest differences between older and younger adults on tasks
assessing ____ memory.
a. implicit
b. semantic
c. episodic
d. procedural
Answer: C
104. Which statement concerning autobiographical memory development is true?
a. Younger adults tend to more vividly recall information from ages 10-30, while older adults
tend to recall information from after age 30
b. Older adults tend to more vividly recall information from ages 10-30, while younger adults
tend to recall information from after age 30
c. Younger adults and older adults both tend to more vividly recall information from ages 1030
d. Younger adults and older adults both tend to more vividly recall information from after age
Answer: C
105. Which of the following statements is most accurate about the level of detail remembered
about past events?
a. Older adults remember more details from past events than younger adults
b. Older adults remember fewer details from past events than younger adults
c. Young adults use details remembered from past events to maintain more information in
working memory
d. Young adults use details remembered from past events to encode new memories
Answer: B
106. The key question in determining whether or not Kwan should be concerned about her
memory is,

a. “Does the memory problem interfere in Kwan’s life?”
b. “Has Kwan ever forgotten to perform a household chore?”
c. “How many times has Kwan forgotten something?”
d. “Does anyone think Kwan might have a memory problem?”
Answer: A
107. Maura suspects that she has some memory deficit. What kind of assessment should she
b. Divided attention
c. Neuropsychological
d. Selective attention
Answer: C
108. If you cheat on this exam by looking at notes you have taken, you are using a(n) ____
memory aid.
a. implicit
b. spaced retrieval
c. internal
d. external
Answer: D
109. How many of the following are examples of internal memory aids: a calendar, your
diary, class notes, mental notes?
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4

Answer: A
110. When asked how she is able to remember the names of all the students in his class, Dr.
Willis-Rivera says, “I just try to match each student’s face to an image of a famous person.”
This technique best exemplifies the concept of
a. spaced retrieval.
b. implicit memory.
c. vigilance.
d. an internal memory aid.
Answer: D
111. After learning the E-I-E-I-O framework, Hugh uses rehearsal to recall his new student
ID number. This would be an example of an ______ memory aid.
a. implicit-internal
b. implicit-external
c. explicit-internal
d. explicit-external
Answer: C
112. Storing a new acquaintance’s picture in your iPhone so that you can recall what he looks
like provides a good example of an _____ memory aid.
a. explicit-external
b. explicit-internal
c. implicit-external
d. implicit-internal
Answer: A
113. Which is not one of the three abilities used to define creativity in adults by Sternberg
and Lubart (2001)?
a. Producing work that is novel

b. Producing work that is task appropriate
c. Producing work that is artistic
d. Producing work that is high in demand
Answer: C
114. What is the general age-related pattern of creativity when defined by the overall number
of ideas an individual generates?
a. Lower in one’s 30s, higher in one’s 40s, peaks thereafter
b. High in one’s 30s, higher in one’s 40s, peaks thereafter
c. Lower in one’s 30s, higher in one’s 40s, declines thereafter
d. Higher in one’s 30s, lower in one’s 40s, declines thereafter
Answer: C
115. Which of the following is not an aspect of wisdom described from the psychological
a. Orchestration of mind and virtue
b. Postformal thinking
c. Action-oriented knowledge
d. Cross-linking
Answer: D
116. Akuba has a great deal of knowledge that she applies skillfully to most any situation.
She does not turn her back on the difficult problems in life, but rather applies her great
knowledge to give expert advice in order to aid individuals and society. Akuba would best be
described as exhibiting
a. creativity.
b. wisdom.
c. implicit memory.
d. divided attention.

Answer: B
117. Which is a characteristic of wisdom?
a. Intent of the act does not matter
b. Involves a narrow focus
c. “Average” judgment or advice
d. Deals with important life issues
Answer: D
118. Which statement regarding wisdom is most accurate?
a. The older a person is, the wiser she is likely to be.
b. Young people are more likely to be wise than older people.
c. There is no relationship between age and wisdom.
d. Older males tend to be wiser than older females.
Answer: C
119. The rate of severe depression
a. follows no developmental pattern.
b. declines between young adulthood and old age.
c. increases between young adulthood and old age.
d. declines between young adulthood and middle age and then rises dramatically in old age.
Answer: B
120. Dysphoria is the most prominent symptom of
a. depression.
b. creativity.
c. Alzheimer’s disease.
d. Parkinson’s disease.

