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Chapter 9—Moving into the Adult Social World: Socioemotional Development in Adolescence
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. The attitudes, behaviors, and values that we believe make us unique individuals are called
our
a. self-esteem.
b. self-recognition.
c. self-efficacy.
d. self-concept.
Answer: D
2. Marlin wants to learn more about identity formation in adolescents. Given this interest, he
would be best served by reading the works of
a. Erikson.
b. Ainsworth.
c. Piaget.
d. Gibson.
Answer: A
3. According to Erikson, the key adolescent crisis involves
a. generativity versus stagnation.
b. intimacy versus isolation.
c. identity versus role confusion.
d. integrity versus despair.
Answer: C
4. According to Erikson, a teenager is most likely to achieve his or her identity by
a. becoming more egocentric.
b. using learned helplessness.
c. becoming crystallized.
d. using hypothetical reasoning skills.
Answer: D
5. Which best describes how Erikson hypothesized that adolescents achieve an identity?
a. They do only what their parents tell them to do
b. They test a few to see which fits
c. They follow a genetically set plan
d. They just continue to do what they did as preteens
Answer: B
6. In the ____ stage of identity status, an individual is overwhelmed yet does little to
accomplish the task of identity formation.
a. diffusion
b. moratorium
c. foreclosure
d. achievement
Answer: A
7. Concerning identity, foreclosure is to achievement as
a. part is to whole.
b. others is to self.
c. black is to white.
d. social is to withdrawn.
Answer: B
8. A __________ identity status is based largely on the input of adults (i.e., parents, role
models).

a. diffusion
b. moratorium
c. foreclosure
d. achievement
Answer: C
9. When asked, “What do you want to be when you grow up?” 10-year-old Sanjay says, “My
dad says I should be a doctor, so I guess that’s what I’ll be.” According to Marcia, Sanjay is
best thought of as being in a state of identity
a. diffusion.
b. moratorium.
c. foreclosure.
d. achievement.
Answer: C
10. When Seuss is asked what she wants to do with her life, she says, “My parents really
want me to be an author, so I’m going to be an author.” In doing so, Seuss is exhibiting
Marcia’s ____ type of identity status.
a. diffusion
b. moratorium
c. foreclosure
d. achievement
Answer: C
11. While in the _________ identity status stage, a person is examining numerous alternatives
but finds none totally satisfactory
a. diffusion
b. moratorium
c. foreclosure

d. achievement
Answer: B
12. Brita is a junior interested in majoring in English literature, philosophy, biotechnology, or
European history. While she likes all of these majors, she is not sure which one to focus on.
According to Marcia, Brita would best be classified as being in the ____ level of identity
status concerning a collegiate major.
a. diffusion
b. foreclosure
c. moratorium
d. achievement
Answer: C
13. ____ identity status occurs after an individual has explored several options and has made
a deliberate decision.
a. Diffusion
b. Moratorium
c. Foreclosure
d. Achievement
Answer: D
14. After exploring a number of career options, Antonio chooses to become an accountant.
According to Marcia, what level of identity status is Antonio exhibiting?
a. Diffusion
b. Moratorium
c. Foreclosure
d. Achievement
Answer: D

15. Which of the following is exhibiting a moratorium in the process of developing an
identity?
a. Greg, who refuses to consider different career paths
b. Jan, who is doing what her parents want her to do
c. Cindy, who has changed careers several times
d. Bobby, who has been in the same career for 25 years
Answer: C
16. The existence of ________ provides evidence that attaining achievement status is not
necessarily permanent.
a. the personal fable
b. adolescent egocentrism
c. the foreclosure stage
d. the moratorium stage
Answer: D
17. Adolescent egocentrism involves excessive
a. convergent thought.
b. achievement.
c. self-absorption.
d. depression.
Answer: C
18. Sixteen-year-old Paris’s motto is, “It’s all about me!” This belief fits well with the
concept of adolescent
a. egocentrism.
b. learned helplessness.
c. secular growth.

d. foreclosure.
Answer: A
19. Which best describes the thought process underlying adolescent egocentrism?
a. Adolescents cannot believe that others have different perspectives than they have.
b. Adolescents are much more interested in their own feelings than those of others.
c. Adolescents believe that everyone is ignoring them.
d. Adolescents do whatever their parents say.
Answer: B
20. Abby is 16, and Andy is 5. Both exhibit egocentrism. How is this egocentrism most likely
to differ between them?
a. Andy is going to exhibit more self-interest.
b. Abby has reached achievement in most areas.
c. Abby knows that other people have different perspectives than her own.
d. Andy is more likely to exhibit the illusion of vulnerability.
Answer: C
21. The phenomenon whereby an individual believes that he or she is like an actor on a stage,
who is under constant watch by others, is referred to as
a. the personal fable.
b. the imaginary audience.
c. learned helplessness.
d. diffusion status.
Answer: B
22. Aniston’s decision to stay home from school because she thinks everyone will notice a
pimple she recently discovered on her chin serves as an excellent example of
a. an imaginary audience.

