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Chapter 08 Motivation and Emotion Multiple Choice Questions 1. _____________ refers to the factors that direct and energize the behavior of humans and other organisms. A. Development B. Intelligence C. Cognition D. Motivation Answer: D. Motivation 2. Dr. Schmidt studies the factors that direct and energize the behavior of humans and other organisms. Dr. Schmidt studies: A. personality. B. intelligence. C. cognition. D. motivation. Answer: D. motivation. 3. Declan, a Ph.D candidate, tells his department's undergraduate student organization that his dissertation research is in the area of motivation. Declan is investigating: A. the ability to generate new solutions to problems. B. the way behavior changes as a result of experience. C. the factors that direct and energize the behavior of humans and other organisms. D. the processes whereby information is encoded, stored, and retrieved. Answer: C. the factors that direct and energize the behavior of humans and other organisms. 4. When psychologists first tried to explain motivation, they turned to _____________. A. notions B. instincts C. incitements D. stimulants Answer: B. instincts 5. Inborn patterns of behavior that are biologically determined are called: A. desires. B. instincts. C. notions. D. motives. Answer: B. instincts. 6. With which of the following early psychologists is instinct theory most strongly associated? A. James B. Thorndike C. McDougall D. Watson Answer: C. McDougall 7. Which of the following is NOT among the shortcomings of instinct approaches to motivation? A. Instinct approaches can account only for physiological motivations, not psychological ones. B. Instinct theorists identified too many different instincts for the theory to be useful. C. Instinct theorists disagreed on the precise instincts guiding behavior. D. Instinct theorists fail to explain why certain specific patterns of behavior have evolved in a given species. Answer: A. Instinct approaches can account only for physiological motivations, not psychological ones. 8. Which of the following statements best expresses the fate of instinct approaches to motivation within mainstream psychology? A. Instinct approaches to motivation are gaining strength in psychology, as they reflect the cutting-edge perspective of cognitive psychology. Answer: B. Instinct approaches to motivation still play a role in certain theories, especially those based on evolutionary approaches that focus on our genetic inheritance. C. Instinct approaches to motivation have been abandoned and are really of only historical interest in psychology. D. Instinct approaches have always been influential in the psychology of motivation. 9. The first two theoretical approaches to motivation that attained prominence in the history of modern psychology were: A. the instinct approach and then the incentive approach. B. the incentive approach and then the drive-reduction approach. C. the drive-reduction approach and then the instinct approach. D. the instinct approach and then the drive-reduction approach. Answer: D. the instinct approach and then the drive-reduction approach. 10. Drive-reduction approaches first appeared in the psychology of motivation in the: A. 1920s. B. 1940s. C. 1960s. D. 1980s. Answer: B. 1940s. 11. Drive-reduction approaches to motivation are: A. theories suggesting that a lack of some basic biological need produces a drive to push an organism to satisfy that need. B. theories suggesting that we try to maintain certain levels of stimulation and activity. C. theories suggesting that motivation stems from the desire to obtain valued external goals. D. theories suggesting that motivation is a product of people's thoughts, expectations, and goal. Answer: A. theories suggesting that a lack of some basic biological need produces a drive to push an organism to satisfy that need. 12. Which approach to motivation is correctly paired with a behavior to which it is especially appropriate? A. Drive-reduction—eating B. Arousal—studying C. Cognitive—riding roller coasters D. Incentive—sleeping Answer: A. Drive-reduction—eating 13. Motivational tension or arousal that energizes behavior to fulfill a need is termed a(n): A. drive. B. reflex. C. incentive. D. instinct. Answer: A. drive. 14. Why do drive-reduction approaches fail to offer a complete account of human motivation? A. Homeostasis does not accurately describe the mechanism by which primary drives operate. B. Drive-reduction approaches offer much better explanations of behaviors motivated by secondary drives than of behaviors motivated by primary drives. C. People are sometimes motivated to increase rather than decrease their level of stimulation. D. Drive-reduction approaches are vague about what, or even how many, primary drives exist. Answer: C. People are sometimes motivated to increase rather than decrease their level of stimulation. 15. Dr. LaGrange is skeptical of drive theories of motivation. Which of the following behaviors is he most likely to cite to justify his skepticism? A. Bungee jumping B. Engaging in sexual intercourse C. Eating a quick meal D. Pursuing a stranger with a knife Answer: A. Bungee jumping 16. To which of the following behaviors is the drive-reduction approach least applicable? A. Sleeping extra hours after having disturbed sleep the previous day B. Drinking a cola on a hot day C. Having a snack D. Studying long hours Answer: D. Studying long hours 17. Does the drive-reduction approach offer a comprehensive account of motivation? Which of the following explains it? A. No. The drive-reduction approach explains how primary drives motivate behavior but fails to satisfactorily explain a behavior in which the goal is to increase arousal level. B. No. The drive-reduction approach fails to account for many motives, including physiological ones. C. Yes. The drive-reduction approach offers a satisfactory explanation of not only physiological motives, but also offers a satisfactory explanation for more psychologically oriented ones. D. Yes. The drive-reduction approach has been empirically supported. Answer: A. No. The drive-reduction approach explains how primary drives motivate behavior but fails to satisfactorily explain a behavior in which the goal is to increase arousal level. 18. What is homeostasis? A. A theory of need reduction B. The body’s tendency to maintain a steady internal state C. The psychological representation of primary needs D. The diffusion of fluids into a cell Answer: B. The body’s tendency to maintain a steady internal state 19. When blood pH becomes overly acidic, respiration and kidney function change to bring the acidity back to its normal pH level of 7.4. What does this process best exemplify? A. Metabolism B. Acclimatization C. Homeostasis D. An opponent-process system Answer: C. Homeostasis 20. The arousal approach to motivation suggests that: A. a lack of some basic biological need produces a drive to push an organism to satisfy that need. B. if levels of stimulation and activity are too low, people will try to increase them by seeking stimulation. C. motivation stems from the desire to obtain valued external goals. D. motivation is a product of people's thoughts, expectations, and goals. Answer: B. if levels of stimulation and activity are too low, people will try to increase them by seeking stimulation. 21. How do arousal approaches to motivation differ from drive-reduction approaches? A. Arousal approaches suggest that if our stimulation and activity levels become too low, we try to increase them. B. Arousal approaches suggest that if our stimulation and activity levels become too high, we try to reduce them by seeking stimulation. C. Arousal approaches emphasize the desirable qualities of internal stimuli to a greater extent than do drive-reduction approaches. D. Arousal theories place greater emphasis on physiological needs than do drive theories. Answer: A. Arousal approaches suggest that if our stimulation and activity levels become too low, we try to increase them. 22. "Human behavior is varied and often seems unpredictable; also, people sometimes seek out extremely stimulating situations and activities." This statement is most likely that of a proponent of the _____________ theory of motivation. A. instinct B. incentive C. arousal D. cognitive Answer: C. arousal 23. Of the following individuals, whose behavior may most easily be explained using the arousal approach to motivation? A. Artie, who loves to bungee jump B. Barry, who buys an expensive watch he can't resist C. Callista, who studies long hours to earn good grades D. Brooke, who sleeps extra hours after having had a tiring week at work Answer: A. Artie, who loves to bungee jump 24. Incentive approaches to motivation are: A. theories suggesting that a lack of some basic biological need produces a drive to push an organism to satisfy that need. B. theories suggesting that we try to maintain certain levels of stimulation and activity. C. theories suggesting that motivation stems from the desire to attain external rewards. D. theories suggesting that motivation is a product of people's thoughts, expectations, and goals. Answer: C. theories suggesting that motivation stems from the desire to attain external rewards. 