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Chapter 07 Thinking, Language, and Intelligence Multiple Choice Questions 1. _____________ psychology is the branch of psychology that focuses on the study of higher mental processes, including thinking, language, memory, problem solving, knowing, reasoning, and judging. A. Clinical B. Developmental C. Cognitive D. Evolutionary Answer: C. Cognitive 2. Which of the following is true about mental images? A. They refer only to visual representations. B. They have only a few of the properties of the actual stimuli they represent. C. They are representations in the mind of an object or event. D. They cannot be rotated. Answer: C. They are representations in the mind of an object or event. 3. Which of the following statements best expresses the nature of mental images? A. They are binary in format. B. They are always auditory in format. C. They may be produced by any sensory modality. D. They are linguistic. Answer: C. They may be produced by any sensory modality. 4. Dr. Randazza shows participants a stylized map of a fictitious city. The map includes landmarks, such as a post office, a library, a shopping mall, a bus depot, and an airport. Some of the landmarks are close together, such as the library and the post office. Others are far apart, such as the airport and the shopping mall. Dr. Randazza removes the map. Participants are asked to imagine walking from one landmark to another, either a nearby one or a more distant one. Participants press a key when they have reached the destination in their minds. Based on mental imagery, what do you think Dr. Randazza should find? What would such a result say about mental imagery? A. Participants should take the same amount of time to travel mentally between distant as between close landmarks. This result would suggest that mental imagery reflects the actual actions the participants perform with respect to real objects. B. Participants should take the same amount of time to travel mentally between distant as between close landmarks. This result would suggest that mental imagery does not reflect the actual actions the participants perform with respect to real objects. C. Participants should take longer to travel mentally between distant than between close landmarks. This result would suggest that mental imagery reflects the actual actions the participants perform with respect to real objects. D. Participants should take longer to travel mentally between distant than between close landmarks. This result would suggest that mental imagery does not reflect the actual actions the participants perform with respect to real objects. Answer: C. Participants should take longer to travel mentally between distant than between close landmarks. This result would suggest that mental imagery reflects the actual actions the participants perform with respect to real objects. 5. Clint is mentally rehearsing his golf swing in his mind's eye. Based on mental imagery, which of the following statements is most accurate? A. Clint's mental rehearsal should improve his golf swing. Performing the task involves the same network of brain cells as the network used in mentally rehearsing it. B. Clint's mental rehearsal should do little to improve his golf swing. The brain areas active during Clint's mental rehearsal should be the same as those active when Clint actually swings the golf club. C. Clint's mental rehearsal should improve his golf swing. The brain areas active during Clint's mental rehearsal should be different than those active when Clint actually swings the golf club. D. Clint's mental rehearsal should do little to improve his golf swing. The brain areas active during Clint's mental rehearsal should be different than those active when Clint actually swings the golf club. Answer: A. Clint's mental rehearsal should improve his golf swing. Performing the task involves the same network of brain cells as the network used in mentally rehearsing it. 6. Mental representations of objects are called _____________; mental grouping of similar objects, events, or people are called _____________. A. images; concepts B. images; images as well C. concepts; concepts as well D. concepts; images Answer: A. images; concepts 7. Which of the following is most nearly synonymous with the term concept, as it is used by cognitive psychologists? A. Idea B. Relationship C. Category D. Image Answer: C. Category 8. Mental groupings of objects, events, or people that share common features are called: A. concepts. B. ideas. C. heuristics. D. algorithms. Answer: A. concepts. 9. A prototype is: A. the most typical or highly representative example of a concept. B. the first example of a concept that one encounters. C. the least frequent example of a concept. D. the most unusual or distinctive example of a concept. Answer: A. the most typical or highly representative example of a concept. 10. Which of the following is most likely the prototype of the concept "fruit"? A. Carrot B. Apple C. Tomato D. Blueberry Answer: B. Apple 11. _____________ is the process by which information is used to draw conclusions and make decisions. A. Reasoning B. Negotiating C. Predicting D. Conceptualizing Answer: A. Reasoning 12. Doesn’t understand why it works. A. heuristic. B. algorithm. C. premise. D. syllogism. Answer: B. algorithm. 13. A rule that guarantees the solution to a problem when it is correctly applied is termed as a(n): A. heuristic. B. algorithm. C. premise. D. syllogism. Answer: B. algorithm. 14. Which of the following is TRUE of algorithms? A. In cases where heuristics are not available, we may use algorithms. B. Even if it is applied appropriately, an algorithm cannot guarantee a solution to a problem. C. Algorithms may sometimes lead to errors. D. We can use an algorithm even if we cannot understand why it works. Answer: D. We can use an algorithm even if we cannot understand why it works. 15. Which of the following is TRUE of heuristics? A. In cases where algorithms are not available, we may use heuristics. B. If applied appropriately, a heuristic guarantees a solution to a problem. C. Heuristics never lead to errors. D. Heuristics decrease the likelihood of success in finding a solution. Answer: A. In cases where algorithms are not available, we may use heuristics. 16. Which of the following terms best captures the meaning of the term heuristic, as cognitive psychologists use it? A. Principle B. Formula C. Strategy D. Program Answer: C. Strategy 17. When you play tic-tac-toe using certain mental shortcuts, you are using cognitive strategies psychologists called: A. algorithms. B. mental sets. C. heuristics. D. syllogistic reasoning. Answer: C. heuristics. 18. Matt picks up a pamphlet at a counseling center titled How to Succeed at College Course Work. Which type of problem-solving strategies is most likely offered in this pamphlet? A. Algorithms B. Insights C. Heuristics D. Syllogisms Answer: C. Heuristics 19. Which of the following most likely makes use of heuristics? A. A chemical equation for the synthesis of sulfuric acid B. A recipe for making cookies on the back of a box of cornflakes C. An article by a Nobel Prize winner titled "How to Succeed in Science" D. A computer program for keeping track of inventory at a department store Answer: C. An article by a Nobel Prize winner titled "How to Succeed in Science" 20. Which of the following is an advantage of the use of heuristics? A. A heuristic will present a clearly defined solution to a problem. B. A heuristic is often efficient. C. A heuristic is guaranteed to result in a correct response. D. A heuristic results in only one possible solution to a problem. Answer: B. A heuristic is often efficient. 21. Which of the following is TRUE of heuristics? A. Heuristics always lead to correct solutions of a problem. B. Heuristics are a slower way to solve problems than are other strategies. C. Heuristics represent commonly used approaches to the solution of a problem. D. Heuristics are used by computers but not by humans as problem-solving tools. Answer: C. Heuristics represent commonly used approaches to the solution of a problem. 22. Lori and Monica are looking at the cans of coffee on display at a local supermarket. They are trying to decide which of two different-sized cans will be the better buy. Lori attempts to divide the price of each can by the number of ounces of coffee each can contains. Monica suggests that "the larger size is usually a better buy." Lori is using a(n) _____________, whereas Monica is using a(n) _____________. A. heuristic; algorithm B. algorithm; heuristic C. prototype; algorithm D. heuristic; prototype Answer: B. algorithm; heuristic 23. _____________ may sometimes lead to errors. A. Theorems B. Heuristics C. Algorithms D. Statements Answer: B. Heuristics 24. When you use the availability heuristic, you are: A. making frequency estimates based on the ease with which things come to mind. B. overcoming mental set. C. mistaking visual images and other forms of mental representations for reality. D. assuming that something is typical of its class. Answer: A. making frequency estimates based on the ease with which things come to mind. 25. Suppose you meet a woman who killed her stepdaughter, and then later when you meet another woman who is having trouble with her stepdaughter, you are most likely to think that this woman too will kill her stepdaughter. You come to this conclusion as a result of: A. functional fixedness. B. the representativeness heuristic. C. the availability heuristic. D. confirmation bias. Answer: B. the representativeness heuristic. 26. Carl is the only person from New Zealand that Craig has ever met. Carl strikes Craig as being quite friendly and funny. When Carl asks Craig what he would expect to find if he went to New Zealand, Craig says that he would expect the people to be quite friendly and funny. What might Craig have used to make this judgment? A. The familiarity heuristic B. Confirmation bias C. Functional fixedness D. The availability heuristic Answer: A. The familiarity heuristic 27. The _____________ heuristic involves judging the probability of an event on the basis of how easily the event can be recalled from memory. A. availability B. representativeness C. confirmation D. frequency Answer: A. availability 28. According to the _____________ heuristic, we assume that events we remember easily are likely to have occurred more frequently in the past—and are more likely to occur in the future—than events that are harder to remember. A. availability B. representativeness C. confirmation D. frequency Answer: A. availability 29. Following the September 11, 2001, Twin Towers attacks, many Americans opted to drive rather than fly. The media coverage of the hijackings caused Americans to overestimate the danger of flying. As it was an event they remember easily, they assumed it could occur frequently. This example illustrates: A. the availability heuristic. B. the representativeness heuristic. C. confirmation bias. D. stereotypic bias. Answer: A. the availability heuristic. 30. When people are asked which is more common, death by homicide or death by stroke, they often choose homicide because they hear more about murders than they do about strokes. In this instance, people are led astray in their judgments by: A. the representativeness heuristic. B. stereotypic bias. C. confirmation bias. D. the availability heuristic. Answer: D. the availability heuristic. 