b. role confusion.
c. a personal fable.
d. hypothetical-deductive thinking.
Answer: A
23. The defining feature of the personal fable is a feeling of
a. superiority.
b. uniqueness.
c. helplessness.
d. diffusion.
Answer: B
24. Jerry is upset because his comedy partner, Dean, just broke up with him. When his
parents attempt to console Jerry, he tells them, “It’s no use—you couldn’t possibly know how
I feel. No one knows how I feel!” Jerry’s statement is an example of
a. an imaginary audience.
b. a personal fable.
c. moratorium.
d. learned helplessness.
Answer: B
25. The belief that misfortunes only happen to others is referred to as the illusion of
a. foreclosure.
b. helplessness.
c. crystallization.
d. invulnerability.
Answer: D

26. Ford is considering driving his car onto a lake that appears to be frozen but may not be
safe. He thinks to himself, “Only dummies fall through the ice in their cars, and I am no
dummy, so I will drive on the ice even though I am not sure it’s safe.” Ford’s decision best
exemplifies the concept of
a. an imaginary audience.
b. a personal fable.
c. an illusion of invulnerability.
d. learned helplessness.
Answer: C
27. Which parents are most likely to raise a teenager with high achievement status?
a. Kate and Allie, who encourage autonomy in their children
b. Ward and June, who encourage conformity in their children
c. Ozzie and Harriet, who discourage experimentation in their children
d. George and Jane, who strictly enforce unjustified rules
Answer: A
28. Gayord sets random rules for his children to follow and enforces them without
explanation. This parenting style will most likely result in Gayord’s teenage children
displaying a(n) _____ identity status.
a. diffusion
b. foreclosure
c. moratorium
d. achievement
Answer: B
29. About one-_____ of adolescents/young adults living in the United States is a member of
an ethnic minority group.
a. half

b. third
c. quarter
d. fifth
Answer: B
30. Learning about one’s culture and heritage sets the foundation for a person’s ____ identity.
a. ethnic
b. crystallized
c. index
d. imaginary
Answer: A
31. Hantaywee is Native American and has absolutely no interest in learning anything about
her family’s Navajo culture. Which is most likely to be true concerning Hantaywee?
a. She has authoritative parents.
b. She has higher self-esteem than most of her peers.
c. She is a young adolescent.
d. She has a well-developed ethnic identity.
Answer: C
32. Which statement indicates that Margareta is in the initial stage of ethnic identity
development?
a. “Who cares if I am Latino?”
b. “My ancestors were in America before white settlers.”
c. “I am Hispanic and proud of it.”
d. “I would like to go to the fair because it features dancers from my family’s heritage.”
Answer: A
33. The emphasis in the second phase of ethnic identity formation is on

a. exploration of one’s heritage.
b. rejecting one’s heritage.
c. showing no interest in one’s heritage.
d. developing a distinct ethnic self-concept.
Answer: A
34. Which statement best exemplifies the second phase of ethnic identity achievement?
a. “I don’t have to listen to the tape on Scottish legends.”
b. “I feel a strong sense of Scottish heritage.”
c. “I don’t want to be considered a Scottish American; I just want to be an American.”
d. “I wonder what kinds of events take place at a festival celebrating Scottish heritage.”
Answer: D
35. The third phase of ethnic identity achievement involves
a. creating a distinct ethnic self-concept.
b. rejecting one’s heritage.
c. deciding to not explore one’s ethnic roots.
d. wondering about one’s ethnic heritage.
Answer: A
36. Which statement would indicate that a teenager is in the third stage of ethnic identity
development?
a. “I am curious about where my ancestors lived.”
b. “I’ll think about my ethnicity when I am older.”
c. “I see myself as a Dutch-Asian American.”
d. “I need to match my identity to that of all others in my ethnic group.”
Answer: C

37. Jinfa was born in the United States. His father is African and his mother is Japanese. If he
is in the third state of ethnic identity development, he would most likely consider himself as
a. American.
b. African American.
c. Japanese.
d. American with roots in both Africa and Japan.
Answer: D
38. Twenty-year-old Talisker emigrated to the United States from Scotland at age 12. What is
his most likely ethnic identity?
a. He has no ethnic identity
b. He sees himself exclusively as an American
c. He continues to see himself as a Scot
d. He thinks like an American and acts like a Scot
Answer: C
39. What is the best description of the relationship between strength of ethnic identity and
self-esteem?
a. Spurious correlation
b. Positive correlation
c. Negative correlation
d. No correlation
Answer: B
40. Based on past research, one would predict that a strong association with American culture
would have the most detrimental effects on the ethnic self-concept of
a. Selena, who is Latino American.
b. Chang, who is Asian American.

