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Chapter 10—Becoming an Adult: Physical, Cognitive, and Personality Development
1. Who is best classified as being in the state of emerging adulthood?
a. Lo, who is 15
b. Whitney, who is 25
c. Audrina, who is 35
d. Spencer, who is 45
Answer: B
2. Kalya considers herself more than an adolescent but not yet fully an adult. This would
qualify her as being in the state known as _____ adulthood.
a. tween
b. passage
c. emerging
d. formal
Answer: C
3. Role transitions always
a. occur at the same age for individuals within a given cultural population.
b. involve family relationships.
c. lead to significant increases in stress.
d. involve the acquisition of new responsibilities.
Answer: D
4. The criteria for reaching adulthood are referred to as a role
a. reversal.
b. transition.
c. impedance.

d. reflection.
Answer: B
5. Yacef suddenly finds himself newly married and out of school with a new job. Yacef is
a. role transitions.
b. reflective judgment.
c. possible selves.
d. fluid intelligence.
Answer: A
6. Which best describes the marker for transition into adulthood in most Western societies?
a. Markers that are loosely defined and can consist of any number of events
b. No markers, as adulthood is not viewed as unique time of life in most Western cultures
c. Markers that are specific and tied to marriage and/or having children
d. Markers that are differ by sex, with female transition clearly defined and male transition
loosely defined
Answer: A
7. In most non-Western developing cultures, ____ is the most important determinant of adult
a. completing college
b. marriage
c. getting a job
d. having a child
Answer: B
8. As a female growing up in a developing nation, Ozemena’s transition to adulthood is most
likely to be based on her ability to

a. procreate.
b. protect.
c. provide.
d. profit.
Answer: A
9. A rite of passage is best classified as a(n)
a. implicit stereotype.
b. biological event.
c. reflective judgment.
d. ritual.
Answer: D
10. Smita is a young woman who has been dressed in an elaborate garment and is being
separated from the rest of the community. After three days of various rituals, she will be
allowed back into the group as an adult. Smita is most likely experiencing
a. a social clock.
b. possible selves.
c. a rite of passage.
d. implicit stereotyping.
Answer: C
11. The youngest age at which most colleges label an individual as a returning adult student is
a. 25
b. 35
c. 45
d. 55
Answer: A
12. Which of 26-year-old Tonya’s characteristics would qualify her as being a “returning
adult student?”
a. The fact that she is leaving a job
b. Her age
c. The fact that she is the first in her family to go to school
d. Her sex
Answer: B
13. Which of the following statements about returning students is false?
a. Returning students tend to be problem-solvers.
b. Returning students tend to need more direction from instructors.
c. Returning students tend to experience conflicts between school, work, and family.
d. Returning students often have life experience relevant to coursework.
Answer: B
14. The desire to live life more fully by experiencing physical and emotionally threatening
situations is known as
a. multidimensionality.
b. a rite of passage.
c. edgework.
d. plasticity.
Answer: C
15. Nicola is 18 years old and engages in many risky behaviors. For example, she drives very
fast and recklessly, and does not use any protection when having sex. If Nicola is a typical
adolescent, these behaviors will ____ when she gets older.
a. significantly increase in frequency

b. slightly increase in frequency
c. remain at the same frequency level
d. decrease in frequency
Answer: D
16. In what way is Cheyenne different from Ciara, her teenage daughter?
a. Cheyenne is more likely to have unprotected sex .
b. Cheyenne is less likely to speed while driving.
c. Ciara is more likely to comply with social norms.
d. Ciara is less likely to shoplift.
Answer: B
17. Erikson would argue that 30-year-old Rollie is currently experiencing a crisis involving
a. trust versus mistrust.
b. identity versus role confusion.
c. autonomy versus shame and doubt.
d. intimacy versus isolation.
Answer: D
18. Who would Erikson say is most capable of true intimacy?
a. Cindy, who is overdependent on her boyfriend
b. Burt, who will go out with different people but finds it scary to go out with someone more
than a couple of times
c. Aileen, who has a clear sense of identity
d. Harrison, who is 16 years old
Answer: C
19. Identity is related to closeness for all groups except
a. same-sex friendships for women.