31. Last week, Mike heard about five separate airplane crashes on the news. Even though, in general, motorcycle accidents account for more accidents than plane crashes do, Mike decides to ride his motorcycle from Washington to Atlanta instead of flying. Which bias is reflected in Mike's decision? A. The availability heuristic B. Confirmation bias C. Syllogistic error D. The representativeness heuristic Answer: A. The availability heuristic 32. Joanne does not go out at night because she hears from her local news station about the large number of muggings and robberies that occur in her city. However, crime in Joanne's city has actually gone down in the past few years. Joanne falling victim to: A. the representativeness heuristic. B. functional fixedness. C. the availability heuristic. D. confirmation bias. Answer: C. the availability heuristic. 33. "You always clam up when I ask you what's wrong," Iris tells her boyfriend. Iris is probably making this frequency judgment because she can remember a few times that her boyfriend would not tell her what was bothering him. Iris is using the _____________ heuristic. A. representativeness B. availability C. functional D. frequency Answer: B. availability 34. In a(n) _____________ heuristic, known items are seen as superior to those that are unknown. A. representativeness B. availability C. functional D. familiarity Answer: D. familiarity 35. When you go to the supermarket, you see the brand of cookies you usually buy, and settle for it. Usually it is a good rule of thumb because it saves a lot of time. You do not ponder over every type of cookie available in the store. This is an example of a(n) _____________. A. representativeness heuristic B. syllogistic reasoning C. algorithm D. familiarity heuristic Answer: D. familiarity heuristic 36. _____________ intelligence is the field that examines how to use technology to imitate the outcome of human thinking, problem solving, and creative activities. A. Artificial B. Bodily-kinesthetic C. Spatial D. Existential Answer: A. Artificial 37. Which of the following sequences best reflects the order of the three broad phases of the problem-solving process, from first to last? A. Preparation → judgment → production B. Judgment → production → preparation C. Preparation → production → judgment D. Judgment → preparation → production Answer: C. Preparation → production → judgment 38. In _____________ problems, the nature of the problem and the information needed to solve it are clear. In _____________ problems, either or both the nature of the problem and the information required to solve it are unclear. A. well-defined; ill-defined B. algorithmic; heuristic C. arrangement; inducing structure D. transformation; arrangement Answer: A. well-defined; ill-defined 39. Which of the following is an ill-defined problem? A. Navigating to a museum in a nearby city B. Composing a good concerto C. Finding out where several well-known authors were born D. Playing Scrabble Answer: B. Composing a good concerto 40. "Convert to a mixed numeral: 18/5," states one problem in a fifth-grader's arithmetic text. This is a(n) _____________ problem. It is best solved through the application of _____________. A. well-defined; algorithms B. well-defined; heuristics C. ill-defined; algorithms D. ill-defined; heuristics Answer: A. well-defined; algorithms 41. Dr. Ireland's class is attempting to find derivatives, whereas Dr. Jamison's class is developing campaign strategies for a local politician. Which of the following statements is MOST likely TRUE? A. Dr. Ireland's class is solving a well-defined problem. B. Dr. Jamison's class is solving a well-defined problem. C. Dr. Ireland's class is using syllogistic reasoning. D. Dr. Jamison's class is using familiarity heuristic. Answer: A. Dr. Ireland's class is solving a well-defined problem. 42. _____________ problems require the problem solver to rearrange or recombine elements in a way that will satisfy a certain criterion. A. Arrangement B. Inducing structure C. Transformation D. Prescriptive Answer: A. Arrangement 43. In problems of _____________, a person must identify the existing relationships among the elements presented and then construct a new relationship among them. A. arrangement B. inducing structure C. transformation D. prescription Answer: B. inducing structure 44. _____________ problems consist of an initial state, a goal state, and a method for changing the initial state into the goal state. A. Arrangement B. Inducing structure C. Transformation D. Prescriptive Answer: C. Transformation 45. Which of the following problem types is correctly matched with its description? A. Arrangement—moving from an initial to a goal state according to a specific method B. Inducing structure—identifying relationships among problem elements and constructing new relationships C. Transformation—rearranging or recombining elements to satisfy a particular criterion D. Transformation—identifying relationships among problem elements and constructing new relationships Answer: B. Inducing structure—identifying relationships among problem elements and constructing new relationships 46. Janelle is solving anagrams; Kamika is puzzling over verbal analogies; Lamar is playing chess with a friend. Which alternative below correctly matches each individual with the type of problem he or she is solving? A. Janelle—arrangement; Kamika—transformation; Lamar—inducing structure B. Janelle—transformation; Kamika—inducing structure; Lamar—arrangement C. Janelle—arrangement; Kamika—inducing structure; Lamar—transformation D. Janelle—transformation; Kamika—arrangement; Lamar—inducing structure Answer: C. Janelle—arrangement; Kamika—inducing structure; Lamar—transformation 47. Thomas Edison invented the light-bulb only because he experimented with thousands of different kinds of materials for a filament before he found one that worked (carbon). This shows that at the most basic level, we can solve problems through _____________. A. the availability heuristic B. means-ends analysis C. insight D. trial and error Answer: D. trial and error 48. _____________ involves repeated tests for differences between the desired outcome and what currently exists. A. Forming subgoals B. Means-ends analysis C. Insight D. Trial and error Answer: B. Means-ends analysis 49. In the context of problem solving, the most frequently used problem-solving heuristic is: A. forming subgoals. B. means-ends analysis. C. insight. D. trial and error. Answer: B. means-ends analysis. 50. Millie is stumped by a problem in her pre-calculus text. She furtively glances at the answer provided in the back of the text to get an idea of how the solution should look before she returns to the problem. Millie's strategy most closely resembles the problem-solving heuristic of: A. forming subgoals. B. trial and error. C. working backward. D. insight. Answer: C. working backward. 51. A political science professor attempts to facilitate her students' completion of a term paper assignment by requiring to first submit a topic statement, then a list of references, then a draft of the introduction, then, finally, the completed paper. The professor is encouraging her students to use the problem-solving strategy of: A. forming subgoals. B. working backward. C. means-ends analysis. D. trial and error. Answer: A. forming subgoals. 52. Which problem-solving strategy or method is correctly matched with its definition? A. Means-ends analysis: dividing a problem into intermediate steps B. Forming subgoals: focusing on a problem's goal rather than its starting point C. Working backward: reducing the apparent difference between the current state of the problem and the goal D. Insight: experiencing a sudden awareness of the relationships among a problem's components Answer: D. Insight: experiencing a sudden awareness of the relationships among a problem's components 53. Kent and Kirsten are both trying to reduce their consumer debt. Kent isolates several more concrete problems he can solve to achieve his goal, such as paying the highest-interest debts first and freezing credit card spending. Kirsten simply pays her largest debt first because this would seem to be the fastest way to move her debt as close to zero as possible. Kent's plan reflects the problem-solving strategy of _____________, while Kirsten's method illustrates the strategy of _____________. A. forming subgoals; trial and error B. means-end analysis; trial and error C. working backward; means-end analysis D. forming subgoals; means-end analysis Answer: D. forming subgoals; means-end analysis 54. The study of insight is associated with the German psychologist _____________; he studied problem solving among _____________. A. Kohler; chimpanzees B. Kohler; humans C. Wundt; cats D. Wundt; humans Answer: A. Kohler; chimpanzees 55. _____________ is defined as a sudden awareness of the relationship among problem elements; it is thought to lead rapidly to the problem's solution. A. Convergent thinking B. Divergent thinking C. Insight D. Creativity Answer: C. Insight 56. Which of the following is a key characteristic of insight? A. Brevity B. Complexity C. Uniqueness D. Suddenness Answer: D. Suddenness 57. The apparent suddenness of insightful problem solutions: A. may rest in part on the foundation of trial and error. B. may be based on the availability heuristic. C. has been affirmed by empirical research. D. requires the application of confirmation bias. Answer: A. may rest in part on the foundation of trial and error. 58. For which of the following types of problems is the evaluation of solutions LEAST likely to prove difficult? A. Well-defined problems B. Ill-defined problems C. Divergent thinking problems D. Associative thinking problems Answer: A. Well-defined problems 59. Which of the following impediments to effective problem solving is incorrectly matched with an illustrative problem? A. Confirmation bias—problem of security in the Middle East B. Functional fixedness—water jar problem C. Mental set—water jar problem D. Functional fixedness—candle problem Answer: B. Functional fixedness—water jar problem 60. _____________ refers to the tendency of old patterns of problem solving to persist. A. Mental set B. Representativeness heuristic C. Availability heuristic D. Syllogistic frame Answer: A. Mental set 61. Zelma is asked to think of all the words beginning with the letters "squ," such as squeak. She is then given a fill-in-the-blank task where one of the items is "s _ _ o n g." Zelma keeps trying to make "squong" a word, and she has trouble thinking of the common word "strong." Zelma's ability to solve this problem has been hampered by: A. syllogistic reasoning. B. mental set. C. the confirmation bias. D. the representativeness heuristic. Answer: B. mental set. 62. Which of the following statements best expresses the relationship between mental and functional fixedness? A. Functional fixedness is an example of a broader phenomenon known as mental set. B. Mental set is actually a specific instance of functional fixedness. C. Mental set and functional fixedness are the same thing. D. Functional fixedness and mental set are distinct problem-solving impediments. Answer: A. Functional fixedness is an example of a broader phenomenon known as mental set. 63. Alyssa uses a shoe as a hammer and a butter knife as a screwdriver while making several minor household repairs. Which of the following statements best characterizes Alyssa's problem solving? A. She is constrained by a powerful mental set. B. She has been released from functional fixedness. C. She is taking advantage of the representative heuristic. D. She is forming subgoals. Answer: B. She has been released from functional fixedness. 