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Chapter 16—The Final Passage: Dying and Bereavement
1. The definition of death
a. varies within and between cultures.
b. is the same for everyone within a culture.
c. is the same across all cultures.
d. never changes.
Answer: A
2. In some South Pacific cultures, the life force is thought to leave the body during illness and
sleep. What cultural implication toward death does this belief support?
a. There is no such thing as death.
b. People die many times throughout their lives.
c. Death is a living entity.
d. Souls represent the embodiment of God.
Answer: B
3. Jac is living in Ghana and is said to be dying a “good death.” This means that he
a. is in his teens.
b. has made peace with his friends and family.
c. will take his own life.
d. has sacrificed an animal to the “god of the living.”
Answer: B
4. When a death occurs, _____ traditionally cover the mirrors in the house.
a. Muscogee Creek tribespeople
b. Orthodox Jews
c. Greeks

d. Cubans
Answer: B
5. When Ahmad thinks of death, he thinks of a wake, a funeral, and a memorial service.
Ahmad defines death as
a. a statistic.
b. an event.
c. a thief of meaning.
d. an analogy.
Answer: B
6. Which is not associated with “death as a state of being?”
a. Being transformed into a pure energy
b. Being with God and endlessly happy
c. Being nothingness
d. Being afraid of dying
Answer: D
7. After seeing a cat run over by a car, Felix says, “That thing is as dead as a cooked pig.”
This provides an example of death as a(n)
a. boundary.
b. image.
c. analogy.
d. event.
Answer: C
8. In the country of Rigermortis, dead individuals are buried in bright yellow coats and the
bereaved are sent pencils in the mail. In Rigermortis, a yellow coat and a pencil would serve
as ____ of death.

a. states
b. objects
c. events
d. analogies
Answer: B
9. Determining how many people in a culture are killed in accidents, die from AIDS, and how
long people in general can expect to live are examples of viewing death as a(n)
a. mystery.
b. statistic.
c. event.
d. boundary.
Answer: B
10. Which question best exemplifies the concept of death as a mystery?
a. Will my crippled body be made whole after I die?
b. Why was I given cancer?
c. Does my family really like me?
d. How many people die from homicide each year?
Answer: A
11. Believing that the dead lose all contact with the living best exemplifies the concept of
death as a(n)
a. mystery.
b. event.
c. statistic.
d. boundary.
Answer: D

12. Kim’s statement, “I cannot believe that I am dying so young, I have so much more to do,”
provides a nice example of the concept of death as a
a. mystery.
b. thief of meaning.
c. fear.
d. boundary.
Answer: B
13. A religion that believes that sinners spend eternity in a burning hell supports the notion
that death is a
a. mystery.
b. thief of meaning.
c. punishment.
d. boundary.
Answer: C
14. The concern over who will care for family members after one dies best fits with the
concept of death as a(n)
a. fear.
b. thief of meaning.
c. event.
d. statistic.
Answer: A
15. A chart showing the number of teens who died from homicide during the past year
represents death as a(n)
a. statistic.
b. analogy.

c. boundary.
d. anxiety.
Answer: A
16. Who is clinically dead?
a. John, who is not responsive to pain
b. Naomi, who is not breathing and whose heart is not beating
c. Helga, who exhibits no cortical functioning
d. John, Naomi, and Helga, would all be considered clinically dead.
Answer: B
17. After an accident, Steve’s heart is not beating and he has stopped breathing. Steve is
a. whole-brain dead.
b. mourning.
c. in a persistent vegetative state.
d. clinically dead.
Answer: D
18. A flat electroencephalogram for 10 minutes is one of the criteria for
a. clinical death.
b. euthanasia.
c. whole-brain death.
d. death as a mystery.
Answer: C
19. When attempting to determine if someone is “whole-brain dead,” a physician would be
unlikely to ask,
a. “Do the brain cells still contain neurotransmitters?”
b. “Does the body respond to a pinprick?”

c. “Has there been any movement for the past hour?”
d. “Are the pupils responsive?”
Answer: A
20. In the United States,
a. each state has its own definition of death.
b. all 50 states and the District of Columbia use clinical death as the definition of death.
c. all 50 states and the District of Columbia use whole-brain death as the definition of death.
d. all 50 states and the District of Columbia use persistent vegetative state as the definition of
Answer: C
21. Susan’s cortical functioning has ceased, but her brain stem is still active. Susan would be
best described as
a. in a persistent vegetative state.
b. whole-brain dead.
c. clinically dead.
d. consciously aware.
Answer: A
22. A person in a persistent vegetative state would be
a. considered clinically dead.
b. capable of keeping his or her heart beating without consciousness.
c. able to engage in primitive thought.
d. considered whole-brain dead.
Answer: B
23. In the case of Terri Schiavo, the argument for passive euthanasia was that she would not
regain the capacity for ____.

