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Chapter 02 Neuroscience and Behavior Multiple Choice Questions 1. Psychologists who specialize in considering the ways in which the biological structures and functions of the body affect behavior are known as _____________. A. genetic psychologists B. biopsychologists C. evolutionary psychologists D. clinical neuropsychologists Answer: B. biopsychologists 2. Alison has developed an interest in the ways in which the biological structures and functions of the body affect behavior. She will most likely become a(n): A. genetic psychologist. B. behavioral neuroscientist. C. evolutionary psychologist. D. clinical neuropsychologist. Answer: B. behavioral neuroscientist. 3. The basic elements of the nervous system are called: A. axons. B. glial cells. C. neurons. D. neurotransmitters. Answer: C. neurons. 4. As many as _____________ neurons throughout the body are involved in the control of behavior. A. 1 billion B. 1 trillion C. 5 million D. 50 million Answer: B. 1 trillion 5. Neurons are physically held in place by _____________. A. axons B. glial cells C. dendrites D. myelin cells Answer: B. glial cells 6. Which of the following is NOT one of the functions of glial cells? A. They nourish nerve cells. B. They communicate messages within the nervous system. C. They help repair damage that might occur to neurons. D. They provide nourishment to neurons. Answer: B. They communicate messages within the nervous system. 7. A cluster of fibers at one end of a neuron that receives messages from other neurons is called: A. axon. B. terminal button. C. glial fiber. D. dendrite. Answer: D. dendrite. 8. Compare your forearm, palm, wrist, and fingers to a neuron. In such an analogy, the dendrites would be your: A. forearm. B. fingers. C. wrist. D. palm. Answer: B. fingers. 9. An axon is a: A. neuron's cell body. B. cluster of fibers at one end of a neuron. C. support cell in the nervous system. D. long, slim, tube-like structure extending from a neuron. Answer: D. long, slim, tube-like structure extending from a neuron. 10. Which of the following structures is especially important for carrying messages received by the dendrites to other neurons? A. Neurotransmitter B. Synapse C. Axon D. Glial cell Answer: C. Axon 11. Terminal buttons are found at the end of: A. neurotransmitters. B. dendrites. C. axons. D. glial cells. Answer: C. axons. 12. Which of the following sequences correctly arranges nervous system structures from the most general to the most specific? A. Neuron – axon – terminal button B. Neuron – terminal button – axon C. Axon – terminal button – neuron D. Axon – neuron – terminal button Answer: A. Neuron – axon – terminal button 13. Dendrite is to axon what _____________ is to _____________. A. receiving; sending B. sending; receiving C. reuptake; action potential D. action potential; reuptake Answer: A. receiving; sending 14. Compare your forearm, palm, knuckles, and fingers to a neuron. In such an analogy, the axon would be your: A. forearm. B. fingers. C. palm. D. knuckles. Answer: A. forearm. 15. Which of the following sequences accurately reflects the route followed by nerve impulses when one neuron communicates with another? A. Dendrite – axon – cell body B. Dendrite – cell body – axon C. Cell body – axon – dendrite D. Axon – dendrite – cell body Answer: B. Dendrite – cell body – axon 16. Electrical wires are generally protected by a tube of plastic. A similar insulating function is performed in the nervous system by the: A. myelin sheath. B. glial cells. C. terminal buttons. D. synapse. Answer: A. myelin sheath. 17. _____________ is a protective coat of fat and protein that wraps around the axon. A. Myelin sheath B. Glial cell C. Dendrite D. Synapse Answer: A. Myelin sheath 18. You cannot fire a gun softly, or flush a toilet halfway. Like an action potential, gun fire and a toilet's flush follow the _____________ law. A. incremental transformation B. graded action C. all-or-none D. intensity of stimulus Answer: C. all-or-none 19. The rule that neurons are either on or off is known as the _____________ law. A. intensity of stimulus B. graded action C. all-or-none D. incremental transformational Answer: C. all-or-none 20. The state in which there is a negative electrical charge of about -70 millivolts within a neuron is known as the _____________ state. A. triggering B. terminal C. optimum D. resting Answer: D. resting 21. Regarding action potentials, which of the following statements is TRUE? A. As the impulse travels along the axon, the movement of ions causes a change in charge from positive to neutral in successive sections of the axon. B. The action potential moves from one end of the axon to the other like a flame moving along a fuse. C. After the impulse has passed through a particular section of the axon, negative ions are pumped out of that section, and its charge returns to positive while the action potential continues to move along the axon. D. Just after an action potential has passed through a section of the axon, a neuron can fire again immediately if it receives appropriate stimulation. Answer: B. The action potential moves from one end of the axon to the other like a flame moving along a fuse. 22. As an action potential occurs, the neuron's electrical charge: A. changes from negative to neutral. B. changes from positive to neutral. C. changes from negative to positive. D. changes from positive to negative. Answer: C. changes from negative to positive. 23. _____________ are specialized neurons that fire not only when a person enacts a particular behavior, but also when a person simply observes another individual carrying out the same behavior. A. Pharyngeal motor neuron B. Mirror neurons C. Ventral cord motor neuron D. Amphid neurons Answer: B. Mirror neurons 24. Regarding mirror neurons, which of the following statements is ACCURATE? A. Mirror neurons are involved in face recognition and language acquisition, but not in empathy. B. Mirror neurons are involved in empathy and face recognition, but not in language acquisition. C. Mirror neurons are involved in empathy, language acquisition, and face recognition. D. Mirror neurons are involved in empathy and language acquisition, but not in face recognition. Answer: D. Mirror neurons are involved in empathy and language acquisition, but not in face recognition. 