b. same-sex friendships for men.
c. cross-sex friendships for women.
d. cross-sex friendships for men.
Answer: C
20. Erikson’s theory is least applicable in explaining the timing of identity and intimacy
formation in
a. career-oriented men.
b. noncareer-oriented men.
c. career-oriented women.
d. noncareer-oriented women.
Answer: D
21. Who is least likely to be considered an adult?
a. A 16-year-old high school student
b. A 22-year-old living with his or her parents
c. A 22-year-old mother who works on a farm
d. A 17-year-old college student
Answer: A
22. Which of Brittney’s actions best exemplifies an attempt to achieve adult status?
a. Deciding that she was not old enough to handle the rigors of college
b. Her two marriages
c. Singing a duet with her younger sister
d. Her “wholesome” work as a young teen on the Disney channel
Answer: B
23. Who is most likely experiencing a “quarterlife crisis?”
a. 82-year-old Dominica, whose spouse just died

b. 62-year-old Kitt, who just retired
c. 42-year-old Lucia, who just had a baby
d. 22-year-old Aruba, who just graduated from college
Answer: D
24. Which statement by 25-year-old Flossie, who is typical for a person of her age, is most
likely false?
a. “I am as strong as I will ever be.”
b. “I am a lot less coordinated than I used to be.”
c. “My hearing is not quite as good as it used to be.”
d. “My height has likely reached its peak.”
Answer: B
25. The most likely sensory change between age 25 and 50 would involve
a. the loss of ability to taste sour foods.
b. a diminished ability to experience pain.
c. having trouble seeing things that are near.
d. the inability to hear high-pitched sounds.
Answer: D
26. Dr. Winslow is doing a health survey of 200 young adults. If this group is typical of
young adults in the United States, ____ of them will say they are in good to excellent health.
a. 188
b. 164
c. 132
d. 106
Answer: A

27. Kofi was a 27-year-old male living in the United States, who just died. What was the
most likely cause of Kofi’s death?
a. Cardiovascular disease
b. Homicide
c. Cancer
d. An accident
Answer: D
28. Based on statistics, which of these 30-year-old adults is most likely to die within a year?
a. Buster, a European-American male
b. Tamarick, an African-American male
c. John, an Asian-American male
d. Nik, a Native-American male
Answer: B
29. Which group of males in the United States has the lowest incidence of death during
young adulthood (age 25-34)?
a. Native Americans
b. African Americans
c. Latinos
d. Asian Americans
Answer: D
30. Smoking represents a major medical problem in the United States with about ____ people
each year dying from smoking-related disorders.
a. 4,000
b. 40,000
c. 400,000

d. 4,000,000
Answer: C
31. Whose cancer was most likely related to smoking?
a. Barbara’s, who has lung cancer
b. Nora’s, who has cancer of the cervix
c. Tim, who has cancer of the pancreas
d. Daniel, who has brain cancer
Answer: A
32. Which statement concerning secondhand smoke is true?
a. There is no evidence that secondhand smoke leads to any health problems
b. Hundreds of thousands of children suffer from lung problems annually from secondhand
smoke each year
c. Less than one-fifth of Americans have been exposed to secondhand smoke
d. Nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke are more likely to die from lung cancer than
from cardiovascular disease
Answer: B
33. All four of these people successfully quit smoking. Which person’s method was most
typical of successful quitters?
a. Monette, who went to a treatment center
b. Chuck, who went to a psychologist
c. Mark, who went to his minister
d. Wendy, who quit on her own
Answer: D
34. People who quit smoking after smoking for a long time
a. may not get worse, but their overall health will remain bad.

b. show significant improvements in their health.
c. will continue to deteriorate but at a slower rate.
d. will remain at risk for heart attack but not for cancer.
Answer: B
35. In the United States, about ____ percent of young adults ages 25 to 44 consume alcohol
a. 90
b. 65
c. 30
d. 15
Answer: B
36. Gallo drinks exactly two glasses of wine per day. As a result, Gallo can expect to
a. end up in a treatment center for alcoholism.
b. be at risk for cardiovascular disease.
c. be labeled a binge drinker.
d. experience some health-related benefits from his actions.
Answer: D
37. How is the consumption of alcohol related to the promotion of health?
a. Abstainers have the greatest benefits
b. Light drinkers have the greatest benefits
c. Heavy drinkers have the greatest benefits
d. Alcohol consumption has not been related to any health benefits
Answer: B
38. Jimmy goes to a party with his college buddies and has six beers in a row. Jimmy’s
behavior would be best classified as

a. alcoholism.
b. light drinking.
c. binge drinking.
d. purge drinking.
Answer: C
39. Who could we classify as being a binge drinker?
a. Sarah, who drank three shots of tequila in a row within the past two weeks
b. Susan, who drank four beers in a row within the past two weeks
c. Scott, who drank four shots of scotch in a row within the past two weeks
d. Sarah, Susan, and Scott all reach the criterion for binge drinking
Answer: B
40. Surveys of binge drinking behaviors indicate that
a. it has stayed the same in the general population.
b. it has increased in the general population.
c. it has stayed the same in the college population.
d. it has increased in the college population.
Answer: C
41. Who is most likely to be a binge drinker?
a. Jamaal, who is very emotionally expressive
b. Ryan, who is a member of a fraternity
c. Leslie, who works part-time
d. Emily, who studies approximately five hours per day
Answer: B
42. Jari is a frequent binge drinker. Which is he less likely to experience than his non-bingedrinking peers?

