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Chapter 15—Social Aspects of Later Life: Psychosocial, Retirement, Relationship, and Societal Issues
1. Continuity theory is based on the premise that
a. change is uncommon in adulthood.
b. daily problems are solved using strategies that have been successful in the past.
c. the maximum level of cognitive abilities is achieved in middle adulthood.
d. environmental demands decline with age.
Answer: B
2. The fact that Kenyon can cope with his current boss’s bad attitude because he has had past
experience dealing with similar bosses is best explained by
a. continuity theory.
b. mechanics intelligence.
c. the social convoy.
d. cross-linking theory.
Answer: A
3. Although Dougie has always loved his job, he now finds that it is no longer a challenge.
He has done it for so long that he has become bored with it. Because of that, he has been
looking for some alternative assignments. Dougie is attempting to better his situation by
a. weakening his environmental press.
b. creating a zone of maximum comfort.
c. making his life less continuous.
d. demonstrating docility.
Answer: C
4. A individual with a sense of _____ continuity would be most likely to say, “I hate my life
because every day is just like the last.”

a. No
b. too little
c. a moderate level of
d. too much
Answer: D
5. Ever since 70-year-old Kringle was a teenager, he has always seen himself as a “happy and
jolly old soul.” This describes an individual with a high level of
a. external continuity.
b. internal continuity.
c. external discontinuity.
d. internal discontinuity.
Answer: B
6. Al’s statement, “During the last 30 years, my living arrangement pattern would best be
described as single to married with children to divorced and on my own,” exemplifies
a. external continuity.
b. internal continuity.
c. external discontinuity.
d. internal discontinuity.
Answer: C
7. The comment, “I have been in this line of work for the past 35 years” is best associated
with _____.
a. external continuity.
b. internal continuity.
c. external discontinuity.
d. internal discontinuity.

Answer: A
8. As with many individuals with senile dementia, Alois has begun to experience a reduced
and distorted sense of self. This is an example of
a. external continuity.
b. internal continuity.
c. external discontinuity.
d. internal discontinuity.
Answer: D
9. The upper limit of a person’s ability to function in different domains is called
a. zone of maximum comfort
b. adaption level.
c. competence.
d. continuity.
Answer: C
10. Experimenters are attempting to assess the upper limits of Ralph’s physical, sensoryperceptual, cognitive, motor, and personal skills. When they are done, they will have
determined Ralph’s
a. proactivity.
b. continuity.
c. competence.
d. environmental press.
Answer: C
11. Bannister has run a mile in just under four minutes, which is his best time ever. This
would represent his level of ____ for this skill.
a. compliance

b. docility
c. competence
d. proactivity
Answer: C
12. A university advertises that its goal is to “take all students and help them reach their
highest potential.” In other words, the university is attempting to help students reach their
level of
a. competence.
b. proclivity.
c. proactivity.
d. internal continuity.
Answer: A
13. The demands exerted on one’s self by one’s surroundings defines
a. an environmental press.
b. maximum comfort.
c. internal continuity.
d. competence.
Answer: A
14. Since he is the next in line for the throne, Prince William must attend formal gatherings
nearly every day. Such gatherings represent
a. proactivity.
b. discontinuity.
c. environmental press.
d. an example of competence.
Answer: C

15. Adaptation level is reached when
a. competence exceeds an environmental press.
b. environmental press exceeds competence.
c. the environmental press makes no demands on competence but competence still exists.
d. the environmental press is at the average state for a given level of competence.
Answer: D
16. When you are at your “adaptation level,” your
a. behavior and affect are abnormal.
b. behavior is normal and your affect is abnormal.
c. behavior is abnormal and your affect is normal.
d. behavior and affect are normal.
Answer: D
17. How do you move from an adaptation level to the zone of maximum performance
a. Significantly increase press
b. Slightly increase press
c. Slightly decrease press
d. Significantly decrease press
Answer: B
18. Watching his grandchildren for the weekend has increased the environmental press in
Hugo’s life slightly, bringing out the best in Hugo’s interpersonal skills. While watching his
grandchildren, Hugo is apparently operating
a. at the adaptation level.
b. in the zone of maximum comfort.
c. in the zone of maximum performance potential.

d. in a marginal zone.
Answer: C
19. Winnie is a supervisor of several employees. She believes that her employees, though
happy on the job, could be producing more than they are. She decides to try to get them into
their “zone of maximum performance potential.” What is she going to have to do to
accomplish this?
a. Increase their environmental press
b. Increase their competence
c. Increase their sense of continuity
d. Encourage docility
Answer: A
20. Which adaptation level is associated with the greatest happiness and lack of worry about
environmental demands?
a. Zone of maximum performance potential
b. The marginal adaptation level
c. Average level of competence and press level
d. Zone of maximum comfort
Answer: D
21. All of the following individuals are currently in jobs that challenge them to perform at
their average level of competence. Who would be entering their “zone of maximum
a. Janet, whose job just got significantly harder
b. Tito, whose job just got slightly harder
c. Jermaine, whose job just got slightly easier
d. Mahalia, whose job just got significantly easier
Answer: C