25. Motivation theorists refer to external rewards people seek to obtain as: A. stimulants. B. incentives. C. drives. D. reinforcers. Answer: B. incentives. 26. In _____________ approaches to motivation, the desirable properties of external stimuli account for a person’s motivation. A. drive-reduction B. arousal C. incentive D. cognitive Answer: C. incentive 27. Which approach to motivation is incorrectly paired with its description? A. Drive-reduction—Motivation reflects the lack of basic biological necessity. B. Arousal—Motivation reflects the attempt to maintain a certain level of stimulation. C. Incentive—Motivation reflects the desire to attain external rewards. D. Cognitive—Motivation reflects the role of instincts. Answer: D. Cognitive—Motivation reflects the role of instincts. 28. Cognitive approaches to motivation are: A. theories suggesting that a lack of some basic biological need produces a drive to push an organism to satisfy that need. B. theories suggesting that we try to maintain certain levels of stimulation and activity. C. theories suggesting that motivation stems from the desire to obtain valued external goals. D. theories suggesting that motivation is a product of people's thoughts, beliefs, expectations, and goals. Answer: D. theories suggesting that motivation is a product of people's thoughts, beliefs, expectations, and goals. 29. Which of the following refers to the cause that pushes us to participate in an activity for our own enjoyment rather than for any actual or concrete reward that it will bring us? A. Intrinsic motivation B. Extrinsic motivation C. External factors D. Observable factors Answer: A. Intrinsic motivation 30. Which of the following is an example of extrinsic motivation? A. An athlete practices for long hours because she loves to run. B. A doctor sees more patients to make more money. C. A social worker spends more time with the elderly because she likes to be with them. D. A student reads many books on religion because she is very interested in religious studies. Answer: B. A doctor sees more patients to make more money. 31. Shellie takes college courses that interest her and enjoys learning for its own sake. Tori takes courses in which she is fairly certain she'll do well and studies mainly to ensure good grades. Shellie is _____________ motivated, whereas Tori is _____________ motivated. A. intrinsically; extrinsically B. internally; externally C. extrinsically; intrinsically D. externally; internally Answer: A. intrinsically; extrinsically 32. "Dance like no one's watching. Work like you don't need the money. Love like you've never been hurt," exhorts a sign on Dr. Elliott's office door. This sign underscores the importance of _____________ motivation. A. explicit B. intrinsic C. implicit D. external Answer: B. intrinsic 33. Dr. Fiore conducts a study in which two groups of participants work on challenging puzzles: one group is extrinsically motivated whereas the other is intrinsically motivated. Thus, one group is paid for its participation, while the other is not. Dr. Fiore records the length of time each participant spent working on the puzzle and how enjoyable each participant rated the puzzle. Based on the theories of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, what might you expect? A. The paid group would work harder on the puzzle but enjoy it less than the unpaid group. B. The paid group would not work as hard on the puzzle and enjoy it less than the unpaid group. C. The paid group would work harder on the puzzle and enjoy it more than the unpaid group. D. The paid group would not work as hard on the puzzle but enjoy it more than the unpaid group. Answer: B. The paid group would not work as hard on the puzzle and enjoy it less than the unpaid group. 34. Which of the following is true of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation? A. Intrinsic motivation causes us to do something for money, a grade, or some other concrete, tangible reward. B. Extrinsic motivation causes us to participate in an activity for our own enjoyment rather than for any concrete, tangible reward that it will bring us. C. In some cases, providing rewards for desirable behavior actually may decrease intrinsic motivation. D. We are more apt to persevere, work harder, and produce work of higher quality when motivation for a task is extrinsic rather than intrinsic. Answer: C. In some cases, providing rewards for desirable behavior actually may decrease intrinsic motivation. 35. Which of the following sequences best expresses the order in which the needs in Maslow's pyramid must be fulfilled from the first to the last? A. Physiological, safety, love and belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization B. Physiological and safety, esteem, love and belongingness, self-actualization C. Self-actualization, esteem, love and belongingness, and physiological and safety D. Self-actualization, love and belongingness, esteem, and physiological and safety Answer: A. Physiological, safety, love and belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization 36. According to Abraham Maslow, a major prerequisite for becoming self-actualized is having: A. all of one's lower-order needs fulfilled. B. a major altruistic streak. C. a very selfless nature. D. suffered in the past so one can truly appreciate the good aspects of life. Answer: A. all of one's lower-order needs fulfilled. 37. According to Maslow, our highest-level need is the need for: A. self-esteem. B. self-efficacy. C. self-love. D. self-actualization. Answer: D. self-actualization. 38. A state of self-fulfillment in which people realize their highest potentials in their own unique way is known as _____________ in Maslow's model. A. self-reliance B. self-actualization C. self-efficacy D. self-regulation Answer: B. self-actualization 39. Which approach to motivation is correctly matched with one or more psychologists? A. Instinct theory—Horney B. Drive-reduction approach—Maslow C. Hierarchy of needs—Hull D. Self-determination theory— Deci and Ryan Answer: D. Self-determination theory— Deci and Ryan 40. According to the self-determination theory, _____________ is the need to produce desired outcomes. A. development B. autonomy C. relatedness D. competence Answer: D. competence 41. According to the self-determination theory, _____________ is the perception that we have control over our own lives. A. reliance B. autonomy C. relatedness D. competence Answer: B. autonomy 42. According to the self-determination theory, _____________ is the need to be involved in close, warm relationships with others. A. significance B. autonomy C. relatedness D. competence Answer: C. relatedness 43. Which of the following is TRUE about approaches to motivation? A. A large number of approaches are contradictory rather than complementary. B. Employing more than one approach to motivation in a given situation can prevent us from understanding motivation in a particular instance. C. Even specific behaviors like the need for food can be drawn on several approaches for the fullest account of what motivates one’s behavior. D. A maximum of two approaches should be used to study any behavior. Answer: C. Even specific behaviors like the need for food can be drawn on several approaches for the fullest account of what motivates one’s behavior. 44. Which figure best approximates the number of women in the United States who suffer from an eating disorder? A. 100,000 B. 1 million C. 5 million D. 10 million Answer: D. 10 million 45. Which figure best approximates the number of people in the United States who are overweight? A. 50 million B. 100 million C. 150 million D. 200 million Answer: D. 200 million 46. In the United States, about _____________ of the population is overweight; more than _____________ are obese. A. one-thirds; half B. two-thirds; half C. one-thirds; a quarter D. two-thirds; a quarter Answer: D. two-thirds; a quarter 47. People with a body mass index (BMI) greater than 30 are considered: A. overweight. B. obese. C. normal. D. underweight. Answer: B. obese. 