c. Naomi, who is African American.
d. Ola, who is European American.
Answer: A
41. In individuals from ethnic minority groups, identification with the mainstream culture
a. cannot be accomplished without losing a sense of one’s own ethnic group.
b. sometimes strengthens one’s own ethnic identity and sometimes weakens it.
c. leads to rejection by one’s peers.
d. results in a significant loss in self-esteem.
Answer: B
42. Which statement concerning ethnic identity development is true?
a. A sense of ethnic identity is unrelated to real-life issues like school performance
b. Identification with a mainstream culture weakens one’s ethnic identity
c. Ethnic identity may change as new generations acculturate to the mainstream culture
d. There is no such thing as a biracial identity
Answer: C
43. Who is most likely to have the highest self-esteem?
a. A 4-year-old
b. A 8-year-old
c. A 12-year-old
d. A 16-year-old
Answer: A
44. Which best summarizes results from the development of self-esteem?
a. Boys tend to have lower self-esteem than girls.
b. School transitions appear to have little impact on self-esteem.

c. Developmental changes in self-esteem vary by domain.
d. Boy’s have higher levels of self-esteem than girls across all domains.
Answer: C
45. The drop in self-esteem often found when children first enter middle school appears to be
due to
a. the acquisition of concrete operational thinking.
b. peer comparisons.
c. changes in ethnic identity.
d. the illusion of invulnerability.
Answer: B
46. A child who believes that he or she is good at science will most likely
a. perform well at science.
b. have a positive academic self-concept concerning science.
c. hold a positive academic self-concept toward all academic domains.
d. have an extremely differentiated self-concept.
Answer: B
47. Which elementary-school-age child would likely have the highest level of self-esteem?
a. Ruby, who is African American
b. Opal, who is European American
c. Topaz, who is Hispanic American
d. As ethnicity does not impact self-esteem, all these children would have the same level of
self-esteem
Answer: B
48. Which adolescent would likely have the highest level of self-esteem?
a. Cheyenne, who is African American

b. Reba, who is European American
c. Barbara Ann, who is Hispanic American
d. As ethnicity does not impact self-esteem, all of these adolescents would have similar levels
of self-esteem
Answer: A
49. When Molly hears that several people in her geometry class think she’s great, it is likely
to
a. increase her self-esteem.
b. decrease her self-esteem.
c. have no affect on her self-esteem.
d. alter her ethnic identity.
Answer: A
50. Which statement concerning self-esteem is true?
a. Adolescents’ levels of self-esteem do not vary by context.
b. Parental rules lead to lower levels of self-esteem in adolescents.
c. Levels of parental affection are inversely related to self-esteem levels in adolescents.
d. A harmonious child-parent relationship tends to lead to higher levels of self- esteem in
adolescents.
Answer: D
51. How many of the following can contribute to an adolescent’s level of self-esteem: doing
well in school, having parents who discipline, being liked by one’s peers?
a. 0
b. 1
c. 2
d. 3

Answer: D
52. The text characterized the notion of adolescence being a time of great “storm and stress”
as a
a. trend.
b. fact.
c. myth.
d. certainty.
Answer: C
53. Cross-cultural studies of adolescent self-perception indicate that
a. most teenagers feel good about themselves.
b. teenagers in industrialized nations have the highest rate of self-dissatisfaction.
c. females feel significantly better about themselves than males.
d. most teenagers feel bad about themselves.
Answer: A
54. James is a typical adolescent. You would expect that he
a. does not feel loved by his parents.
b. relies on his parents for advice.
c. has low self-esteem.
d. is conflicted with regard to gender identity.
Answer: B
55. Which adolescents report that they are usually happy?
a. None
b. Only those adolescents in Western nations
c. Only those adolescents in Eastern nations
d. Most adolescents around the world

Answer: D
56. Why do Asian-American and Latino-American teens tend to begin dating at a later age
than European-American teens?
a. Fewer available partners
b. Stronger family ties
c. Less disposable income
d. Greater need for social isolation
Answer: B
57. Teenagers are less likely to engage in sexual activity when parents
a. actively encourage sexual activity.
b. monitor their activities.
c. remain emotionally detached.
d. encourage independence.
Answer: B
58. As a typical American teen, Ralph is most likely to describe his first sex partner as
a. his love.
b. a casual date.
c. a stranger.
d. his steady girlfriend.
Answer: B
59. Nicholas and Alexandra are typical American teenagers. How would their descriptions
concerning their first sexual experience most likely differ?
a. Nicholas would be more likely to describe his first partner as someone that he loves.
b. Nicholas would be more likely to feel guilty about his first sexual experience.