a. consciousness
b. respiration
c. motor reflexes
d. vocalization
Answer: A
24. Individuals in permanent comas or persistent vegetative states
a. are considered dead both clinically and according to the whole-brain standard of death.
b. are considered dead by the clinical but not the whole-brain standard of death.
c. will not regain consciousness but do not meet the whole-brain standard of death.
d. will regain consciousness but do not meet the whole-brain standard of death.
Answer: C
25. Dr. Axle teaches bioethics. What lecture title would be most representative of his field?
a. “The Reliability of the Electroencephalogram”
b. “Pupillary Responses in Rats”
c. “Mercy Killing: Legal or Illegal?”
d. “Axons and Dendrites: Synaptic Partners”
Answer: C
26. Dr. Rahman has made a career out of studying mercy killing and new surgical options to
extend life. She is most likely interested in
a. grief.
b. death as a statistic.
c. bioethics.
d. death as an object.
Answer: C
27. Bioethics concerns the interface between human values and technological advances in

a. philosophy.
b. health and life sciences.
c. religion.
d. computer science.
Answer: B
28. By definition, euthanasia is defined as the practice of ending life for reasons of
a. mercy.
b. health.
c. speed.
d. religiosity.
Answer: A
29. Which of the following is not part of the definition of active euthanasia?
a. Deliberate act of ending a life
b. Based on statement by an individual who wants to die
c. Decision made by someone with legal authority to do so
d. Must involve individual in persistent vegetative state or whole-brain dead
Answer: D
30. Dr. Kelly has just purposely killed a patient by injecting her with a lethal amount of
medication. This patient had an incurable illness and requested to die rather than go through a
long, painful treatment. This is an example of
a. clinical death.
b. passive euthanasia.
c. active euthanasia.
d. inducing a persistent vegetative state.
Answer: C

31. Which is the best example of active euthanasia?
a. Administering a drug overdose
b. Pulling the plug on a respirator
c. Not performing a potentially life-saving surgery
d. Withdrawing an experimental drug that might prevent a disorder
Answer: A
32. The Dutch supreme court established a policy in which physicians who engage in assisted
suicide will not be prosecuted as long as
a. the patient making the request is incompetent.
b. the patient only makes a suicide request one time.
c. there is only minimal hope that the individual will recover.
d. another physician reviews that case and agrees with the request.
Answer: D
33. _____ was the first country to officially legalize physician-assisted suicide.
a. The United States
b. China
c. Brazil
d. The Netherlands
Answer: D
34. Which U.S. state passed the first law legalizing physician-assisted suicide?
a. California
b. Oregon
c. Washington
d. Idaho
Answer: B

35. According to Oregon’s physician-assisted suicide law,
a. only older adults can request this procedure.
b. people who have a terminal illness can voluntarily request a lethal dose of medication.
c. family members must request this procedure in person.
d. the deadly drugs must be administered directly by a physician.
Answer: B
36. Between 1998 and 2011, about _____ patients had died under the terms of the Oregon
Death with Dignity Act.
a. 50
b. 500
c. 5000
d. 50,000
Answer: B
37. Dr. Steinmetz decides to follow the wishes of her patient and withhold treatment for the
patient’s terminal cancer, thus allowing the patient to die. This is an example of
a. a near-death experience.
b. passive euthanasia.
c. bioethics.
d. active euthanasia.
Answer: B
38. After Maxine was in a severe car accident, her parents were informed that she was brain
dead but could be kept alive if she was put on a respirator immediately. Her family’s decision
to not put her on the respirator would be considered
a. a durable power of attorney.
b. active euthanasia.

c. murder.
d. passive euthanasia.
Answer: D
39. The “Ethics Task Force” of the European Association of Palliative Care challenged the
term “passive euthanasia” arguing that
a. “there is no such thing as ‘mercy killing.’”
b. “ending life is always active.”
c. “this procedure is unethical.”
d. “the definition must include the word physician.”
Answer: B
40. The first Supreme Court case on passive euthanasia involved a case in which a family
wanted to allow Nancy Cruzan to die by
a. taking her off a respirator.
b. giving her a lethal injection.
c. letting her take a lethal dose of medication.
d. ending force feedings.
Answer: D
41. What originally led to Terri Schiavo’s life-threatening medical condition?
a. Car accident
b. Head trauma from violent robbery
c. Physiological imbalance as the result of an eating disorder
d. Side effects from treatment for cancer
Answer: C
42. Why was the controversial intervention with Terri Schiavo considered to be a form of
passive euthanasia?