Answer: A
121. Joanne is 65 years old. She has a difficult time motivating herself to get out of bed and
explains by saying sadly, “What’s the point? There is nothing I can do to make it worthwhile
anyway.” This particular experience of Joanne’s is best described as
a. wisdom.
b. dysphoria.
c. circadian rhythms.
d. Parkinson’s disease.
Answer: B
122. Which statement about depression is true?
a. Physical symptoms may include loss of appetite and insomnia
b. In older people, trouble breathing is a very good predictor of depression
c. It is easy to diagnose as the symptoms are unlike any other disorder
d. It does not involve any significant impairment in daily life activities
Answer: A
123. When Ruth’s husband dies, she thinks, “I can’t live without my husband. God is
punishing me.” These types of thoughts about events are called
a. explicit memories.
b. semantic memories.
c. internal belief systems.
d. internal memory aids.
Answer: C
124. Which sort of medication would be least likely prescribed for depression?
a. L-dopa
b. SSRIs

c. MAOIs
d. HCAs
Answer: A
125. Which patient is likely to experience the fewest and least severe side effects from their
antidepressant medication?
a. Angie, who is taking an HCA
b. Gloria, who is taking an MAO inhibitor
c. Victoria, who is taking an SSRI
d. Tiffany, who is taking L-dopa
Answer: C
126. If Nathan is prescribed ____ for his depression, he will have to be very careful about
what kinds of food he eats.
a. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
b. monoamine oxidase inhibitors
c. cognitive therapy
d. an amyloid
Answer: B
127. While being treated for depression, 70-year-old Ian is encouraged to avoid situations
that lead to negative consequences and to reward himself when something good happens to
him. Ian appears to be being treated by a ____ therapist.
a. cognitive
b. behavioral
c. psychoanalytic
d. biomedical
Answer: B

128. Because he is a cognitive therapist, Dr. Spence is most likely to suggest that the
underlying cause of depression involves
a. an unconscious battle between the id and superego.
b. an imbalance of neurotransmitters.
c. a past life that includes too few rewards.
d. a thought process that focuses only on negative memories.
Answer: D
129. Which type of therapy for depression would be most interested in altering internal belief
a. Cognitive therapy
b. Behavior therapy
c. Using SSRIs
d. Using HCAs
Answer: A
130. Dr. Murray believes that depression results from an individual’s conscious focus on
maladaptive beliefs about oneself. Given this information, Dr. Murray is most likely a ____
a. behavioral
b. psychodynamic
c. cognitive
d. social learning theory
Answer: C
131. Prior to entering a restaurant, Amy starts to shake, hyperventilate, and feel light-headed.
She is too terrified to enter the restaurant. She turns around immediately and catches the first
taxi back home. This behavior is most consistent with
a. depression.

b. Parkinson’s disease.
c. an anxiety disorder.
d. Huntington’s disease.
Answer: C
132. Blake’s doctor has just prescribed relaxation therapy and benzodiazepines to help solve
Blake’s problem. What is his problem most likely to be?
a. An anxiety disorder
b. Depression
c. Parkinson’s disease
d. Vascular dementia
Answer: A
133. For older adults, the clear treatment of choice for anxiety disorders is
a. psychotherapy.
b. Librium.
c. Valium.
d. SSRIs.
Answer: A
134. Dementia as defined as a serious impairment of
a. mood.
b. anxiety.
c. psychomotor functioning.
d. cognitive and behavioral functioning.
Answer: D
135. Alzheimer’s disease is to dementia as
a. old is to young.