25. A synapse is a: A. chemical. B. signal. C. joint. D. gap. Answer: D. gap. 26. _____________ is the space between two neurons where the axon of a sending neuron communicates with the dendrites of a receiving neuron by using chemical messages. A. Synapse B. Terminal button C. Axon D. Cell body Answer: A. Synapse 27. Which of the following statements regarding inhibitory messages is TRUE? A. Inhibitory messages always increase the likelihood that a receiving neuron will fire. B. Inhibitory messages decrease the likelihood that a receiving neuron will fire. C. The dendrites of a neuron cannot receive both excitatory and inhibitory messages simultaneously. D. Inhibitory messages make it more likely that an action potential will travel down its axon. Answer: B. Inhibitory messages decrease the likelihood that a receiving neuron will fire. 28. The reabsorption of neurotransmitters by a terminal button is termed as: A. recycling. B. reassertion. C. reuptake. D. reuse. Answer: C. reuptake. 29. Which neurotransmitter is described INCORRECTLY? A. Acetylcholine—transmits messages related to skeletal muscles B. GABA—an excitatory neurotransmitter inhibited by alcohol or tranquilizers C. Serotonin—helps regulate sleep and mood D. Glutamate—plays a role in memory Answer: B. GABA—an excitatory neurotransmitter inhibited by alcohol or tranquilizers 30. The neurotransmitter dopamine is involved in: A. the brain's effort to deal with pain. B. Alzheimer's disease. C. the regulation of sleep, eating, mood, and pain. D. movement, attention, and learning. Answer: D. movement, attention, and learning. 31. Which neurotransmitter is CORRECTLY matched with a psychological function? A. Relief of pain—glutamate B. Regulates mood—acetylcholine C. Facilitates learning—dopamine D. Contributes to memory—serotonin Answer: C. Facilitates learning—dopamine 32. Which disorder is CORRECTLY paired with an associated neurotransmitter? A. Parkinson's disease: dopamine B. Depression: glutamate C. Schizophrenia: serotonin D. Alzheimer's disease: endorphins Answer: A. Parkinson's disease: dopamine 33. Inhibitory is to excitatory what _____________ is to _____________. A. glutamate; GABA B. glutamate; acetylcholine C. GABA; glutamate D. endorphins; GABA Answer: C. GABA; glutamate 34. Which expression below most closely approximates the number of neural connections in the brain? A. 10 quadrillion B. 1 million C. 1 billion D. 1 trillion Answer: A. 10 quadrillion 35. The nervous system is divided into the _____________ and the _____________ nervous systems. A. primary; secondary B. somatic; autonomic C. sympathetic; parasympathetic D. central; peripheral Answer: D. central; peripheral 36. The brain and the spinal cord constitute the _____________ nervous system. A. central B. peripheral C. extraneous D. parasympathetic Answer: A. central 37. _____________ is an automatic, involuntary response to an incoming stimulus. A. Action potential B. Intuition C. Instinct D. Reflex Answer: D. Reflex 38. The _____________ is the main means for transmitting messages between the brain and the body. A. cortex B. medulla C. axon D. spinal cord Answer: D. spinal cord 39. Which of the following is TRUE of the spinal cord's control of behavior? A. The spinal cord cannot control any behaviors without the help of the brain. B. The spinal cord is not involved in reflexes. C. The spinal cord can control some simple reflexes without the brain's help. D. The spinal cord can control relatively complex behavior without the brain's help. Answer: C. The spinal cord can control some simple reflexes without the brain's help. 40. The central nervous system is composed of _____________. The peripheral nervous system comprises _____________. A. the somatic and autonomic nervous systems; the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems B. the somatic and autonomic nervous systems; the brain and the spinal cord C. the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems; the somatic and autonomic nervous systems D. the brain and the spinal cord; the somatic and autonomic nervous systems Answer: D. the brain and the spinal cord; the somatic and autonomic nervous systems 41. Sensory is to motor what _____________ is to _____________. A. efferent; afferent B. afferent; efferent C. afferent; interneuron D. interneuron; efferent Answer: B. afferent; efferent 42. _____________ communicate information in the opposite direction, from the brain and nervous system to muscles and glands. A. Mirror neurons B. Amphid neurons C. Motor neurons D. Autoneurons Answer: C. Motor neurons 43. The two major divisions of the peripheral nervous system are the _____________ and _____________ divisions. A. somatic; autonomic B. sympathetic; parasympathetic C. afferent; efferent D. sensory; motor Answer: A. somatic; autonomic 44. _____________ is the part of the peripheral nervous system that specializes in the control of voluntary movements and the communication of information to and from the sense organs. A. Somatic division B. Sympathetic division C. Parasympathetic division D. Autonomic division Answer: A. Somatic division 45. Somatic is to autonomic what _____________ is to _____________. A. involuntary; voluntary B. voluntary; involuntary C. excitation; rest D. rest; excitation Answer: B. voluntary; involuntary 46. The part of the autonomic division of the nervous system that acts to prepare the body for action in stressful situations, engaging all the organism's resources to respond to a threat is known as the _____________. A. somatic division B. sympathetic division C. parasympathetic division D. apathetic division Answer: B. sympathetic division 47. The "fight-or-flight" response is associated with the _____________ division. A. somatic B. sympathetic C. parasympathetic D. apathetic Answer: B. sympathetic 48. The part of the autonomic division of the nervous system that acts to calm the body after an emergency has ended is known as the _____________ division. A. somatic B. sympathetic C. parasympathetic D. apathetic Answer: C. parasympathetic 49. The _____________ division also directs the body to store energy for use in emergencies. A. somatic B. sympathetic C. parasympathetic D. apathetic Answer: C. parasympathetic 50. Which of the following situations is most likely to involve the action of the parasympathetic nervous system? A. Brooke's finger accidentally grazes the hot iron; she immediately jerks her hand away. B. After mistaking her roommate for a thief, Callum relaxes after having a glass of water. C. Walking toward her car in a deserted parking lot one night, Danica is surprised by a strange man appearing from nowhere. D. Peyton is preparing to go to bed and is alarmed to see a stranger at her window. Answer: B. After mistaking her roommate for a thief, Callum relaxes after having a glass of water. 