c. Alexandra’s peers would be more likely to express some disapproval concerning her
behavior.
d. Alexandra would be more likely to view the experience in terms of recreation rather than
romance.
Answer: C
60. Which of the following sexually transmitted diseases is caused by a viral infection?
a. Herpes
b. Chlamydia
c. Syphilis
d. Gonorrhea
Answer: A
61. Which of these STDs is most prevalent in the United States?
a. HIV
b. Genital herpes
c. Gonorrhea
d. Chlamydia
Answer: B
62. Which of these STDs is caused by bacteria?
a. Genital herpes
b. HIV
c. Hepatitis B
d. Gonorrhea
Answer: D
63. Which statement is true?
a. HIV typically leads to AIDS

b. AIDS typically leads to HIV
c. HIV and AIDS are the same disorder
d. AIDS and HIV are unrelated
Answer: A
64. Young adults are especially susceptible to acquiring AIDS because compared to older
adults, they are
a. more likely to be homosexual.
b. more likely to use intravenous drugs.
c. less likely to engage in unprotected sex.
d. less likely to possess functional immune systems.
Answer: B
65. About 1 in _____ adolescent American girls becomes pregnant each year.
a. 3
b. 4
c. 5
d. 6
Answer: D
66. Statistically speaking, who has the lowest risk of teenage pregnancy?
a. Holly, who is African American
b. Molly, who is Hispanic American
c. Polly, who is European American
d. The risk for all is the same as ethnicity is unrelated to teen pregnancy rates
Answer: C
67. The most effective pregnancy prevention programs focus
a. exclusively on abstinence.

b. exclusively on education concerning biological reproduction.
c. exclusively on education concerning responsible sexual behavior.
d. on abstinence, reproductive education, and sexual responsibility.
Answer: D
68. Who has the least effective plan for decreasing the probability of teenage pregnancy in a
school population?
a. Ira, who says, “We need to convince our young people that teenage pregnancy can happen
to them.”
b. Denise, who says, “Teenage women should be more informed about how difficult it is to be
a teenage parent.”
c. Afi, who says, “We must do a better job of informing our students about contraception.”
d. Dmitri, who says, “To eliminate teenage pregnancy, we must limit access to
contraceptives.”
Answer: D
69. About ____ percent of male and female teenagers identify themselves as homosexual.
a. 1
b. 5
c. 15
d. 20
Answer: B
70. Sixteen-year-old Karl has recently identified himself as gay. Which statement is most
likely to be true?
a. Karl had a domineering mother.
b. Karl was the eldest child who took responsibility for his siblings.
c. Karl had a weak father.
d. Karl may begin to show interest in gender-atypical behaviors.

Answer: D
71. Which statement concerning the origins of sexual orientation is true?
a. There is a “lesbian gene”
b. Lesbian attraction to the same sex tends to occur later than gay male same-sex attraction
c. Gay males tend to reject things they classify as “feminine”
d. Interest in the same sex tends to occur much later in males
Answer: B
72. Twenty-one-year-old Martina lists her sexual orientation as “lesbian.” Given the current
state of research on the origins of sexual orientation, which statement is most likely to be
true?
a. Martina probably had a close female relative (e.g., aunt, mother) who was also a lesbian.
b. Martina’s brothers are “at risk” for being homosexual.
c. Martina is likely attracted to several women.
d. The exact origin of Martina’s sexual orientation is unknown.
Answer: D
73. While there are different types of dating violence, threats always qualify as ____
violence.
a. emotional
b. physical
c. sexual
d. spiritual
Answer: A
74. Which has been identified as a factor that increases the risk of a female being a victim of
date rape?
a. Having a brother

b. Witnessing domestic violence
c. Being friends males
d. Holding traditional gender stereotypes
Answer: D
75. In a study on dating violence, investigators asked teenage boys whether they had
committed violent acts on a date. This methodology is intended to determine
a. who is most likely to be a victim of dating violence.
b. the likelihood of contracting a sexually transmitted disease.
c. the correlation between violence and self-esteem.
d. what factors increase the risk of committing dating violence.
Answer: D
76. In a study on dating violence, investigators asked teenage boys whether they had
committed violent acts on a date. This methodology is criticized because
a. teenage boys are a poor source of information in general.
b. the increased likelihood that participants will not answer questions honestly.
c. it is unethical to collect this information.
d. the responses provide confidential information on teenage girls.
Answer: B
77. The spotlight research on dating violence indicated that
a. about half of boys used violence while dating.
b. having a friend who perpetrated dating violence increased the risk of a boy being violent
while dating.
c. drinking alcohol did not increase the risk of dating violence.
d. severe forms of dating violence are more common than mild forms.
Answer: B

