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Chapter 5—Entering the Social World: Socioemotional Development in Infancy and Early Childhood
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. According to Erikson, which is the foundation of human development?
a. Autonomy
b. Trust in self and others
c. Initiative
d. Identity
Answer: B
2. Which child has most successfully resolved the “basic trust versus mistrust” stage of
psychosocial development?
a. Cecil, who trusts everyone and everything completely
b. Shane, who mistrusts everyone, including himself
c. Spider, who trusts himself but nobody else
d. Brian, who trusts most people but is still somewhat wary of others
Answer: D
3. After reading a book on Eriksonian theory, Farah would most likely describe her trusting
one-year-old daughter as possessing
a. will.
b. generativity.
c. hope.
d. purpose.
Answer: C
4. Tiffany is an infant who has acquired hope. Which crisis of psychosocial development has
she successfully resolved?

a. Autonomy versus shame and doubt
b. Initiative versus guilt
c. Basic trust versus mistrust
d. Identity
Answer: C
5. According to Erikson, how would parents establish trust in their six-month-old?
a. Consistently responding to the child’s needs
b. Utilize an authoritarian parenting style
c. Encourage the immediate resolution of the Oedipal complex
d. Avoid excessive displays of affection
Answer: A
6. Who would Erikson predict would have the greatest sense of will?
a. Fiona, who has developed autonomy but experiences some shame and doubt
b. Tara, who has developed autonomy and experiences no shame or doubt
c. Bridget, who has developed autonomy and doubt but experiences no shame
d. Maeve, who has not developed autonomy
Answer: A
7. Carmela is struggling in the “autonomy versus shame and doubt” stage of psychosocial
development. What aspect of her psychosocial development will result from her successful
resolution of this conflict?
a. Hope
b. Wariness
c. Will
d. Purpose
Answer: C

8. Autonomy is most synonymous with
a. independence.
b. guilt.
c. joy.
d. doubt.
Answer: A
9. Although Jamie has an enormous amount of initiative, he does not possess “purpose.”
According to Erikson, this is probably because Jamie
a. has not learned to cooperate with others.
b. was never wary of other people.
c. has no “will.”
d. trusts too much.
Answer: A
10. Lili has begun to play “teacher,” “mommy,” “doctor,” and “pilot.” Lili is probably in
which of Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development?
a. Autonomy versus shame and doubt
b. Initiative versus guilt
c. Intimacy versus isolation
d. Basic trust versus mistrust
Answer: B
11. Four-year-old Luticia pretends to be a doctor and has begun to realize that she needs to be
responsible and cooperate with her parents. According to Erikson, this indicates that she is
beginning to achieve a sense of
a. trust.
b. will.

c. intimacy.
d. purpose.
Answer: D
12. William has noticed that his daughter Bonnie has recently begun to ask a lot of questions
like, “What can I be when I grow up?” and “How come the sky is blue?” This behavior is
best associated with the ____________ stage of development.
a. autonomy versus shame and doubt
b. intimacy versus isolation
c. initiative versus guilt
d. trust versus mistrust
Answer: C
13. Dr. Ginesberg’s lecture on attachment concludes that babies express behavior that makes
it more likely they will form attachments to adults because, in the past, infants that expressed
these behaviors were the infants who survived. Dr. Ginesberg is presenting a(n) _________
approach to attachment.
a. sociocultural
b. psychological
c. anthropological
d. evolutionary
Answer: D
14. Who would be most likely to argue that smiling is a common social response because
over the history of humanity, individuals who smiled were liked more and allowed to have
children?
a. A cognitive psychologist
b. A behavioral psychologist
c. An evolutionary psychologist

d. A humanist psychologist
Answer: C
15. As an evolutionary theorist, Dr. Zorba is most likely to believe that
a. adaptive behaviors have a hereditary basis.
b. cognitive issues are more important than social issues.
c. an infant can only attach to its biological mother.
d. trust underlies almost all human emotions.
Answer: A
16. Which individual is most responsible for today’s evolutionary view of attachment?
a. Erikson
b. Bowlby
c. Skinner
d. Piaget
Answer: B
17. Dr. Wilson studies how children form lasting social-emotional relationships with adults.
Dr. Wilson is most likely interested in studying
a. gender roles.
b. basic emotions.
c. parallel play.
d. attachment.
Answer: D
18. Baby Hughie has singled out his mother as someone different from all others. When his
mother takes him to a new place, Hughie is able to explore but looks back to his mother every
once in a while for reassurance. According to Bowlby, Hughie is most likely in the ____
phase of attachment.