51. With respect to its potential basis in nervous system activity, "voodoo death" has been attributed to: A. an overactive sympathetic nervous system. B. an overactive parasympathetic nervous system. C. the cessation of sympathetic nervous system responses. D. an understimulated central nervous system. Answer: A. an overactive sympathetic nervous system. 52. Izzy sees a leopard in her backyard. Her pupils are dilated and her heart is pounding; her breathing is shallow and rapid. Her _____________ nervous system is active. A. parasympathetic B. sympathetic C. apathetic D. somatic Answer: B. sympathetic 53. Which of the following terms best describes the organization of the nervous system today? A. Linear B. Recursive C. Hierarchical D. Random Answer: C. Hierarchical 54. The branch of psychology that seeks to identify behavior patterns that are a result of our genetic inheritance from our ancestors is known as _____________. A. social psychology B. health psychology C. clinical psychology D. evolutionary psychology Answer: D. evolutionary psychology 55. Evolutionary psychologists have spawned a new and increasingly influential field known as: A. social psychology. B. health psychology. C. molecular genetics. D. behavioral genetics. Answer: D. behavioral genetics. 56. The study of the effects of heredity on how people conduct themselves is known as _____________. A. behavioral genetics B. classical genetics C. development genetics D. molecular genetics Answer: A. behavioral genetics 57. Dr. Schilling is investigating the potential genetic basis of antisocial personality disorder by examining the relative prevalence of the disorder among either identical or fraternal twins, raised either together or in different families. Dr. Schilling is best described as a _____________. A. behavioral geneticist B. classical geneticist C. development geneticist D. molecular geneticist Answer: A. behavioral geneticist 58. Which of the following statements best expresses the relationship between the nervous system and the endocrine system? A. They operate entirely independently. B. The endocrine system is part of the central nervous system. C. The endocrine system influences and is influenced by the central nervous system. D. The central nervous system is one part of the endocrine system. Answer: C. The endocrine system influences and is influenced by the central nervous system. 59. A key component of the endocrine system is the tiny _____________ gland, which is found near—and regulated by—the _____________ in the brain. A. adrenal; hippocampus B. pituitary; hippocampus C. adrenal; hypothalamus D. pituitary; hypothalamus Answer: D. pituitary; hypothalamus 60. The _____________ gland is a major component of the endocrine system which secretes hormones that control growth and other parts of the endocrine system. A. esophageal B. apocrine C. parotid D. pituitary Answer: D. pituitary 61. The _____________ gland has sometimes been called the "master gland" because it controls the functioning of the rest of the endocrine system. A. pituitary B. esophageal C. apocrine D. parotid Answer: A. pituitary 62. The hormone oxytocin has been implicated in each of the following behaviors EXCEPT the: A. urge to nurse newborn infants. B. desire to seek or respond to potential sexual partners. C. development of trust in others. D. tendency to produce violent, dangerous behavior. Answer: D. tendency to produce violent, dangerous behavior. 63. Which of the following glands or structures is CORRECTLY matched with the hormone it produces? A. Pineal gland; insulin B. Pancreas; serotonin C. Medulla; melatonin D. Pituitary gland; oxytocin Answer: D. Pituitary gland; oxytocin 64. Which of the following hormones is CORRECTLY matched with its function? A. Aldosterone—regulates daily rhythms B. Erythropoietin—regulates the sodium and potassium balance in the blood C. Adipokines—regulate the production of red blood cells D. Steroids—bulk-up one's muscles Answer: D. Steroids—bulk-up one's muscles 65. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding hormone replacement therapy as a treatment for menopausal symptoms? A. It is used less frequently now than in the past. B. It is the only treatment that does not have any side effects. C. Its benefits outweigh its risks. D. It has become increasingly popular. Answer: A. It is used less frequently now than in the past. 66. Your friend is considering using steroids to increase muscle mass. You would warn him that steroid abuse can lead to: A. violent, dangerous behavior. B. obesity. C. autism. D. Type II diabetes. Answer: A. violent, dangerous behavior. 67. Which of the following is NOT a brain-scanning technique? A. Electroencephalogram (EEG) B. Electromyogram (EMG) C. Positron emission tomography (PET) D. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) Answer: B. Electromyogram (EMG) 68. Which brain-scanning technique below is CORRECTLY matched with its description? A. EEG—records the brain's electrical activity with electrodes B. PET—causes a momentary interruption of the brain's electrical activity C. fMRI—traces biochemical activity in the brain D. TMS—produces a graph of electrical wave patterns Answer: A. EEG—records the brain's electrical activity with electrodes 69. Which brain-scanning technique below is INCORRECTLY matched with its diagnostic use? A. EEG—facilitates the diagnosis of epilepsy and learning disorders B. PET—may help identify brain tumors C. fMRI—improves diagnosis of strokes and multiple sclerosis D. TMS—facilitates the diagnosis of nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer's disease Answer: D. TMS—facilitates the diagnosis of nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer's disease 70. Brent is taking part in an experiment in the cognitive neuroscience lab on campus. Silently, he reads rapid sequences of words flashed on a computer screen. Simultaneously, the electrical activity of his brain is recorded through skull electrodes. The brain-scanning technique used in this study is: A. fMRI. B. PET. C. EEG. D. TMS. Answer: C. EEG. 71. The newest brain-scanning technique which is popularly used is: A. PET. B. EEG. C. TMS. D. fMRI. Answer: C. TMS. 72. Marisol is trying a new treatment for severe depression. Brief magnetic pulses are sent through her brain. Marisol is undergoing: A. optogenetic therapy. B. transcranial magnetic stimulation. C. positron emission tomography. D. functional magnetic resonance imaging. Answer: B. transcranial magnetic stimulation. 