64. A jeweler is unable to fix a particular mounting in a ring because she can imagine only the conventional uses of her tools. Which of the following does this best demonstrate? A. Syllogistic reasoning B. Functional fixedness C. Algorithmic thinking D. Means-end analysis Answer: B. Functional fixedness 65. Henry's dog Sparky has been rolling in the mud. Henry must bathe Sparky before the dog gets mud all over the carpet. However, Henry is unable to find the plug for the tub. Sitting on the counter right beside the tub is a fifty-cent piece. In his frustration, Henry fails to see that the coin could be used as an emergency plug for the tub. What happened to Henry? A. He took a heuristic approach. B. He fell prey to confirmation bias. C. He suffered from mental set. D. He employed representational thought. Answer: C. He suffered from mental set. 66. _____________ is the tendency to seek out and give greater weight to information that supports one's initial hypothesis and to ignore contradictory information that supports alternative hypotheses or solutions. A. Functional fixedness B. A mental set C. Confirmation bias D. Representativeness heuristic Answer: C. Confirmation bias 67. Which of the following impediments to effective problem solving is correctly matched with its definition? A. Functional fixedness—the tendency for old patterns of problem solving to persist B. Mental set—the tendency to think of an object only in terms of its customary use C. Confirmation bias—the tendency to favor existing hypotheses and to ignore evidence favoring alternatives D. Representative heuristic—involves judging the probability of an event on the basis of how easily the event can be recalled from memory Answer: C. Confirmation bias—the tendency to favor existing hypotheses and to ignore evidence favoring alternatives 68. Nigel often cites newspaper editorials favoring the presidential candidate he supports. He appears to ignore editorials’ criticism of the candidate. Nigel appears to be prone to: A. functional fixedness. B. mental set. C. the confirmation bias. D. the representativeness heuristic. Answer: C. the confirmation bias. 69. Sandy, a true believer in astrology, reads in her horoscope that today is her lucky day. She gets so excited that she spills coffee all over herself, necessitating a change of clothes. As a result, she is late for work and for a very important meeting, which in turn gets her into serious trouble with her boss. In the evening, her brother is taken to the emergency room. On her way to visit him, Sandy finds a dime in the hospital parking lot. What will Sandy do based on the research on confirmation bias? A. Sandy will renounce astrology as completely wrong because of all the horrible things that happened on her "lucky day." B. Sandy will begin to question her belief in astrology because of all the horrible things that happened on her "lucky day." C. Sandy will seize on the dime she found as evidence of astrology's accuracy. D. Confirmation bias has little or no relevance to how Sandy will think about astrology in the future. Answer: C. Sandy will seize on the dime she found as evidence of astrology's accuracy. 70. The ability to generate original ideas or develop novel solutions to problems is known as: A. convergent thinking. B. insight. C. creativity. D. syllogistic reasoning. Answer: C. creativity. 71. Which of the following statements accurately expresses one failing of cognitive psychologists' study of problem solving? A. Cognitive psychologists have failed to identify the strategies people use in solving problems. B. Cognitive psychologists have failed to explain why some people generate better solutions than others do. C. Cognitive psychologists have failed to specify how people represent problems in their minds. D. Cognitive psychologists have failed to identify the barriers to effective problem solving that people face. Answer: B. Cognitive psychologists have failed to explain why some people generate better solutions than others do. 72. Someone relying on convergent thinking would answer _____________ to the query "What can you do with a toothbrush?" A. "You brush your teeth with it" B. "You use it for painting" C. "You use it for cleaning tools" D. "You use it to make toys" Answer: A. "You brush your teeth with it" 73. Someone relying on divergent thinking would answer _____________ to the query "What can you do with a pencil?" A. "You write with it" B. "You use it for sketching" C. "You use it when you can't find a pen" D. "You use it for making toys" Answer: D. "You use it for making toys" 74. Compared to less creative individuals, creative persons: A. prefer more complex stimuli. B. are more dependent. C. are more interested in concrete problems. D. have a narrower range of interests. Answer: A. prefer more complex stimuli. 75. Which of the following is true of creativity? A. One factor that is closely related to creativity is intelligence. B. Traditional tests are a good way to gauge an individual's creativity. C. Highly creative individuals show signs of convergent thinking. D. Cognitive complexity is an important aspect of creativity. Answer: D. Cognitive complexity is an important aspect of creativity. 76. Which of the following factors is NOT closely related to creativity? A. Cognitive complexity B. Abstract problems C. Range of interests D. Intelligence Answer: D. Intelligence 77. Traditional intelligence tests tend to assess _____________ thinking; tests of creativity tap into _____________. A. divergent; convergent thinking B. divergent; divergent thinking as well C. convergent; divergent thinking D. convergent; convergent thinking as well Answer: C. convergent; divergent thinking 78. Critical or creative thinking may be enhanced by each of the following strategies EXCEPT: A. using analogies. B. considering opposites. C. avoiding heuristics. D. experimenting with solutions. Answer: C. avoiding heuristics. 79. Phonology is the study of the _____________ in a language. A. combination of words B. speech sounds C. order of words D. meaning of words Answer: B. speech sounds 80. Linguists have identified more than _____________ different phonemes among all the world's languages. A. 26 B. 800 C. 52 D. an infinite number Answer: B. 800 81. Approximately how many phonemes are found in English? A. 26 B. more than 800 C. 52 D. an infinite number Answer: C. 52 82. Dr. Salim is a linguist studying the rules that guide the order of words and phrases in several of the world's languages. Dr. Salim is a(n): A. syntactician. B. semanticist. C. phonologist. D. translator. Answer: A. syntactician. 83. In written language, letters most closely represent _____________, whereas sentences may be said to reflect _____________. A. syntax; semantics B. syntax; phonemes C. phonemes; syntax D. phonemes; semantics Answer: C. phonemes; syntax 84. Which of the following sequences correctly orders the components of a language, from the smallest or most specific to the broadest? A. Phoneme → syntax → semantics B. Syntax → semantics → phoneme C. Phoneme → semantics → syntax D. Syntax → phoneme → semantics Answer: A. Phoneme → syntax → semantics 85. Which of the following language acquisition stages or phenomena is correctly matched with an illustrative example? A. Babbling—"Goo goo, ga ga." B. Telegraphic speech—"I ran from the library to the bus stop." C. Overgeneralization—"Daddy has come home." D. Overgeneralization—"Drawing house" Answer: A. Babbling—"Goo goo, ga ga." 86. What is meant by the notion of a critical period for language acquisition? A. It is the period of transition between one-word and two-word utterances. B. It is the time in one's childhood in which one is particularly sensitive to language cues and most easily acquires language. C. It is the period isolated children spend by themselves before someone teaches them a language. D. It is the period between six and ten years of age in which certain complex aspects of syntax are learned. Answer: B. It is the time in one's childhood in which one is particularly sensitive to language cues and most easily acquires language. 87. A girl named Genie was exposed to virtually no language from the age of 20 months till the age of 13. In what way does Genie's case offer support for the notion of a critical period in language acquisition? A. With intensive instruction, Genie acquired a sizeable vocabulary after the age of 13; moreover, she eventually mastered the rules of syntax. B. Even with intensive instruction, Genie acquired only a very small vocabulary after the age of 13; furthermore, she never mastered the complexities of a language. C. Once she was no longer isolated, Genie acquired a sizeable vocabulary and eventually mastered the rules of syntax, even without intensive formal instruction. D. Genie's case is irrelevant to the notion of a critical period. Answer: B. Even with intensive instruction, Genie acquired only a very small vocabulary after the age of 13; furthermore, she never mastered the complexities of a language. 88. Tina is 6 months old, Vincenzo is 2 years and 7 months old, and Wayne is 3 years and 6 months old. Which alternative below correctly pairs each child with the appropriate language acquisition stage or phenomenon? A. Tina—overgeneralization; Vincenzo—babbling; Wayne—telegraphic speech B. Tina—babbling; Vincenzo—telegraphic speech; Wayne—overgeneralization C. Tina—telegraphic speech; Vincenzo—babbling; Wayne—overgeneralization D. Tina—babbling; Vincenzo—overgeneralization; Wayne—telegraphic speech Answer: B. Tina—babbling; Vincenzo—telegraphic speech; Wayne—overgeneralization 89. You are creating a language development timeline for a class presentation. Along the top of a display board, you write the following ages in sequence: 6 months → 1 year → 2 years → 3 years How should you label these ages, from youngest to oldest? A. Babbling → first words → telegraphic speech → overgeneralization B. Babbling → overgeneralization → first words → telegraphic speech C. Babbling → first words → overgeneralization → telegraphic speech D. Overgeneralization → babbling → first words → telegraphic speech Answer: A. Babbling → first words → telegraphic speech → overgeneralization 90. Dorian is 2 years old. Constance is 2 years and 5 months old. Dorian's vocabulary probably contains _____________ words, while Constance's vocabulary contains _____________ words. A. about 100; several hundred B. about 50; about 100 C. about 50; several hundred D. several hundred; about 1000 Answer: C. about 50; several hundred 91. "All gone milk," says two-year-old Wesley, placing the empty glass on the table. Wesley's remark exemplifies the language acquisition phenomenon termed: A. babbling. B. telegraphic speech. C. holographic speech. D. agrammatism. Answer: B. telegraphic speech. 92. Ricky tells his grandmother, "Momma holded the rabbit." In the context of language, Ricky's statement exemplifies: A. idiomatic speech. B. telegraphic speech. C. babbling. D. overgeneralization. Answer: D. overgeneralization. 93. Connie is telling her mother a story about a scary dog she encountered in the neighbor's yard. "Then I runned away," Connie concludes. Which language acquisition phenomenon is Connie demonstrating? How old is Connie likely to be? A. Connie is babbling. She is probably about 2 years old. B. Connie is overgeneralizing. She is probably 3 to 4 years old. C. Connie is babbling. She is probably about 4 years old. D. Connie is overgeneralizing. She is probably 5 to 6 years old. Answer: B. Connie is overgeneralizing. She is probably 3 to 4 years old. 94. The theory that language acquisition follows the principles of reinforcement and conditioning is known as the _____________ approach. A. learning-theory B. nativist C. interactionist D. prescriptive Answer: A. learning-theory 95. The theory that a genetically determined, innate mechanism directs language development is known as the _____________ approach. A. learning-theory B. nativist C. interactionist D. prescriptive Answer: B. nativist 96. The nativist approach to language acquisition is associated with: A. B. F. Skinner. B. Benjamin Whorf. C. Noam Chomsky. D. Wolfgang Kohler. Answer: C. Noam Chomsky. 