78. The main purpose of the Safe Dates program is to reduce
a. homosexual behavior.
b. teen pregnancy.
c. sexual violence.
d. drunk driving.
Answer: C
79. A major theme of most date rape prevention workshops is to
a. establish good communication about sex.
b. avoid sexual relationships.
c. reestablish traditional sex roles.
d. never struggle as an attack is occurring.
Answer: A
80. Rape prevention guidelines suggest that in order to reduce the risk of rape,
a. if you are attacked, you should struggle but not scream.
b. you should not communicate your sexual desires to your partner.
c. you should avoid using drugs if you do not want to become sexually intimate.
d. you should not dress with the intent of looking nice.
Answer: C
81. ____ first linked identity with career choices.
a. Erikson
b. Freud
c. Super
d. Holland
Answer: C

82. Crystallization involves using one’s emerging identity as the basis for assessing
a. intelligence.
b. risk for mental illness.
c. self-esteem.
d. possible careers.
Answer: D
83. While counseling a friend who is having trouble with his girlfriend, 13-year-old Frasier
decides that he has a talent for helping people deal with their problems and decides that he
should pursue a career as a clinical psychologist. Frasier’s response matches Super’s ____
stage of career development.
a. implementation
b. specification
c. realistic
d. crystallization
Answer: D
84. According to Super, the key element of the specification phase of career development
involves
a. limiting career possibilities.
b. taking the job.
c. setting no limits.
d. a feeling of uniqueness.
Answer: A
85. Seventeen-year-old Ursa develops an interest in astronomy. If she is in Super’s
specification stage of career development, her next step would most likely involve
a. taking a full-time job at an observatory.
b. signing up for a course in basic astronomy.

c. determining whether she has a personality type suited for work as an astronomer.
d. trying to get a handle on other aspects of her life (e.g., relationships).
Answer: B
86. During the implementation phase of career development, a person
a. first begins to think about career options.
b. selects the career of their parents.
c. becomes more educated about career options.
d. takes a job and learns firsthand about a career.
Answer: D
87. Which statement best describes the basic premise of Super’s implementation phase of
career development?
a. “I’ll take the job and see what happens.”
b. “I am going to visit the career service office.”
c. “I might make a good mortician.”
d. “Who cares about work?”
Answer: A
88. After carefully examining which careers might be best for him, Stasny takes a job with a
construction company. Though he likes the money, he was not ready for the kinds of
responsibilities often asked of regular employees. Stasny is probably in Super’s _____ stage
of career development.
a. specification
b. implementation
c. crystallization
d. investigative
Answer: B

89. According to Super’s theory, what is the correct order of the phases of career
development?
a. Specification, crystallization, implementation
b. Crystallization, specification, implementation
c. Implementation, specification, crystallization
d. Crystallization, implementation, specification
Answer: B
90. According to Holland’s ____ theory, the key factor in determining whether a job will be
fulfilling are your personal characteristics.
a. personality-type
b. Piagetian
c. sociocultural
d. cognitive-developmental
Answer: A
91. The main assumption of Holland’s theory is that people
a. develop career goals at different rates.
b. will be happiest in work environments that match their personalities.
c. should take tests to determine which career is best for them.
d. should choose a career based on economic issues and should not be concerned about
choosing a career in order to fulfill their lives.
Answer: B
92. Nan is an individual who enjoys working outside, taking care of park lands, planting
trees, and building forest trails. Which of Holland’s types best describes Nan’s interests?
a. Investigative
b. Conventional

c. Social
d. Realistic
Answer: D
93. Yasmine has excellent verbal skills and relates well on an interpersonal level. According
to Holland, Yasmine likely has a(n) ____ personality type.
a. investigative
b. conventional
c. social
d. realistic
Answer: C
94. A person with a(n) ____ personality type would be described as someone who is highly
task-oriented and who enjoys abstract thinking.
a. investigative
b. conventional
c. social
d. realistic
Answer: A
95. Zeke enjoys expressing himself on unstructured tasks. This description indicates that
Zeke most likely has a(n) ____ personality type.
a. investigative
b. conventional
c. realistic
d. artistic
Answer: D