73. Soon, it may be possible to view the activity of individual neural circuits, due to the emerging field of: A. optogenetics. B. synaptic reflectance. C. neurogenetics. D. transcranial magnetic stimulation. Answer: A. optogenetics. 74. Which of the following structures is NOT part of the brain's central core? A. Hippocampus B. Cerebellum C. Pons D. Reticular formation Answer: A. Hippocampus 75. The hindbrain includes each of the following structures EXCEPT the: A. medulla. B. thalamus. C. pons. D. cerebellum. Answer: B. thalamus. 76. The part of the brain closest to the spinal cord is the _____________; it is important for functions such as _____________. A. cerebellum; maintaining body temperature B. cerebellum; heart rate and respiration C. medulla; maintaining body temperature D. medulla; heart rate and respiration Answer: D. medulla; heart rate and respiration 77. The pons serves to: A. regulate arousal. B. relay sensory information to the brain's association areas. C. integrate movement between the left and right halves of the body. D. consolidate memories. Answer: C. integrate movement between the left and right halves of the body. 78. The part of the brain that controls bodily balance is the _____________. A. hypothalamus B. thalamus C. reticular formation D. cerebellum Answer: D. cerebellum 79. Yves has been drinking. He has difficulty walking a straight line when asked to do so by a police officer. Apparently, Yves' _____________ is functioning poorly. A. thalamus B. cerebellum C. corpus callosum D. reticular formation Answer: B. cerebellum 80. The part of the brain extending from the medulla through the pons and made up of groups of nerve cells that can immediately activate other parts of the brain to produce general bodily arousal is known as the _____________. A. reticular formation B. thalamus C. cerebellum D. limbic system Answer: A. reticular formation 81. The thalamus may be likened to a(n): A. amplifier. B. receiver. C. filter. D. relay station. Answer: D. relay station. 82. The _____________ is the part of the brain that is located in the middle of the central core and acts primarily to relay information about the senses. A. thalamus B. cerebellum C. hypothalamus D. amygdala Answer: A. thalamus 83. The _____________ is a tiny part of the brain that maintains homeostasis and produces and regulates vital behavior such as eating, drinking, and sexual behavior. A. medulla B. cerebellum C. amygdala D. hypothalamus Answer: D. hypothalamus 84. Pizza! Beer! Sex! Our motivation or drive for such things is based on the activity of the brain region known as the: A. hypothalamus. B. thalamus. C. hippocampus. D. amygdala. Answer: A. hypothalamus. 85. The _____________ maintains a steady internal environment for the body. A. thalamus B. amygdala C. hypothalamus D. hippocampus Answer: C. hypothalamus 86. The _____________ in the brain contributes to the body's maintenance of a steady internal physiological state called _____________. A. thalamus; homeostasis B. hypothalamus; homeostasis C. hippocampus; equilibrium D. thalamus; equilibrium Answer: B. hypothalamus; homeostasis 87. The limbic system contains which of the following structures? A. Amygdala B. Pons C. Thalamus D. Corpus callosum Answer: A. Amygdala 88. The structures of the _____________ jointly control a variety of basic functions relating to emotions and self-preservation such as eating, aggression, and reproduction. A. central core of the brain B. endocrine system C. limbic system D. cerebral cortex Answer: C. limbic system 89. Darnell underwent surgery to control his severe epilepsy. However, Darnell cannot form new memories of his experiences now, although he does remember past events. Most likely, the surgery destroyed a portion of the _____________ in Darnell's brain. A. amygdala B. striatum C. medulla D. hippocampus Answer: D. hippocampus 90. The _____________ is referred to as the "new brain." A. hindbrain B. limbic system C. cerebral cortex D. central core Answer: C. cerebral cortex 91. Which of the following sequences correctly identifies the orders of the lobes of the cortex, from anterior to posterior? A. Frontal – temporal and parietal – posterior B. Occipital – temporal and parietal – frontal C. Frontal – occipital – temporal and parietal D. Frontal – temporal and parietal – occipital Answer: D. Frontal – temporal and parietal – occipital 92. In which lobe is the motor area located? A. Occipital B. Frontal C. Parietal D. Temporal Answer: B. Frontal 93. The _____________ area is part of the cortex that is largely responsible for the body's voluntary movement. A. attribution B. sensory C. motor D. association Answer: C. motor 94. In a neurophysiological investigation, a monkey makes an involuntary gesture when a portion of its brain is electrically stimulated. The area of the brain that was most likely stimulated is the: A. parietal lobe. B. frontal lobe. C. temporal lobe. D. occipital lobe. Answer: B. frontal lobe. 95. The _____________ area is the site in the brain of the tissue that corresponds to each of the senses, with the degree of sensitivity related to the amount of tissue. A. attribution B. sensory C. motor D. association Answer: B. sensory 96. The somatosensory area is to the auditory area what the _____________ lobe is to the _____________ lobe. A. temporal; parietal B. parietal; occipital C. occipital; parietal D. parietal; temporal Answer: D. parietal; temporal 97. The visual area in the cortex is located in the _____________. A. frontal lobe B. occipital lobe C. temporal lobe D. parietal lobe Answer: B. occipital lobe 98. The brain injury suffered by 19th century railroad worker Phineas Gage allowed psychologists to learn about the functions of the brain's: A. association areas. B. central core. C. limbic system. D. sensory areas. Answer: A. association areas. 