a. attachment in the making
b. reciprocal relationships
c. preattachment
d. true attachment
Answer: D
19. Which is the last of Bowlby’s four phases in the growth of attachment?
a. Reciprocal relationships
b. Attachment in the making
c. True attachment
d. Preattachment
Answer: A
20. Eight-month-old Claire is able to crawl around a room on her own, looking back at her
mother only occasionally. This indicates that Claire
a. is not attached to her mother.
b. has “purpose.”
c. is in the “initiative versus guilt” stage.
d. trusts her mother.
Answer: D
21. How could a parent best encourage attachment in a four-month-old?
a. Show continuous interest whenever he or she is around the child
b. Learn to judge when the child is receptive to interactions and when he or she should be left
alone.
c. Let the child initiate all social interactions.
d. There are no parental behaviors that would influence an infant that young.
Answer: B

22. Which normally maturing infant would be most likely to have just formed first true
attachment?
a. Calvin, who is 1 day old
b. Kline, who is 4 months old
c. Hobbs, who is 8 months old
d. Coolidge, who is 12 months old
Answer: C
23. You are the infant’s “playmate.” When distressed, this child does not prefer you, but when
the child wants to play, she chooses you. You are probably the child’s
a. mother.
b. teacher.
c. father.
d. next-door neighbor.
Answer: C
24. Which statement on parent-infant early relationships is true?
a. Mothers tend to spend more time reading to infants
b. Infants are biologically programmed to attach to mothers
c. Mothers provide better early childcare than fathers
d. When in distress, infants prefer to interact with fathers
Answer: A
25. Anthony and Martina are the new parents of a new baby named Zoe and are wondering
whether Zoe will attach to them. A developmental psychologist explains to them that if Zoe is
a typical baby, she will
a. attach to both Anthony and Martina.
b. attach only to Martina.

c. attach only to Anthony.
d. not attach to either Anthony or Martina.
Answer: A
26. One-year-old Chatava is not upset when her mother leaves the room, and when her
mother returns, Chatava turns away from her. Chatava is exhibiting _____ attachment.
a. avoidant
b. disorganized
c. secure
d. resistant
Answer: A
27. If Imelda is a typical American infant, you would most likely be correct if you guessed
that she exhibits a(n) ____ attachment.
a. secure
b. avoidant
c. resistant
d. disoriented
Answer: A
28. Elise has been playing alone, upset, by herself in her room. When her mother returns, she
is not comforted but seems angry with her mother. Elise is most likely exhibiting a(n) ____
attachment.
a. secure
b. avoidant
c. resistant
d. disoriented
Answer: C

29. When Faith’s mother leaves her alone in a room, she does not move and appears a bit
dazed. Faith is most likely exhibiting a(n) ____ attachment.
a. secure
b. avoidant
c. resistant
d. disorganized
Answer: D
30. Securely attached infants tend to show ___________ when reunited with a caregiver.
a. fear
b. rejection
c. a need for a brief interaction
d. a need for an extended interaction
Answer: C
31. If a parent told you, “My one-year-old and I just participated in a study utilizing a
‘Strange Situation,’” you would most accurately respond,
a. “I hope your child is securely attached.”
b. “I hope that your child does not have any attention problems.”
c. “I hope that your child demonstrated autonomy.”
d. “I hope that your spouse took part in the study at the same time.”
Answer: A
32. Which assessment device would be more effective at identifying an infant’s attachment
style?
a. Apgar
b. CVS
c. NBSA

d. Q-Set
Answer: D
33. The main distinction between the Strange Situation and the Attachment Q-Set is that only
the
a. Strange Situation assesses prosocial behavior.
b. Strange Situation is a quantitative test.
c. Q-Set is conducted in the home.
d. Q-Set is administered by a physician.
Answer: C
34. Attachment is most critical to completing which of Erikson’s stages of psychosocial
development?
a. Autonomy versus shame and doubt
b. Trust versus mistrust
c. Intimacy versus isolation
d. Initiative versus guilt
Answer: B
35. Michiko was insecurely attached as an infant. Which of the following is least likely to be
true?
a. Michiko is usually calm when interacting with other children.
b. Michiko does not have as many friends as most children.
c. Michiko does not display adequate social skills with her peers.
d. Michiko has a difficult time resolving conflicts with others.
Answer: A
36. A secure infant attachment predicts _____________ during later childhood.
a. greater intelligence

b. more capable peer interactions
c. greater independence
d. nothing
Answer: B
37. Which baby is most likely to be insecurely attached?
a. Isabelle, whose parents play with her frequently
b. Maud, whose parents are very affectionate toward her
c. Jessica, whose parents tend to not respond to her crying
d. Holly, whose parents often express happiness toward her
Answer: C
38. What advice should you give to a parent who wants his or her two-month-old to form a
secure attachment?
a. “Be responsive and caring.”
b. “Avoid discipline.”
c. “Just be yourself.”
d. “Don’t bottle-feed.”
Answer: A
39. The fact that infant Ricardo has come to expect that his mother is available when he needs
her means that Ricardo has developed
a. temperament.
b. parallel play.
c. an internal working model.
d. autonomy.
Answer: C
40. If two-year-old Kelly had an internal working model, she would