97. The view that language development is produced through a combination of genetically determined predispositions and environmental circumstances that help to teach language is known as the _____________ approach. A. learning-theory B. nativist C. interactionist D. prescriptive Answer: C. interactionist 98. Theorists taking an interactionist approach to language acquisition: A. reject both the learning theory and nativist approaches. B. agree that the brain is hardwired to acquire language. C. downplay the role of the environment in language acquisition. D. remain unconvinced by the idea of a language-acquisition device. Answer: B. agree that the brain is hardwired to acquire language. 99. The notion that language shapes and determines the way people in a particular culture perceive and understand the world is known as the _____________ hypothesis. A. output B. interaction C. linguistic-relativity D. monitor Answer: C. linguistic-relativity 100. The _____________ hypothesis suggests that language leads to thought. A. output B. interaction C. linguistic-relativity D. monitor Answer: C. linguistic-relativity 101. Which figure best approximates the number of Americans for whom English is a second language? A. 13 million B. 25 million C. 55 million D. 100 million Answer: C. 55 million 102. In seven states, including Texas and Colorado, more than _____________ of the students are not native English speakers. A. 5% B. 10% C. 15% D. 25% Answer: D. 25% 103. Students are educated in their native language and in English simultaneously in _____________, whereas they are educated only in English in _____________. A. immersion programs; bilingual education B. bilingual education; immersion programs C. an alternation approach; immersion programs D. immersion programs; alternation programs Answer: B. bilingual education; immersion programs 104. In the introduction to its discussion of intelligence, your text suggests that conceptions of intelligence vary cross-culturally. To the Trukese of the South Pacific, for example, intelligence may mean the ability to navigate on the open water without technological assistance; to a Westerner, traveling along the most direct and quickest route by using a sextant and other navigational tools is likely to represent the most “intelligent” kind of behavior. Nevertheless, one element of the understanding of intelligence that is consistent across culture is: A. the ability to use the resources provided by one's environment. B. the ability to understand and relate to others. C. to think rationally; that is, with one's head rather than one's heart. D. to solve abstract, complex problems. Answer: A. the ability to use the resources provided by one's environment. 105. Psychologists define _____________ as the capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use resources effectively when faced with challenges. A. cognition B. intelligence C. sensation D. perception Answer: B. intelligence 106. Ashley, a psychology major, remarks that she has become interested in the study of intelligence. In other words, Ashley is interested in: A. the capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use resources effectively. B. how behavior changes as a result of past experience. C. the factors directing behavior toward a goal. D. the ability to generate novel solutions to problems. Answer: A. the capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use resources effectively. 107. The g-factor is: A. the factor that helps us reason abstractly. B. a general intelligence factor that was thought to underlie performance in every aspect of intelligence. C. a score derived from one of several standardized tests that are designed to assess the overall intelligence. D. the same thing as crystallized intelligence. Answer: B. a general intelligence factor that was thought to underlie performance in every aspect of intelligence. 108. _____________ is the single factor for mental ability assumed to underlie intelligence in some early theories of intelligence. A. The g-factor B. The p-factor C. The i-factor D. The m-factor Answer: A. The g-factor 109. Laverne's scores on different parts of an IQ test are very different from one another. Laverne's profile of scores on the test: A. contradicts the view of intelligence offered by early psychologists. B. supports the view of intelligence offered by early psychologists. C. contradicts the view of intelligence offered by contemporary psychologists. D. supports the g-factor theory of mental ability. Answer: A. contradicts the view of intelligence offered by early psychologists. 110. Early psychologists argued that g represented general intelligence. According to these psychologists, individuals good at numerical tests: A. are generally good on all tests. B. are generally poor on all other tests. C. excel at visual but not verbal tasks. D. excel at verbal tasks but not visual ones. Answer: A. are generally good on all tests. 111. Early theorists inferred the existence of a general intelligence factor or g-factor from: A. the high reliability coefficients of the results of individual tests. B. the low correlations among tests of different intellectual skills. C. the negative correlations among tests of different intellectual skills. D. the correlation between performances among tests of different intellectual skills. Answer: D. the correlation between performances among tests of different intellectual skills. 112. In what way do more recent theories of intelligence differ from those offered earlier in psychology's history? A. More recent theories propose that there may be multiple forms of intelligence, rather than just one. B. More recent theories propose that there may be a single broad factor underlying every aspect of intelligence. C. More recent theories tend to dismiss the notion that cultural differences are important to the definition of intelligence. D. More recent theories claim that people who did poorly on one test tended to do poorly on others as well. Answer: A. More recent theories propose that there may be multiple forms of intelligence, rather than just one. 113. Intelligence that reflects the ability to reason abstractly is termed _____________ intelligence. A. fluid B. reflexive C. spatial D. crystallized Answer: A. fluid 114. Janet has a knack for figuring things out. When faced with puzzles and problems she has never seen before, Janet always manages to find a solution. Janet has a high _____________ intelligence. A. spatial B. flexible C. fluid D. crystallized Answer: C. fluid 115. _____________ intelligence is the accumulation of information, knowledge, and skills that people have learned through experience and education. A. Fluid B. Reflexive C. Spatial D. Crystallized Answer: D. Crystallized 116. Which of the following is most likely to draw on fluid intelligence? A. Solving a new kind of puzzle B. Answering trivia questions C. Figuring out how to fix a familiar appliance D. Participating in a discussion about the solution to the causes of poverty Answer: A. Solving a new kind of puzzle 117. In contrast to _____________, _____________ is more a reflection of the culture in which a person is raised. A. existential intelligence; fluid intelligence B. crystallized intelligence; existential intelligence C. fluid intelligence; crystallized intelligence D. existential intelligence; kinesthetic intelligence Answer: C. fluid intelligence; crystallized intelligence 118. Jody is completing a test in which she has to name as many state capitals as she can in one minute; Alex is trying to complete analogies between pairs of abstract diagrams. Jody is taking a test of _____________, whereas Alex, a test of _____________. A. fluid intelligence; crystallized intelligence B. fluid intelligence; fluid intelligence as well C. crystallized intelligence; crystallized intelligence as well D. crystallized intelligence; fluid intelligence Answer: D. crystallized intelligence; fluid intelligence 119. Bonnie studied car mechanics in high school and spent a lot of time helping out at her father's garage. Her ability to replace a blown gasket relies primarily on her _____________ intelligence. A. fluid B. flexible C. kinesthetic D. crystallized Answer: D. crystallized 120. According to Gardner’s view of different forms of intelligence, each of the multiple intelligences: A. links to an independent system in the brain. B. involves identifying the fundamental question of human existence. C. operates in isolation and not together. D. depends on the fluid intelligence of an individual. Answer: A. links to an independent system in the brain. 121. _____________ is Gardner's intelligence theory that proposes that there are eight distinct spheres of intelligence. A. The triarchic theory of intelligence B. The theory of primary mental abilities C. The theory of multiple intelligences D. The theory of general intelligence Answer: C. The theory of multiple intelligences 122. _____________ involves identifying and thinking about the fundamental questions of human entity. A. Emotional intelligence B. Analytical intelligence C. Crystallized intelligence D. Existential intelligence Answer: D. Existential intelligence 123. According to the text, a positive feature of Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences is: A. the empirical support it has received. B. the intuitive appeal of the underlying concept. C. that it has led to the development of intelligence tests that allow test takers to be creative. D. that it focuses on cases of brain damage, as well as of mental retardation and giftedness. Answer: C. that it has led to the development of intelligence tests that allow test takers to be creative. 124. Which of the following is one of Gardner's forms of intelligence? A. General intelligence B. Analytical intelligence C. Crystallized intelligence D. Musical intelligence Answer: D. Musical intelligence 125. Gardner's theory includes each of the following types of intelligence EXCEPT: A. tacit intelligence. B. musical intelligence. C. bodily-kinesthetic intelligence. D. interpersonal intelligence. Answer: A. tacit intelligence. 126. Bodily kinesthetic intelligence refers to skills: A. in problem solving, scientific thinking, logical thinking, and interacting with others. B. in using the whole body or various portions of it in the solution of problems. C. involving spatial configurations. D. involved in the production and use of language. Answer: B. in using the whole body or various portions of it in the solution of problems. 127. Dancers, athletes, actors, and surgeons display: A. bodily kinesthetic intelligence. B. naturalist intelligence. C. intrapersonal intelligence. D. spatial intelligence. Answer: A. bodily kinesthetic intelligence. 128. Which of the following professionals would most likely display spatial intelligence? A. A dancer B. An actor C. A social worker D. An architect Answer: D. An architect 129. Logical-mathematical intelligence refers to skills: A. in problem solving and scientific thinking. B. in using the whole body or various portions of it in the solution of problems or in the construction of products or displays. C. involved in the ability to identify patterns in nature. D. involved in the production and use of language. Answer: A. in problem solving and scientific thinking. 