a. Unprotected sex
b. A hangover
c. Good grades
d. A sexually transmitted disease
Answer: C
43. Which approach to diminishing binge drinking on college campuses appears to be least
a. Student involvement in designing the intervention program
b. Programs that focus on younger drinkers
c. Changing the campus climate concerning alcohol consumption
d. Efforts based on limiting access to alcohol
Answer: D
44. Amanda is physically dependent on alcohol and experiences withdrawal symptoms when
she doesn’t drink. Amanda’s experience with alcohol would be best described as
a. an addiction.
b. a rite of passage.
c. binge drinking.
d. healthy behavior.
Answer: A
45. At a chemical level, alcohol addiction results in chemical changes that
a. cause the body to crave alcohol.
b. destroy all GABA receptors.
c. reduce levels of serotonin and dopamine within the brain.
d. increase cellular develop in the medulla oblongata.
Answer: A

46. Concerning treatment of alcohol abuse in young adults,
a. only Alcoholics Anonymous has been found to show long-term benefits.
b. the long-term effects for most programs are unknown.
c. behavior modification programs do not work.
d. cognitive therapies help males but are ineffective with females.
Answer: B
47. Bernice is very interested in studying how the energy needs of the human body change
through the life span. In other words, Bernice is interested in studying
a. cholesterol.
b. metabolism.
c. lipoproteins.
d. addiction.
Answer: B
48. Sixty-year-old Norbert says, “When I was a teenager, I could eat five big meals a day and
still feel hungry. Now a couple of snacks can get me through the day.” What best accounts for
this age-related change?
a. Lower metabolic rate
b. Higher blood sugar
c. Drop in thiamine level
d. Addition of muscle mass
Answer: A
49. Richard has just been told by his physician that he should cut back on the amount of fat in
his diet. His physician is most likely concerned about the high amount of ____ in Richard’s
a. vitamin D
b. high-density lipoproteins

c. low-density lipoproteins
d. carbohydrates
Answer: C
50. Low-density lipoproteins
a. clear fat deposits from arteries.
b. create sickle-shaped blood cells.
c. cause fatty deposits that can lead to blocked arteries.
d. are found in high concentrations in many green vegetables.
Answer: C
51. _____ help keep your arteries clear.
a. Trans fats
b. Serotonin
c. High-density lipoproteins
d. Steroids
Answer: C
52. Which best describes the relationship between LDLs and HDLs?
a. LDLs break down HDLs
b. HDLs break down LDLs
c. LDLs transform into HDLs
d. HDLs transform into LDLs
Answer: B
53. Who is at the greatest risk of a heart attack?
a. Forrest, who has high levels of LDLs and low levels of HDLs
b. Tucker, who has low level of LDLs and high levels of HDLs

c. Sawyer, who has low levels of both LDLs and HDLs
d. Gump, who has high levels of both LDLs and HDLs
Answer: A
54. Which combination would be a sign of good health?
a. LDL level over 160 mg/dL and HDL level under 50 mg/dL
b. LDL level under 160 mg/dL and HDL level under 50 mg/dL
c. LDL level under 160 mg/dL and HDL level over 50 mg/dL
d. LDL level over 160 mg/dL and HDL level over 50 mg/dL
Answer: C
55. A doctor is most likely to recommend that you consume higher levels of ____ to increase
your HDL level.
a. fiber
b. fat
c. Sodium
d. Yogurt
Answer: A
56. Sheryl’s physician Dr. Crow has just indicated that she needs to begin to take statins. If
Dr. Crow is competent, you would know that Sheryl
a. suffers from clinically depression.
b. has just been diagnosed with ADHD.
c. suffers from alcoholism.
d. has a high level of LDL.
Answer: D
57. What is BMI?
a. A measure of cholesterol in the blood

b. A personality test
c. A device used to assess binge drinking
d. An index related to total body fat
Answer: D
58. A doctor is attempting to determine how healthy you are. She uses a formula that contains
information regarding your height and weight. What is she most likely measuring?
a. LDL
b. BMI
c. HDL
d. ADA
Answer: B
59. If Winchester weighs 100 kilograms (220 pounds) and is 2 meters tall (6 feet 5 inches),
his BMI would be
a. 25.
b. 50.
c. 200.
d. 400.
Answer: A
60. An individual with a BMI of ____ or less is considered healthy.
a. 24
b. 34
c. 44
d. 54
Answer: A