96. Nell can’t decide if she should pursue a career as a bank teller or as an accountant.
Holland would suggest that Nell will find these career choices most fulfilling if she has a(n)
____ personality type.
a. conventional
b. investigative
c. enterprising
d. social
Answer: A
97. According to Holland, who is best matched with their career type?
a. Scientist Ralph, who has a realistic personality
b. Poet Norton, who has an investigative personality
c. Real estate agent Alice, who has an enterprising personality
d. Social worker Trixie, who has an artistic personality
Answer: C
98. According to Holland, who is most poorly matched with his or her career type?
a. Guidance counselor Dela, who has a social personality
b. Nuclear scientist Dave, who has an investigative personality
c. Accountant Dana, who has a conventional personality
d. Plumber Dagmar, who has an enterprising personality
Answer: D
99. When an individual’s personality type and job match, they tend to be
a. more productive in the short run and have more stable career paths in the long run.
b. less productive in the short run but have more stable career paths in the long run.
c. more productive in the short run but have less stable career paths in the long run.
d. less productive in the short run and have less stable career paths in the long run.

Answer: A
100. The Strong Interest Inventory is designed to assess
a. liking for different occupations.
b. adolescent egocentrism.
c. ethnic identity.
d. self-esteem.
Answer: A
101. Which statement best describes the long-term outcomes of working a stressful job
during the teen years?
a. Better able to decide on a job that matches personality
b. Better able to cope with stressful jobs as adults
c. Better able to allocate income as an adult
d. Better able to determine appropriate workplace behavior
Answer: B
102. Research has indicated that when a high school student begins to work over ____ hours
a week at a part-time job during the school year, academic problems may arise.
a. 5
b. 10
c. 15
d. 20
Answer: D
103. Which comment accurately reflects the relationship between adolescent mental health
and part-time jobs in excess of 15-20 hours per week?
a. Teens with such jobs tend to be more sociable than their peers.
b. Teens with such jobs tend to be less susceptible to schizophrenia than their peers.

c. Teens with such jobs tend to be less prone to violence than their peers.
d. Teens with such jobs tend to be more likely to experience depression and anxiety than their
peers.
Answer: D
104. Why is part-time work among teens associated with misleading affluence?
a. They typically spend money immediately and do not learn how to allocate income well.
b. The high pay they receive at these jobs sets up unrealistic expectations about “real” pay.
c. They tend to save significantly more during these times than after they get a full-time job.
d. The money that teens make today is worth less than the same amount will be in the future.
Answer: A
105. Which statement concerning part-time work and teenagers is true?
a. The negative impacts of part-time employment are more severe in males.
b. Teens who save money from working have a worse relationship with their parents.
c. The number of hours worked does not appear to matter.
d. Jobs that require the use of some skill tend to enhance self-esteem.
Answer: D
106. Which drug do high school seniors use most?
a. Marijuana
b. Cocaine
c. Alcohol
d. LSD
Answer: C
107. ____ percent of US high school seniors report drinking alcohol in the previous year, and
about ____ percent report having been drunk.
a. Ninety; 50

b. Sixty-six; 50
c. Fifty; 30
d. Thirty: 66
Answer: B
108. Which of the following 15-year-olds is least likely to drink alcohol?
a. Tony, who is experiencing a lot of family problems
b. Jeannie, whose mother and father are uninvolved in her life
c. Larry, whose friends all encourage him to drink
d. Barbara, whose parents sometimes drink small amounts with meals
Answer: D
109. Fifteen-year-old Otis’s parents are social drinkers who often stop at a bar after work.
Research suggests that Otis is
a. likely to become an alcoholic.
b. unlikely to begin drinking (teens tend to avoid mimicking parents).
c. more likely to start drinking than his friend whose parents do not drink.
d. unlikely to be influenced by this behavior.
Answer: C
110. Seventeen-year-old Alice drinks alcohol to deal with all the things that are difficult in
her life. Which approach is most likely to decrease her alcohol use?
a. Therapy to learn coping skills
b. Learning about alcohol use in school
c. Practicing strategies to resist peer pressure
d. Parenting classes for her parents
Answer: A
111. Which statement concerning cigarette smoking is true?

a. Compared with the rest of the world, American teens are heavy smokers.
b. Most teens begin to smoke when they are in tenth or eleventh grade.
c. Authoritative parenting tends to increase the risk of teen smoking.
d. Teens will tend to start smoking if they believe that it is okay to smoke.
Answer: D
112. Marcel’s parents often ask about his day at school, set reasonable rules, and provide
guidance when he is having difficulty in school. How likely is Marcel to smoke cigarettes?
a. Very likely, as he needs to set up his own value system
b. Somewhat likely, as he is curious about what smoking feels like
c. Less likely, as his parents support makes smoking less appealing
d. Not at all likely, as his parents have strict rules against smoking
Answer: D
113. Your text indicates that many teenagers who smoke are convinced that cigarette smoking
is harmless for healthy adolescents. Which concept does the best job of explaining this
phenomenon?
a. Crystallization
b. Depression
c. Illusion of invulnerability
d. Imaginary audience
Answer: C
114. Which of the following is not a risk of smoking for adolescents?
a. Lung growth problems
b. Depression
c. Future abuse of other drugs
d. Respiratory illnesses