130. Knowledge of the internal aspects of oneself is termed as _____________. A. naturalistic intelligence B. interpersonal intelligence C. intrapersonal intelligence D. spatial intelligence Answer: C. intrapersonal intelligence 131. _____________ refers to skills involved in the production and use of language. A. Naturalistic intelligence B. Linguistic intelligence C. Intrapersonal intelligence D. Spatial intelligence Answer: B. Linguistic intelligence 132. Kyana is an excellent salesperson because she can always find a way of connecting with a potential client. Based on this information, in which kind of intelligence would Gardner expect Kyana to be high? A. Analytic B. Bodily kinesthetic C. Interpersonal D. Spatial Answer: C. Interpersonal 133. Collectivist cultures, such as Taiwan's, place a high priority on how individuals relate to each other. It might be reasonable to hypothesize that Taiwanese adults might outscore American adults on a test of Gardner's _____________ intelligence. A. naturalistic B. intrapersonal C. practical D. interpersonal Answer: D. interpersonal 134. Which of the following alternatives does NOT correctly use Gardner's terminology to identify the type of intelligence with the characteristic of a well-known individual? A. Babe Ruth - athletic B. Barbara McClintock - numerical C. T. S. Eliot - linguistic D. Virginia Wolf - naturalistic Answer: D. Virginia Wolf - naturalistic 135. Etta is taking an intelligence test based on Gardner's multiple intelligences theory. How is Etta's performance likely to be scored? A. She will receive a score for each of eight types of intelligence. B. She will receive a score for each of three types of intelligence. C. She will be classified as having one of eight types of intelligence. D. She will receive an overall intelligence score, like an IQ. Answer: A. She will receive a score for each of eight types of intelligence. 136. According to Sternberg, intelligence related to overall success in living is known as _____________ intelligence. A. practical B. crystallized C. emotional D. creative Answer: A. practical 137. The notion of practical intelligence is associated with: A. Gardner. B. Sternberg. C. Wechsler. D. Spearman. Answer: B. Sternberg. 138. Traditional tests were designed to relate to _____________. A. academic success B. career success C. spiritual success D. familial success Answer: A. academic success 139. People who are high in _____________ intelligence are able to learn general norms and principles and apply them appropriately. A. practical B. crystallized C. emotional D. linguistic Answer: A. practical 140. Which of the following is true of academic success and career success? A. Academic success and career success both rely on the sort of intelligence assessed by traditional intelligence tests. B. Academic success and career success are based on two different types of intelligence. C. Traditional tests were designed to relate to career success, while contemporary tests are designed to relate to academic success. D. Both academic and career success relate to practical intelligence. Answer: B. Academic success and career success are based on two different types of intelligence. 141. The three types of intelligence proposed by Sternberg include each of the following EXCEPT _____________ intelligence. A. analytical B. practical C. logical D. creative Answer: C. logical 142. _____________ intelligence is the set of skills that underlie the accurate assessment, evaluation, expression, and regulation of one's mental state. A. Emotional B. Practical C. Fluid D. Crystallized Answer: A. Emotional 143. Which of the major intelligence concepts is correctly matched with a description? A. Practical intelligence - intelligence attuned to the feelings and needs of oneself or others B. Crystallized intelligence - information, skills, and knowledge learned through experience C. Gardner's theory - intelligence related to reasoning, memory, and information-processing capabilities D. Information-processing approach - eight independent forms of intelligence Answer: B. Crystallized intelligence - information, skills, and knowledge learned through experience 144. The first real intelligence tests were developed by: A. Galton. B. Binet. C. Spearman. D. Wechsler. Answer: B. Binet. 145. Intelligence quotient (IQ) is a measure of intelligence that takes into account an individual’s: A. mental age alone. B. physical age alone. C. physical and developmental ages. D. mental and chronological ages. Answer: D. mental and chronological ages. 146. The age for which a given level of performance is average or typical is known as _____________. A. mental age B. societal age C. chronological age D. behavioral age Answer: A. mental age 147. Imagine that six-year-olds can complete a particular block design puzzle in five minutes. It takes Bailey almost eight minutes to complete the same task. In Binet's terms, Bailey's _____________ age is _____________ than six. A. chronological; higher B. chronological; lower C. mental; higher D. mental; lower Answer: D. mental; lower 148. If MA stands for mental age and CA for chronological age, then the formula for the intelligence quotient score as Binet defined it is: A. CA/MA × 100. B. MA/CA × 100. C. CA/(MA × 100). D. MA/(CA × 100). Answer: B. MA/CA × 100. 149. Laura is eight; her performance on a series of tasks is equivalent to that of the average ten year old. Her intelligence quotient is: A. 125. B. 80. C. 110. D. 150. Answer: A. 125. 150. If we were to plot the IQ scores of every person living in the United States on a graph, we would end up with: A. a downward sloping curve. B. a vertical line. C. a uniform distribution—that is, a straight horizontal line. D. a bell-shaped curve. Answer: D. a bell-shaped curve. 151. Approximately _____________ of the population have an IQ score between 85 and 115. A. 52% B. 68% C. 77% D. 85% Answer: B. 68% 152. About 95% of the population have IQ scores that are within _____________ points above or below 100. A. 30 B. 10 C. 50 D. 70 Answer: A. 30 153. Below are several statements about the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. Which statement is correctly identified as FALSE? A. The test is administered orally - False B. The test includes verbal and nonverbal assessments - False C. The same items are used for test-takers of different ages - False D. The test yields separate subscores that provide clues to a test-taker’s particular strengths and weaknesses - False Answer: C. The same items are used for test-takers of different ages - False 154. Which of the following statements best describes the fate of Binet's intelligence test within psychology? A. It really has had little lasting influence on contemporary intelligence testing. B. It is still used, and it is in virtually the same form as Binet's original test. C. It was used for a number of decades but was then abandoned. D. It is still used but in a heavily revised form. Answer: D. It is still used but in a heavily revised form. 155. The most commonly used IQ test in the United States is the: A. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. B. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV. C. Spearman G Scale. D. Terman Intelligence Scale. Answer: B. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV. 156. Which of the following best expresses the distinction between the WAIS-IV and WISC-IV? A. The WAIS-IV is for use on males only, whereas the WISC-IV is used on females only. B. The WAIS-IV is a test of verbal intelligence, whereas the WISC-IV is a test of nonverbal intelligence. C. The WAIS-IV is used to test adult intelligence, whereas the WISC-IV is used to test children's intelligence. D. The WAIS-IV is the current successor to the WISC-IV, an older test of intelligence. Answer: C. The WAIS-IV is used to test adult intelligence, whereas the WISC-IV is used to test children's intelligence. 157. Contemporary tests of intelligence are in widespread use in the United States EXCEPT the: A. WISC-IV. B. WAIS-IV. C. Spearman G Scale. D. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. Answer: C. Spearman G Scale. 158. Which of the following is NOT among the disadvantages of group IQ tests? A. Group IQ tests offer fewer types of questions than do individually administered tests. B. People may be less motivated to do their best work on a group-administered test than on an individually administered test. C. It is not always possible to employ group tests with young children. D. They are difficult to administer and score on a large-scale basis. Answer: D. They are difficult to administer and score on a large-scale basis. 159. The property by which tests measure consistently what they are trying to measure is known as _____________. A. specificity B. validity C. reliability D. sensitivity Answer: C. reliability 160. A psychological test is reliable when it: A. measures what it is actually supposed to measure. B. has been normalized using samples representative of those for whom the test has been designed. C. yields consistent measurements. D. measures the positives in the test. Answer: C. yields consistent measurements. 161. A psychological test is valid when it: A. actually measures what it is supposed to measure. B. has been normalized using samples representative of those for whom the test has been designed. C. yields consistent measurements. D. measures the positives in the test. Answer: A. actually measures what it is supposed to measure. 162. A researcher develops a questionnaire to assess the personality trait of impulsivity among adults. In a journal article, she presents evidence that college students tend to get essentially the same score if they take the test twice, two months apart. She also presents the average score, the highest score, and the lowest score obtained by two large samples: one of 2,000 college students and one of 750 community-dwelling non-college adults. However, when you look at the sample questionnaire items she included in the article, it seems to you that they relate more to whether a person is sociable, outgoing, and fun than to whether an individual is impulsive. In this scenario, you are questioning the _____________ of the researcher's questionnaire. A. reliability B. validity C. sensitivity D. reliability and the validity Answer: B. validity 163. An online intelligence test yields a different IQ each time you take it. The test is: A. possibly reliable, but definitely not valid. B. not reliable and probably not valid either. C. not reliable, but still possibly valid. D. possibly reliable and potentially valid. Answer: B. not reliable and probably not valid either. 164. Which of the following is TRUE about tests? A. Even if a test is unreliable, it cannot be valid. B. Test validity and reliability are prerequisites for accurate assessment of intelligence. C. Test reliability and validity are highly desirable for an accurate assessment of intelligence. D. Knowing that a test is reliable guarantees that it is also valid. Answer: B. Test validity and reliability are prerequisites for accurate assessment of intelligence. 165. Sir Francis Galton assumed that skull size is related to intelligence. This was _____________ measure of intelligence. A. a reliable, but not a valid B. a valid, but not a reliable C. both a reliable and a valid D. neither a reliable nor a valid Answer: A. a reliable, but not a valid 166. Dr. Cavanaugh examines the relationship between the personality trait of resilience and senior citizens' compliance with medication regimes. However, the resilience measure he used was normed only on college students. Based on this information, which of the following is the most apparent weakness of Dr. Cavanaugh's study? A. The simplicity of the resilience measure B. The standardization of the resilience measure C. The specificity of the resilience measure D. The operationalization of compliance Answer: B. The standardization of the resilience measure 167. Which of the following statements does NOT reflect a valid or empirically supported point in favor of or against adaptive or computerized testing? A. It is faster than traditional testing. B. It requires careful calibration of large number of items based on their difficulty. C. Some groups of test-takers may become more anxious than others during computerized test taking. D. Test-takers are forced to spend a great deal of time answering questions that are either much easier or much harder than they can handle. Answer: D. Test-takers are forced to spend a great deal of time answering questions that are either much easier or much harder than they can handle. 