61. Based solely on their BMI, how many of the following people are at risk for healthrelated diseases: Dick, BMI = 20; Flick, BMI = 40; Hick, BMI = 60; Nick, BMI = 80?
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4
Answer: C
62. Socioeconomic status and _____ are the two most important social influences on health.
a. education
b. occupation
c. marital status
d. religious status
Answer: A
63. Who is likely to be the least healthy?
a. Thales, who lives in poverty
b. Jose, who is a college graduate
c. Luzia, who is African American
d. Fabio, who is very wealthy
Answer: A
64. Who has the lowest risk of dying from a chronic disease?
a. Gomez, who is a high school drop-out
b. Mortica, who is a high school graduate
c. Wednesday, who is college drop-out
d. Fester, who is a college graduate
Answer: D

65. In the United States, the poorest health conditions are found in those living in
a. inner-city neighborhoods.
b. the South.
c. ethnic neighborhoods.
d. nursing homes.
Answer: A
66. Kali has a theory of intelligence that views it as being a combination of several factors
such as fine motor skills, cognitive ability, and emotional control. Kali’s theory is
a. multidirectional.
b. multidimensional.
c. conventional.
d. a life-span construct.
Answer: B
67. The biggest point of contention among theories who view intelligence as
multidimensional concerns the debate over
a. the number of abilities that underlie intelligence.
b. the degree to which race determines intelligence.
c. which single aspect of intellect specifically defines intelligence.
d. whether an individual’s level of intelligence can be measured.
Answer: A
68. Intellectual multidirectionality is based on the premise that
a. no two people develop the same way intellectually.
b. there is more than one kind of intelligence.
c. most aspects of intelligence cannot be modified.
d. with age, some aspects of intelligence improve while others may decline.

Answer: D
69. The fact that Molly’s spatial performance has declined while her verbal abilities have
improved is support for the notion that intelligence
a. is conventional.
b. has interindividual variability.
c. is multidirectional.
d. is a life-span construct.
Answer: C
70. The fact that a specific aspect of intelligence can be modified at any time during the life
span exemplifies the concept of
a. interindividual variability.
b. plasticity.
c. multidimensionality.
d. primary mental abilities.
Answer: B
71. Lai and Mei are sisters. As they have gotten older, Lai’s cognitive skills have improved
while Mei’s have declined. This is evidence for the __________ of abilities.
a. multidimensionality
b. multidirectionality
c. interindividual variability
d. Plasticity
Answer: C
72. Evidence for interindividual variability in intelligence is best demonstrated when
a. a single test of intelligence is based on assessing many different abilities.

b. the same individual shows improvement in language skills while showing declines in math
c. an individual’s singing improves after taking singing lessons.
d. one individual’s reasoning skills improve with age while another’s declines with age.
Answer: D
73. A baseball coach tells a pitcher, “With a little training, I think that you could learn to
throw a knuckleball.” This provides a good example of a belief in the _______ of an ability.
a. multidimensionality
b. plasticity
c. multidirectionality
d. fluid nature
Answer: B
74. After taking several college courses, Chuck’s short-term memory ability increased. This
exemplifies the concept of
a. plasticity.
b. multidimensionality.
c. interindividual variability.
d. postformal thought.
Answer: A
75. Dr. Ique has organized her lecture on intellectual ability around different skills that she
has placed into meaningful groups. What would be the best title for Dr. Ique’s lecture?
a. Plasticity Forever
b. You and Your Primary Mental Abilities
c. Rites of Passage Around the World
d. Avoiding Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome

Answer: B
76. Which is not a “primary mental ability?”
a. Number
b. Inductive reasoning
c. Spatial orientation
d. Fluid intelligence
Answer: D
77. Dr. Merchant points to a picture of elephants and asks you to describe what you see in the
picture. Dr. Merchant is probably assessing
a. verbal meaning.
b. number.
c. word fluency.
d. inductive reasoning.
Answer: C
78. Mr. Brady’s talents as an architect are mostly due to his ability to visualize buildings in
three-dimensions are they are being designed. This suggests that Mr. Brady has outstanding
_____ abilities.
a. inductive reasoning
b. spatial orientation
c. word fluency
d. number
Answer: B
79. Brady has never seen an American football game. After watching about 20 plays,
however, he is able to accurately describe the general premise of the game. This ability
suggests that Brady is skilled at
a. inductive reasoning.

b. number interpretation.
c. verbal meaning.
d. spatial orientation.
Answer: A
80. Schaie’s influential study on intellectual change over time utilizes the _____ research
design he invented.
a. cross-sectional
b. longitudinal
c. sequential
d. postformal
Answer: C
81. According to Schaie’s research, the fact that most 60-year-olds today would score higher
on an intelligence test than a group of 60-year-olds would have in 1940 is best explained by a
cohort effect involving
a. age.
b. educational experience.
c. heredity.
d. drop-out rate.
Answer: B
82. Which is not a factor identified by Schaie as a variable that helps reduce the risk of
cognitive decline in old age?
a. Living in good housing
b. Having a flexible personality style
c. Being satisfied with life
d. Being single