a. She removed her own tube
b. Her parents were involved in the decision
c. No physician was involved in the process
d. Removing the tube did not directly lead to her death
Answer: D
43. Nathan wants to be sure that, in the event he is incapable of communicating, no life
support will be used even if doctors want to keep him alive. He also wants to give his wife
the legal right to speak for him in that situation. In order to do all this with one document,
Nathan should complete a(n)
a. living will.
b. healthcare durable power of attorney.
c. EEG.
d. survey of near-death experiences.
Answer: B
44. Before she died, Lee completed a document specifying her wishes to be taken off life
support should she be in a position where she could not speak for herself and her recovery
was all but impossible. Because the form did not give authority to anyone else to speak for
her, Lee’s document was most likely a(n)
a. living will.
b. EEG.
c. survey of near-death experiences.
d. durable power of attorney.
Answer: A
45. While they differ in some respects, both a living will and a durable power of attorney
a. identify someone to act on your behalf if you become incapacitated.
b. make it legal for a physician to perform active euthanasia.

c. allow others to know one’s preferences concerning issues like whether you want to be put
on life support.
d. cannot be written until a person is about to lose the ability to make his or her own
Answer: C
46. For whom would a “Do Not Resuscitate” order be most appropriately applied?
a. Mack, who is brain-dead
b. Mike, whose heart stopped
c. Mort, whose liver failed
d. Mary, who has Alzheimer’s
Answer: B
47. Most people confront the death of their parents when they are
a. adolescents.
b. young adults.
c. middle-aged.
d. elderly.
Answer: C
48. Death anxiety would likely be the lowest for
a. Sally, who is 80 years old.
b. Jesse, who is 45 years old.
c. Rikki, who is 30 years old.
d. Lake, who is 21 years old.
Answer: A
49. According to research presented in your text, understanding how adults deal with death is
probably best understood from the perspective of ____ theory.

a. cognitive-developmental
b. attachment
c. psychoanalytic
d. terror management
Answer: B
50. A(n) ____ is often used to describe the duration of time between the onset of dying and
death itself.
a. death trajectory
b. end-of-life scenario
c. hospice
d. final scenario
Answer: A
51. Which would have a terminal phase with the longest trajectory?
a. Death due to a massive stroke
b. Death due to breast cancer
c. Death due to a car accident
d. Death due to sudden heart failure
Answer: B
52. Elizabeth Kübler-Ross’s stage theory of dying was initially developed as a research
a. investigating how the terminally ill cope with dying.
b. probing into the suffering of inmates at Holocaust death camps.
c. designed to determine the impact of hospice care.
d. testing the effectiveness of an antidepressant medication.
Answer: A

53. What is the correct sequence of Kübler-Ross’s original “five stages of dying”?
a. Depression, acceptance, denial, bargaining, anger
b. Denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
c. Anger, depression, denial, acceptance, bargaining
d. Bargaining, denial, acceptance, anger, depression
Answer: B
54. Tricia has just been informed that she has terminal cancer. According to Kübler-Ross’s
original model, her first reaction would involve
a. depression.
b. anger.
c. bargaining.
d. denial.
Answer: D
55. Stacey has been diagnosed with a terminal illness. She is currently going to different
doctors to determine whether her diagnosis is correct. Stacey is probably in the ____ stage of
a. depression
b. anger
c. denial
d. bargaining
Answer: C
56. Devin has been told he only has a few more months to live. He is totally unable to deal
with people, because he knows everyone he sees is going to outlive him. “It’s not fair. Why is
this happening to me?” is something he says over and over to himself. He feels frustrated and
alone. He is most likely in the ____ stage of dying.
a. depression

b. anger
c. denial
d. bargaining
Answer: B
57. Sandy knows she is going to die in a few months. She seems calm and concerned more
about how to help her family deal with her death than with her own mortality. She seems to
be disconnecting herself from people and things and at peace. Sandy is most likely in the
____ stage of dying.
a. denial
b. bargaining
c. depression
d. acceptance
Answer: D
58. Brent has been diagnosed with terminal cancer. Today, he spent hours praying: “Please,
I’ll do anything. Just give me one more chance. I’m so sorry. I’ll be the best person, just
please give me another chance.” Brent is most likely in the ____ stage of dying.
a. bargaining
b. acceptance
c. depression
d. denial
Answer: A
59. Koua feels guilty and ashamed over the fact that she has AIDS and how her terminal
illness is affecting her family. Kübler-Ross would argue that Koua is in the _____ stage of
a. anger
b. depression

c. denial
d. bargaining
Answer: B
60. In Kübler-Ross’s original theory, the emotion of ____ was thought to immediately
precede feelings of acceptance.
a. anger
b. euphoria
c. depression
d. resignation
Answer: C
61. Nobel, who has terminal cancer, has been in a depressed state for several weeks. The
most effective way to help him move out of this stage would be to
a. convince him to strike a bargain for his health.
b. let him alone, since it usually passes within a month.
c. have a frank, open discussion with him about his feelings.
d. tell him that he is being selfish by denying his friends a chance to say good-bye to him.
Answer: C
62. With regard to her theory, Kübler-Ross would agree with all of the following possibilities
a. some individuals do not experience any of the stages of dying.
b. some individuals go through the stages of dying in a different order.
c. individuals progress through stages at different rates.
d. different individuals may have different emotional responses.
Answer: A
63. All stage theories of dying are based on the notion that