a. believe that inanimate objects have the ability to move and breathe.
b. expect her mom to respond when she is upset.
c. talk to herself out loud.
d. form an insecure attachment to her parents.
Answer: B
41. From an infant’s perspective, what is the most critical factor in establishing a secure
attachment?
a. Having no congenital birth defects
b. Having a dependable caregiver
c. Having few sibling rivals
d. Having a caregiver who loves him or her
Answer: B
42. How does temperament contribute to attachment?
a. Infants with easygoing temperaments are more likely to form disorganized attachments
b. Infants with difficult temperaments are less likely to form secure attachments
c. Infants with moms who have rigid temperaments tend to form secure attachments
d. Infants with any type of temperament are equally likely to form secure attachments
Answer: B
43. Parental responses to infant crying and laughing are part of the _____ forces involved in
the biopsychosocial explanation of attachment.
a. biological
b. psychological
c. cognitive
d. sociocultural
Answer: D

44. Which is the best example of a psychological force in the development of attachment?
a. An infant’s smiling and crying behavior
b. An infant’s internal working model
c. The mother’s responsiveness to her infant
d. The infant’s temperament
Answer: B
45. Elita is feeling guilty about sending her 18-month-old off to daycare. Assuming Elita is
sending her daughter to a quality daycare center, should she be worried?
a. Yes. Children younger than two who are in daycare experience far more negative effects
than positive effects.
b. Yes, but only because her child is female.
c. No, as long as Elita provides “good mothering” when she’s with the child at home.
d. No, because daycare makes children more cooperative.
Answer: C
46. Research indicates that sending a young child to a high-quality daycare has ____ effects
on toddler’s attachment to their mothers.
a. slightly negative
b. devastating
c. first adverse and then a positive
d. No
Answer: D
47. Which aspect of the Sunshine Daycare Center’s advertisement is inconsistent with your
text’s description of quality daycare?
a. Low teacher/student ratios
b. Many educational programs

c. New, energetic staff each day
d. Regular, frequent parent-teacher meetings
Answer: C
48. Which combination best predicts an insecure attachment?
a. Insensitive mother and any daycare
b. Insensitive mother and low-quality daycare
c. Sensitive mother and any daycare
d. Sensitive mother and low-quality daycare
Answer: B
49. Which statement is true regarding basic emotions?
a. They are experienced by people in all cultures.
b. They have a self-evaluative component.
c. Most of them begin to develop after 12 months.
d. They are not reflected in facial expressions.
Answer: A
50. Which would not be considered a basic emotion?
a. Pride
b. Surprise
c. Anger
d. Fear
Answer: A
51. Which is not an element of a basic emotion?
a. A subjective feeling
b. A thoughtful consideration

c. A physiological change
d. An overt behavior
Answer: B
52. A frown is a _____ manifestation of an emotion.
a. physiological
b. subjective
c. behavioral
d. biological
Answer: C
53. You are studying the basic emotions of infants from the United States and China. What
differences would you expect in how these basic emotions are expressed?
a. Chinese infants will be less expressive than American infants.
b. American infants will be less expressive than Chinese infants.
c. Chinese infants will be more expressive of pain; American infants will be more expressive
of “joy.”
d. Chinese and American infants will express basic emotions the same way.
Answer: D
54. According to Lewis (2000), the only two emotions experienced by newborns are
a. disgust and surprise.
b. fear and interest.
c. anger and happiness.
d. pleasure and distress.
Answer: D
55. After playing by herself for a while, young Annika smiles when she sees the face of her
father. What term best describes this response?

a. Social smile
b. Cooperative play
c. Parallel play
d. Social referencing
Answer: A
56. We would know that two-month-old Brenda is exhibiting a social smile when she smiles
in response to
a. waking up from a nap.
b. seeing her mother’s face.
c. finishing a meal.
d. a cat’s tail brushing up against her.
Answer: B
57. Which normally developing child would be most likely to have just begun to experience
the emotion of anger?
a. Brett, who is 5 days old
b. Payton, who is 5 months old
c. Tom, who is 15 months old
d. Carson, who is 5 years old
Answer: B
58. Which action would be the most likely cause of anger in a six-month-old?
a. Showing them a picture of a stranger
b. Introducing them to a new loud sound
c. Having them smell a rotten egg
d. Taking a ball out of their hands
Answer: D