Answer: D
83. Who is most at risk for experiencing cognitive decline in old age?
a. A 30-year-old factory worker
b. A 30-year-old with hypertension
c. A 50-year-old celebrating his 25th wedding anniversary
d. A 50-year-old college student
Answer: B
84. Primary mental ability is to secondary mental ability as
a. crystallized intelligence is to fluid intelligence.
b. child is to adult.
c. specific is to general.
d. conventional is to postconventional.
Answer: C
85. Which statement is true?
a. Secondary mental abilities subsume primary mental ability.
b. Primary mental abilities subsume secondary mental ability.
c. Secondary mental abilities develop in childhood, and primary mental abilities develop in
d. Primary mental abilities develop in childhood, and secondary mental abilities develop in
Answer: A
86. Fluid intelligence consists of abilities that
a. allow for more flexible and adaptive thinking.
b. are acquired throughout the life span.
c. are considered primary mental abilities but not secondary mental abilities.

d. include verbal skills but not inductive or abstract thinking.
Answer: A
87. Which type of task is best suited to assessing fluid intelligence?
a. A trivial contest
b. A timed maze completion
c. A test of cultural norms
d. A vocabulary test
Answer: B
88. Crystallized intelligence is
a. acquired across one’s life.
b. best exemplified by sensory integration.
c. not very useful in solving real-life tasks.
d. best assessed on timed, standardized IQ tests.
Answer: A
89. Webster loves playing any game in which he can show off the large vocabulary that he
has acquired. A competent psychologist would suggest that this skill provides the best
example of
a. crystallized intelligence.
b. postconventional thought.
c. fluid intelligence.
d. preconventional thought.
Answer: A
90. Someone who knows the answers to all the questions on Who Wants to Be a Millionaire
would be exhibiting
a. fluid intelligence.

b. crystallized intelligence.
c. postformal thought.
d. reflective judgment.
Answer: B
91. Even though Jennings is only 22 years old, he is already the “king of trivia.” If Jennings
is typical, his ability to do well in trivia games will most likely
a. decline with age.
b. remain the same throughout his life.
c. increase with age.
d. increase until he is about 40, then decline dramatically.
Answer: C
92. Crystallized intelligence is to fluid intelligence as
a. vocabulary size is to assembling a puzzle.
b. a quiz is to an exam.
c. genius is to smart.
d. math is to language.
Answer: A
93. If you wanted to show that age decreases a certain type of intelligence, you should focus
on testing participants’
a. general intelligence.
b. fluid intelligence.
c. crystallized intelligence.
d. primary intelligence.
Answer: B

94. At what point in an average woman’s life would her crystallized intelligence scores be
most significantly greater than her fluid intelligence scores?
a. Birth
b. Puberty (around age 13)
c. Menopause (around age 43)
d. Retirement (around age 63)
Answer: D
95. One of the most likely reasons for the typical developmental path for crystallized
intelligence is that
a. practice tends to improve performance.
b. inherited skills tend to remain steady across the life span.
c. neuron pruning leads to a significant reduction in mental flexibility.
d. modern nutrition is better today than at any point in history.
Answer: A
96. Research suggests that the higher intelligence in young adulthood
a. is related to lower mortality in middle age.
b. does not provide a health advantage over the course of one’s life.
c. is related to neuron pruning that significantly reduces mental flexibility.
d. does not impact the organization of brain structures.
Answer: A
97. The theory that proposes that intelligence comes from a distributed and integrated
network of neurons in the parietal and frontal lobes of the brain is called
a. parieto-frontal integration theory.
b. parietal distribution theory.
c. lobe integration network theory.

d. neuron network distribution theory.
Answer: A
98. What is the main criticism of longitudinal research designed to determine when cognitive
decline begins to occur?
a. Longitudinal research does not retain enough participants in the sample to answer
questions on cognitive decline.
b. Longitudinal research does not take into account the different experiences of each
c. Retesting makes it difficult for participants to continue getting high scores on measures of
cognitive functioning.
d. Repeated testing masks the true point at which cognitive decline begins because
participants improve with each round of testing.
Answer: D
99. Postformal adult thinkers differ from adolescent formal operational thinkers in that the
adults are more likely to
a. use deductive logic.
b. consider situational circumstances.
c. be swayed by their own experience.
d. make quick decisions on complex problems.
Answer: B
100. Helen has reached a point where she relies on the logical opinions of her professors to
determine where she should stand on different issues. Helen is most likely
a. at the end of her college career.
b. in the middle of her college career.
c. at the beginning of her college career.
d. a returning adult student.