a. the faster the death trajectory, the better.
b. there are great cultural differences in the dying process.
c. there is a specific direction to the developmental pattern of reacting to one’s death.
d. the unconscious mind plays a major role in death anxiety.
Answer: C
64. Corr (1991-1992) suggests that a dying individual must face four tasks (e.g., spiritual
energy, bodily needs, psychological security). This approach views coping with death as a(n)
a. bioethical dilemma.
b. holistic process.
c. invariant sequence of reactions.
d. psychosomatic disorder.
Answer: B
65. You’re buying a book that explains the contextual theory of dying. Which of these would
most likely be title for this book?
a. Understanding the Stages of Death
b. Physiological Criteria for Defining Death
c. Factors That Influence Coping with Death
d. A Task-Based Approach to Coping with Death
Answer: C
66. According to ____ theory, the primary motive of humans is to ensure that life continues.
a. attachment
b. Kübler-Ross’s stage
c. cognitive-developmental
d. terror management
Answer: D

67. Bernie hates being around his older relatives because their frailty reminds him that some
day he will grow old and die. This belief best fits with the ____ approach to dying.
a. death as an event
b. terror management theory
c. death as a mystery
d. Kübler-Ross
Answer: B
68. Death anxiety
a. consists solely of the component of fear.
b. is very hard to measure.
c. appears independent from pain, punishment, and humiliation.
d. is expressed identically in public and private settings.
Answer: B
69. Who is an example of someone using the most common way of dealing with death
a. Jean, who is becoming more fearful the older she gets
b. Martin, who lives life to the fullest
c. Norma, who seeks professional counseling
d. Louis, who becomes more committed to his church
Answer: B
70. Before he dies, Juan is checking his insurance, rewriting his will, and making
arrangements for his funeral. Juan is dealing with
a. death anxiety.
b. bereavement.
c. end-of-life issues.

d. grief work.
Answer: C
71. Bernie is trying to decide whether or not to be cremated. This best exemplifies
a. a final scenario.
b. an end-of-life issue.
c. bioethics.
d. grief work as rumination.
Answer: B
72. Which is the best example of an end-of-life issue?
a. Deciding on whether to have a memorial service after you die
b. Focusing on whether you are going to heaven or hell
c. Differentiating between clinical and whole-brain death
d. Trying to raise enough money for a comfortable retirement
Answer: A
73. Making your choices known about how you want your life to end constitutes your
a. final scenario.
b. end-of-life issues.
c. death anxiety.
d. passive euthanasia.
Answer: A
74. Jensen is dying. She is explaining to her family that she would like to spend her last days
alone in her country home with just her husband. These arrangements are an example of
a. passive euthanasia.
b. denial.
c. death anxiety.

d. a final scenario.
Answer: D
75. Afi is terminally ill. She is being sent to an institution that provides for people who are
dying and their families. Afi is most likely being sent to a(n)
a. skilled care nursing home.
b. hospital.
c. hospice.
d. intermediate care nursing home.
Answer: C
76. The hospice philosophy is best summarized as
a. “prevent death at all costs.”
b. “promote death with dignity.”
c. “die a natural death (i.e., drugs have no place in death).”
d. “everyone should die at home.”
Answer: B
77. In 1967, Dr. Cicely Saunders founded St. Christopher’s
a. Hospital.
b. Physician-Assisted Suicide Center.
c. Hospice.
d. Terror Management Program.
Answer: C
78. Ninety-year-old Albert is terminally ill and has decided to die at home. He has also
decided that he would like to have visits from a nurse who can provide assistance in making
his process of dying more comfortable. This indicates that Albert is involved in ____ hospice

a. implicit
b. outpatient
c. passive
d. nonpalliative
Answer: B
79. As a hospice staff member, you would be most unlikely to hear your supervisor say,
a. “We must make every effort to satisfy the realistic life goals of our clients.”
b. “Inform the clients that it is OK to end their relationships before they die.”
c. “Be sure to inform clients that they can have as many drugs to relieve pain as they need.”
d. “Remember that fear is a natural part of the dying process, so you should try and
encourage it in the clients.”
Answer: D
80. When compared to terminally-ill hospital patients, hospice patients are more likely to be
a. mobile.
b. anxious.
c. depressed.
d. avoided by a spouse.
Answer: A
81. What is the most likely complaint of a hospice client?
a. “Everyone is too worried about my pain and not worried enough about my religious
b. “Why is the hospice movement against dying at home?”
c. “Why is my family discouraged from seeing me?”
d. “How come I have to have cancer or AIDS to qualify for hospice care?”
Answer: A