59. Who has most likely just developed stranger wariness?
a. Betsy, who just learned to roll over
b. Leon, who just learned to crawl
c. Calvin, who just learned to walk
d. Lisa, who just started school
Answer: B
60. Seven-month-old Gavin seems very content being held by his mother. When the neighbor
from across the street comes over to greet Gavin, he turns his head away from the neighbor
and starts to cry. What term best explains Gavin’s response to the neighbor?
a. Social smile
b. Resistant attachment
c. Social referencing
d. Stranger wariness
Answer: D
61. Pride, embarrassment, and guilt are all examples of
a. insecure attachment.
b. complex emotions.
c. constricting actions.
d. basic emotions.
Answer: B
62. Complex emotions differ from basic emotions in that complex emotions require some
understanding of
a. self.
b. biology.
c. waking states.

d. purpose.
Answer: A
63. Dr. Dundee believes that he has discovered a new childhood emotion that is particular to
certain native Australian cultures. If he is accurate, he has most likely discovered a new
a. social smile.
b. basic emotion.
c. temperament.
d. complex emotion.
Answer: D
64. Who is most likely exhibiting a complex emotion?
a. Fyodor, who expresses joy when being held by his mother
b. Alyosha, who is angry at her mother
c. Dmitri, who is afraid of the neighbor’s pet dog
d. Katarina, who is proud of her art project
Answer: D
65. Research results have provided evidence that the ability to distinguish facial features
associated with different emotions first develops as early as _____ of age.
a. 2 weeks
b. 1 month
c. 4 months
d. 8 months
Answer: C
66. One-year-old Kendra looks at her mother before entering a new room in a strange house.
When her mother smiles, Kendra proceeds to enter the room. This is an example of
a. a social smile.

b. a complex emotion.
c. social referencing.
d. stranger wariness.
Answer: C
67. One-year-old Mathieu is afraid of the dog because he saw his father react with fear to the
same dog. Which term best explains why Mathieu is afraid?
a. Stranger wariness
b. Social referencing
c. Complex emotions
d. Avoidant attachment
Answer: B
68. An example of _____ occurs when a child interprets her parent’s facial expression as a
cue to determine whether or not to pick up a strange object.
a. secure attachment
b. social referencing
c. resistant attachment
d. stranger wariness
Answer: B
69. When Adam walks into the dark basement, he feels afraid but is able to calm himself
down by saying to himself, “Don’t be afraid. There’s nothing down here that can hurt you.”
Apparently, Adam is successfully
a. engaging in solitary play.
b. expressing complex emotions.
c. regulating his emotions.
d. utilizing social referencing.

Answer: C
70. Jaunita is a typical six-month-old. How is she most likely to regulate her emotions if she
sees a scary object?
a. She will look away from the object
b. She will make a sad face
c. She will stare back and try to frighten the object away
d. She will make no attempt to regulate her emotions
Answer: A
71. Which would be the least sophisticated way for a child to deal with fear of a doctor?
a. Tell himself that he only has to visit the doctor once a year
b. Try to see the event in a positive light (i.e., he will be healthier)
c. Hug mommy when the doctor approaches
d. Think about something pleasant while having a checkup
Answer: C
72. Stan is playing with his ball, and Olly is playing with his doll, but they are each watching
what the other is doing. Stan and Olly are most likely involved in
a. cooperative play.
b. parallel play.
c. simple social play.
d. prosocial behavior.
Answer: B
73. The phrase, “interest but no interaction,” best describes _____ play.
a. cooperative
b. simple social
c. parallel

d. make-believe
Answer: C
74. Bud and Lou are both playing with blocks. Though they are playing, they smile at each
other and trade blocks from time to time. It is most likely that Bud and Lou are involved in
a. cooperative play.
b. parallel play.
c. simple social play.
d. prosocial behavior.
Answer: C
75. Children typically begin to exhibit simple social play around ____ months of age.
a. 18
b. 24
c. 30
d. 36
Answer: A
76. Alexandra and Anders are playing a game where Anders hides a stuffed animal and
Alexandra tries to find it. When she does, Alexandra hides the stuffed animal and Anders tries
to find it. This is an example of ________ play.
a. parallel
b. prosocial
c. cooperative
d. simple social
Answer: C
77. Franklin and Benjamin are pretending to go to school. Franklin is pretending to be the
teacher, and Benjamin is pretending to be the student. What sort of interaction does this
exemplify?