Answer: C
101. Which student is most likely to ask, “Are there any truths in the world?”
a. Ekoka, who is at the end of his college career
b. Farrell, who is in the middle of his college career
c. DaVon, who is beginning his college career
d. Zell, who is a returning adult student
Answer: B
102. According to Perry (1970), by the end of college, the most advanced students
a. acknowledge the right of others to hold opinions contrary to their own.
b. think in terms of absolute right and wrong.
c. prefer the ideas of others more than their self.
d. have learned to reject reflective judgment.
Answer: A
103. Which constitutes the highest level of thinking in adulthood?
a. Conventional thought
b. Sensorimotor thought
c. Postformal thought
d. Hypothetical-deductive thought
Answer: C
104. In order to qualify as a “postformal thinker,” you must be able to accept
a. egocentric thought as a necessity.
b. the existence of a single truth.
c. experience as the source of all knowledge.
d. contradiction as normal.

Answer: D
105. When Satoru ponders the question, “How can light be both a wave and a particle?” he is
engaging in
a. a role transition.
b. a rite of passage.
c. reflective judgment.
d. multidirectionality.
Answer: C
106. When Lorenzo ponders the question, “How can women remain in abusive
relationships?” he is engaging in
a. a role transition.
b. a rite of passage.
c. reflective judgment.
d. multidirectionality.
Answer: C
107. Jason believes that gun control is absolutely wrong and that the right to possess guns is
an absolute right. Jason would probably be closest to the ____ stage of reflective judgment.
a. initial
b. halfway
c. later
d. last
Answer: A
108. Ralphie believes that following school rules is important because a teacher’s authority
should not be questioned. Ralphie would probably be closest to the _____ stage of reflective
a. initial

b. halfway
c. later
d. last
Answer: A
109. The statement, “Nothing in life can be known for certain” is most likely to be uttered by
someone at the _____ stage of reflective judgment.
a. initial
b. second
c. halfway
d. last
Answer: C
110. When making a court decision, Judge Ito says, “I try to come to reasonable solutions
based on the basis of the best arguments that I have available.” Judge Ito appears to be in the
____ stages of reflective judgment.
a. initial
b. second
c. halfway
d. later
Answer: D
111. Mature thinkers tend to
a. view personal experience as the most critical element in decision-making.
b. view rules as absolute.
c. integrate emotion and logic in decision-making.
d. realize that tolerance and ambiguity have no place in decision-making.
Answer: C

112. The Blanchard-Fields (1986) classic study of dilemma-solving in high school students,
college students, and middle-aged adults found that
a. adult participants were most effective at integrating emotion into their thinking.
b. high school participants were most effective at solving everyday dilemmas.
c. college students thought at the most advanced levels on every type of dilemma.
d. the ability to solve dilemmas did not differ by age.
Answer: A
113. Which of the following individuals is most likely to effectively integrate emotion into
their thinking?
a. A female high school student
b. A male college student
c. A female in her mid 30s
d. A male in his mid 40s
Answer: D
114. The strength of one’s beliefs about rules, beliefs, and attitudes is linked to
a. specific situations.
b. personal control beliefs.
c. reflective judgment.
d. crystallized intelligence.
Answer: A
115. When encountering a specific situation, which of the following does not occur in the
process of thinking about the situation?
a. A spiritual reaction
b. An emotional reaction
c. Cognitive belief system activation

d. Social judgments
Answer: A
116. The belief that “marriage is more important than a career” is most prevalent among
which age group?
a. Children
b. Adolescents
c. Young adults
d. Older adults
Answer: D
117. With regard to age, how did different age groups respond to the belief that “you can’t
stop love”?
a. Young people endorse this rule
b. Middle-aged people endorse this rule
c. Both young and old people endorse this rule
d. Both young and old people reject this rule
Answer: C
118. Which of the following best describes the way middle-aged people think about a young
couple that eloped over their parents’ objection?
a. They emphasize the role that the parents should play in the situation.
b. They focus on respecting the parents in this situation.
c. They emphasize the pragmatic factors, such as age, in this situation.
d. They focus on the importance of love in this situation.
Answer: C
119. Which of the following impacts the development of social beliefs least?
a. Generational differences

b. Intellectual differences
c. The challenges at particular life stages
d. How emotion and cognition integrate
Answer: B
120. A graph of the research on the social rule “you can’t stop true love” by age would likely
a. a flat line.
b. a steadily decreasing slope.
c. a steadily increasing slope.
d. a U-shaped curve.
Answer: D
121. A life-span construct represents a
a. unified sense of one’s past, present, and future.
b. multidimensional conceptualization of intelligence.
c. fear that when people act in negative ways expected by others, they are doing a disservice
to all members of their sex.
d. personal timetable concerning when someone else should experience some event.
Answer: A
122. Costanzia has a firm sense of her childhood, who she is as a person today, and how she
will live her life in the future. This constitutes Costanza’s
a. possible selves.
b. fluid intelligence.
c. life-span construct.
d. scenario.
Answer: C