48. People with a body mass index (BMI) between 25 and 30 are considered: A. overweight. B. obese. C. normal. D. underweight. Answer: A. overweight. 49. Natalie's body mass index (BMI) is 26. She is best described as: A. overweight. B. obese. C. normal. D. underweight. Answer: A. overweight. 50. Misty's body mass index (BMI) is 27 and Marnie's is 31. Misty is considered _____________. Marnie is _____________. A. overweight; overweight as well B. overweight; obese C. obese; obese as well D. normal weight; overweight Answer: B. overweight; obese 51. People's perceptions of what an ideal body looks like: A. have always emphasized thinness. B. vary from one culture to another. C. have remained constant over time. D. emphasize the perfect ratio of height and weight. Answer: B. vary from one culture to another. 52. _____________ leads the body to store excess sugar in the blood as fats and carbohydrates. A. Cortisol B. Serotonin C. Insulin D. Estrogen Answer: C. Insulin 53. Which of the following biological hunger regulators is correctly identified and described? A. Ghrelin—communicates hunger to the brain B. Glucose—works to excite the CNS C. Insulin—regulates feelings of hunger D. Endorphin—stored in the body as fat Answer: A. Ghrelin—communicates hunger to the brain 54. Which of the following brain structures has been implicated in monitoring glucose levels and food intake? A. The amygdala B. The hypothalamus C. The hippocampus D. The thalamus Answer: B. The hypothalamus 55. Dr. DeRidder lesions, or damages, the ventromedial hypothalamus in one group of rats and the lateral hypothalamus in another group. What effect might he expect on the eating behavior of each group of rats? A. Both groups should stop eating and perhaps eventually starve to death. B. Both groups should begin overeating and become grossly obese. C. Rats with ventromedial lesions should stop eating; rats with lateral lesions should begin overeating. D. Rats with ventromedial lesions should begin overeating; rats with lateral lesions should stop eating. Answer: D. Rats with ventromedial lesions should begin overeating; rats with lateral lesions should stop eating. 56. Charlotte meets Will, an old high school friend, at a party and is startled to learn his weight increased from 150 to 280 pounds in the year since his automobile accident. Damage to which of the following might account for his weight gain? A. Mediotemporal hypothalmus B. Hypermedial hypothalmus C. Ventromedial hypothalmus D. Lateral hypothalmus Answer: C. Ventromedial hypothalmus 57. _____________ is the rate at which food is converted to energy and expended by the body. A. Neutralization B. Phagocytosis C. Metabolism D. Emulsification Answer: C. Metabolism 58. Carrie's body rapidly converts food into energy. Mandy's body converts food into energy more slowly. Carrie and Mandy have different: A. metabolic rates. B. eating disorders. C. homeostatic ratios. D. g factors. Answer: A. metabolic rates. 59. The hormone _____________ appears to be designed, from an evolutionary standpoint, to protect the body against weight loss. A. oxytocin B. leptin C. ghrelin D. glucose Answer: B. leptin 60. When does one’s body start storing fat either by increasing the number of fat cells or by increasing the size of existing fat cells? A. Starts at birth B. During the first year of life C. During adulthood D. Starts by the end of adolescence Answer: A. Starts at birth 61. Anorexia nervosa is among the _____________ most frequent causes of disability in young women. A. three B. five C. ten D. two Answer: C. ten 62. Approximately _____________ of those who suffer from anorexia nervosa literally starve themselves to death. A. 1% B. 5% C. 10% D. 15% Answer: C. 10% 63. _____________ is a severe eating disorder in which people may refuse to eat while denying that their behavior and appearance—which can become skeleton-like—are unusual. A. Anorexia nervosa B. Compulsive eating C. Bulimia D. Binge eating Answer: A. Anorexia nervosa 64. Which of the following is NOT one of the characteristics of anorexia nervosa? A. Eating a large amount of food in a single setting B. An interest in cooking for others C. Serious dieting which somehow gets out of control D. Going shopping for food frequently Answer: A. Eating a large amount of food in a single setting 65. Which of the following is TRUE of anorexia nervosa? A. People suffering from this eating disorder binge on large quantities of food. B. This mainly afflicts females between the ages of 12 and 40. C. The weight of the person suffering from this disorder remains normal. D. People suffering from this eating disorder induce vomiting or take laxatives to rid themselves of the food. Answer: B. This mainly afflicts females between the ages of 12 and 40. 66. _____________ is a disorder in which a person binges on large quantities of food, followed by efforts to purge the food through vomiting or other means. A. Anorexia nervosa B. Compulsive eating C. Bulimia D. Binge-eating disorder Answer: C. Bulimia 67. Meghan is bulimic. Which of the following statements is most likely to be accurate? A. Meghan is more likely than other individuals of her age to be overweight. B. Meghan is more likely than other individuals of her age to be underweight. C. Meghan is neither more nor less likely than other individuals of her age to be overweight. D. Meghan is probably seriously underweight. Answer: C. Meghan is neither more nor less likely than other individuals of her age to be overweight. 68. As many as _____________ of women suffer from bulimia at some point in their lives. A. 50% B. 35% C. 5% D. 10% Answer: D. 10% 69. What is TRUE of brain scans of people with bulimia? A. They show that those with bulimia have the same level of connectivity in those areas of the brain associated with eating behaviors when compared to those of healthy individuals. B. They show that those with bulimia have a lower level of connectivity in those areas of the brain associated with eating behaviors when compared to those of healthy individuals. C. They show that those with bulimia do not process information about food when compared to healthy individuals. D. They show that those with bulimia process information about food differently from healthy individuals. Answer: D. They show that those with bulimia process information about food differently from healthy individuals. 70. Which figure best approximates the percentage of Americans who say they want to lose weight? A. 40% B. 50% C. 60% D. 75% Answer: C. 60% 71. How often should you exercise? A. At least 30 consecutive minutes three times each week B. At least seven hours a week C. At least 100 minutes every other day D. At least two hours every day Answer: A. At least 30 consecutive minutes three times each week 72. Male sex hormones secreted by the testes at puberty are known as _____________. A. estrogen B. genitals C. androgens D. progesterone Answer: C. androgens 73. The male and female sex organs are known as _____________. A. genitals B. androgens C. progesterone D. estrogen Answer: A. genitals 74. Men are capable of sexual activities without any regard to biological cycles because: A. they are able to develop an erection even during the refractory period of sexual responsiveness. B. all areas of their body automatically produce sexual arousal when touched. C. they have the ability to cycle back to the orgasm phase and experience repeated orgasms. D. the level of androgen production by the testes is fairly constant. Answer: D. the level of androgen production by the testes is fairly constant. 75. Which of the following statements is true of the production of androgen and estrogen? A. Androgen is produced by testes, and estrogen is produced by ovaries. B. The production of androgen follows a cyclical pattern, whereas the production of estrogen follows a noncyclical pattern. C. Androgen is produced from birth, whereas estrogen is produced after menopause. D. In nonhumans, the production of androgens decreases the male sex drive, whereas the production of estrogens increases the female sex drive. Answer: A. Androgen is produced by testes, and estrogen is produced by ovaries. 