168. Regarding standardized testing, which piece of advice is least likely to be right? A. Check your answers if you can. B. Time yourself carefully. C. Guess if you don't know. D. Practice makes you perfect. Answer: C. Guess if you don't know. 169. Based on the text's discussion, which of the following alternatives best captures the difference, if any, between the terms mental retardation and intellectual disability? A. The terms are used interchangeably and equally. B. Intellectual disability is the term in use, while mental retardation is the traditional term. C. The term intellectual disability has replaced the term mental retardation. D. The terms refer to different types of deficits in functioning. Answer: B. Intellectual disability is the term in use, while mental retardation is the traditional term. 170. Of those who are mentally retarded, what percentage are classified as mildly retarded? A. 90% B. 75% C. 65% D. 50% Answer: A. 90% 171. Peyton has an IQ score of 60. Although her development was typically slower than that of her peers, she is now able to hold a job and will soon start a family of her own. Peyton is most probably: A. mildly retarded. B. moderately retarded. C. severely retarded. D. profoundly retarded. Answer: A. mildly retarded. 172. People whose IQ score range from 40 to 54 are most probably: A. mildly retarded. B. moderately retarded. C. severely retarded. D. profoundly retarded. Answer: B. moderately retarded. 173. People who are _____________ have deficits in their language and motor skills. Although these individuals can hold simple jobs, they need to have a certain degree of supervision throughout their lives. A. mildly retarded B. moderately retarded C. severely retarded D. profoundly retarded Answer: B. moderately retarded 174. Anita is mildly retarded; Brady is moderately retarded; Candace is severely retarded; and Denny is profoundly retarded. Which of these individuals can probably hold a job? Which of these individuals is probably unable to care for himself or herself? A. Anita; Denny B. Anita; Brady C. Candace; Anita D. Candace; Denny Answer: A. Anita; Denny 175. People with severe retardation have an IQ: A. of 40 to 54. B. of 25 to 39. C. of 55 to 69. D. below 25. Answer: D. below 25. 176. Which of the following alternatives correctly identifies the range of IQ scores encompassed by the terms profound, severe, moderate, and mild retardation, respectively? A. 0-29; 30-49; 50-64; 65-79 B. 0-19; 20-39; 40-59; 60-79 C. 0-24; 25-39; 40-54; 55-69 D. 0-19; 20-34; 35-49; 50-69 Answer: C. 0-24; 25-39; 40-54; 55-69 177. In approximately _____________ of the cases of mental retardation there is an identifiable cause related to biological or environmental factors; the most common of these is _____________. A. one-third; fetal alcohol syndrome B. one-third; Down syndrome C. one-quarter; fetal alcohol syndrome D. one-quarter; Down syndrome Answer: A. one-third; fetal alcohol syndrome 178. Which of the following alternatives offers the most accurate assessment of the origin of familial retardation in nature on the one hand or nurture on the other? A. Familial retardation is almost always genetic in origin, thereby reflecting nature. B. About 1/3 of the cases of familial retardation have a known basis in biology, or nature. C. Familial retardation is most often environmental in origin, such as extreme continuous poverty leading to malnutrition. D. Whether familial retardation is caused by environmental factors or some genetic factor is usually impossible to determine. Answer: D. Whether familial retardation is caused by environmental factors or some genetic factor is usually impossible to determine. 179. Intellectual disability in which no apparent biological defect exists but there is a history of it in the family is known as _____________ retardation. A. syndromic B. cultural C. familial D. non-syndromic Answer: C. familial 180. The inclusive philosophy behind the educational mainstreaming of people with intellectual disabilities reflects federal laws passed in the: A. late 1960s. B. mid-1970s. C. late 1970s. D. early 1980s. Answer: B. mid-1970s. 181. Regarding the integration of mentally retarded students into regular classrooms, which of the following statements is TRUE? A. In full inclusion programs, students with educational disabilities are integrated into regular classroom activities to a greater extent than in the case of mainstreaming. B. In full inclusion programs, students with educational disabilities are integrated into regular classroom activities to a somewhat lesser extent than in the case of mainstreaming. C. Full inclusion is widely applied today. D. Schools with full inclusion have separate special education classes. Answer: A. In full inclusion programs, students with educational disabilities are integrated into regular classroom activities to a greater extent than in the case of mainstreaming. 182. The IQ scores of intellectually gifted individuals is _____________. A. between 100-110 B. 75 C. 130 or above D. 90 or below Answer: C. 130 or above 183. The study of the intellectually gifted is associated with Terman, who began studying high-IQ children in the: A. 1920s. B. 1930s. C. 1940s. D. 1950s. Answer: A. 1920s. 184. Terman's long-term study of the intellectually gifted found that they tend to be: A. social misfits. B. physically gifted. C. awkward. D. outgoing. Answer: D. outgoing. 185. As compared to more typical individuals, the intellectually gifted are characterized by being all of the following EXCEPT: A. outgoing. B. well-adjusted. C. awkward. D. healthy. Answer: C. awkward. 186. Which of the following is TRUE of people with high intelligence or intellectually gifted individuals? A. High intelligence is a homogeneous quality. B. A person with a high overall IQ is gifted in every academic subject. C. Intellectually gifted individuals account for 2%-4% of the population. D. A high IQ is a universal guarantee of success. Answer: C. Intellectually gifted individuals account for 2%-4% of the population. 187. It has been found that in traditional IQ tests, blacks tend to score _____________. A. 30 points lower than whites B. 10-15 points lower than whites C. 5 points higher than whites D. the same as whites Answer: B. 10-15 points lower than whites 188. A test that does not discriminate against the members of any minority group is termed as a _____________ IQ test. A. culture-neutral B. culture-fair C. culture-free D. culture-liberated Answer: B. culture-fair 189. Imagine that American children and African children are asked to memorize the locations of objects on a chessboard. In one condition, the objects are rocks; in the other, they are household objects common in the West. What might you predict regarding the children's performance? A. The performance of the American children will exceed that of the African children in both conditions. B. The performance of the African children will exceed that of the American children in both conditions. C. The performance of the African children will be equivalent to that of the American children in both conditions. D. The performance of the African children will exceed that of the American children when the objects are rocks but not when they are Western household objects. Answer: D. The performance of the African children will exceed that of the American children when the objects are rocks but not when they are Western household objects. 190. In The Bell Curve, Herrnstein and Murray argued that: A. intelligence is a product of nurture alone. B. intelligence is a product of environmental differences alone. C. the IQ gap between Caucasians and African Americans reflects genetically based differences in intelligence. D. both environmental factors and nurture do not play any role in the IQ gap between Caucasians and African Americans. Answer: C. the IQ gap between Caucasians and African Americans reflects genetically based differences in intelligence. 191. Which of the following statements is true about Herrnstein and Murray's arguments in The Bell Curve? A. Whites score lower than blacks on traditional IQ tests when socioeconomic status (SES) is taken into account. B. An analysis of IQ differences between whites and blacks demonstrated that there were basic genetic differences between the two races. C. Middle- and upper-SES blacks score higher than middle- and upper-SES whites. D. Intelligence differences between blacks and whites can be attributed to environmental differences alone. Answer: B. An analysis of IQ differences between whites and blacks demonstrated that there were basic genetic differences between the two races. 192. Which of the following findings supports the position Herrnstein and Murray outlined in The Bell Curve? A. Middle- and upper-socioeconomic status blacks score the same as middle- and upper-socioeconomic status whites B. The black-white IQ gap remains, even when socioeconomic status is controlled. C. Lower-socioeconomic status blacks score higher on average than lower-socioeconomic status whites D. Whites score 35 points higher than blacks on traditional IQ tests even when socioeconomic status is taken into account. Answer: B. The black-white IQ gap remains, even when socioeconomic status is controlled. 193. The term _____________ refers to the degree to which a characteristic is related to genetic, inherited factors. A. heritability B. specificity C. concordance rate D. cohort effect Answer: A. heritability Worksheet Questions 194. Estelle is playing with images and concepts in her mind. Her cognitive psychology professor would say that she is __________. Answer: thinking 195. _____________ are representations in the mind of an object or event. Answer: Mental images 196. A researcher finds that her participants think most readily of a carrot when prompted with the category "vegetable." On this basis, the researcher might argue that a carrot is the _____________ vegetable. Answer: prototypical 197. A high school physics teacher reassures his class that no matter how confusing that week's word problems appear, they can be solved quite handily through the use of the formula F = MA. The teacher has offered his students a(n) __________. Answer: algorithm 198. _____________ require the problem solver to rearrange or recombine elements in a way that will satisfy a certain criterion. Answer: Arrangement problems 199. A calculus problem has one correct answer and contains all the information necessary for its solution; thus, it is a(n) _____________ problem. Answer: well-defined 200. Because they involve rules for moving from an initial to a goal state, many board games may be seen as examples of _____________ problems. Answer: transformation 201. Renee has an idea of how her living room ought to look. She is moving the furniture, paintings, and accessories to get closer to that picture in her head. Renee is using the problem-solving technique of __________. Answer: means-ends analysis 202. "Eureka! I've got it!" That sudden awareness of the path toward a problem's solution is termed __________. Answer: insight 203. Functional fixedness may be seen as a particular example of __________. Answer: mental set 204. People seek and remember evidence in support of their existing hypotheses; they ignore or discount contradictory evidence. In other words, people are prone to __________. Answer: confirmation bias 205. "How many uses can you think of for a brick?" asks the examiner. You are taking a test of _____________ thinking. Answer: divergent 