b. biological is to psychological.
c. cognitive is to behavioral.
d. specific is to general.
Answer: D
136. Charles has changed a great deal. He has a difficult time remembering things, even
simple things like where he is or what year it is. He is having increasing difficulty
understanding people or saying things that make sense to others. In addition, he rarely cleans
himself anymore and acts in very inappropriate ways around others. Charles is exhibiting
many signs of
a. depression.
b. anxiety disorder.
c. Parkinson’s disease.
d. Alzheimer’s disease.
Answer: D
137. The loss of bladder or bowel control is called
a. impotence.
b. immobility.
c. incontinence.
d. impertinence.
Answer: C
138. Teresa has just been diagnosed as exhibiting Alzheimer’s disease. If the diagnosis is
correct, Teresa’s symptoms
a. will be held constant as long as the disease was diagnosed early enough.
b. will only get worse as time goes on.
c. may improve if she sticks to a healthy diet.
d. may disappear if she is treated with haloperidol.

Answer: B
139. What is the only definitive diagnostic test for Alzheimer’s disease?
a. CT scan
b. Autopsy of the brain
c. MRI
d. Blood test
Answer: B
140. In an attempt to diagnose Alzheimer’s, Dr. Moneypenny is taking a sample of
cerebrospinal fluid. She would be most likely looking for a certain protein called
a. amyloid.
b. dopamine.
c. thioridazine.
d. dysphoria.
Answer: A
141. Which best reflects the current scientific status concerning the role of genetics factors in
causing Alzheimer’s disease?
a. A mutation on chromosome 17 causes Alzheimer’s
b. There is evidence that specific genes may both increase and decrease the risk of
Alzheimer’s disease
c. The only genetic link is from data on individuals with both Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s
d. There is no scientific evidence that Alzheimer’s has a genetic component
Answer: B
142. Apolipoprotein E4 appears to play a role in
a. depression.

b. transient ischemic attack.
c. Alzeimer’s disease.
d. Parkinson’s disease.
Answer: C
143. The concept of spaced retrieval is based on
a. the theory of postformal thought.
b. circadian rhythms.
c. the E-I-E-I-O approach to memory.
d. cross-linking theory.
Answer: C
144. Candida has had Alzheimer’s disease for over a decade. In an effort to help slow her
memory loss, therapists have begun asking her simple questions, waiting for 10 seconds,
then, if Candida gets the item correct, re-asking the question after a slightly longer time
delay. Candida’s intervention is based on
a. recognition.
b. a circadian rhythm task.
c. spaced retrieval.
d. an internal belief system.
Answer: C
145. According to the text, the guiding principle behind setting up an effective family care
program for dealing with Alzheimer’s patients should be
a. “love cures all.”
b. “don’t be afraid of using medication to control a loved one’s behavior.”
c. “try to keep in mind that you may be next.”
d. “create an environment that optimizes the individual’s functioning.”

Answer: D
146. Research by Camp and Skrajner (2005) on training individuals with dementia to be
group leaders led to the conclusion that
a. individuals with dementia could not become group leaders.
b. training techniques worked well with every group except those with Alzheimer’s disease.
c. effective training must include some psychoactive drug use.
d. procedures based on the Montessori method can be effective.
Answer: D
1. Individuals over age 85 generally need assistance with daily living.
Answer: True
2. Currently, the number of elderly Native Americans is increasing while the number of
elderly Asian Americans is decreasing.
Answer: False
3. The maximum life expectancy for humans is around 120 years old.
Answer: True
4. Longevity appears to be determined solely by genetic factors.
Answer: False
5. In the U.S., the average life expectancy at birth for European Americans and African
Americans is now equal.
Answer: False
6. Sierra Leone has one of the highest life expectancies in the World.
Answer: False
7. The “fourth age” is best thought of as the “oldest-old.”
Answer: True

8. Free radicals are found exclusively on the tips of chromosomes.
Answer: False
9. Cross-linking is associated with metabolic theories of aging.
Answer: False
10. Neurons communicate via neurotransmitters.
Answer: True
11. SPECT is a type of functional imaging technique.
Answer: True
12. A cerebral vascular accident is also known as a stroke.
Answer: True
13. The defining characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is dementia.
Answer: False
14. If you have significant levels of opaque spots on a lens, you have glaucoma.
Answer: False
15. Presbycusis is characterized by reduced sensitivity to high-pitched sounds.
Answer: True
16. Younger adults tend to report more sleep-related problems than older adults.
Answer: False
17. Immigrants show better health than U.S.-born older adults with the same ethnic
Answer: False
18. Older adults perform just as well as younger adults on most tasks measuring psychomotor
Answer: False