123. Omar is thinking about a time to come when he will be married and have a family. This
is an example of
a. an implicit stereotype.
b. a life story.
c. reflective judgment.
d. a scenario.
Answer: D
124. Harouna is thinking about graduating from graduate school and finding a job in which
he can use his skills. This is an example of
a. an implicit stereotype.
b. a life story.
c. a scenario.
d. reflective judgment.
Answer: C
125. Which best reflects a “social clock?”
a. Donald, who wants to be a millionaire by age 30
b. Ivana, who has been married four times
c. Melania, who can accurately remember her adolescent “coming-out” party
d. Trump, who is presently going through puberty
Answer: A
126. Darren wants to be out of graduate school by age 25, married by age 30, and retired by
age 50. This is an example of a
a. life-span construct.
b. personal control belief.
c. life story.

d. social clock.
Answer: D
127. Gina is 40 years old and often reflects on her life. Special memories of childhood, high
school, college, and her early career all seem to fit together. This is Gina’s
a. life story.
b. life-span construct.
c. scenario.
d. possible selves.
Answer: A
128. According to McAdams, a person’s developing personality is best reflected by
a. the emotions conveyed in his or her life story.
b. a score on a standardized personality measure (e.g., MMPI).
c. the ability to engage in postformal thought.
d. the degree to which this person becomes reliant on rites of passage.
Answer: A
129. According to McAdams, in Western society, coherent life stories are first formed in
a. infancy.
b. early adulthood.
c. middle adulthood.
d. old age.
Answer: B
130. Which of the following would best reflect a life story goal of communion?
a. Being a powerful CEO
b. Winning a Nobel prize
c. A lifelong love

d. Being your own person
Answer: C
131. How many of the following could be elements of someone’s life story: emotions, main
characters, a legacy?
a. 0
b. 1
c. 2
d. 3
Answer: D
132. According to McAdams, a person’s life story is
a. set in a single direction and uninfluenced by culture.
b. set in a single direction and influenced by culture.
c. fashioned, refashioned, and uninfluenced by culture.
d. fashioned, refashioned, and influenced by culture.
Answer: D
133. Gabriella often thinks of herself as a mother and dreams of herself as an actress, but is
afraid she’ll end up suffering from alcoholism. These are examples of
a. stereotype threats.
b. possible selves.
c. reflective judgments.
d. life-span constructs.
Answer: B
134. Which requires the creation of possible selves?
a. Postformal thought
b. Reflective thinking

c. Crystallized intelligence
d. Projecting yourself into the future
Answer: D
135. Research on possible selves development has shown that
a. older adults believe that becoming both the hoped-for and the feared self is under their
b. younger adults believe that becoming both the hoped-for and the feared self is under their
c. older adults believe that becoming the hoped-for self is under their control, but they have
little control over the feared self.
d. younger adults believe that becoming the hoped-for self is under their control, but they
have little control over the feared self.
Answer: B
136. _____ tends to be most important domain for hoped- and feared-for self in older age.
a. Intelligence
b. Wealth
c. Love
d. Health
Answer: D
137. Who is most likely to believe that she will achieve her hoped-for self?
a. Allie, who is 25 years old
b. Alison, who is 50 years old
c. Ashley, who is 65 years old
d. Abby, who is 85 years old
Answer: A

138. Kate thinks that no matter what she does, she will not be able to do well in her
developmental psychology class. This perception is a sample of Kate’s
a. rite of passage.
b. life story.
c. crystallized intelligence.
d. personal control beliefs.
Answer: D
139. Merlin believes that he can get what he wants if he tries hard enough. This indicates that
he has _____ sense of personal control.
a. no
b. a low
c. a moderate
d. a high
Answer: D
140. Jim believes that he can improve his financial situation by getting a second job. Jim is
a. primary control.
b. secondary control.
c. implicit stereotyping.
d. skill acquisition.
Answer: A
141. Which statement best exemplifies the concept of secondary control?
a. “When my job gets tough, I will succeed with effort.”
b. “You can buy your way out of any situation.”
c. “My friends help me when I need assistance.”