22. The “zone of maximum comfort” is reached when
a. people are right at their adaptation level.
b. environmental press slightly exceeds competence.
c. people are maladaptive.
d. competence slightly exceeds environmental press.
Answer: D
23. Maladaptive behavior is most likely under conditions of
a. high competence and weak environmental press.
b. medium competence and moderate environmental press.
c. low competence and weak environmental press.
d. no competence and no environmental press.
Answer: A
24. The ability to exert control over one’s life underlies a strong sense of
a. docility.
b. proactivity.
c. environmental press.
d. disengagement.
Answer: B
25. When businessman Eli notices that a lot of deals take place on the golf course, he signs up
for golf lessons. Eli is exhibiting
a. docility.
b. proactivity.
c. environmental press.
d. disengagement.
Answer: B

26. Docility is characterized by a sense of
a. little control.
b. intermediate care.
c. high competence.
d. proactivity.
Answer: A
27. Hazel is tired of worrying about her new landlord. When her friends tell her to become
involved to protect her interests, Hazel says, “It’s too late in the day. Whatever happens,
happens. I’ll simply do whatever the landlord says.” Hazel is exhibiting
a. docility.
b. proactivity.
c. adaptation level.
d. high levels of competence.
Answer: A
28. Docility is to proactivity as
a. social is to cognitive.
b. extrovert is to introvert.
c. maximum comfort is to maximum performance.
d. situational control is to self-control.
Answer: D
29. Which combination is most likely?
a. Low proactivity and average competence
b. Low proactivity and medium competence
c. High proactivity and high competence
d. High proactivity and low competence

Answer: C
30. As you believe in Erikson’s theory, you would most likely view your 90-year-old
grandmother as struggling with a conflict of
a. generativity versus stagnation.
b. integrity versus despair.
c. identity versus role confusion.
d. industry versus inferiority.
Answer: B
31. The conflict of integrity versus despair is characterized by
a. attempting to make sense out of one’s life.
b. forming an initial sense of identity.
c. a sense of great care for the next generation.
d. developing a sense of trust.
Answer: A
32. Noah is trying to come to grips with the fact that he is very old and doesn’t have long to
live. To do this, he thinks of the things he has accomplished, the children he has raised, and
the things he has done for the community. Noah is struggling with Erikson’s stage of
a. generativity versus stagnation.
b. integrity versus despair.
c. intimacy versus isolation.
d. initiative versus guilt.
Answer: B
33. Jeff is 73 years old. Lately, he’s been thinking about the things he’s done in his life—his
relationships, his accomplishments, and other experiences he’s had. Which term best
describes what Jeff is doing?
a. Life review

b. Despair
c. Proactivity
d. Socioemotional selectivity
Answer: A
34. When elderly people “accept the past,” they tend to ____ than people who do not.
a. be in more despair
b. be less depressed
c. have less subjective well-being
d. act more docily
Answer: B
35. After conducting a life review, 85-year-old Gus concludes that his life was riddled with
inappropriate actions and basically stunk. Based on this review, Erikson would predict that
Gus would
a. be very fearful of death.
b. become proactive.
c. regress back to an earlier stage of life.
d. exhibit generativity.
Answer: A
36. Erikson would suggest that 80-year-old ____ has achieved integrity.
a. Elmer, who is highly self-conscious,
b. Christine, who is highly self-affirming,
c. Harold, who has good self-recognition skills,
d. Francis, who has excellent self-monitoring skills,
Answer: B

37. An individual with ____ well-being holds a positive self-evaluation that is based on
positive life experiences.
a. dysphoric
b. indeterminate
c. subjective
d. inverse
Answer: C
38. When Kayla looks back on her life, she is filled with a sense of pride and feels good
about what she’s done. Which term best describes these feelings?
a. Subjective well-being
b. Social convoy
c. Docility
d. Socioemotional selectivity
Answer: A
39. Which of the following is not typically measured in an effort to assess subjective wellbeing?
a. Life satisfaction
b. Happiness
c. Stress
d. Self-esteem
Answer: C
40. Which of the following factors is not related to subjective well-being?
a. Hardiness
b. Marital status
c. Chronic illness