82. Which of these is not one of Kastenbaum’s (1999) key considerations for exploring the
hospice option?
a. Is the person completely informed about the nature and prognosis of his or her condition?
b. Are the family members ready for this person to die?
c. Is a high-quality hospice care program available?
d. How well do the people in the person’s social network communicate with each other?
Answer: B
83. Bereavement is best defined as the
a. emotions expressed when we grieve.
b. rituals we go through when we grieve.
c. state or condition caused by loss through death.
d. condition created in one’s self when we are dying.
Answer: C
84. The feelings that arise after someone near us dies are called
a. mourning.
b. grief.
c. docility.
d. bereavement.
Answer: B
85. Mourning is best defined as the way a person
a. dies.
b. reflects on his or her own death.
c. feels after the death of a close friend.
d. expresses grief.
Answer: D

86. Concerning dying, grieving is to mourning as
a. feeling is to doing.
b. passive is to active.
c. status is to purpose.
d. acute is to chronic.
Answer: A
87. ____ is most highly influenced by culture.
a. Bereavement
b. Grief
c. Mourning
d. Being dead
Answer: C
88. In the country of Felixville, when someone’s spouse dies, it is expected that the living
spouse will walk around with a cat on top of his or her head for a week. In this country, the
behavior would be considered
a. normal grieving.
b. psychotic.
c. a mourning ritual.
d. passive bereavement.
Answer: C
89. For most European Americans, _____ would be the best example of a mourning ritual.
a. being cremated
b. wearing black
c. having an open casket
d. writing a will

Answer: B
90. Which is the best advice for an individual trying to overcome grief?
a. Strengthen ties to the deceased
b. Repress the loss
c. Express the emotions you feel
d. Adopt ways of living identical to those used when the deceased was still alive
Answer: C
91. The grieving process is much ____ than most people believe it to be.
a. shorter
b. easier
c. less complex
d. longer
Answer: D
92. Instead of conceptualizing the final stage of grief as “recovery,” it might be better thought
of as
a. repression of the most damaging emotions.
b. learning to live with loss.
c. spiritual rejection.
d. active euthanasia.
Answer: B
93. Research on bereavement has shown that
a. the positive impact of church attendance on the grieving has little to do with the social
support that people receive at church.
b. women have higher mortality rates following bereavement.
c. men have higher rates of depression following bereavement.

d. young people suffer more health consequences following bereavement than older people.
Answer: D
94. Which would not be found on a list of “normal grief reactions”?
a. Relief
b. Lack of enthusiasm
c. Confusion
d. Euphoria
Answer: D
95. Grief work is best defined as the
a. physiological reaction to bereavement.
b. psychological coming of terms with bereavement.
c. social reaction to dying.
d. bioethical debate over dying.
Answer: B
96. Chung is trying to get through numerous conflicting emotions and come to grips with his
bereavement. Chung is involved in
a. a near-death experience.
b. clinical death.
c. grief work.
d. passive euthanasia.
Answer: C
97. Heather’s father just died. One thing she has been doing is talking a lot about the time her
father won a big golf tournament. Muller and Thompson (2003) would say that this reflects
the ____ theme of the experience of grief.
a. coping

b. narrative
c. affect
d. relationship
Answer: B
98. According to Muller and Thompson (2003), the ____ theme of grief relates to what
someone does to deal with loss in terms of what helps that person.
a. coping
b. affect
c. narrative
d. relationship
Answer: A
99. Whenever Abe sees the beach, he’s reminded of his deceased spouse and feels very upset.
This represents which of Muller and Thompson’s (2003) themes of grief?
a. Coping
b. Relationship
c. Affect
d. Narrative
Answer: C
100. Cain discovered that he had developed the ability to better manage his finances as a
result of having to deal with financial issues following the death of his brother. This best
exemplifies the ____ theme of grief.
a. change
b. implicit
c. Affect
d. Narrative

Answer: A
101. The fact that circulatory problems increase following the death of a spouse indicates that
there is a(n) _____ component to grief.
a. psychological
b. bioethical
c. physiological
d. emotional
Answer: C
102. The anniversary reaction is always tied to a
a. family member.
b. death by terminal illness.
c. traumatic death.
d. date.
Answer: D
103. Jefferson’s brother died on the 4th of July. Now, every 4th of July, Jefferson gets very
sad and thinks about his dead brother. This experience of Jefferson’s is best described as a(n)
____ reaction.
a. anniversary
b. anticipatory
c. passive
d. bioethical
Answer: A
104. Bryant’s father died of a terminal illness on his birthday. Now every year on his
birthday, Bryant feels sad and thinks about his father. This experience of Bryant’s is best
described as a(n) ____ reaction.
a. anniversary