a. Parallel play
b. Cooperative play
c. Simple social play
d. Constricting actions
Answer: B
78. While the typical 1 1/2-year-old spends the majority of time engaged in ____ play, the
typical 4-year-old spends most of his or her time in ____ play.
a. cooperative; simple social
b. parallel; cooperative
c. simple social; parallel
d. parallel; simple social
Answer: B
79. Walt is a preschooler who has an imaginary friend mouse named Mickey. According to
recent research, it is most likely that Walt
a. is insecurely attached.
b. has not received enough dispositional praise.
c. has few “real” friends relative to other preschoolers.
d. is a typical preschooler.
Answer: D
80. Which statement is true regarding make-believe?
a. Children make-believe the same things in all cultures.
b. It is a sign of emotional disturbance.
c. It seems to promote cognitive development.
d. It always involves imaginary companions.
Answer: C

81. Omero is a preschooler who has an imaginary friend. Which best describes Omero
relative to his peers without imaginary friends?
a. Emotionally disturbed
b. Sociable
c. Has few friends
d. Less intelligent
Answer: B
82. Five-year-old Lou has a vivid imagination and an imaginary friend. How would this
affect Lou’s ability to distinguish between fantasy and reality?
a. He is more likely than other children his age to believe that cartoon characters are “real.”
b. He is more likely than other children his age to believe that “magic” is “real.”
c. He is less likely than other children his age to want to play games that involve pretending.
d. His imagination has virtually no impact on his ability to separate fantasy and reality.
Answer: D
83. Which sort of solitary play would most likely be unhealthy?
a. Watching other children play without joining them
b. Sitting in a room, building an imaginary city out of plastic building blocks
c. Drawing and coloring
d. Completing a series of puzzles in a puzzle book
Answer: A
84. As a typical prepubescent female, Rihanna will prefer to
a. play with boys regardless of the game.
b. play with girls regardless of the game.
c. play “house” with girls and football with boys.
d. play “house” with boys and football with girls.

Answer: B
85. Which would least likely be found in a description of “boys play?”
a. Competitive
b. Cooperative
c. Rough
d. Intimidation
Answer: B
86. Will is playing Ferrell in a game and attempts to win by saying, “If you try to do well, I
will smack you!” What term best describes this statement?
a. Parallel play
b. Social referencing
c. Constricting action
d. Enabling action
Answer: C
87. Which term does not fit with the notion of “constricting” during play?
a. Exaggeration
b. Threats
c. Contradiction
d. Support
Answer: D
88. Michelle and Warren are building a playhouse. Michelle says to Warren, “How about I
help you with your part, then you help me with mine?” This offer would be an example of
a. an enabling action.
b. parallel play.
c. a constricting action.

d. altruism.
Answer: A
89. Concerning play, which statement best exemplifies enabling?
a. “You are doing great, keep going.”
b. “You are in for a world of hurt if you win.”
c. “I am so much better than you.”
d. “I have never played that before.”
Answer: A
90. Which is true of childhood play?
a. Both boys and girls tend to favor enabling over constricting
b. Both boys and girls tend to favor constricting over enabling
c. Boys tend to favor enabling and girls tend to favor constricting
d. Boys tend to favor constricting and girls tend to favor enabling
Answer: D
91. Which exemplifies the notion of parent as social director during play?
a. A parent who likes to play directly with his or her child
b. A parent who actively encourages his or her child to play with others
c. A parent who steps in to resolve disputes between his or her child and other children
d. A parent who teaches his or her child skills that will make the child better at a game
Answer: B
92. Hulk often has to step in and solve disagreements between his son Hogan and his
daughter Brooke. This action best reflects the idea of a parent as a
a. playmate.
b. social director.
c. coach.

d. mediator.
Answer: D
93. Concerning parental influence on play,
a. all coaching is beneficial.
b. good coaching is never that good.
c. bad coaching is worse than no coaching at all.
d. avoiding coaching is the best option.
Answer: C
94. Using scaffolding would be most beneficial for a preschool parent acting as a _____
during play.
a. playmate
b. social director
c. mediator
d. constrictor
Answer: A
95. All acts of altruistic behavior are also
a. prosocial behaviors.
b. basic emotions.
c. examples of dispositional praise.
d. social roles.
Answer: A
96. Urvashi decides to help her friend find her lost cat because her friend is likely to give her
a reward. This is an example of
a. prosocial behavior.
b. altruism.

c. empathy.
d. simple social play.
Answer: A
97. Solomon places a large cash amount into the hand of a street person. What would make
this an act of altruism?
a. Solomon does not expect any reciprocation for his act.
b. Solomon is given a bag of cans in return.
c. Solomon feels pity for the person as he gives him the cash.
d. Solomon has a habit of engaging in these types of activities.
Answer: A
98. Basic acts of altruistic behavior first appear around ____ months of age.
a. 12
b. 18
c. 24
d. 30
Answer: B
99. Young Jim experiences the sadness of his friend Abdul when Abdul’s dog runs away. Jim
is exhibiting
a. empathy.
b. altruism.
c. cooperative behavior.
d. sympathy.
Answer: A
100. The fact that young children are so _____ may interfere with their ability to engage in
altruistic behaviors.