d. Culture
Answer: D
41. Research on subjective well-being across cultures has found that
a. the degree to which age is viewed positively affects well-being.
b. the same factors predict successful aging in other cultures.
c. the factors important in Western cultures differ from those in Eastern cultures.
d. the cultures with more daily stress have poorer well-being.
Answer: B
42. Gender differences in subjective well-being are often thought to be due to all of the
following factors except
a. prevalence of widowhood.
b. nursing home attendance rates.
c. rates of chronic illnesses.
d. social network quality.
Answer: B
43. In general, subjective well-being
a. increases in older age.
b. decreases in older age.
c. increases for older men and decreases for older women.
d. increases for older women and decreases for older men.
Answer: A
44. How do changes in the amygdala over time impact the regulation of emotion?
a. Younger adults have higher amygdala activation and lower emotional arousal
b. Younger adults have lower amygdala activation and higher emotional arousal
c. Older adults have higher amygdala activation and lower emotional arousal

d. Older adults have lower amygdala activation and lower emotional arousal
Answer: D
45. Higher cognitive ability predicts
a. a better emotional regulation.
b. the acquisition of a social convoy.
c. a better sense of integrity.
d. the development of generativity.
Answer: A
46. While attempting to cope with the death of her sister, Megan decides to participate in a
spontaneous celebration of life sponsored by a local church. For Megan, this participation is a
nice example of the use of a ____ support.
a. Spiritual
b. Secular
c. tertiary
d. docility
Answer: A
47. Which statement about spirituality and health is true?
a. Higher levels of spirituality are associated with better physical and mental health
b. Higher levels of spirituality are associated with better physical but poorer mental health
c. Higher levels of spirituality are associated with better mental but poorer physical health
d. Lower levels of spirituality are associated with better physical and mental health
Answer: A
48. When coping with high levels of stress, individuals who rely on spiritual support tend to
____ than those with a small religious commitment.
a. show lower levels of self-esteem

b. demonstrate more discomfort with rigid church dogma
c. report higher states of well-being
d. add to their burden more
Answer: C
49. How many of the following are part of the definition of spiritual support: seeking pastoral
care, expressing faith in a God, participating in organized religious activities?
a. 0
b. 1
c. 2
d. 3
Answer: D
50. According to Krause and colleagues (2000), the first step in the three-step process
involved in “turning a problem over to God” involves
a. differentiating things that can be done from those that cannot.
b. focusing on the part of a problem that can be changed.
c. emotionally disconnecting from things that cannot be changed.
d. engaging in prayer in which some bargain or exchange is struck.
Answer: A
51. Krause and colleagues (2000) report that the final step in “letting God have it” occurs
when someone
a. focuses on how to solve the problem.
b. blames God for all of life’s problems.
c. begins focusing on the belief that God will determine the best outcome of life events.
d. knowing what in life can and cannot be changed.
Answer: C

52. Who is most likely to say, “When I cannot go to church, I feel bad about myself?”
a. Sonny, who is a European-American male
b. Cher, who is a European-American female
c. Ike, who is an African-American male
d. Tina, who is an African-American female
Answer: D
53. Which statement on race and spirituality is true?
a. Older African-American women view chronic pain as part of God’s plan
b. Older African-American males are virtually uninvolved in church activities
c. European Americans are more committed to their religions than African Americans
d. Religion is a less important resource for European Americans than African Americans
Answer: D
54. Who is most likely to say, “We must rely on the faith of the people to get us through these
hard times”?
a. Davis, who is European American
b. Ahusaka, who is Native American
c. DeMarcus, who is African American
d. Eduardo, who is Mexican American
Answer: D
55. Which best describes the concept of “la fé de la gente” (faith of the people)?
a. A coping style in which there is heavy reliance on a specific cultural ideology
b. A coping style mandating the use of specific religious rituals
c. A coping style in which one pledges one’s future to a specific church (e.g., “If I get
through this, I will become a priest”)
d. A coping style during which a religious conversion to another faith occurs

Answer: A
56. Native Americans tend to view spiritual elders
a. with disdain.
b. as wisdom-keepers.
c. as gods.
d. with skepticism.
Answer: B
57. Retirement always involves the loss of
a. integrity.
b. maximum performance potential.
c. autonomy.
d. occupational identity.
Answer: D
58. A clean break from employment is referred to as a ____ retirement.
a. “cusp”
b. “crisp”
c. “convoy”
d. “competent”
Answer: B
59. After 35 years of college teaching, Dr. Charpentier has just completed his last class.
While he has continued to work at the same strenuous pace through the years, he knows that
after today he will never again set foot in the classroom. Dr. Charpentier is contemplating a
_____ retirement.
a. blurred
b. crisp