b. anticipatory
c. passive
d. bioethical
Answer: A
105. For most people, grief tends to peak within ______ following the death of a loved one.
a. one month
b. three months
c. six months
d. twelve months
Answer: C
106. Some research suggests that
a. women grieve much longer than men.
b. men tend to skip the grieving process.
c. grief can last for years at intense levels for some people.
d. grief goes away with the passage of time for everyone.
Answer: C
107. Which of the following most accurately describes the length of time people experience
a. Grief typically lasts about a year.
b. Grief lasts approximately three times the length of the relationship.
c. Grief over loved ones goes away with time.
d. Grief can last for extended periods of time at great intensity.
Answer: D
108. Which is not one of the components in the four-component model of the grieving

a. Context of the loss
b. Changing representations of the lost relationship over time
c. Continuation of subjective meaning associated with the loss
d. Loss-oriented stressors
Answer: D
109. Guffy has just lost his wife to cancer and has begun to question the point of his own
existence. This concern best fits with the ____ component of grief.
a. emotional-regulation
b. continuation of subjective meaning associated with loss
c. changing representation of lost relationship
d. context of loss
Answer: B
110. The comment, “She died unexpectedly and way before her time,” is best associated with
Bonanno and Kaltman’s (1999) ____ component of grief.
a. emotional-regulation
b. continuation of subjective meaning associated with loss
c. changing representation of lost relationship
d. context of the loss
Answer: D
111. According to the grief work as rumination hypothesis,
a. grief is necessary for recovery after a loss.
b. the grieving process can increase distress.
c. grief is significantly more distressing when the death involves a terminal illness.
d. grief is a great way to avoid less adaptive ways of dealing with death.
Answer: B

112. Bonanno and colleagues’ (2005) cross-cultural study on grieving in the United States
and China found support for the contention that
a. feelings of grief increase significantly with age.
b. excessive processing of grief may actually increase stress in a bereaved individual.
c. men show more grief processing than women.
d. when a person dies as the result of passive euthanasia, grief tends to be more intense.
Answer: B
113. Shortly after the death of her husband Hatcher, Terri felt fine. However, as she has
begun to grieve, she actually appears to have become more depressed. This reaction best fits
with the
a. Kubler-Ross stage theory.
b. anniversary reaction perspective.
c. normal dying trajectory.
d. grief work as rumination hypothesis.
Answer: D
114. As a counselor who adheres to the grief work as rumination hypothesis, Roger would be
most likely to tell a recently widowed individual
a. to neither avoid nor over-focus on grieving.
b. to avoid grieving at all costs.
c. to grieve at all costs.
d. that whether you grieve or not does not matter as grief has no impact on one’s
psychological health.
Answer: A
115. According to the dual-process model of coping (DPM), ____ are the two main type of
a. implicit and explicit

b. loss orientation and restoration orientation
c. traumatic and separation
d. active euthanasia and passive euthanasia
Answer: B
116. Now that his wife has died, it is no longer practical for Marco to live in the house he
shared with his wife for many years, so he is trying to find a new place to live and is packing
his belongings. These sorts of concerns would be best described as
a. loss-oriented stressors.
b. traumatic grief.
c. restoration-oriented stressors.
d. anticipatory grief.
Answer: C
117. Sophie is experiencing so much guilt associated with the death of her boyfriend that it is
beginning to interfere in every aspect of her life. She is probably experiencing
a. a near-death experience.
b. separation distress.
c. normal bereavement.
d. anticipatory grief.
Answer: B
118. The defining element of separation distress during prolonged grief is that it
a. interferes with daily activities.
b. must involve a child-parent dyad.
c. is based on disbelief about death.
d. is an emotionless reaction.
Answer: A

119. Which does not belong on a list of symptoms of traumatic distress?
a. Experiencing the physical presence of the deceased
b. Searching for the deceased
c. Detachment from others following a death
d. Anger toward others following a death
Answer: B
120. Which emotions are most common to an individual who is experiencing prolonged
a. Relief and euphoria
b. Euphoria and guilt
c. Guilt and self-blame
d. Self-blame and relief
Answer: C
121. Four-year-old Gwen and eight-year-old Stefani are coming back from their grandfather’s
funeral. Which of them understands that eventually everyone has to die?
a. Gwen
b. Stefani
c. Both Gwen and Stefani
d. Neither Gwen nor Stefani
Answer: B
122. Which comment would have most likely come from a concrete operational thinker?
a. “I am not going to die because I sleep under the covers where the Bogeyman can’t get me.”
b. “Grandpa is dead, but he’ll come to visit us next week.”
c. “Even though I can’t imagine what death is like, it must be wonderful.”
d. “When you’re dead, you’re dead.”