99. The _____________ areas are considered to be the site of higher mental processes such as thinking, language, memory, and speech. A. sensory B. attribution C. motor D. association Answer: D. association 100. Which of the following is NOT an executive function? A. Recalling information B. Setting goals C. Controlling impulses D. Making judgments Answer: A. Recalling information 101. Violet's speech is slow and labored; however, she can understand others' speech. Violet has: A. Broca's aphasia. B. Wernicke's aphasia. C. dyslexia. D. dyscalculia. Answer: A. Broca's aphasia. 102. Warren suffers from Wernicke's aphasia. Which of the following difficulties will he experience? A. Warren will experience an inability to recognize faces. B. Warren will have difficulty recognizing objects visually. C. Warren will have trouble producing fluent speech. D. Warren will experience difficulty understanding language. Answer: D. Warren will experience difficulty understanding language. 103. The process by which the brain reorganizes itself throughout development is termed: A. neuroformation. B. neuroplasticity. C. neuroadaptation. D. neuromutability. Answer: B. neuroplasticity. 104. _____________ is the creation of new neurons. A. Neurogenesis B. Neuroadaptation C. Neuromutability D. Neuropathy Answer: A. Neurogenesis 105. Neurogenesis is especially evident in brain areas related to learning and memory. Based on this statement, you might expect neurogenesis to be particularly prevalent in the brain's: A. thalamus. B. cerebellum. C. hippocampus. D. hypothalamus. Answer: C. hippocampus. 106. Which of the following is TRUE about the brain? A. New research has confirmed that no new brain cells are created after childhood. B. The interconnections between neurons become less complex throughout life. C. Specific experience can modify the way in which information is processed. D. The brain does not have the ability to shift functions to different locations in cases of surgery. Answer: C. Specific experience can modify the way in which information is processed. 107. The use of stem cells in research and treatment remains controversial because stem cells come from: A. nonhuman species. B. aborted fetuses. C. genetic engineering in the laboratory. D. paid adult donors. Answer: B. aborted fetuses. 108. Which of the following statements is most accurate in the context of lateralization of language? A. It is most likely left-lateralized. B. It is most likely right-lateralized. C. The control of language is shared equally between the hemispheres. D. The lateralization of language varies dramatically from one person to another. Answer: A. It is most likely left-lateralized. 109. Trevor is scratching his head, trying desperately to solve a verbal analogy as part of a standardized entrance examination; Sienna, meanwhile, is giving an oral presentation in a political science class. Of the brain's hemispheres, Trevor's _____________ hemisphere is most active; Sienna's _____________ hemisphere is most active. A. right; right B. left; left C. right; left D. left; right Answer: B. left; left 110. Kate has suffered damage to the right side of her brain. Which of the following processes is LEAST likely to be affected? A. Achieving feng shui in her living room by rearranging the couch and the TV B. Balancing her checkbook C. Reading that look on her boyfriend's face D. Thinking that a new song on the radio is really catchy Answer: B. Balancing her checkbook 111. The hemispheres of the brain are connected by a bundle of fibers called the: A. corpus callosum. B. corpus cerebellum. C. central sulcus. D. cerebral cortex. Answer: A. corpus callosum. 112. Ramona is a woman. Stefan is a man. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding potential differences in the corpus callosum between these two individuals? A. Stefan's corpus callosum is probably the same size as Ramona's. B. Ramona's corpus callosum is larger than Stefan's. C. Ramona's corpus callosum is slightly smaller than Stefan's. D. Stefan's corpus callosum is much larger than Ramona's. Answer: B. Ramona's corpus callosum is larger than Stefan's. 113. Which of the following generalizations is probably most accurate regarding potential gender differences in the lateralization of language? A. No gender differences in the lateralization of language have been found. B. Language is more strongly left-lateralized among females than among males. C. Language is more strongly left-lateralized among males than among females. D. The lateralization of language is variable from one person to another. Answer: C. Language is more strongly left-lateralized among males than among females. 114. People whose corpus callosum has been surgically cut to stop seizures are called _____________. A. deep-brain patients B. dual brain patients C. split-brain patients D. bicameral patients Answer: C. split-brain patients 115. Mrs. Simon has learned to lessen the pain associated with her migraine headaches by voluntarily relaxing specific muscles and reducing her blood pressure. This example illustrates: A. deep-brain stimulation. B. biofeedback. C. split-brain control. D. transcranial stimulation. Answer: B. biofeedback. Worksheet Questions 116. The _____________ is an insulating coat of fat and protein wrapped around an axon. Answer: myelin sheath 117. According to the _____________ law, neurons are either on or off. Answer: all-or-none 118. At the cellular level, our ability to empathize with others may reflect the activity of _____________ neurons. Answer: mirror 119. _____________ is a chemical message that prevents or decreases the likelihood that a receiving neuron will fire. Answer: Inhibitory message 120. After a long run, Aaron sometimes experiences a feeling of euphoria, a "runners' high," reflecting the activity of neurotransmitters called ___________. Answer: Endorphins 121. _____________ neurons transmit information from the perimeter of the body to the central nervous system. Answer: Afferent 122. The somatic nervous system regulates