c. la fé de la gente
d. repetitive
Answer: B
60. A pattern of full-time work, retirement, full-time work, another retirement provides a
good example of _____ retirement.
a. crisp
b. social convoy
c. skilled
d. blurred
Answer: D
61. Whose behavior best exemplifies a “blurred” retirement process?
a. Ben, who just permanently retired after working 40 straight years at a paper mill
b. Grimm, who has never had an out-of-the-home career and whose workload is not changing
c. Johnny, who retired from a truck-driving job five years ago, then began a career as a
commercial fisherman, and is now considering a second retirement
d. Storm, who is unsure as to whether her full-time job as a lawyer is about to end
Answer: C
62. Which term best describes the retirement pattern of most men?
a. Integrity
b. Blurred
c. Crisp
d. Socioemotional security
Answer: B
63. A “bridge job” is best described as

a. your first part-time job out of high school or college.
b. the highest paying job of your career.
c. a job taken after ending your main career but prior to retirement.
d. a job you take after age 65.
Answer: C
64. Gene is about to retire after coaching college basketball for 30 years. He has decided that
rather than going “cold turkey” on coaching, he will take a low-paying part-time job as a high
school coach to help ease him into retirement. Gene’s actions best exemplify
a. a bridge job.
b. integrity.
c. docility.
d. a social convoy.
Answer: A
65. “Bridge jobs” are most associated with
a. positive life satisfaction.
b. spiritual support.
c. despair.
d. socioemotional selectivity.
Answer: A
66. In the United States, when compared to men, women are more likely to
a. enter the workforce earlier.
b. spend more time in the workforce.
c. spend less time planning their retirement.
d. have more continuous work histories.
Answer: C

67. Concerning a partner’s decision to retire,
a. only women tend to greatly influence their partner’s decision to retire.
b. only men tend to greatly influence their partner’s decision to retire.
c. both women and men tend to greatly influence their partner’s decision to retire.
d. neither women nor men tend to greatly influence their partner’s decision to retire.
Answer: D
68. Concerning gender and retirement,
a. women tend to have a financial advantage at retirement.
b. women tend to prepare more fully for retirement.
c. women are more likely to retire if their husbands are already retired.
d. women are less likely to fully retire.
Answer: D
69. One interesting gender issue concerning satisfaction in retirement is that
a. satisfied retired wives tend to have been influenced to retire by their husbands.
b. traditional gender roles may create difficulties in older retiring males.
c. finances are only important to male retirees.
d. gender issues have no influence on retirement satisfaction.
Answer: B
70. Concerning satisfaction in retirement,
a. no group has been found to show increased levels of satisfaction in retirement.
b. well-being tends to drop significantly during the first year following voluntary retirement.
c. forced retirement is associated with declines in physical and mental health.
d. early-life social challenges are almost always continued in the retirement years, even if you
experience positive interactions in middle adulthood.
Answer: C

71. Which statement concerning retirement is true?
a. In recent years, the number of organizations devoted to assisting retirees has declined
b. Participation in leisure activities during retirement tends to result in declines in satisfaction
c. Part-time employment following retirement can be the result of a desire to stay connected
to one’s former life/career
d. Retiree volunteerism appears to have little positive impact on society
Answer: C
72. In the last few decades, the number of community organizations designed to involve older
adults has
a. increased significantly.
b. increased slightly.
c. remained stable.
d. decreased slightly.
Answer: A
73. How does a person’s activity level typically change after retirement?
a. The number of paid and volunteer hours both increase
b. The number of volunteer hours increases while the paid hours decrease
c. The number of paid hours increases while the volunteer hours decrease
d. The number of paid and volunteer hours both decrease
Answer: B
74. Which is the best example of a “social convoy”?
a. A newly married couple
b. Generation X
c. Several adult lifelong friends
d. A retired individual who plans to move to a community with other retirees

Answer: C
75. Eric has maintained contact with six of his high school friends for the last 60 years. They
often get together for activities, to socialize, and to simply spend time together. Eric and his
longtime friends would be best described as a(n)
a. zone of maximal performance potential.
b. environmental press.
c. zone of minimal comfort.
d. social convoy.
Answer: D
76. How does the size of social convoys vary between generations?
a. Young adults have the largest convoys
b. Middle-aged adults have the largest convoys
c. Older adults have the largest convoys
d. Convoy size does not vary by generation
Answer: D
77. Social support appears to be most important for individuals from the _____ community.
a. European-American
b. African-American
c. Asian-American
d. Latino-American
Answer: B
78. Older women have ________ number of friends characterized by _______.
a. a greater; less intimacy
b. a greater; more intimacy
c. a smaller; more intimacy