d. “Always look to professionals for help.”
Answer: A
1. Emerging adulthood officially begins when you have your first child.
Answer: False
2. Cultures in the developing world tend to have specific practices for marking the transition
from adolescence to adulthood.
Answer: True
3. Erikson saw young adulthood as involving the psychosocial conflict between generativity
and stagnation.
Answer: False
4. Young adults who return to live with their parents after college increased the rate at which
they become independent adults.
Answer: False
5. The “quarterlife crisis” involves challenges faced by individuals in their 20s.
Answer: True
6. Most individuals do not reach their physical peak until their mid-30s.
Answer: False
7. Over 90 percent of adults age 18-44 claim that their health is good to excellent.
Answer: True
8. Lung, mouth, bladder, and cervix cancer are all linked to smoking.
Answer: True
9. Moderate drinkers have higher risks for cardiovascular disease than abstainers and heavy
Answer: False

10. Limiting access to alcohol appears to be the most effective means of reducing the
incidence of binge drinking in college students.
Answer: False
11. An individual addicted to alcohol must demonstrate physical dependence on the drug.
Answer: True
12. Low-density lipoproteins cause fatty deposits to accumulate in the arteries.
Answer: True
13. Poverty and racism are key reasons for the poor health conditions found in inner-city
Answer: True
14. The fact that your abilities can be altered with experience underlies the concept of
Answer: True
15. Secondary mental abilities subsume primary mental abilities.
Answer: True
16. Fluid intelligence is acquired through life experience.
Answer: False
17. Perry found that first-year college students rely heavily on the expertise of authority
figures, like their professors.
Answer: True
18. Most children use reflective judgment when reasoning out real-life dilemmas.
Answer: False
19. Real-life dilemmas usually have a correct solution.
Answer: False
20. Postformal thinking requires the acceptance of multiple solutions.

Answer: True
21. Young adults are the best at integrating emotions into their thinking.
Answer: False
22. Scenarios consist mostly of interpretations of a person’s past.
Answer: False
23. According to McAdams, a life story helps organize the past events in a person’s life into a
coherent sequence.
Answer: True
24. Possible selves become more numerous and varied the older a person gets.
Answer: False
25. An individual with a high sense of personal control believes that his or her actions are
controlled by environmental forces.
Answer: False
1. _____ adulthood is the time when someone is more than an adolescent and less than a full
Answer: Emerging
2. Rituals that mark the initiation to adulthood are known as rites of _____.
Answer: passage
3. People must be over age 25 to qualify as _____ adult students.
Answer: returning
4. According to Erikson, the major psychosocial conflict of young adulthood involves _____.
Answer: intimacy versus isolation
5. A female who drinks four or more drinks in a row is said to be _____ drinking.
Answer: binge

6. The amount of energy the body needs is called _____.
Answer: metabolism
7. _____ lipoproteins help clear your arteries.
Answer: High-density
8. The ratio of body weight and height that is related to body fat is the _____ index.
Answer: body mass
9. The fact that some cognitive abilities improve with age and some decline with age
illustrates the concept of _____.
Answer: multidirectionality
10. The ability to understand relationships between concepts and to respond adaptively to
new situations is termed _____ intelligence.
Answer: fluid
11. The notion that truth varies by situation and ambiguity is the rule, not the exception,
characterizes _____ thought.
Answer: postformal
12. _____ stereotyping is both automatic and unconscious.
Answer: Implicit
13. Tagging a future event to a specific age by which it will be completed creates a social
Answer: clock
14. _____ selves represent who we could become, regardless of whether that person is good
or bad.
Answer: Possible
15. Hillary’s confidence that she is capable of shaping her own career reflects a sense of
strong _____ beliefs.
Answer: personal control

11. A friend hears that you are taking a course in human development and asks you to help
her make sense of the nutrition-related terms metabolism, LDL, HDL, and BMI. Provide a
written response in which you describe the role that each of these play in one’s health.
Answer: Metabolism refers to the amount of energy the body needs. Body metabolism slows
with age. LDL and HDL are two types of cholesterol. LDL refers to low-density lipoproteins
that are harmful as they cause fatty deposits to accumulate in arteries and result in impeded
blood flow. HDL refers to high-density lipoproteins that are beneficial to health as they break
down LDL and help clear the arteries. The key to good health is a low level of LDL and a
high level of HDL. Your body mass index (BMI) is the ratio of body weight to height and
reflects your total body fat. A BMI of less than 25 is considered healthy.
12. Describe the concept of personal control beliefs, both primary and secondary.
Answer: Personal control belief refers to the degree to which you believe your performance
depends on something you do. An individual with a high sense of personal control believes
that his performance is under his control. Primary control involves behaviors affecting one’s
external world (e.g., working a second job to increase earnings). Due to its relationship to
biological factors, the development of primary control is very low in childhood, high in
middle age, and very low in later life. Secondary control involves behaviors or cognitions
affecting the person’s internal world (e.g., believing that you can succeed when facing a

Test Bank for Human Development : A Life-Span View
Robert V Kail, John C Cavanaugh
9781111834111, 9781337554831

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