76. The testes produce _____________, and the ovaries produce _____________. A. progesterone; androgen B. estrogen; progesterone C. progesterone; estrogen D. androgen; estrogen Answer: D. androgen; estrogen 77. When women reach maturity at puberty, the two ovaries begin to produce _____________ and progesterone, the female sex hormones. A. androgen B. estrogen C. genitals D. ovaries Answer: B. estrogen 78. Which of the following is true of sexual patterns of women? A. The production of sex hormones in females follows a cyclical pattern. B. The level of estrogen and progesterone production in females is consistent. C. In humans, the period around ovulation is the only time the female is receptive to sex, whereas nonhumans are different. D. In females, all areas of the body automatically produce sexual arousal when touched. Answer: A. The production of sex hormones in females follows a cyclical pattern. 79. The _____________ is a stable, learned characteristic in which a person obtains satisfaction by striving for and meeting challenging goals. A. need for achievement B. need for survival C. need for affiliation D. need for power Answer: A. need for achievement 80. Each semester, during advising week, Dylan asks his faculty advisor to identify the easiest courses and teachers that would satisfy his degree requirements. Dylan's need for achievement is probably: A. high. B. moderately high. C. medium. D. low. Answer: D. low. 81. The need for achievement is often assessed with the: A. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT). B. Rorschach Inkblot Test. C. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. D. California Personality Inventory. Answer: A. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT). 82. Mary Jo is taking the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT). She is looking at: A. inkblots. B. pictures. C. sentences. D. numerical problems. Answer: B. pictures. 83. The _____________ is an interest in establishing and maintaining relationships with other people. A. need for achievement B. need for survival C. need for power D. need for affiliation Answer: D. need for affiliation 84. Larissa is highly invested in initiating and maintaining relationships. She is high in the need for: A. conformity. B. assembly. C. affiliation. D. approval. Answer: C. affiliation. 85. Which of the following is TRUE of the need for affiliation? A. People who have higher affiliation needs desire to be alone more of the time than those who have lower affiliation needs. B. People who have lower affiliation needs desire to be with friends more than those who have higher affiliation needs. C. Regardless of their affiliative orientation, male students spend significantly more time with their friends. D. People who have higher affiliation needs are particularly sensitive to relationships with others. Answer: D. People who have higher affiliation needs are particularly sensitive to relationships with others. 86. The _____________ is a tendency to seek impact, control, or influence over others and to be seen as an influential individual. A. need for achievement B. need for survival C. need for power D. need for affiliation Answer: C. need for power 87. Men with high power needs tend to show high levels of: A. alcohol consumption. B. nurturing behavior. C. participation in cultural events. D. concern for others. Answer: A. alcohol consumption. 88. Women with high power needs display high levels of: A. alcohol consumption. B. nurturing behavior. C. aggression. D. sexually exploitative mannerisms. Answer: B. nurturing behavior. 89. "Fight-or-flight" responses entail activity of the _____________ division of the autonomous nervous system. A. somatic B. parasympathetic C. asympathetic D. sympathetic Answer: D. sympathetic 90. The physiological arousal sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system: A. prepares the body for rest. B. increases the count of Red Blood Cells (RBCs). C. prepares the body for action. D. aids digestion. Answer: C. prepares the body for action. 91. The functions of emotions include: A. preparing us for rest. B. facilitating learning. C. shaping our past behavior. D. helping us interact more effectively with others. Answer: D. helping us interact more effectively with others. 92. According to the approach which organizes emotions using hierarchy, which of the following is derived from a negative emotion? A. Guilt B. Infatuation C. Pride D. Contentment Answer: A. Guilt 93. What are schadenfreude, hagaii, and musu? A. Condiments used in other countries B. Highly specific emotions C. Speech disorders D. Grammar rules Answer: B. Highly specific emotions 94. Max, a German, reports experiencing schadenfreude. He is experiencing a: A. mood of vulnerable heartache colored by frustration. B. feeling of pleasure over another person's difficulties. C. mood of depression over his inability to reach his ideal weight. D. feeling of reluctance to yield to unreasonable demands made by one's parents. Answer: B. feeling of pleasure over another person's difficulties. 95. Hakiro, a Japanese, reports experiencing hagaii. He is experiencing a: A. mood of vulnerable heartache colored by frustration. B. feeling of pleasure over another person's difficulties. C. feeling of achievement over reaching his ideal weight. D. feeling of reluctance to yield to unreasonable demands made by one's parents. Answer: A. mood of vulnerable heartache colored by frustration. 96. Sarah, from Tahiti, reports experiencing musu. She is experiencing a: A. mood of vulnerable heartache colored by frustration. B. feeling of pleasure over another person's difficulties. C. feeling of achievement over reaching her ideal weight. D. feeling of reluctance to yield to unreasonable demands made by one's parents. Answer: D. feeling of reluctance to yield to unreasonable demands made by one's parents. 97. According to William James and Carl Lange, which of the following leads one to label the emotional experience? A. Cognitive beliefs B. Overt behaviors C. A specific pattern of visceral response D. A set of related feelings and psychological responses Answer: C. A specific pattern of visceral response 98. According to the _____________ theory of emotion, emotional experience is a reaction to bodily events occurring as a result of an external situation. A. James-Lange B. Maslow C. Schachter-Singer D. Cannon-Bard Answer: A. James-Lange 99. In the James-Lange theory of emotion, physiological responses _____________ emotional experiences. A. follow B. precede C. occur simultaneously with D. are unrelated to Answer: B. precede 100. The concept of visceral experience can be attributed to the _____________ theory of emotion. A. James-Lange B. Maslow C. Schachter-Singer D. Cannon-Bard Answer: A. James-Lange 101. Which of the following sequences reflects the order of the major theories of emotion from the earliest to the most recent? A. James-Lange, Cannon-Bard, and Schachter-Singer B. Cannon-Bard, Schachter-Singer, and James-Lange C. Cannon-Bard, James-Lange, and Schachter-Singer D. James-Lange, Schachter-Singer, and Cannon-Bard Answer: A. James-Lange, Cannon-Bard, and Schachter-Singer 102. According to the _____________ theory of emotion, both physiological arousal and emotional experience are produced simultaneously by the same nerve stimulus. A. James-Lange B. Maslow C. Schachter-Singer D. Cannon-Bard Answer: D. Cannon-Bard 103. One of Cannon's major objections to the James-Lange theory of emotion was that: A. physiological arousal alone does not lead to the perception of emotion. B. the sympathetic nervous system was not given a more prominent role. C. emotions have different intensities. D. motions are subjective experiences; therefore, no theory can be adequate in explaining them. Answer: A. physiological arousal alone does not lead to the perception of emotion. 104. In the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion, physiological reactions _____________ emotional experiences. A. follow B. precede C. occur simultaneously with D. have little to do with Answer: C. occur simultaneously with 105. The Cannon-Bard theory states that after we perceive an emotion-producing stimulus, the _____________ is the initial site of the emotional response. A. hypothalamus B. thalamus C. hippocampus D. amygdala Answer: B. thalamus 106. In relation to the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion, more recent research: A. supports the assumption that physiological arousal alone accounts for emotions. B. has disconfirmed the assumption that physiological and emotional experiences occur simultaneously. C. supports the notion that emotional experiences are controlled by the thalamus. D. has disconfirmed the idea that emotional experiences are controlled by the thalamus. Answer: D. has disconfirmed the idea that emotional experiences are controlled by the thalamus. 