Answer: B
115. Effective interventions for teenage smoking include all of the following components,
except
a. telling students, staff, and school visitors they cannot smoke on school grounds.
b. providing information on the health and social consequences of smoking.
c. enforcing a strict discipline system throughout the school.
d. teaching skills to respond to peer pressure.
Answer: C
116. Antismoking interventions in schools reduce teenage smoking by more than ____.
a. one-fourth
b. one-third
c. one-half
d. two-thirds
Answer: B
117. Some teenagers experience negative life events and do not become depressed. Which of
the following teenagers is least likely to become depressed when she experiences a negative
life event?
a. Crystal, who does not regulate her emotions effectively
b. Cameron, who tends to blame herself when things go wrong
c. Celia, whose parents are distant and uninvolved with her
d. Carmine, who has high levels of certain neurotransmitters
Answer: D
118. The most effective non-drug interventions for teenage depression focus on
a. instilling a sense of learned helplessness.
b. suppressing adolescents’ feelings toward their parents.

c. mapping the genetic history of the adolescent.
d. teaching social skills.
Answer: D
119. _____ is/are the third leading cause of deaths in U.S. adolescents.
a. Car accidents
b. Homicide
c. Suicide
d. Cancer
Answer: C
120. Which group of teenage boys has by far the highest suicide rate?
a. European Americans
b. Latino Americans
c. African Americans
d. Native Americans
Answer: D
121. Which is not a common warning sign of suicide?
a. Change in eating habits
b. Increased levels of activity
c. Persistent feelings of helplessness
d. Giving away valued possessions
Answer: B
122. Juvenile delinquency involves acts that are
a. illegal and destructive.
b. legal and nondestructive.

c. illegal and nondestructive.
d. legal and destructive.
Answer: A
123. What is the defining characteristic of adolescent-limited antisocial behavior?
a. Always engaging in violent acts
b. Engaging in minor criminal acts over a long period of time
c. Always engaging in some sex act
d. Engaging in minor criminal acts over a short period of time
Answer: D
124. Only ____ percent of youth meet the criteria for life-course persistent antisocial
behavior.
a. 1
b. 5
c. 8
d. 10
Answer: B
125. Which of the following is not a biological factor known to contribute to aggressive
behavior?
a. Temperament
b. Circadian rhythms
c. Hormones
d. Neurotransmitters
Answer: B
126. Which of the following parental behaviors is not likely to encourage aggressive and
antisocial behavior?

a. Disciplining adolescents in a harsh manner
b. Intermittent monitoring of adolescents’ behavior
c. Parental conflict and stress
d. Many rules enforced with supporting reasons
Answer: D
127. Programs to prevent adolescent violence and antisocial behavior target
a. character development in elementary-school children.
b. academic and social skills in elementary-school children.
c. academic and social skills in middle-school children.
d. character development in middle-school children.
Answer: B
128. How would a teen be accurately described as exhibiting adolescent-limited antisocial
behaviors?
a. She would commit a series of major violent crimes
b. She would commit antisocial but not criminal acts
c. She would commit minor criminal but not antisocial acts
d. She would commit a single major criminal act
Answer: C
129. As a middle-school student, Chrissy often shoplifted cosmetics and music CDs. By the
time she was a senior in high school, Chrissy had mended her ways and no longer shoplifted.
Chrissy’s pattern of behavior is best described as
a. a life-course persistent antisocial behavior.
b. learned helplessness.
c. adolescent-limited antisocial behavior.
d. chronic status offenses.

Answer: C
130. Life-course persistent antisocial acts
a. emerge early in life and fade in later life.
b. emerge early in life and continue throughout development.
c. emerge in midlife and fade in later life.
d. emerge in midlife and continue throughout development.
Answer: B
131. At age 5, Pat set a neighbor’s house on fire. At age 10, he burned down a barn. At age
20, he set his old high school on fire. Pat’s behavior best exemplifies
a. life-course persistent antisocial behavior.
b. learned helplessness.
c. adolescent-limited antisocial behavior.
d. chronic status offenses.
Answer: A
132. Which statement concerning antisocial/delinquent behavior and biology is true?
a. Inherited temperament may increase risk for aggressive behavior
b. Chromosome 17 contains a gene that controls violence
c. Twin studies indicate that antisocial behavior is often inherited
d. Diminished levels of hormones like testosterone often lead to violence
Answer: A
133. Which teenager is most “at risk” for engaging in delinquent behavior?
a. Bert, who spends a lot of supervised time at home
b. Ernie, whose parents utilize very consistent discipline techniques
c. Kermit, who is unable to significantly delay his need for personal gratification
d. Grover, whose parents and other close relatives seldom display aggressive behavior