voluntary movement; in contrast, the _____________ nervous system underlies involuntary movement. Answer: Autonomic 123. Arif's heart rate and respiration are slowing, and his dilated pupils are contracting. His _____________ nervous system has become active. Answer: Parasympathetic 124. _____________ is the branch of psychology that seeks to identify how behavior is influenced and produced by our genetic inheritance from our ancestors. Answer: Evolutionary psychology 125. The tiny _____________ gland is known as the "master gland." Answer: Pituitary 126. A technique called _____________ records the brain's electrical activity through electrodes. Answer: EEG (electroencephalogram) 127. Wilma has been experiencing memory difficulties, and her doctor is concerned that Wilma may have a brain tumor. He recommends a(n) _____________ to confirm his diagnosis. Answer: PET (positron emission tomography) 128. Extending from the medulla, through the midbrain, into the forebrain is the ___________, which serves to regulate general bodily arousal. Answer: reticular formation 129. Information travels from our sensory receptors to the _____________ in the brain, which relays it to higher association areas. Answer: thalamus 130. The amygdala and hippocampus are found within the brain's _____________ system. Answer: limbic 131. Epileptics have sometimes had portions of their limbic system removed. Subsequent memory problems may reflect damage to the ___________. Answer: hippocampus 132. The cortex has four major sections called ___________. Answer: lobes 133. The _____________ area in the parietal lobe encompasses specific locations associated with the ability to perceive touch and pressure in a particular area of the body. Answer: somatosensory 134. New neurons are created even during adulthood, in a process called ___________. Answer: neurogenesis 135. Vance has learned to voluntarily control the activation of his autonomic nervous system as part of the treatment for an anxiety disorder. This is an example of ___________. Answer: biofeedback Essay Questions 136. Draw a typical neuron and label its major parts accurately. Briefly describe the functions of the parts labeled on your diagram. Answer: The drawing should contain: (a) dendrites, which should appear as clusters of branchlike extensions from the cell body; (b) the cell body, which should appear as a roundish structure in the center of the diagram; (c) the axon, which should appear as a long tube extending from the cell body; and (d) myelin, which should appear bracketing portions of the axon. The diagram should also include a terminal button, a bulblike ending to the axon. The function of the following structures should be described. Dendrites—receive information from other neurons. Axon—sends message to another neuron. Myelin—insulates one axon from another and speeds neural transmission. 137. Write a note on mirror neurons. Answer: Mirror neurons are neurons that fire not only when a person enacts a particular behavior but also when a person simply observes another individual carrying out the same behavior. Mirror neurons may help explain how (and why) humans have the capacity to understand others' intentions. Specifically, mirror neurons may fire when we view someone doing something, helping us to predict what their goals are and what they may do next. The discovery of mirror neurons suggests that the capacity of even young children to imitate others may be an inborn behavior. Furthermore, mirror neurons may be at the root of empathy—those feelings of concern, compassion, and sympathy for others—and even the development of language in humans. 138. Outline the sequence of events that occur at the synapse when a neural message is communicated. Answer: The answer should include the following steps in the sequence: (1) neurotransmitters are produced and stored in the axon. An action potential reaches the end of the axon, or the terminal button; (2) if an action potential arrives, the potential stimulates the release of neurotransmitter molecules from vesicles within the terminal button; (3) the neurotransmitter molecules float passively across the gap between the terminal button of the sending neuron and the dendrites of the receiving neuron; (4) the molecules fit into specialized receptor sites on the dendrites of the receiving neuron; making (5) the receiving neuron either more or less likely to produce its own action potential, depending on the neurotransmitter. At the synapse, when a neural message is communicated, the sequence of events unfolds as follows: 1. Neurotransmitter Release: Action potentials trigger the release of neurotransmitters from the presynaptic neuron's vesicles into the synaptic cleft. 2. Neurotransmitter Binding: Neurotransmitters diffuse across the synaptic cleft and bind to receptor sites on the postsynaptic neuron's membrane. 3. Ion Channel Activation: Binding of neurotransmitters causes ion channels to open, allowing specific ions (e.g., Na+, K+, Ca2+) to flow into or out of the postsynaptic neuron. 4. Postsynaptic Potential: Ion flow generates a postsynaptic potential, which can be excitatory (depolarizing) or inhibitory (hyperpolarizing), influencing the likelihood of an action potential in the postsynaptic neuron. 139. What are neurotransmitters? Answer: Neurotransmitters are chemicals that carry messages across the synapse to a dendrite (and sometimes the cell body) of a receiving neuron. The chemical mode of message transmission that occurs between neurons is strikingly different from the means by which communication occurs inside neurons: Although messages travel in electrical form within a neuron, they move between neurons through a chemical transmission system. There are several types of neurotransmitters, and not all neurons are capable of receiving the chemical message carried by a particular neurotransmitter. In the same way that a jigsaw puzzle piece can fit in only one specific location in a puzzle, each kind of neurotransmitter has a distinctive configuration that allows it to fit into a specific type of receptor site on the receiving neuron. It is only when a neurotransmitter fits precisely into a receptor site that successful chemical communication is possible. If a neurotransmitter does fit into a site on the receiving neuron, the chemical message it delivers is basically one of two types: excitatory or inhibitory. 