d. a smaller; less intimacy
Answer: B
79. _______ are more important in later life, especially for men who have lost male friends
through death.
a. Male friendships
b. Cross-sex friendships
c. Female friendships
d. Familial friendships
Answer: B
80. All of these individuals are over 70 years old. Who is most likely to be satisfied with their
a. Sergi, who has a close relationships with one of his sons
b. Dimitri, who has close relationships with all six of her children
c. Karl, who has a close relationship with one friend who is not a member of his family
d. Ernst, who has a close relationship with many friends who are not members of his family
Answer: D
81. Who is most likely to have the least number of new friends?
a. Bud, who is 20 years old
b. Linnie, who is 40 years old
c. Stella, who is 60 years old
d. Miller, who is 80 years old
Answer: D
82. “Socioemotional selectivity” is a term that describes the process involved in
a. arriving at subjective well-being.
b. developing relationships with others.

c. maximizing one’s zone of maximum comfort.
d. mastering instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs).
Answer: B
83. Brando is motivated to join a group of strangers at a party when he overhears them taking
about a new movie that he is interested in learning about. This best exemplifies the process of
a. activities of daily living.
b. integrity versus despair.
c. patronizing speech.
d. socioemotional selectivity.
Answer: D
84. Celia is motivated to join a support group after her husband died in order to meet others
who understand what she is experiencing. This is the result of a motivation related to
a. activities of daily living.
b. integrity versus despair.
c. information seeking.
d. emotional regulation.
Answer: D
85. According to socioemotional selectivity theory, social contact is motivated by a goal,
such as
a. information seeking.
b. discontinuity.
c. infantilization.
d. an altruistic gene.
Answer: A
86. Social contact motivated by information seeking tends to lead to

a. stronger family ties.
b. meeting more people.
c. a preference for familiar people.
d. a more diverse social network.
Answer: B
87. Social contact motivated by emotional regulation tends to lead to
a. stronger family ties.
b. meeting more people.
c. a preference for familiar people.
d. a more diverse social network.
Answer: C
88. Which of the following is not a goal motivating social contact according to
socioemotional selectivity theory?
a. Information seeking
b. Self-concept
c. Fear
d. Emotional
Answer: C
89. Hanna is a 70-year-old woman who has a choice: she can either go out with some old
friends or make some new friends at the community center. Socioemotional selectivity theory
would predict that if Hanna’s decision is based on emotional regulation, she will
a. choose to make new friends.
b. go out with her old friends.
c. stay home and see no one.
d. invite her old friends to the community center so that they can all make new friends.

Answer: B
90. Compared to nonusers, heavy Internet users tend to have
a. fewer friends online and more friends offline.
b. more friends online and fewer friends offline.
c. fewer friends online and offline.
d. more friends online and offline.
Answer: D
91. What percentage of online gamers are over age 50?
a. 5
b. 15
c. 25
d. 35
Answer: C
92. Sibling relationships are special in that they
a. vary across families.
b. typically last a lifetime.
c. are based on competition.
d. are emotionally based.
Answer: B
93. When are sibling relationships likely to be the most important?
a. Early childhood
b. Adolescence
c. Middle adulthood
d. Late adulthood

Answer: D
94. Eve is very close to her siblings, is very involved in their lives, and keeps an average
level of contact with them. At what point in her life is Eve’s relationship with her siblings
likely to be most important?
a. Early childhood
b. Adolescence
c. Middle adulthood
d. Late adulthood
Answer: D
95. One reason that sibling relationships are thought to be so important is that siblings
a. often remain highly involved in each other’s lives.
b. often constitute the longest-lasting relationships.
c. often support each other financially.
d. often use competition to motivate their successes throughout life.
Answer: B
96. Merlin and Kay are both 69 years old and married. Compared with Karin and Bill, who
are 37 years old and married, Merlin and Kay probably
a. have a reduced potential for conflict.
b. have a lower potential for pleasure.
c. are more different from one another in terms of health.
d. exhibit more gender differences in terms of sources of pleasure.
Answer: A
97. When comparing the average middle-aged married couple with the average older married
couple, the older couple is more likely to be characterized as
a. unhappy.

b. disengaged.
c. similar.
d. docile.
Answer: C
98. Which statement about marriage is true?
a. Marriage helps people deal more effectively with disabilities
b. Over time, division of labor becomes more gender stereotyped
c. Older married women are much happier about the marriage than their male partners
d. Marital conflict increases significantly in old age
Answer: A
99. Based on the data gathered to date, long-term gay and lesbian partnerships are ____ longterm heterosexual relationships.
a. more loving than
b. more violent than
c. more sexual than
d. very similar to
Answer: D
100. After 45 years of marriage, Athena now has to take care of her husband, who has a
major debilitating disease. Athena is likely to be ____ with her marriage than other older
adults who are not caregivers for their spouses.
a. more satisfied
b. less satisfied
c. equally satisfied
d. satisfied in a different way
Answer: B