107. According to the _____________ theory of emotion, emotions are determined jointly by a nonspecific kind of physiological arousal and its interpretation, based on environmental cues. A. James-Lange B. Maslow C. Schachter-Singer D. Cannon-Bard Answer: C. Schachter-Singer 108. Which alternative below correctly identifies one of the results in Schachter and Singer's experiment? A. The injection of epinephrine had no effect on participants. B. The confederate's behavior had unanticipated effects on participants' emotional state. C. The confederate's behavior had no effect on participants' emotional state. D. The confederate's behavior had the expected effect on participants' emotional state. Answer: D. The confederate's behavior had the expected effect on participants' emotional state. 109. The results of the Schachter-Singer experiment: A. indicate that emotional experience and visceral reaction are the same thing. B. indicate that emotions are actually the result of parasympathetic rebound. C. support a cognitive view of emotions. D. support the view that people can never experience "true" emotions. Answer: C. support a cognitive view of emotions. 110. Which of the following theories of emotion most explicitly recognizes the importance of the cognitive component of emotion? A. James-Lange B. Cannon-Bard C. Schachter-Singer D. Maslow Answer: C. Schachter-Singer 111. The _____________, in the brain’s temporal lobe, plays an important role in our experience of emotion. A. amygdala B. cerebellum C. corpus callosum D. medulla Answer: A. amygdala 112. In one study, participants undergoing positron emission tomography (PET) brain scans were asked to recall events that made them feel sad, or events that made them feel happy. What did the results of such studies show? A. The two emotions produced similar levels of activity in the same areas of the brain. B. Happiness showed a decrease in activity in certain areas of the cerebral cortex, whereas sadness showed increases in activity in particular portions of the cortex. C. The two emotions produced different patterns of activation in the same areas of the brain. D. Happiness showed an increase in activity in certain areas of the cerebellum and brain stem, whereas sadness showed decreases in activity in particular portions of the brain stem alone. Answer: B. Happiness showed a decrease in activity in certain areas of the cerebral cortex, whereas sadness showed increases in activity in particular portions of the cortex. 113. The _____________ plays an important role in the consolidation of memories. A. hippocampus B. cerebellum C. corpus callosum D. medulla Answer: A. hippocampus 114. Dr. Lynch shows (a) members of a preliterate Andean culture and (b) American college students a series of photos of either Andeans or Americans displaying emotional expressions. She asks Andeans and Americans to identify the emotion displayed in each photo. Based on previous research, what might Dr. Lynch predict? A. The Andeans should perform more poorly than the Americans overall. B. Participants should identify emotions accurately when they are displayed by members of their own cultural group, but not when they are displayed by members of the other group. C. Participants should identify emotions accurately both when they are displayed by members of their own cultural group and when they are displayed by members of the other group. D. The Americans should perform more poorly than the Andeans overall. Answer: C. Participants should identify emotions accurately both when they are displayed by members of their own cultural group and when they are displayed by members of the other group. 115. According to the facial-feedback hypothesis, _____________. A. we pay close attention to others' facial expressions B. our emotions activate specific facial-affect patterns C. facial expressions can actually determine our emotional experience D. facial expressions are strongly influenced by our immediate environment and our larger cultures Answer: C. facial expressions can actually determine our emotional experience Worksheet Questions 116. Motivational tension, or arousal, that energizes behavior to fulfill a need is called a(n) _____________ . Answer: drive 117. Many basic drives, such as hunger, thirst, sleep, and sex, are related to biological needs of the body or of the species as a whole. These are called _____________ . Answer: primary drives 118. _____________ is the body's tendency to maintain a steady internal state. Answer: Homeostasis 119. _____________ motivation causes us to participate in an activity for our own enjoyment rather than for any actual or concrete reward that it will bring us. Answer: Intrinsic 120. Recall the disco era. Donna Summer's working-class heroine "work[ed] hard for the money." Most likely, this woman is driven by _____________ motivation. Answer: extrinsic 121. "Be all that you can be," exhorted the U.S. Army in one of its recruitment campaigns. In Maslow's terms, the Army is promoting itself as the royal road to _____________ . Answer: self-actualization 122. _____________ refers to body weight that is more than 20% above the average weight for a person of a particular height. Answer: Obesity 123. Valerie is obese—that is, her body mass index (BMI)exceeds _____________ . Answer: 30 124. An injury to the _____________ hypothalamus is likely to lead to the problem of extreme overeating. Answer: ventromedial 125. The _____________ is the particular level of weight that the body strives to maintain. Answer: weight set point 126. The rate at which food is converted to energy and expended by the body is termed _____________ . Answer: metabolism 127. Gwen eats huge amounts of food in a single sitting, then vomits and uses laxatives to purge the excess food. Gwen appears to suffer from _____________ . Answer: bulimia 128. Testes are to _____________ , as ovaries are to estrogen. Answer: androgen 129. The female sex hormones include progesterone and _____________ . Answer: estrogen 130. The point at which an egg is released from the ovaries is called _____________ . Answer: ovulation 131. _____________ is sexual self-stimulation. Answer: Masturbation 132. Rory and his friends are practicing free throws. They are goofing around, disregarding the line painted on the concrete. Although one friend stands quite close to the basket to practically guarantee sinking the ball, Rory stands at a more challenging intermediate distance. Rory has a(n) _____________ need for achievement than his friend. Answer: higher 133. The _____________ , or TAT, is a projective test used to assess needs such as the need for achievement. Answer: Thematic Apperception Test 134. Establishing and maintaining relationships is very important to Amelia; she has a high need for _____________ . Answer: affiliation 135. Blaine's heart is pounding with fear; he has just heard a large "thump!" against the outside wall of his house in the middle of the night. The _____________ division of Blaine's autonomic nervous system is active. Answer: sympathetic 136. The prominent early American psychologist _____________ argued that rather than crying because we feel hurt, "We feel sorry because we cry." Answer: William James 137. A "gut" reaction of internal organs is more formally termed a(n) _____________ . Answer: visceral experience 138. The _____________ plays an important role in the experience of emotions for it provides a link between the perception of an emotion-producing stimulus and the recall of that stimulus later. Answer: amygdala 139. Psychologist _____________ is known for early demonstrations among Americans and New Guineans which show that the expression of basic emotions are universal. Answer: Paul Ekman Essay Questions 140. List three things you remember doing in the past day or two. Explain why you performed each behavior using one or more of the approaches to understanding motivation. Answer: A wide range of behaviors may be listed. Sample behaviors and explanations might include: Eating and sleeping: These behaviors may be explained using the drive-reduction approach. The body attempts to maintain a steady internal state, or homeostasis. If one is hungry or tired, an unpleasant or aversive state is experienced, and the individual is motivated to perform those behaviors that will reestablish homeostasis. Visiting, socializing: These behaviors reflect the need for affiliation and may be explained through arousal theory, in that one seeks a certain level of variety and stimulation, or through the incentive theory—one's friends provide reinforcement, such as approval, sympathy, and so on. Window shopping, people watching, "hanging out": These sorts of activities might reflect a need for novelty or stimulation and may therefore be explained through arousal theory. Studying: The incentive theory suggests that people are motivated to study because they expect that effort expended studying will pay off in a good grade, an incentive. 