Answer: D
123. Bereavement during childhood
a. typically does not have long-lasting effects.
b. does not occur.
c. is experienced as a positive emotion by most children.
d. is usually repressed.
Answer: A
124. Your text suggests that you should ____ when explaining death to children.
a. use euphemisms like “Grandma went away”
b. be honest and supportive
c. hide the reality of death
d. be unemotional
Answer: B
125. What would be the most confusing thing to say to a five-year-old whose mother just
a. “Your mommy will not be around to play with you anymore.”
b. “Your mommy didn’t die because a monster got her. People sometimes die when they get
very sick.”
c. “Your mommy has gone away to a better place.”
d. “We are going to have to bury your mommy just like we had to bury your hamster when
she died.”
Answer: C
126. One of the more unique reactions of adolescents who experience the death of a sibling
a. the great disruption it has on their overall normative development.

b. the fact that it tends to increase the negative feelings they have toward their deceased
c. the lack of emotional trauma.
d. their reluctance to discuss their grief.
Answer: D
127. Tony’s younger brother died when Tony was 11 years old. Tony is now 18 years old. If
Tony is a normally developing adolescent, he is now much more likely to ____ than when he
was 11.
a. miss his brother
b. view his brother as being in heaven
c. talk about his brother
d. be depressed because of loss
Answer: C
128. Which statement about death of a parent during adolescence is true?
a. About 50 percent of teens lose a parent
b. The response to the death is much more intense that the death of a sibling
c. The nonbereaved peers of teens tend to be unwilling to discuss the death
d. Teens seldom feel a presence of their deceased parent
Answer: C
129. ____ tend to have the most intense feelings concerning death.
a. Young children
b. Adolescents
c. Young adults
d. Older adults
Answer: C

130. Twenty-eight-year-old Tut was married to his wife Nefertiti for four years before her
untimely death. It is now three years later. If Tut is grieving in a typical manner, you would
expect him to
a. show few lingering signs of grief.
b. still be grieving at the level he was just after his wife died.
c. be happily married to someone else.
d. have entered a state of depression.
Answer: B
131. Of all of these people who have just died, most people would find the death of ____ to
be the most tragic.
a. James, who was your 8-year-old child,
b. Humphrey, who was your 28-year-old sister,
c. Priscilla, who was your 48-year-old best friend,
d. Gladys, who was your 68-year-old parent,
Answer: A
132. Chuck and Barb’s infant has just died of SIDS. Which of these are they least likely to
a. Guilt
b. Acceptance of the loss
c. A more negative view of the world
d. High anxiety
Answer: B
133. Kiko just experienced a stillbirth after being pregnant for nearly seven months. In what
way would her grief be different than that of Ishi, whose child died unexpectedly at six
months of age?
a. Kiko would display significantly less sadness

b. People would expect Kiko to recover much faster
c. Kiko would exhibit more anticipatory grief
d. People would avoid making comments about Kiko’s situation
Answer: B
134. Which is devastating for a parent?
a. Death of a child before birth
b. Death of a young child
c. Death of a young-adult child
d. All of these events are devastating
Answer: D
135. After Sarah died, Ashley felt like she had lost a source of guidance in her life. Sarah’s
death made Ashley reevaluate her role as a parent and the importance of the time spent with
her children. In addition, Ashley now feels as though she is “next” to die. Sarah was probably
a. mother.
b. sister.
c. friend.
d. grandmother.
Answer: A
136. Generally, ____ show the least anxiety about death.
a. Adolescents
b. young adults
c. middle-aged adults
d. older adults
Answer: D

137. The feelings of distress experienced by parents following the death of a child tend to last
a. about 2 years.
b. about 10 years.
c. about 20 years.
d. a lifetime.
Answer: D
138. How would the typical reaction to the death of a child differ for grandparents versus
a. Grandparents are more likely to attempt to hide their grief
b. Grandparents are more likely to use the event to consider their own mortality
c. Parents are more likely to recover from the loss faster
d. Parents are less likely to experience the emotion of guilt
Answer: A
139. In the United States, an unwritten but “acceptable” amount of time to grieve the death of
a spouse is about
a. three months.
b. six months.
c. one year.
d. two years.
Answer: C
140. What is most likely to help Anita recover from the loss of her spouse?
a. Having many acquaintances
b. Feeling supported by a small, but close, set of friends
c. Being a member of a large family
d. Social withdrawal

Answer: B
141. Who is most likely to have positive ratings concerning their marriage?
a. Paula, who has been a widow for two years and who is depressed
b. Dean, who has been a widower for two years and who is not depressed
c. Rachael, who is still married and who is depressed
d. Ray, who is still married and who is not depressed
Answer: A
142. Who is “sanctifying” their deceased husband?
a. Monica, who says, “I think he would have liked his burial site!”
b. Linda, who says, “He was the greatest human being on the face of the Earth!”
c. Hillary, who says, “I hope that he rots in hell!”
d. Jennifer, who says, “I really miss him!”
Answer: B
143. The death of an unmarried lifelong homosexual partner typically results in
a. abnormal grief.
b. anticipatory grief.
c. a normal pattern of grief that is not as intense as seen in married heterosexual spouses.
d. a normal pattern of grief, along with additional issues related to sexual orientation.
Answer: D
1. Mourning rituals and states of bereavement are pretty much the same across all cultures.
Answer: False
2. A wake is a good example of the concept of death as an object.
Answer: False