206. The process of forming subgoals is known as __________. Answer: fractionation 207. The rules indicating how words and phrases may be combined to form legitimate sentences are referred to as __________. Answer: syntax 208. If children are not exposed to language during a(n) _____________ period early in life, they may never acquire it. Answer: critical 209. "Sophie kitty," Tara says, when her aunt asks her whether the stuffed animal belongs to her or to her sister. Tara's reply exemplifies _____________ speech. Answer: telegraphic 210. In the context of language acquisition, Skinner is to learning theory, what _____________ is to nativism. Answer: Chomsky 211. Chomsky suggested that the human brain has an inherited neural system that lets us understand the structure language provides. This is known as __________. Answer: universal grammar 212. According to the _____________ , language provides us with categories that we use to construct our view of people and events in the world around us. Answer: linguistic-relativity hypothesis 213. In _____________ , students are immediately plunged into English instruction in all subjects. Answer: immersion programs 214. Jesse is very resourceful in the face of adversity; psychologists view this characteristic as one component of __________. Answer: intelligence 215. Early psychologists believed that a single, overarching factor called the _____________ influenced every aspect of intelligence. Answer: g 216. The factor _____________ used by early psychologists viewed intelligence as a unitary entity. Answer: g 217. Holly is attempting to put together a 3D puzzle. Holly is completing a test of _____________ intelligence. Answer: fluid 218. Fernando is attempting to recall all the capitals of each state in the union. Fernando is completing a test of _____________ intelligence. Answer: crystallized 219. When compared to fluid intelligence, _____________ intelligence is more a reflection of the culture in which a person is raised. Answer: crystallized 220. _____________ is associated with a theory of intelligence proposing eight or more distinct forms of intelligence. Answer: Gardner 221. Gardner's _____________ proposes that there are eight distinct spheres of intelligence. Answer: theory of multiple intelligences 222. Mavis has advanced rapidly in the corporate world, despite her middling scores on such tests as the WAIS-IV, the SAT, and the GRE. Sternberg would suspect Mavis of high _____________ intelligence. Answer: practical 223. _____________ intelligence is the set of skills that underlie the accurate assessment, evaluation, expression, and regulation of feelings. Answer: Emotional 224. Using Binet's formula, the IQ of a six-year-old child with a mental age of eight is __________. Answer: 133 225. A plot of the IQ scores of the entire population would yield a(n) _____________ distribution. Answer: normal/bell-shaped 226. The _____________ Adult Intelligence Scale is the most commonly used intelligence test in the United States. Answer: Wechsler 227. "Every time I take it, it tells me something different!" complains your friend, turning away from the online personality quiz she just completed. Your friend is complaining about the test's __________. Answer: reliability 228. "That's so not true! This test can't have anything to do with my ability to attract women!" Ignacio protests. Ignacio is disputing the test's __________. Answer: validity 229. _____________ are standards of test performance that permit the comparison of one person's score on a test to the scores of others who have taken the same test. Answer: Norms 230. Tests for which norms have been developed are known as _____________ tests. Answer: standardized 231. Mental retardation was a more traditionally used term for __________. Answer: intellectual disability 232. Individuals who have IQ scores ranging from 55 to 69 are classified as having _____________ retardation. Answer: mild 233. _____________ is a process by which individuals with intellectual disabilities are integrated into regular classrooms as much as possible. Answer: Mainstreaming 234. The IQ of an intellectually gifted person is greater than or equal to __________. Answer: 130 235. Psychologists continue to seek _____________ IQ tests that do not discriminate against the members of minority groups. Answer: culture-fair 236. As recently as the mid-1990s, Herrnstein and Murray argued in their book _____________ that race differences in IQ are a matter of genetics and not the environmental factors alone. Answer: The Bell Curve 237. The degree to which a characteristic is related to genetic, inherited factors is known as __________. Answer: heritability Essay Questions 238. Describe in as much detail as you can the mental representation of objects and categories. Provide illustrative examples where appropriate. Answer: Students’ examples may vary. The answer should contain the following points: Objects. Objects are represented by mental images. Mental images are not only visual; they can be produced by any of our sensory systems. A familiar example might be the experience of "hearing" a song in one's head. Images retain many of the properties of the objects they represent; in addition, we can often perform the same operations on images that we can on the real objects they represent. For example, it takes longer to scan an image of a large object than it does to scan an image of a small object, just as it takes longer to scan an actual large object than a small one. We can also rotate an object's image in our mind, just as we can rotate objects in the physical world. Mental images have been used to enhance the practice and performance of athletes and musicians. Categories. Categories of objects, events, and people that are similar in some way are represented by concepts. Concepts enable us to respond appropriately to stimuli in the environment and to identify novel objects. Some concepts, such as geometrical shapes and kinship terms, may be represented by a unique set of properties or features (e.g., triangle—three sides, interior angles sum to 180 degrees). Most concepts are represented by a best or most typical example, or prototype. An apple, for example, may be the prototypical fruit. Other objects are categorized as fruits to the extent that they resemble an apple. The mental representation of objects and categories involves how individuals store and organize information about specific objects or groups based on shared features or characteristics. For instance, a mental representation of a "dog" includes typical features like fur, four legs, and barking, allowing recognition and categorization of different breeds or sizes of dogs. These representations are flexible, allowing adjustments for new information or variations within categories. 239. Distinguish between an algorithm and a heuristic. Provide an example of each. Answer: Students’ examples may vary. Algorithm vs. heuristic. An algorithm is a rule that is guaranteed to produce a solution to a problem if it is applied correctly. An example might be a formula in physics: If F = MA is appropriately applied to a particular word problem, the solution will result. A heuristic is a cognitive strategy that may result in the solution to a problem, but it is not guaranteed to do so. Heuristics require less time, expertise, and cognitive effort to apply than do algorithms. In addition, for certain problems, no algorithm may exist. An example of a heuristic is to assume that one can afford the mortgage to a house if the house costs 2.5 times one's salary or less; applying this rule is easier than calculating and projecting mortgages for houses of different prices. An algorithm is a step-by-step procedure or formula used to solve a problem or achieve a goal, guaranteeing a correct solution if followed correctly. For example, following a recipe to bake a cake involves a specific sequence of instructions. In contrast, a heuristic is a mental shortcut or rule of thumb that simplifies problem-solving but does not guarantee a correct solution. An example is using the "divide and conquer" strategy to solve a maze by choosing paths that seem promising without exploring every possible route. 240. Can computers think? Provide as thoughtful an answer as you can, considering the ability of current computers to solve complex problems and to demonstrate creativity. Answer: Students' answers may vary. The following text information is relevant to the answer: Computers can solve complex problems. For example, computer programs can evaluate potential chess moves and ignore unimportant possibilities. Computers can also create new compositions in the style of such masters as Bach, complete with the full scope and emotional appeal of actual Bach works. It is a matter of opinion, though, as to whether mimicking someone else's creativity is the same as being completely original on one's own. Computers can process vast amounts of data and solve complex problems using algorithms and heuristics. However, their operations are based on predefined rules and algorithms programmed by humans, lacking true consciousness or subjective experience. While computers can simulate human-like behaviors and creativity, their processes fundamentally differ from human thought, emphasizing computational efficiency over intuition and emotions. Thus, while computers excel in certain tasks, the concept of thinking as humans understand it remains elusive in machines. 241. Distinguish between well-defined and ill-defined problems. Provide an example of each. Answer: Students’ examples may vary. The answer should contain the following elements: Well-defined vs. ill-defined problems. In well-defined problems, the nature of the problem is clear, as is the information needed to solve it. An example might be an algebra word problem. In ill-defined problems, either or both the nature of the problem or the information needed to solve it is unclear. Determining how to get along with a prickly supervisor may be one example. Well-defined problems have clear goals, well-defined rules, and a clear path to a solution. An example is solving a mathematical equation where the steps and methods to find the answer are straightforward. Ill-defined problems lack clear goals or methods to reach a solution, making them ambiguous or open-ended. For example, determining the best way to reduce traffic congestion in a city involves multiple variables and subjective criteria, making it challenging to define a single correct solution. 242. Identify and describe three different problem-solving strategies mentioned in your text. Suggest how each strategy might be fruitfully applied in one or more college courses. Answer: The answer should mention the strategies described below. Examples may vary. Means-ends analysis: Means-ends analysis involves repeatedly comparing the current state of the problem to the goal state and attempting to reduce the difference between the two. In an art course, for example, one might have an idea of the piece one would like to create; one might try to reduce the difference between the current piece and the desired one by shading here, adding a brush stroke there, smoothing this portion of the clay a little, and so on. Forming subgoals: This strategy involves dividing a problem into a series of intermediate steps, then solving those. A computer program assignment might offer an example: one might code one section of the program, then another, and so on. A term paper might be divided into separate introduction, body, conclusion, and reference assignments. Working backward: The strategy involves focusing on the goal rather than the current state of the problem, then determining the action that would most immediately produce the goal. A common example is looking up the answer to a mathematics problem, then figuring out the preceding steps. Three problem-solving strategies include: 1. Algorithmic Strategies: Systematic methods like step-by-step procedures or formulas, useful in math courses for solving equations or calculus problems. 