1. Exercising: Motivated by the need for physical fitness, following the drive-reduction theory, which suggests reducing physiological needs like exercise. 2. Eating dinner: Motivated by hunger, aligned with the biological approach emphasizing physiological needs. 3. Reading a book: Motivated by intrinsic curiosity and the desire for knowledge, reflecting the cognitive approach to motivation, which emphasizes internal thoughts and desires. 141. Briefly describe instinct, drive-reduction, arousal, incentive, and cognitive approaches to motivation. Answer: The answer should contain the following points: Instinct approaches: According to these approaches, people and animals are born preprogrammed with sets of behaviors essential to their survival. Those instincts provide the energy that channels behavior in appropriate directions. This theory has largely been discredited. Explanations based on the approach of instincts do not go very far toward explaining why certain specific patterns of behavior have evolved in a given species, while other patterns have not evolved. In addition, much of the variety and complexity of human behavior is learned and thus cannot be seen as instinctual. Drive-reduction approaches: These approaches to motivation suggest that a lack of some basic biological need (such as a lack of water) produces a drive to push an organism to satisfy that need (in this case, seeking water).We usually try to satisfy a primary drive by reducing the need underlying it. Homeostasis, the body’s tendency to maintain a steady internal state, underlies primary drives. Arousal approaches: These approaches propose that we try to maintain a certain level of stimulation and activity. When the levels of stimulation and activity are too low or too high, we are motivated to increase or decrease them. Incentive approaches: These approaches suggest that motivation stems from the desire to obtain valued external goals, or incentives. In this view, the desirable properties of external stimuli whether grades, money, affection, food, or sex—account for a person’s motivation. Cognitive approaches: These approaches suggest that motivation is a product of people's thoughts, expectations, and goals. For instance, the degree to which people are motivated to study for a test is based on their expectation of how well studying will pay off in terms of a good grade. Cognitive theories of motivation draw a key distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivationcauses us to participate in an activity for our own enjoyment rather than for any actual or concrete reward that it will bring us. In contrast, extrinsic motivation causes us to do something for money, a grade, or some other actual, concrete reward. 1. Instinct Approach: Focuses on innate, biologically determined behaviors that are fixed and unlearned, driven by evolutionary factors. 2. Drive-Reduction Approach: Emphasizes maintaining homeostasis by reducing physiological needs (e.g., hunger or thirst) through motivated behavior. 3. Arousal Approach: Highlights the importance of maintaining an optimal level of arousal or stimulation to maximize performance and satisfaction. 4. Incentive Approach: Focuses on external stimuli or rewards that motivate behavior, such as money or praise. 5. Cognitive Approach: Considers the role of thoughts, beliefs, and expectations in motivating behavior, including goal-setting and self-regulation processes. 142. Review the biological factors involved in the regulation of hunger. Make sure you discuss what areas of the brain may be involved with hunger and what blood chemicals are involved. Answer: The answer should contain the following points: Blood chemicals and hormones: Changes in levels of glucose, a kind of sugar, regulate feelings of hunger. In addition, the hormone insulinleads the body to store excess sugar in the blood as fats and carbohydrates. Finally, the hormone ghrelincommunicates to the brain feelings of hunger. The production of ghrelin increases according to meal schedules as well as the sight or smell of food, producing the feeling that tells when one is hungry and should eat. The hypothalamus: The brain’s hypothalamus monitors glucose levels. Increasing evidence suggests that the hypothalamus carries the primary responsibility for monitoring food intake. Injury to the hypothalamus has radical consequences for eating behavior, depending on the site of the injury. For example, rats whose lateral hypothalamusis damaged may literally starve to death. They refuse food when it is offered; unless they are force-fed, they eventually die. Rats with an injury to the ventromedial hypothalamus display the opposite problem: extreme overeating. Rats with this injury can increase in weight by as much as 400%. Similar phenomena occur in humans who have tumors of the hypothalamus. One hypothesis suggests that injury to the hypothalamus affects the weight set point, or the particular level of weight that the body strives to maintain, which in turn regulates food intake. Acting as a kind of internal weight thermostat, the hypothalamus calls for either greater or less food intake. Biological factors regulating hunger involve several brain regions, including the hypothalamus, which integrates signals related to hunger and satiety. The hypothalamus contains specific nuclei like the arcuate nucleus and the lateral hypothalamus involved in appetite control. Blood chemicals such as ghrelin (produced in the stomach) and leptin (produced in fat cells) play crucial roles in signaling hunger and satiety to the brain, influencing eating behaviors and energy balance. 143. Review what is known regarding the roots of obesity. Distinguish between the set point and the settling point hypotheses. Answer: The answer should make reference to the following accounts of obesity: Some psychologists suggest that oversensitivity to external eating cues based on social factors, coupled with insensitivity to internal hunger cues, produce obesity. Others argue that overweight people have higher weight set points than other people do. Because their set points are unusually high, their attempts to lose weight by eating less may make them especially sensitive to external, food-related cues and therefore more apt to overeat and perpetuate their obesity. Higher weight set point: Obese individuals may have a higher weight set point than others. One biological explanation is that obese individuals have a higher level of the hormone leptin, which appears to be designed, from an evolutionary standpoint, to “protect” the body against weight loss. Another biologically based explanation for obesity relates to fat cells in the body. Starting at birth, the body stores fat either by increasing the number of fat cells or by increasing the size of existing fat cells. Furthermore, any loss of weight past infancy does not decrease the number of fat cells; it only affects their size. Consequently, people are stuck with the number of fat cells they inherit from an early age, and the rate of weight gain during the first 4 months of life is related to being overweight during later childhood. According to the weight-set-point hypothesis, the presence of too many fat cells from earlier weight gain may result in the set point’s becoming “stuck” at a higher level than desirable. In such circumstances, losing weight becomes a difficult proposition because one is constantly at odds with one’s own internal set point when dieting. Higher weight settling point: Some researchers argue that the body does not try to maintain a fixed weight set point. Instead, they suggest, the body has a settling point, determined by a combination of our genetic heritage and the nature of the environment in which we live. If high-fat foods are prevalent in our environment and we are genetically predisposed to obesity, we settle into an equilibrium that maintains relatively high weight. In contrast, if one’s environment is nutritionally healthier, a genetic predisposition to obesity will not be triggered, and one will settle into an equilibrium in which his or her weight