101. As a spouse caring for her Alzheimer’s afflicted husband, Patsy, who has begun to
experience a decrease in her marital satisfaction, is likely to be experiencing increased
feelings of
a. companionship.
b. intimacy.
c. independence.
d. depression.
Answer: D
102. Spousal caregivers whose partners have a significant chronic medical condition tend to
a. regress into the roles they played when the marriage began.
b. be susceptible to getting the same disorder.
c. show reduced levels of marital satisfaction.
d. remember significantly more major hassles than actually occur.
Answer: C
103. _____ represent the largest group of those in widowhood.
a. Middle-aged men
b. Middle-aged women
c. Older men
d. Older women
Answer: D
104. Herb is 73 years old. His family and friends all of a sudden feel uncomfortable around
him. Because he feels very uncomfortable going to a restaurant by himself, he often stays at
home alone. What has most likely happened to Herb?
a. He has recently lost his social convoy
b. He is experiencing generativity

c. He just retired
d. His wife recently died
Answer: D
105. Women who are recently widowed tend to have ____ than recently widowed men.
a. greater financial loss
b. less social relationships
c. more physical/health problems
d. less loss of social status
Answer: A
106. Chris is a great-grandparent. It is most likely that Chris
a. is a male.
b. married relatively early in life.
c. plays a role similar to that of most grandparents.
d. is highly involved with the great-grandchildren.
Answer: B
107. One positive aspect of becoming a great-grandparent is that it
a. is a sign of social competence.
b. marks a major longevity milestone.
c. indicates that one is not docile.
d. provides a good opportunity for disengagement.
Answer: B
108. Which statement is true regarding the differences between grandparents and greatgrandparents?
a. Grandparents are more likely to develop integrity.
b. The roles of grandparents are more diverse.

c. Great-grandparents are less likely to be proactive.
d. Social convoys are not important for great-grandparents.
Answer: B
109. Levi has just become a great-grandfather. If he is like most other great-grandparents,
a. is looking forward to being a surrogate parent.
b. views being a great-grandparent as a burden.
c. is pleased with the diversion great-grandchildren provide.
d. views himself with the sense that he has lived too long.
Answer: C
110. Dolores is 73 years old, is very ill, cannot care for herself, and has several physical and
psychological problems. Dolores would be best described as
a. patronizing.
b. proactive.
c. frail.
d. competent.
Answer: C
111. To be accurately classified as a frail older adult, an individual must
a. be very ill and have physical disabilities.
b. have the potential for becoming very ill and have mental disabilities.
c. be over 65 and be under constant medical care.
d. have less than one year to live.
Answer: A
112. Frail older adults
a. experience no environmental press.

b. exhibit declining competence.
c. have a decreased need for spiritual support.
d. are more likely to seek a bridge job.
Answer: B
113. Activities of daily living are best described as tasks
a. demanding above-average intelligence.
b. requiring assistance from others.
c. focusing on nonphysical activities.
d. involving basic self-care needs.
Answer: D
114. Being able to take a bath, walk, and eat are all examples of
a. instrumental activities of daily living.
b. activities of daily living.
c. the zone of maximum comfort.
d. the zone of maximum performance potential.
Answer: B
115. In the United States, ____ would be considered an instrumental activity of daily living.
a. walking
b. opening a door
c. taking a bath
d. purchasing a car
Answer: D
116. Inga lives in a third-world nation. For her, ____ would be considered an IADL.
a. menstruation

b. sleeping
c. eating
d. planting crops
Answer: D
117. IADLs differ from ADLs in that
a. IADLs have a higher-level intellectual component.
b. IADLs are necessary for survival.
c. ADLs are more difficult to perform.
d. ADLs are less commonly performed by African Americans.
Answer: A
118. Which ethnic group has the highest percentage of elderly people reporting a disability?
a. European American
b. African American
c. Latino American
d. Asian American
Answer: B
119. Cameron is having difficulty handling her bank accounts and paying taxes, but
competently takes care of her daily needs. Based on this, it seems that Cameron
a. needs assistance with IADLs but not ADLs.
b. needs assistance with IADLs and ADLs.
c. needs assistance with ADLs in a nursing home.
d. needs assistance with ADLs as an outpatient.
Answer: A
120. In the United States, ____ percent of people over age 65 report a functional limitation of
some kind.