3. The phrase “only the good die young” is an example of death as a reward.
Answer: True
4. The most commonly accepted legal criterion for death is clinical death.
Answer: False
5. There is only one way to define death.
Answer: False
6. Bioethics is best defined as the relationship between human values and religious codes.
Answer: False
7. Washington was the first state to pass a law legalizing assisted suicide.
Answer: False
8. Passive euthanasia involves allowing a person to die by withholding treatment.
Answer: True
9. Durable power of attorney can be the basis of a “Do Not Resuscitate” order.
Answer: True
10. People are most likely to confront the death of a parent during young adulthood.
Answer: False
11. The “terminal phase” of the death trajectory is sometimes used to determine eligibility for
services like hospice care.
Answer: True
12. The phrase “Why me?” is best associated with the bargaining phase of dying.
Answer: False
13. Terror management theory concerns behaviors rooted in concerns about post-traumatic
stress disorder.
Answer: False
14. Death anxiety can have a beneficial side.

Answer: True
15. Disposal of one’s assets represents an end-of-life issue.
Answer: True
16. The point of hospice care is to speed up the death process.
Answer: False
17. Hospice clients tend to be less anxious and less depressed than their non-hospice
terminally-ill counterparts.
Answer: True
18. Bereavement is best thought of as an emotion.
Answer: False
19. Most grieving individuals get “back to normal” within about six months.
Answer: False
20. Research consistently shows that the loss of a child is the most difficult, followed by loss
of a spouse or partner and of a parent.
Answer: True
21. Ruminating appears to be an effective methods of coping with loss.
Answer: False
22. Preschoolers may view death as a magical event.
Answer: True
23. The effects of bereavement in adolescence can lead to depression, low self-esteem, and
poor academic performance.
Answer: True
24. Parents whose infants die before birth tend to have very short-lasting negative effects
from the loss.
Answer: False

25. Older bereaved spouses often grieve for years.
Answer: True
1. Life expectancy tables represent an example of death as a(n) _____.
Answer: statistic
2. _____ death occurs when a person’s heart stops beating and he or she stops breathing.
Answer: Clinical
3. When a person’s cortical function ceases, but brain-stem activity continues, the person is
said to be in a persistent _____ state.
Answer: vegetative
4. _____ is the study of the interface between health/life sciences and human values.
Answer: Bioethics
5. The practice of ending a life for reasons of mercy is called _____.
Answer: euthanasia
6. _____ euthanasia occurs when an individual is allowed to die because an available
treatment is intentionally withheld.
Answer: Passive
7. _____ was the final stage in Kübler-Ross’s original sequence model of dying.
Answer: Acceptance
8. Researchers often use_____ management theory to understand death anxiety.
Answer: terror
9. The choices one makes about how one wants to die constitutes a person’s final _____.
Answer: scenario
10. _____ is a way of assisting dying people in a way that emphasizes pain management and
death with dignity.

Answer: Hospice
11. The state or condition created by loss through death is called _____.
Answer: bereavement
12. _____ concerns the way we express our grief.
Answer: Mourning
13. The _____ theme of grief involves stories that survivors tell about the deceased.
Answer: narrative
14. The fact that Wendy becomes sad every June 23 because that was the day her husband
died exemplifies the _____ reaction.
Answer: anniversary
15. The notion that grieving can actually increase distress fits well with the grief work as
_____ hypothesis.
Answer: rumination
11. Demonstrate your knowledge of the legal definitions of death by differentiating between
clinical and whole-brain standards of death.
Answer: Clinical death is defined by a lack of respiration and heartbeat. Whole-brain death is
defined using eight standards: no spontaneous movement in response to stimulation; no
spontaneous respiration for one hour; total lack of responsiveness to even the most painful
stimuli; no eye movement, blinking, or pupil response; no postural activity, swallowing,
yawning, or vocalizing; no motor reflexes; a flat EEG for at least 10 minutes; and no change
in any of the criteria when retested 24 hours later.
12. Compare and contrast the four-component and dual-process models of coping with
Answer: The four-component model relies heavily on emotion theory. It proposes that
understanding grief is based on the context of the loss (e.g., was the death expected?),
continuation of subjective meaning associated with the loss (e.g., questioning the meaning of
life), changing representations of the lost relationship over time, and the role of coping and

emotion-regulating processes. The dual-process model emphasizes the role of loss-oriented
stressors (e.g., the amount of grief work needed to be done) and restoration-oriented stressors
(e.g., building new relationships). This model sees people cycling back and forth between
dealing with grief and moving on.

Test Bank for Human Development : A Life-Span View
Robert V Kail, John C Cavanaugh
9781111834111, 9781337554831

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