is lower. Obesity has roots in complex interactions between genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors. The set point hypothesis suggests that the body regulates weight around a genetically predetermined level, adjusting metabolism and appetite to maintain this weight. In contrast, the settling point hypothesis proposes that weight is influenced by a combination of genetics, environment, and lifestyle factors, with no fixed set point but rather a range of weights influenced by these factors over time. 144. Supply four of the pieces of advice for successful dieting and weight loss. How might you have to change your current routine to follow the advice if you wished to lose weight or prevent unwanted weight gain? Answer: Students' answers may vary. Four of the following pieces of advice should be given: • There is no easy route to weight control. One will have to make permanent changes in his or her life to lose weight without gaining it back. The most obvious strategy—cutting down on the amount of food he or she eats—is just the first step toward a lifetime commitment to changing his or her eating habits. • Keeping track of what one eats and what one weighs: Unless one keeps careful records, one won’t really know how much he or she is eating and whether any diet is working. • Eating “big” foods: One must eat fiber and foods that are bulky and heavy but low in calories, such as grapes and soup. Such foods trick one’s body into thinking he or she has eaten more and thus decrease hunger. • Cutting out television: One reason for the epidemic of obesity is the number of hours people in the United States spend viewing television. Not only does watching television preclude other activities that burn calories (even walking around the house is helpful), people often gorge on junk food while watching TV. • Exercising: One must exercise at least 30 consecutive minutes three times each week. When one exercises, he or she uses up fat stored in you his or her body as fuel for muscles, which is measured in calories. As one uses up this fat, one will probably lose weight. Almost any activity helps burn calories. • Decreasing the influence of external social stimuli on one’s eating behavior: One must serve smaller portions of food, and leave the table before seeing what is being served for dessert. One must not even buy snack foods such as nachos and potato chips; if they’re not readily available in the kitchen cupboard, he or she is not apt to eat them. Refrigerated foods can be wrapped in aluminum foil so that one cannot see the contents and be tempted every time one opens the refrigerator. • Avoiding fad diets: No matter how popular they are at a particular time, extreme diets, including liquid diets, usually don’t work in the long run and can be dangerous to one’s health. • One must avoid taking any of the numerous diet pills advertised on television that promise quick and easy results. They don’t work. • Losing weight with others by joining a support group: Being part of a group that is working to lose weight will encourage one to keep to one’s diet. • Maintaining good eating habits: When one has reached one’s desired weight, he or she must maintain the new habits learned while dieting to avoid gaining back the weight he or she has lost. • Setting reasonable goals: One must know how much weight one wants to lose before one starts to diet. One must not try to lose too much weight too quickly, or he or she may doom oneself to failure. Even small changes in behavior—such as walking 15 minutes a day or eating a few less bites at each meal—can prevent weight gain. The answer should conclude with several sentences indicating the sorts of changes the student would have to make to adopt several of these pieces of healthy-weight advice. Four pieces of advice for successful dieting and weight loss include: 1. Eat a balanced diet: Incorporate fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains. 2. Control portion sizes: Be mindful of serving sizes to avoid overeating. 3. Exercise regularly: Engage in physical activity to burn calories and improve overall fitness. 4. Monitor progress: Keep track of food intake and weight changes to stay accountable. To follow this advice, one might need to adjust meal planning, increase physical activity, and adopt healthier eating habits by reducing calorie-dense foods and snacks. 145. Describe the needs for achievement and affiliation. Identify some of the characteristics associated with each of these needs. How are these needs often assessed? Answer: The answer should include the following points: Need for achievement: The need for achievement is a stable, learned characteristic in which a person obtains satisfaction by striving for and achieving challenging goals. People with a high need for achievement seek out situations in which they can compete against some objective standard—such as grades, money, or winning a game—and prove themselves successful. But people who have a high need for achievement are selective when it comes to picking their challenges: They tend to avoid situations in which success will come too easily (which would be unchallenging) or situations in which success is highly unlikely. Instead, people high in achievement motivation generally choose tasks that are of intermediate difficulty. In contrast, people with low achievement motivation tend to be motivated primarily by a desire to avoid failure. As a result, they seek out easy tasks so they are sure to avoid failure, or they seek out very difficult tasks for which failure has no negative implications because almost anyone would fail at them. People with a high fear of failure will stay away from tasks of intermediate difficulty because they may fail where others have been successful. A high need for achievement generally produces positive outcomes, at least in a success-oriented culture such as Western society. For instance, people motivated by a high need for achievement are more likely to attend college than their low-achievement counterparts; once they are in college, they tend to receive higher grades in classes that are related to their future careers. Furthermore, high achievement motivation indicates future economic and occupational success. Need for affiliation: It is an interest in establishing and maintaining relationships with other people. People who have higher affiliation needs are particularly sensitive to relationships with others. They desire to be with their friends more of the time and alone less often, compared with people who are lower in the need for affiliation. However, gender is a greater determinant of how much time is actually spent with friends: Regardless of their affiliative orientation, female students spend significantly more time with their friends and less time alone than male students do. Assessment: The needs for achievement and assessment may be assessed by the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), In the TAT, an examiner shows a series of ambiguous pictures, such as the one in. The examiner tells participants to write a story that describes what is happening, who the people are, what led to the situation, what the people are thinking or wanting, and what will happen next. Researchers then use a standard scoring system to determine the amount of achievement imagery in people’s stories. Someone who writes a story in which the main character strives to beat an opponent, studies in order to do well at some task, or works hard in order to get a promotion shows clear signs of an achievement orientation. The inclusion of such achievement-related imagery in the participants’ stories is assumed to indicate an unusually high degree of concern with—and therefore a relatively strong need for—achievement. Individuals with a high need for affiliation write TAT stories that emphasize the desire to maintain or reinstate friendships and show concern over being rejected by friends. The need for achievement refers to the desire to accomplish tasks and attain goals independently. Characteristics include persistence, preference for moderate challenges, and a focus on personal responsibility. Achievement needs are often assessed through measures like the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) or self-report questionnaires. The need for affiliation involves a desire for close and positive relationships with others. Characteristics include being sociable, cooperative, and seeking approval from others. Affiliation needs are typically assessed using personality inventories or observational methods focusing on interpersonal behaviors. 