a. 10
b. 20
c. 30
d. 40
Answer: D
121. In the United States on any given day, about _____ percent of older adults reside in a
nursing home.
a. 5
b. 15
c. 25
d. 35
Answer: A
122. An elderly individual with few cognitive or physical limitations but who sometimes
requires help with everyday living needs would most likely live in
a. a nursing home.
b. intermediate care.
c. skilled nursing care.
d. an assisted-living facility.
Answer: D
123. Suzette lives in a building in which others help her with some everyday living needs.
Although she has no severe cognitive or physical disabilities, she appreciates this living
arrangement that is best classified as
a. a nursing home.
b. intermediate care.
c. skilled nursing care.

d. an assisted-living facility.
Answer: D
124. Who is the prototypic nursing home resident?
a. Wayland, who is a 75-year-old European-American male
b. Tyehimba, who is a 75-year-old African-American male
c. Rowena, who is an 80-year-old European-American female
d. Aretha, who is an 80-year-old African-American female
Answer: C
125. Which would not be on a list of risk factors for residing in a nursing home?
a. Over age 85
b. Unmarried
c. No problems with IADLs
d. No children
Answer: C
126. The main reason for a person to enter a nursing home is his or her
a. health.
b. age.
c. wealth.
d. spouse.
Answer: A
127. Which of the following is not an issue regarding caregivers of the elderly?
a. Physical abuse
b. Cohousing
c. Financial exploitation

d. Neglect
Answer: B
128. Which of the following is not a possible contributing factor to elder abuse?
a. Social isolation of the elder
b. Caregiver stress
c. Elder’s dependency on others
d. Caregiver’s lack of control
Answer: D
129. Sophia, an 80-year-old, lives with her daughter, Dorothy. How many of the following
factors put Sophia at risk of elder abuse: Dorothy’s high competence, the potential financial
gain Dorothy may receive, Dorothy’s depression, and the fact that Dorothy is single?
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4
Answer: B
130. Rose lives with several of her friends, who are also elderly. She has a high desire to
please and help others, but has difficulty with common sense, so her friends often check on
her activities and interactions with others. Which of the following problems are Rose’s
friends most likely to protect her from becoming a victim of?
a. Fraud
b. Physical abuse
c. Emotional abuse
d. Neglect
Answer: A
131. Which of the following factors places elderly people at higher risk for fraud?

a. Unhappiness
b. Loneliness
c. Social isolation
d. Disability
Answer: B
132. Hubert, who is taking care of his elderly uncle, has recently been cashing his uncle’s
social security checks and putting the money into his own account. As this is being done
without his uncle’s knowledge, Hubert’s behavior would be classified as
a. psychological abuse.
b. abandonment.
c. material exploitation.
d. neglect.
Answer: C
133. Which statement concerning elder abuse is true?
a. The abuser is typically a family member
b. Most victims are under age 80
c. Stress alone appears to be the major trigger of abuse
d. It tends to be a pattern that is transmitted from one generation to the next
Answer: A
134. Compared with 1950, _____ of today’s older adults are below the federal poverty line.
a. significantly more
b. about the same percent
c. slightly fewer
d. significantly fewer
Answer: D

135. If spending patterns do not change by 2039, what percentage of the U.S. gross domestic
product (GDP) will be consumed by Social Security and Medicare?
a. 3
b. 7
c. 12
d. 21
Answer: C
136. Which statement concerning Social Security is false?
a. It was developed in the 1950s
b. It can be supplemented by IRAs
c. It is the primary source of income for those over age 65
d. It faces challenges due to the large number of baby-boomers
Answer: A
137. The original purpose of Social Security was to
a. create a way for seniors to pay for housing expenses.
b. provide a supplement to savings and other means of financial support.
c. provide the primary source of income for those over age 65.
d. create an investment opportunity.
Answer: B
138. Social Security money is obtained from
a. money put away by workers over the course of their working life.
b. taxes on current workers’ payroll.
c. interest on a large federal investment fund.
d. a low-interest loan from the business sector.
Answer: B

139. In order to deal with the financial problems inherent to the current Social Security
system, President Waldhart proposes that anyone making over $150,000 would receive no
benefits. This solution best fits with a(n) ____ approach.
a. adjusted cost of living
b. means-test benefits
c. privatization
d. payroll tax
Answer: B
140. Part D of Medicare provides coverage for
a. prescription medications.
b. physician services.
c. inpatient hospital services.
d. skilled nursing facilities.
Answer: A
141. The major problem facing Medicare involves
a. the lack of skilled nursing facilities.
b. a refusal by the government to fund via a payroll tax.
c. rising healthcare costs.
d. the increasing age of retirement.
Answer: C
1. Continuity theory proposes that coping often involves the use of familiar strategies based
on past experience.
Answer: True
2. The physical and social demands put on people are referred to as competence.