a. purposeful
b. accommodating
c. sympathetic
d. egocentric
Answer: D
101. Perspective taking is to empathy as
a. purpose is to will.
b. caring is to helping.
c. social play is to parallel play.
d. a cognitive act is to an emotional act.
Answer: D
102. Which child is most likely to act altruistically toward Gunter, who is having a very
difficult time learning how to skate?
a. Jerzy, who is not very good at skating
b. Tetsuro, who is feeling happy
c. Spike, who was yelled at by the rink attendant only minutes ago
d. Ruby, who would have to miss her only ride home in order to help Gunter
Answer: B
103. With which person is Rosalind most likely to act altruistically?
a. Demi, whom Rosalind has never met
b. Masja, who was in Rosalind’s class last year
c. Hayley, who is Rosalind’s little sister
d. Dianne, who is a friend of Rosalind’s mother
Answer: C

104. Which thought has been shown to increase the odds of a child engaging in an altruistic
act?
a. “I think that this will cost a lot, but it will be worth it.”
b. “I think that doing this will make me feel better.”
c. “I think that this will make me a better person.”
d. “I think I have what they need.”
Answer: D
105. Altruistic acts in children tend to occur when the cost of the act is
a. low.
b. high.
c. not known in advance.
d. expected to be immediately recouped.
Answer: A
106. The most effective way for Hera to get her son young Zeus to become more prosocial
would be to
a. act lazy herself so he can see how unhelpful that behavior is.
b. criticize him for being so lazy and unhelpful.
c. show him bad things that happen to people who don’t help.
d. offer him chances to help bring in the groceries.
Answer: D
107. Which is the best advice for parents wishing to socialize altruistic behavior in their
child?
a. Don’t model altruism
b. Don’t force altruistic behavior by threat
c. Don’t provide opportunities to practice altruism

d. Don’t believe that parenting behavior can impact altruism
Answer: B
108. One of the most effective ways for Dottie to get her child to engage in altruistic behavior
is for Dottie to
a. avoid discipline.
b. not dwell on or praise any spontaneous acts of altruism she observes in her child.
c. model the behavior herself.
d. do nothing and let the child’s natural altruistic instinct take over.
Answer: C
109. Parents who incorporate ____ into their discipline are most likely to encourage altruistic
behavior.
a. reasoning
b. parallel play
c. ethology
d. punishment
Answer: A
110. A social role is best described as
a. a cultural guideline for interacting with other people.
b. a biosocial impact on behavior.
c. an individual attachment style.
d. a way of behaving that is not tied to culture.
Answer: A
111. On her way to visiting Malaysia for the first time, Joan wonders what the people there
will expect from her during their interactions. Joan is concerned about
a. dispositional praise.

b. prosocial behavior.
c. altruism.
d. social roles.
Answer: D
112. The reason that students are expected to act differently than professors is because they
represent different
a. prosocial behaviors.
b. social roles.
c. gender identities.
d. gender stereotypes.
Answer: B
113. Male and female social roles are
a. virtually identical.
b. inherited.
c. culturally defined.
d. indistinguishable.
Answer: C
114. Gender-role stereotypes involve beliefs that
a. are never true.
b. are always true.
c. are always true, but only in a specific culture.
d. are sometimes true.
Answer: D
115. Phil believes that all women are emotional, physically weak, and interested in cooking.
Phil’s beliefs about women would best be described as

a. a social role.
b. altruistic.
c. accurate.
d. a gender stereotype.
Answer: D
116. Which person is most likely using a gender stereotype to describe Erin?
a. Elvis: “Erin is mean. I saw her push someone on the playground.”
b. Graham: “Erin really likes cooking. Every week, she bakes a batch of cookies and brings
them to class.”
c. Roddy: “Erin is like all females, intelligent and understanding.”
d. Christopher: “Erin is different from anyone else I have ever met, she is really weird.”
Answer: C
117. Gender stereotypes influence behavior by providing
a. an explanation for biological differences between males and females.
b. accurate sex-based information.
c. the world with a set of universal guidelines.
d. a set of behavioral expectations.
Answer: D
118. If he is like most preschoolers, Dougie is likely to believe that girls are
a. physically aggressive.
b. strong and dominant.
c. verbally aggressive.
d. capable of playing football.
Answer: C
119. Which description of the sex difference in spatial ability is the most accurate?