19. Working memory involves both holding information in your mind while using it to solve
a problem or make a decision.
Answer: True
20. Intentionally coming up with the names of the capitals of all 50 states in the United States
is an example of explicit memory.
Answer: True
21. If you believe that your memory will decline in old age, it is more likely to happen.
Answer: True
22. The overall number of creative ideas a person has tends to increase the older a person
Answer: False
23. Wisdom involves solving hypothetical problems with little real-life implications.
Answer: False
24. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are used to treat depression.
Answer: True
25. Alzheimer’s disease is marked by changes in memory, difficulty in communicating,
inappropriate social behavior, and changes in personality.
Answer: True
1. People who study population trends are called _____.
Answer: demographers
2. _____ life expectancy is the age at which half of the people born in a particular year will
have died.
Answer: Average
3. The “good news” (young-old) stage of life is called the _____ age.
Answer: third

4. The areas on the tips of chromosomes that may control cellular divisions are called _____.
Answer: telomeres
5. The _____ theory of aging focuses on proteins that interact randomly with body tissues
like muscles and arteries.
Answer: cross-linking
6. When axon fibers become severely twisted, they can form a spiral-shaped mass called
Answer: neurofibrillary tangles
7. _____ attacks involve an interruption in blood flow and often serve as an early warning
sign for a later stroke.
Answer: Transient ischemic
8. The most common form of incapacitating respiratory disease among older adults is _____
Answer: chronic obstructive pulmonary
9. A person’s sleep-wake cycle is a good example of a(n) _____ rhythm.
Answer: circadian
10. The only accepted universal behavioral change in aging involves a reduction in _____.
Answer: psychomotor speed
11. Deliberate, conscious recall that is remembered at a specific time is called _____
Answer: explicit
12. The notes that you studied prior to this exam are a good example of an environmental
resource that is referred to as a(n) _____ aid.
Answer: external
13. The term _____ used by psychologists to mean feeling sad or down is a prominent
symptom of depression.

Answer: dysphoria
14. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors are most commonly used to treat _____.
Answer: depression
15. The most common form of dementia is _____ disease.
Answer: Alzheimer’s
11. Describe the concepts of the “third age” and the “fourth age” and how knowledge of these
ages might impact how we prepare individuals for each of these stages of life.
Answer: The “third age” concerns the young-old (60-80 years) and is characterized as being
the “good news” time of life. This positive treatment is the result of increased life expectancy
and more successful aging, substantial potential for physical and mental fitness, evidence of
cognitive and emotional reserves in the aging mind, high levels of emotional and personal
well-being, and effective strategies to master gains and losses of later life. The “fourth age”
concerns the oldest-old (80+ years) and is characterized as being the “bad news” time of life.
This negative treatment is the result of sizable losses in cognitive potential and ability to
learn, increases in negative effect of chronic stress, high prevalence of dementia and other
chronic disorders, and problems with quality of life and dying with dignity.
12. Compare and contrast the medical conditions of cerebral vascular accidents, transient
ischemic attacks, and vascular dementia.
Answer: A cerebral vascular accident (or stroke) is caused by interrupted blood flow to the
brain as the result of a blockage or hemorrhage of a cerebral artery. These blocks may be
related to atherosclerosis. The impact of a CVA can include cognitive impairment, loss of
speech, or physical impairment (e.g., cannot move an arm) depending on the area of the brain
that was affected. A transient ischemic attack involves an interruption of the blood flow to the
brain and can be an early warning sign of a stroke. Vascular dementia results from a series of
small CVAs. It can have a sudden onset and nongradual progression. It tends to result in
neurological and psychological damage and can lead to death.

Test Bank for Human Development : A Life-Span View
Robert V Kail, John C Cavanaugh
9781111834111, 9781337554831

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