Answer: False
3. In the adaptation level, the press level is low and the behavior is normal.
Answer: False
4. During docility, a person lets the environment dictate his or her behavior.
Answer: True
5. Erikson saw later life as a struggle between integrity and despair.
Answer: True
6. The struggle of identity versus role confusion requires that people engage in a life review.
Answer: False
7. Subjective well-being can be assessed using measures of life satisfaction, self-esteem, and
Answer: True
8. Older women are particularly disadvantaged compared to older men with regard to chronic
Answer: True
9. The degree of emotional regulation elderly adults have is predicted by their cognitive
ability, with higher cognitive ability associated with higher emotional regulation.
Answer: True
10. Feelings of self-worth tend to be lowest in individuals with high levels of spirituality.
Answer: False
11. “La fé de la gente” (faith of the people) is best associated with African-American culture.
Answer: False
12. A “crisp” retirement occurs when there is a clean break from employment.
Answer: True
13. The retirement experience appears to be different for women and men.

Answer: True
14. For most people, retirement is not a major life transition.
Answer: False
15. The amount of social support provided by social convoys does not vary by generation.
Answer: True
16. Older adults tend to develop more new relationships than younger adults.
Answer: False
17. Life satisfaction is strongly correlated with the number and quality of friendships, but
poorly correlated with the number and quality of family relationships.
Answer: True
18. Compared to younger couples, older married couples tend to be more similar in terms of
mental and physical health.
Answer: True
19. Marital satisfaction tends to be high if one spouse is caring for the other spouse who has
Alzheimer’s disease.
Answer: False
20. Widows tend to experience greater financial hardships than widowers.
Answer: True
21. Being a great-grandparent provides some with a sense of symbolic immortality.
Answer: True
22. Bathing and dressing are good examples of instrumental activities of daily living.
Answer: False
23. Assisted-living facilities must provide 24-hour medical care.
Answer: False

24. The Social Security system will be totally bankrupt around 2040 unless major changes to
the system are made.
Answer: True
25. Medicare is the primary source of income for more retired individuals in the United
Answer: False
1. _____ theory proposes that older people tend to cope with daily life using familiar
strategies based on past experience.
Answer: Continuity
2. The upper limit of one’s ability to function in the physical health, sensory-perceptual,
motor skill, cognitive skills, and ego domains is called _____.
Answer: competence
3. Environmental _____ refers to the physical, interpersonal, or social demands that
environments put on people.
Answer: press
4. The adaptation level in which individuals are able to live happily and without worry about
environmental demands is called the zone of maximum _____.
Answer: comfort
5. When an individual exerts control in an effort to meet new desires or needs, he or she is
exhibiting _____.
Answer: proactivity
6. The reflection on past events that occurs during the struggle of integrity versus despair is
referred to as a(n) _____.
Answer: life review
7. _____ well-being occurs when a positive self-evaluation results in positive feelings.
Answer: Subjective

8. Pastoral care, expressing faith in a God, or participating in some unorganized religious
activity are examples of _____ support.
Answer: spiritual
9. A job that one holds after exiting from a long-term career and before final retirement is
referred to as a(n) _____ job.
Answer: bridge
10. The group of people that journeys with you throughout your life is called a social _____.
Answer: convoy
11. The implication that social contact is motivated by goals like self-concept and emotional
regulation is termed _____ selectivity.
Answer: socioemotional
12. Older individuals who are very ill and have physical disabilities and
psychological/cognitive disorders are referred to as _____ older adults.
Answer: frail
13. Activities that require some intelligence and planning skills are called _____ activities of
daily living.
Answer: instrumental
14. _____ refers to the ability to perform the activities of daily living (ADLs) and
instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs).
Answer: Functional health
10. Describe the difference between a “crisp” and a “blurred” retirement. How do bridge jobs
relate to this distinction?
Answer: Crisp retirement is characterized by a clean break from employment. Blurred
retirement involves movement in and out of the workforce. A bridge job is a “blur” job that
one holds between exiting one’s career job and final retirement.

11. Describe the factors associated with elder abuse and neglect. Who is most likely to
engage in elder abuse?
Answer: Abusers are most often adult children, but can be healthcare workers or others who
come in contact with an elderly individual. Many factors have been identified as possible
causes, such as external stresses for the caretaker (i.e. financial or social problems), social
isolation of the victim, the caregiver’s dependency on the victim, caregiver stress, the
opportunity to gain financially for the caregiver, and the feeling of power or control that the
caregiver might experience.

Test Bank for Human Development : A Life-Span View
Robert V Kail, John C Cavanaugh
9781111834111, 9781337554831

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