a. Most boys perform better on tests of spatial ability than the brightest girl.
b. Girls perform better on tests of spatial ability than boys.
c. Girls and boys score equally on tests of spatial ability.
d. Average tests scores of spatial ability are higher for boys than girls.
Answer: D
120. Concerning social roles, female activities are typically more
a. demanding.
b. solitary.
c. strenuous.
d. outside the home.
Answer: B
121. Which is not a finding of researchers studying sex differences?
a. Males are more aggressive.
b. Males are more likely to comply with the directions of adults.
c. Females are less likely to have language-related problems.
d. Females receive higher grades in math courses.
Answer: B
122. On average, boys are _____ than girls.
a. better able to express emotions
b. less aggressive
c. better at spatial tasks
d. more readily influenced by others
Answer: C

123. Katie is upset with her friend Leslie. In order to “get even” with her, she tries to make
Leslie’s other friends mad at Leslie by making up stories about her. What is this sort of
behavior called?
a. Physical aggression
b. Gender labeling
c. Relational aggression
d. Verbal aggression
Answer: C
124. As a typical 10-year-old American female, Brianna is more likely to ____ than a sameage male counterpart.
a. be aggressive
b. have a smaller vocabulary
c. be emotionally expressive
d. score highly on a test of spatial ability
Answer: C
125. Kyle and Sharon have a young daughter and a young son. As typical parents, they most
likely treat their children the same except when it deals with
a. doing well in school.
b. showing them affection.
c. rough-and-tumble play.
d. encouraging them to be independent.
Answer: C
126. As a typical American father, Hans would be most upset if his son Franz
a. was aggressive.
b. wanted to play “house.”

c. showed affection toward him.
d. engaged in sex-role stereotype behaviors.
Answer: B
127. Billie is a seven-year-old boy who likes to play house and play with dolls. How would
his peers be most likely to react to this behavior?
a. Both girls and boys would be accepting
b. Girls would be accepting, and boys would be rejecting
c. Boys would be accepting, and girls would be rejecting
d. Both girls and boys would be rejecting
Answer: D
128. Lisa believes that she cannot play football because “I’m a girl, and girls aren’t supposed
to play football.” This belief is most likely an aspect of Lisa’s
a. insecure attachment.
b. prosocial behavior.
c. gender identity.
d. self-esteem.
Answer: C
129. Dwight’s statement, “I am a boy” is an example of
a. gender stability.
b. gender labeling.
c. a gender-role stereotype.
d. gender constancy.
Answer: B
130. The statement “girls always grow up to be women” provides an example of
a. gender stability.

b. gender-role stereotyping.
c. the one-to-one principle.
d. a gender role.
Answer: A
131. When three-year-old Juan, who is male, says “I’m going to grow up to be a mommy,” he
is failing to demonstrate
a. gender identity.
b. gender stability.
c. gender labeling.
d. will.
Answer: B
132. When Sara thinks about herself, she has a sense that she is a girl. On the basis of this,
you could say for certain that Sara has developed
a. gender identity.
b. gender stability.
c. gender constancy.
d. gender-role stereotypes.
Answer: A
133. David is a five-year-old who knows that he is a boy, and that he is a boy whether he’s
playing with his toys or his sister’s toys. This indicates that David has developed
a. prosocial behavior.
b. gender constancy.
c. cooperative play.
d. social roles.
Answer: B

134. Betsy does not want to play football, because she believes that if she plays, she will turn
into a boy! Betsy is failing to demonstrate
a. gender constancy.
b. gender stability.
c. gender identity.
d. gender labeling.
Answer: A
135. Hamid believes that because his brother Yusef is playing with girl toys that Yusef is now
a girl. This would indicate that Hamid apparently does not yet understand
a. gender stability.
b. gender labeling.
c. gender constancy.
d. parallel play.
Answer: C
136. Which aspect of understanding gender is a child likely to demonstrate last?
a. Gender stability
b. Gender stereotypes
c. Gender constancy
d. Gender labeling
Answer: C
137. According to gender-schema theory, in order to decide where to learn more about an
object, a child must first
a. play with the object.
b. decide whether the object is associated with females or males.
c. develop gender constancy.

d. be reinforced for interacting with the object.
Answer: B
138. Which quote is most reflective of the use of a gender schema?
a. “I am a boy.”
b. “Is soccer for boys or for girls?”
c. “You are a boy.”
d. “Will you help me build this bridge?”
Answer: B
139. A gender-schema theorist would be most likely to argue that young children are
a. born with a basic gender identity.
b. uninfluenced by environmental experiences with gender-based behaviors.
c. constantly looking for cues about gender.
d. uninterested in gender.
Answer: C
140. Tina is a girl who has congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). This means that it is more
likely that Tina will prefer ____ more than other girls.
a. playing with dolls
b. playing with girls
c. masculine activities
d. attaching to her mother
Answer: C
141. Results from the Family Lifestyles Project indicate that children raised by counterculture
parents are different from children raised by parents with more traditional values in that
a. they have few stereotypes regarding occupations.
b. they play with same-sex peers.