Answer: C
134. Adolescents from lower socioeconomic classes are more likely to become delinquent
because
a. there are more criminal models available to lower-class youth.
b. they are overinvested in their school performance.
c. they are less intelligent.
d. they are better able to exhibit self-control.
Answer: A
135. The Fast Track program for preventing violent behavior
a. uses aversive conditioning techniques and the “scared straight technique.”
b. attempts to nip the problem in the elementary years.
c. encourages children to consider the “imaginary audience” that they are attacking.
d. argues that aggressive play can be an effective substitute for reducing real violence.
Answer: B
TRUE/FALSE
1. Erikson’s theory has been very influential in helping us understand identity formation in
adolescence.
Answer: True
2. During the diffusion phase of identity status, a person’s identity is determined by adults
rather than by personal exploration.
Answer: False
3. Adolescent egocentrism is characterized by a lack of self-absorption.
Answer: False
4. Personal fables are based on seeing one’s self as unique.
Answer: True

5. In the first phase of ethnic identity, a child actively begins to explore his or her heritage.
Answer: False
6. Self-esteem levels tend to vary by domain (e.g., social, academic).
Answer: True
7. A child’s self-esteem is influenced by how he or she is viewed by the child’s parents.
Answer: True
8. The “storm and stress” analogy accurately reflects the experience of most teenagers.
Answer: False
9. Feelings of “love” concerning their first sex partner do not vary for boys and girls.
Answer: False
10. Herpes and hepatitis B are caused by a virus.
Answer: True
11. Same-sex attraction tends to be less understood in males than in females.
Answer: False
12. Females are more at risk for dating violence when they hold traditional gender
stereotypes.
Answer: True
13. Research results indicate that dating violence is more common in males with friends who
perpetrate violence.
Answer: True
14. During the specification phase of vocation choice, a person takes a job and gains handson information about the career.
Answer: False
15. Holland’s theory focuses on the important connection between personality, career
selection, and career fulfillment.

Answer: True
16. Investigative personality types enjoy thinking about abstract relationships.
Answer: True
17. Working more than 10 hours a week is associated with lower grades and higher levels of
depression in adolescents.
Answer: False
18. Depression is characterized by pervasive feelings of low self-esteem and sadness.
Answer: True
19. Suicide is the leading cause of death in American teens.
Answer: False
COMPLETION
1. According to Marcia, the highest level of identity status is _____.
Answer: achievement
2. High levels of self-absorption in teens are referred to as adolescent _____.
Answer: egocentrism
3. The feeling that a teen is an actor whose performance is being watched by peers is known
as the _____ audience.
Answer: imaginary
4. The attitude that one’s feelings have never been experienced by anyone else is referred to
as a(n) _____ fable.
Answer: personal
5. The portion of one’s self that focuses on heritage and group culture is referred to as one’s
_____ identity.
Answer: ethnic
6. The first stage in Super’s vocational choice theory is called _____.

Answer: crystallization
7. The second stage in Super’s vocational choice theory is called _____.
Answer: specification
8. According to Super, when an individual first enters the workforce, he or she is in the _____
phase of career development.
Answer: implementation
9. According to Holland, a person who likes physical labor and solving concrete problems is
said to have a(n) _____ personality type.
Answer: realistic
10. The most common drug used by American teens is _____.
Answer: alcohol
11. An individual with irrational and pervasive feelings of sadness is said to be suffering from
_____.
Answer: depression
12. When a teen commits illegal and destructive acts, he or she is often labeled as being a
juvenile _____.
Answer: delinquent
13. Individuals who engage in minor criminal acts as teens and then no longer engage in such
behavior as young adults are classified as exhibiting _____ antisocial behavior.
Answer: adolescent-limited
ESSAY
10. A friend says, “I am scared. My little boy is about to enter the teen years, and I have heard
that this is a time of great storm and stress, when he will reject everything about me.” Provide
advice to your friend by describing the reality of this time of child-parent interactions.
Answer: The text describes the notion of “storm and stress” as a myth. Evidence to support a
more positive view of teens includes the fact that most teens admire/love their parents and
rely on them for advice, embracing their parents’ values. In addition, most teens have
relatively high levels of self-esteem across a variety of domains.

Test Bank for Human Development : A Life-Span View
Robert V Kail, John C Cavanaugh
9781111834111, 9781337554831

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