146. Identify the three functions of emotions. Provide original examples to illustrate each function. Answer: The answer should mention the following functions: Among the most important of those functions are the following: • Preparing one for action: Emotions act as a link between events in one’s environment and his or her responses. For example, if one sees an angry dog charging toward him or her, one’s emotional reaction (fear) would be associated with physiological arousal of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system, the activation of the “fight-or-flight” response. • Shaping one’s future behavior: Emotions promote learning that will help one make appropriate responses in the future. For instance, one’s emotional response to unpleasant events teaches him or her to avoid similar circumstances in the future. • Helping one interact more effectively with others: One often communicates the emotions he or she experiences through his or her verbal and nonverbal behaviors, making one’s emotions obvious to observers. These behaviors can act as a signal to observers, allowing them to understand better what one is experiencing and to help them predict his or her future behavior. The three functions of emotions are: 1. Adaptive Function: Emotions help individuals respond to and cope with environmental challenges. For example, feeling fear in response to a threat prompts one to take protective actions. 2. Social Function: Emotions facilitate communication and interaction with others. For instance, expressing happiness at a friend's success strengthens social bonds. 3. Motivational Function: Emotions energize behavior towards specific goals. Feeling excited about a project motivates someone to work diligently towards its completion. 147. Compare and contrast the James-Lange and Schachter-Singer theories of emotion. Answer: The answer might include points such as the following: James-Lange theory: To William James and Carl Lange, who were among the first researchers to explore the nature of emotions, emotional experience is, very simply, a reaction to instinctive bodily events that occur as a response to some situation or event in the environment. They suggested that for every major emotion there is an accompanying physiological or “gut” reaction of internal organs—called a visceral experience. It is this specific pattern of visceral response that leads us to label the emotional experience. In sum, James and Lange proposed that we experience emotions as a result of physiological changes that produce specific sensations. The brain interprets these sensations as specific kinds of emotional experiences. This view has come to be called the James-Lange theory of emotion. Schachter-Singer theory: This approach to explaining emotions emphasizes that one identifies the emotion he or she is experiencing by observing his or her environment and comparing oneself with others. It supported a cognitive view of emotions in which emotions are determined jointly by a relatively nonspecific kind of physiological arousal and the labeling of that arousal on the basis of cues from the environment. Although later research has found that arousal is more specific than Schachter and Singer believed, they were right in assuming that when the source of physiological arousal is unclear, one may look to his or her surroundings to determine what he or she is experiencing. The James-Lange theory posits that physiological arousal precedes the experience of emotion, suggesting emotions are interpretations of bodily reactions (e.g., trembling leads to fear). In contrast, the Schachter-Singer theory (two-factor theory) proposes that emotions arise from the combination of physiological arousal and cognitive appraisal of the situation (e.g., interpreting trembling as fear in a scary situation). Both theories acknowledge the role of bodily reactions but differ in their emphasis on cognitive appraisal in emotional experience. 148. Survey the evidence regarding cross-cultural universality in the experience and expression of emotion. Answer: The answer should mention the following arguments: Basic emotional expressions—those for happiness, anger, fear, sadness, surprise, and disgust—appear universal, produced and recognized the same across cultures. The six basic emotions constitute the basic emotions expressed universally by members of the human race, regardless of where individuals have been raised and what learning experiences they have had. Psychologist Paul Ekman convincingly demonstrated this point when he studied members of an isolated New Guinea jungle tribe who had had almost no contact with Westerners. The people of the tribe did not speak or understand English, had never seen a movie, and had very limited experience with Caucasians before Ekman’s arrival. Yet their nonverbal responses to emotion-evoking stories, as well as their ability to identify basic emotions, were quite similar to those of Westerners. Being so isolated, the New Guineans could not have learned from Westerners to recognize or produce similar facial expressions. Instead, their similar abilities and manner of responding emotionally appear to have been present innately. Although one could argue that similar experiences in both cultures led the members of each one to learn similar types of nonverbal behavior, this appears unlikely because the two cultures are so very different. The expression of basic emotions, thus, seems to be universal. Research suggests that certain basic emotions like happiness, sadness, anger, fear, and surprise are universally recognized across cultures based on facial expressions and physiological responses. However, cultural norms and display rules influence how emotions are expressed and regulated. Studies using methods like facial recognition tasks and emotion induction support the idea of some cross-cultural universality in emotional experience and expression. 149. "Smile, even though your heart is breaking," suggests a standard in the American songbook. Is this good advice? Make reference to facial-affect programs and the facial-feedback hypothesis in your answer. Answer: The answer should include the following points: It is probably good advice. Emotional expressions are universal. A hypothesis known as the facial-affect program gives one explanation. The facial-affect program—which is assumed to be universally present at birth—is analogous to a computer program that is turned on when a particular emotion is experienced. When set in motion, the “program” activates a set of nerve impulses that make the face display an appropriate expression. Each primary emotion produces a unique set of muscular movements. For example, the emotion of happiness is universally displayed by movement of the zygomatic major, a muscle that raises the corners of the mouth and form what one would call a smile. The importance of facial expressions is illustrated by an intriguing notion known as the facial-feedback hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, facial expressions not only reflectemotional experience, but they also help determine how people experience and label emotions. Basically put, “wearing” an emotional expression provides muscular feedback to the brain that helps produce an emotion congruent with that expression. For instance, the muscles activated when one smiles may send a message to the brain indicating the experience of happiness—even if there is nothing in the environment that would produce that particular emotion. Some theoreticians have gone further by suggesting that facial expressions are necessary for an emotion to be experienced. In this view, if no facial expression is present, the emotion cannot be felt. Ekman supported the hypothesis by showing that actors instructed to make fearful expressions actually experienced physiological activity consistent with fear. The advice to "smile, even though your heart is breaking" aligns with the facial-feedback hypothesis, which proposes that facial expressions can influence emotional experience. Smiling can activate facial-affect programs that signal happiness to the brain, potentially affecting mood positively despite internal distress. However, prolonged suppression of genuine emotions may have psychological consequences, highlighting the complexity of managing emotional experiences through facial expressions. Test Bank for Essentials of Understanding Psychology Robert S. Feldman 9780077861889, 9781259255786, 9781260829013

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