c. the boys enjoy physical play.
d. the girls enjoy reading and drawing.
Answer: A
TRUE/FALSE
1. Erikson suggested that a proper balance between trust and mistrust can result in the
acquisition of hope.
Answer: True
2. According to Erikson’s theory, purpose is usually achieved before will.
Answer: False
3. Attachments tend to be fleeting socioemotional relationships.
Answer: False
4. Infants rarely become attached to their fathers.
Answer: False
5. Babies who exhibit avoidant attachment are not upset when their mothers leave the room.
Answer: True
6. Disorganized attachments are characterized by infant confusion when mom leaves and
when she returns.
Answer: True
7. Internal working models involve expectations about parental responsiveness.
Answer: True
8. Children attending high-quality daycare centers are less likely to be securely attached to
their mothers than are children raised in their own homes.
Answer: False
9. Pain is considered one of the basic emotions.
Answer: False

10. Social smiles tend to be in response to seeing another human’s face.
Answer: True
11. Children do not experience complex emotions until they are about 18 months old.
Answer: True
12. The expression of anger does not appear to vary by culture.
Answer: False
13. Quality of peer relationships is related to an individual’s ability to regulate his or her
emotions.
Answer: True
14. During parallel play, a child plays individually near other children.
Answer: True
15. Older children are more likely to engage in cooperative play than younger children.
Answer: True
16. Preschoolers with imaginary friends tend to be less sociable that other preschoolers.
Answer: False
17. Constricting play often involves threats.
Answer: True
18. Altruistic behavior involves an expectation of a reward.
Answer: False
19. When you experience the feelings of another person, you are experiencing empathy.
Answer: True
20. Parents who model altruism tend to raise more altruistic children.
Answer: True
21. Some gender stereotypes are false beliefs.
Answer: True

22. As toddlers, girls tend to have smaller vocabularies than boys.
Answer: False
23. Males tend to be better at interpreting the emotions of others.
Answer: False
24. The understanding that you are a boy or a girl occurs during gender labeling.
Answer: True
25. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia results in alteration of the genitals of male infants.
Answer: False
COMPLETION
1. Erikson suggested that a child who is able to successfully balance autonomy with shame
and doubt will develop a sense of _____.
Answer: will
2. _____ psychology focuses on behaviors that represent successful adaptations to the
environment.
Answer: Evolutionary
3. Most American children exhibit _____ attachment relationships.
Answer: secure
4. The three elements of basic emotions are a subjective feeling, a physiological change, and
a(n) _____.
Answer: overt behavior
5. When infants look to a parent to get cues about whether or not a new situation is safe, they
are exhibiting social _____.
Answer: referencing
6. When children are playing by themselves but are watching each other while they do so,
they are engaging in _____ play.
Answer: parallel

7. Aimless wandering by one’s self represents an unhealthy form of _____ play.
Answer: solitary
8. During play, _____ actions tend to support others and lead to sustained play.
Answer: enabling
9. _____ is a form of prosocial behavior in which there is no expectation of direct benefit for
one’s actions.
Answer: Altruism
10. _____ is the actual experiencing of another’s feelings.
Answer: Empathy
11. Beliefs and images about males and females that may or may not be true are called gender
_____.
Answer: stereotypes
12. An attempt to hurt another by damaging his or her peer relationships is referred to as
_____ aggression.
Answer: relational
13. Having a sense of yourself as male or female is best described as your gender _____.
Answer: identity
14. Understanding that a preschool boy must grow up to be a man represents a
comprehension of gender _____.
Answer: stability
15. Congenital adrenal _____ is a disorder that results in females having male-like genitalia.
Answer: hyperplasia
ESSAY
6. Describe how social referencing could be used to help explain how a child might acquire a
fear through modeling.

Answer: Social referencing occurs when a child looks at the face of an adult (often a parent)
when in a new or ambiguous situation. If mom or dads show a reaction of fear in this
situation, a child might mimic (model) this response and begin to show a fear response to this
situation.
8. Phil and Lil are both playing with dolls in the same room. Use them in examples of
parallel, simple social, and cooperative play.
Answer: During parallel play, Phil and Lil would intently watch each other play but would
not directly interact. During simple social play, Phil and Lil would engage in similar activities
(e.g., each building a sand castle) and would talk and/or smile at each other. During
cooperative play, Phil and Lil would directly interact with each other during some organized
activity (e.g., playing tag with each other).

Test Bank for Human Development : A Life-Span View
Robert V Kail, John C Cavanaugh
9781111834111, 9781337554831

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