140. Identify and describe any three neurotransmitters, using specific examples. Answer: Students' answers may vary. The answer should include three of the following neurotransmitters. At least one of the functions or domains listed for each of the three neurotransmitters should be mentioned, ideally in a personalized example. Acetylcholine—movement of skeletal muscles; memory Glutamate—memory GABA—eating and aggression; affected by alcohol Dopamine—involved in movement, attention, learning, and reinforcement Serotonin—regulates sleep, mood, eating, and depression Endorphins—the brain's natural painkiller; may produce euphoric feelings 1. Dopamine: Involved in reward-motivated behavior and motor control. Example: Dopamine plays a role in feelings of pleasure and reinforcement, such as when someone experiences enjoyment from eating food. 2. Serotonin: Regulates mood, sleep, and appetite. Example: Serotonin imbalance is linked to depression and anxiety disorders; medications like SSRIs increase serotonin levels to alleviate symptoms. 3. Acetylcholine: Affects muscle movement and cognitive functions like memory and attention. Example: Acetylcholine is essential for transmitting signals between nerves and muscles, influencing motor coordination and learning. 141. Identify how abnormal levels of specific neurotransmitters may be involved in each of these disorders: Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia. Answer: The answer should include the following: Alzheimer's disease—diminished production of acetylcholine Parkinson's disease—abnormally low levels of dopamine Schizophrenia—abnormally high levels of dopamine 1. Alzheimer's Disease: In Alzheimer's disease, there is a decrease in the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. This decrease contributes to cognitive decline and memory impairment observed in patients. 2. Parkinson's Disease: Parkinson's disease involves a reduction in dopamine production due to degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. This dopamine deficiency leads to motor symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, and bradykinesia. 3. Schizophrenia: Schizophrenia is associated with abnormal dopamine transmission, specifically an overactivity or dysregulation of dopamine pathways in the brain. This imbalance is thought to contribute to positive symptoms like hallucinations and delusions. 142. Write a note on the peripheral nervous system. Answer: The peripheral nervous system branches out from the spinal cord and brain and reaches the extremities of the body. Made up of neurons with long axons and dendrites, the peripheral nervous system encompasses all the parts of the nervous system other than the brain and spinal cord. There are two major divisions—the somatic division and the autonomic division—both of which connect the central nervous system with the sense organs, muscles, glands, and other organs. The somatic division specializes in the control of voluntary movements—such as the motion of the eyes to read this sentence or those of the hand to turn this page—and the communication of information to and from the sense organs. The autonomic division controls the parts of the body that keep us alive—the heart, blood vessels, glands, lungs, and other organs that function involuntarily without our awareness. 143. Distinguish between the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system. For each division, provide an example of a situation in which the division would become active. Describe the effects on several bodily processes of the activity of each division. Answer: Students’ examples may vary. The answer should contain the following information: The sympathetic nervous system acts to prepare the body for action in stressful situations by mobilizing the organism's resources for "fight or flight." The parasympathetic nervous system acts to calm the body once a stressful situation or emergency has ended. It allows the body to store energy. The sympathetic nervous system becomes active in such "fight-or-flight" situations as spotting a threatening stranger in a desolate parking garage, being involved in a near-accident on the road, and so on. The parasympathetic nervous system becomes active in calm, restful situations such as relaxing after dinner or resting in bed before falling asleep. Signs of sympathetic nervous system activity are increased heart rate, inhibited digestion, dilated pupils, shallow breathing. Signs of parasympathetic nervous system activity are decreased heart rate, facilitated digestion, constricted pupils, slowed respiration. • Sympathetic Division: Activates during stress or danger (e.g., encountering a threatening animal). Effects include increased heart rate, dilation of airways for better oxygen intake, and inhibition of digestion to conserve energy. • Parasympathetic Division: Becomes active during rest or relaxation (e.g., after a meal). Effects include decreased heart rate, constriction of airways, stimulation of digestion for nutrient absorption, and promotion of bodily functions that conserve energy. 144. Write a note on evolutionary psychology. Answer: Evolutionary psychology is the branch of psychology that seeks to identify how behavior is influenced and produced by our genetic inheritance from our ancestors. Evolutionary psychologists argue that the course of evolution is reflected in the structure and functioning of the nervous system and that evolutionary factors consequently have a significant influence on our everyday behavior. Their work, in conjunction with the research of scientists studying genetics, biochemistry, and medicine, has led to an understanding of how our behavior is affected by heredity, our genetically determined heritage. Evolutionary psychologists have spawned a new and increasingly influential field: behavioral genetics. 145. Briefly describe the functions of endocrine system and the pituitary gland. Answer: Students' answers may vary. The endocrine system is a chemical communication network that sends messages throughout the body via the bloodstream. Its job is to secrete hormones, chemicals that circulate through the blood and regulate the functioning or growth of the body. It also influences—and is influenced by—the functioning of the nervous system. Although the endocrine system is not part of the brain, it is closely linked to the hypothalamus. A key component of the endocrine system is the tiny pituitary gland, which is found near—and regulated by—the hypothalamus in the brain. The pituitary gland has sometimes been called the “master gland” because it controls the functioning of the rest of the endocrine system. But the pituitary gland is more than just the taskmaster of other glands; it has important functions in its own right. For instance, hormones secreted by the pituitary gland control growth. Extremely short people and unusually tall ones usually have pituitary gland abnormalities. The endocrine system regulates bodily functions through hormones released into the bloodstream by glands such as the pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands. It helps maintain homeostasis, growth, metabolism, and reproduction. The pituitary gland, often called the "master gland," controls other endocrine glands and secretes hormones that regulate growth, reproduction, and water balance. It consists of two parts: the anterior pituitary, which produces hormones like growth hormone and prolactin, and the posterior pituitary, which stores and releases hormones such as oxytocin and vasopressin. 146. List and describe the brain-scanning techniques. Answer: Three of the following techniques should be identified; a description of the diagnostic utility of each technique should follow. Electroencephalogram (EEG)—facilitates the diagnosis of epilepsy and learning disabilities Positron emission tomography (PET)—may help identify the presence of brain tumors Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)—has improved the diagnosis of many ailments, including strokes, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) imaging—may allow the treatment of certain psychological disorders, such as depression and schizophrenia 147. Identify and describe the "old brain" structures or areas. Illustrate the function of each area. Answer: The "old brain" is the brain's central core. Three of the following structures should be identified. Damage or deterioration should lead to impairment of the function listed for a given area. Medulla regulates breathing and heart rate. Pons regulates sleep; coordinates movement between the right and left sides of the body. Cerebellum controls body balance; coordinates movement. Reticular formation—regulates alertness; when awake, produces arousal to outside stimulation; when asleep, filters out distracting background stimuli. Thalamus—acts as a relay station for information from the senses. Hypothalamus—maintains homeostasis, a steady internal state for the body; produces and regulates survival-related behavior, such as eating, self-protection, and sex. 148. Review recent research investigating the effects of gender and culture on brain structure and function. Answer: Young girls show earlier development in the frontal lobes, which control aggressiveness and language development. On the other hand, boys' brains develop faster in the visual region that facilitates visual and spatial tasks such as geometry. Furthermore, most males tend to show greater lateralization of language in the left hemisphere. For them, language is clearly relegated largely to the left side of the brain. In contrast, women display less lateralization, with language abilities apt to be more evenly divided between the two hemispheres. Such differences in brain lateralization may account, in part, for the superiority often displayed by females on certain measures of verbal skills, such as the onset and fluency of speech. Other research suggests that men's brains are somewhat bigger than women's brains even after taking differences in body size into account. In contrast, part of the corpus callosum, a bundle of fibers that connects the hemispheres of the brain, is proportionally larger in women than in men. Culture also gives rise to differences in brain lateralization. Native speakers of Japanese seem to process information regarding vowel sounds primarily in the brain's left hemisphere. In contrast, North and South Americans, Europeans, and individuals of Japanese ancestry who learn Japanese later in life handle vowel sounds principally in the right hemisphere. One explanation for this difference is that certain characteristics of the Japanese language, such as the ability to express complex ideas by using only vowel sounds, result in the development of a specific type of brain lateralization in native speakers 149. What is biofeedback? Describe the procedure and identify some of the physical and psychological disorders where it is applied. Answer: Biofeedback is a procedure in which a person learns to control through conscious thought internal physiological processes such as blood pressure, heart and respiration rate, skin temperature, sweating, and the constriction of particular muscles. Although it traditionally had been thought that the heart rate, respiration rate, blood pressure, and other bodily functions are under the control of parts of the brain over which we have no influence, psychologists have discovered that these responses are actually susceptible to voluntary control. In biofeedback, a person is hooked up to electronic devices that provide continuous feedback relating to the physiological response in question. For instance, someone trying to control headaches through biofeedback might have electronic sensors placed on certain muscles on her head and learn to control the constriction and relaxation of those muscles. Later, when she felt a headache starting, she could relax the relevant muscles and abort the pain. Although the control of physiological processes through the use of biofeedback is not easy to learn, it has been employed with success in a variety of ailments, including emotional problems (such as anxiety, depression, phobias, tension headaches, insomnia, and hyperactivity), physical illnesses with a psychological component (such as asthma, high blood pressure, ulcers, muscle spasms, and migraine headaches), and physical problems. Test Bank for Essentials of Understanding Psychology Robert S. Feldman 9780077861889, 9781259255786, 9781260829013

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