2. Heuristic Strategies: Mental shortcuts or rules of thumb, beneficial in psychology courses for analyzing case studies or understanding complex theories. 3. Insight Strategies: Sudden realization or "aha" moments, applied in creative writing or philosophy courses for generating novel ideas or insights into abstract concepts. 243. How do psychologists define creativity? Identify some of the cognitive processes and personality characteristics that appear to be associated with creativity. How might you describe the relationship between creativity and intelligence? To what extent does this relationship reflect the traditional assessment of intelligence? Answer: The answer should mention the following points: Creativity—the ability to generate novel, yet appropriate solutions to problems. Creativity is associated with divergent thinking—considering multiple, original answers to questions or solutions to problems. It is associated with a preference for cognitive complexity—a preference for elaborate or intricate stimuli or thought patterns. Creative individuals often have wide-ranging interests and an interest in abstract or philosophical problems. They tend to be independent and autonomous. Creativity is only weakly associated with intelligence, probably because traditional intelligence tests are strongly centered on convergent, rather than divergent, thinking problems. Psychologists define creativity as the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas or solutions that are meaningful and appropriate in a given context. Cognitive processes linked to creativity include divergent thinking, flexibility, and the ability to make unconventional connections. Personality traits such as openness to experience and persistence also correlate with creativity. The relationship between creativity and intelligence is complex; while creativity involves thinking outside conventional boundaries, intelligence focuses on logical reasoning and problem-solving within established norms. Traditional assessments of intelligence may not fully capture the creative potential of individuals who excel in innovative thinking and originality. 244. Describe several techniques that may improve critical or creative thinking. How might these techniques help problem solvers overcome some of the impediments to effective problem solving? Answer: The answer should identify three of the following techniques. Definitions should be provided where necessary. Redefine problems—represent problems at more concrete or more abstract levels. Use subgoals—divide a problem into smaller steps. Adopt a critical perspective—evaluate assumptions and arguments carefully, rather than passively accepting them. Consider the opposites of concepts. Use analogies—look for parallel examples outside the problem, such as in the animal world. Think divergently—consider usual uses of objects. Use heuristics—use cognitive shortcuts to aid problem solving. Experiment with solutions—consider multiple solutions, even wacky ones. These strategies may help one break out of the confines of mental set and functional fixedness, that is, persisting in old patterns of problem solving and considering only the most conventional uses of objects. Several techniques to improve critical and creative thinking include: 1. Mind Mapping: Visual representation of ideas to explore relationships and generate new insights. 2. Brainstorming: Generating ideas in a group setting to encourage diverse perspectives and innovative solutions. 3. Perspective Taking: Considering alternative viewpoints to broaden understanding and identify creative approaches. These techniques enhance problem solving by promoting exploration of multiple possibilities, breaking cognitive barriers, and fostering novel solutions through collaborative and holistic thinking processes. 245. Your friend asks you, "So, what did you do last night?" Write two or three sentences in response to your friend; use your sentences to illustrate the three components of language described in your text. Answer: Students' answers may vary. The answer should be similar to the following: "I met two friends for pizza. We then went to the library for two hours to work on a homework assignment. After that, I watched TV for a while." Phonemes: speech sounds. The vowel sound in "I" and the beginning consonant in "met" are examples. Syntax: rules to order words so that the appropriate meaning is communicated. For example, in the last sentence, "TV watched I" would not convey the idea that it was I who watched the television set. Similarly, "Met pizza friends I two" would barely get across the idea of what happened, if at all. Semantics: the external meaning of language. Taken together, the three sentences in the example allow the listener to construct a mental picture or model of how the evening went; they take the listener into a meaningful world. "Last night, I watched a fascinating documentary on wildlife conservation. (1) Phonology: I pronounced each word clearly. (2) Syntax: I arranged my words into grammatically correct sentences. (3) Semantics: I conveyed the meaning that I spent the evening engaged in learning about efforts to protect endangered species." 246. Describe babbling, telegraphic speech, and overgeneralization. Provide an example of each. At which ages might you expect children to demonstrate each of these language development phenomena? Answer: The answer should include definitions and examples similar to the following: Babbling: Speech-like but meaningless sounds, such as "goo goo, ga, ga." Children babble from about 3 months to approximately 1 year of age. Telegraphic speech: Brief sentence-like constructions which omit noncritical words. Example: "Mommy home." Telegraphic speech is common around age 2. Overgeneralization: Applying grammatical rules even when doing so results in an error. Example: "It costed one dollar." Overgeneralization is common among children 3-4 years of age. 1. Babbling: Repetitive consonant-vowel combinations (e.g., "ba-ba" or "da-da") without specific meaning. Typically observed around 6-9 months of age. 2. Telegraphic Speech: Early stage of speech where children use short, simple phrases devoid of function words (e.g., "want cookie"). Typically seen around 18-24 months of age. 3. Overgeneralization: Applying grammatical rules too broadly, often seen in errors like saying "mouses" instead of "mice." Commonly observed around 3-4 years of age during language acquisition. 247. Contrast learning-theory and nativist approaches to language development. Describe the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. Answer: The answer should include the following points: Learning-theory: By this account, language is acquired through reinforcement—parents shape their children's successive approximations to adult language. The more that parents speak to their children, the more proficient the children become in their native language. However, in reality, adults reinforce incorrect language use by their children just as often as they reinforce correct use, calling into question the central role of shaping in the theory. Nativist theory: Associated with Noam Chomsky, the nativist approach to language development suggests that humans have an innate capacity to acquire language that unfolds as a result of biological maturation. All the world's languages share a common underlying structure called a universal grammar. The brain has a neural system called the language-acquisition device that allows us to acquire this universal grammar, as well as develop strategies for learning our particular language. Neuroscientists have identified brain areas closely involved in language; in addition, genes have been identified that contribute to language acquisition. Critics of the nativist approach suggest that the ability of nonhuman animals—e.g., chimpanzees—to acquire language argues against such uniquely human constructs as a universal grammar and a language-acquisition device. Learning-theory approaches to language development, like behaviorism, emphasize reinforcement and imitation in acquiring language. They are strong in explaining how environmental factors shape language but may oversimplify complex linguistic abilities. Nativist approaches, such as Chomsky's theory, propose innate language acquisition mechanisms and universal grammar. They highlight the biological basis of language but may struggle to account for cultural and individual differences in language development. 248. Distinguish between crystallized and fluid intelligence. Provide an example of (a) an intellectual task that mainly reflects crystallized intelligence and (b) an intellectual task that mainly reflects fluid intelligence. Answer: The answer should contain the following points: Crystallized intelligence——Crystallized intelligence refers to the accumulation of information, knowledge, and skills that people have learned through experience and education. One would be likely to rely on crystallized intelligence, for instance, if one was asked to participate in a discussion about the solution to the causes of poverty, a task that allows one to draw on one’s own past experiences, education, and knowledge of the world. Fluid intelligence—Fluid intelligence is the ability to reason abstractly. It reflects one’s ability to reason effectively, identify patterns, and recognize relationships between concepts. If one was asked to solve an analogy or group a series of letters according to some principle, one would be using fluid intelligence. Crystallized intelligence involves knowledge and skills acquired through experience and education, such as vocabulary or historical facts. An example task could be recalling details from a specific event in history. Fluid intelligence refers to the ability to reason, solve novel problems, and think abstractly, often independent of acquired knowledge. An example task might involve solving complex puzzles or reasoning through unfamiliar logic problems. 249. Outline Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. Make sure to list and describe each of the types Gardner argues for and provide an example to illustrate the construct. Answer: This theory proposes that there are eight distinct spheres of intelligence: musical, bodily kinesthetic, logical, mathematical, linguistic, spatial, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist. In Gardner’s view, each of the multiple intelligences is linked to an independent system in the brain. Furthermore, he suggests that there may be even more types of intelligence, such as existential intelligence, which involves identifying and thinking about the fundamental questions of human existence. For example, the Dalai Lama might exemplify this type of intelligence Although Gardner illustrates his conception of the specific types of intelligence with descriptions of well-known people, each person has the same eight kinds of intelligence— in different degrees. Moreover, although the eight basic types of intelligence are presented individually, Gardner suggests that these separate intelligences do not operate in isolation. Normally, any activity encompasses several kinds of intelligence working together: an architect's work, for example, may involve both spatial and mathematical intelligence. 250. Outline Sternberg's theory of intelligence. Answer: According to psychologist Sternberg, practical intelligence is intelligence related to overall success in living. Sternberg argues that career success requires a very different type of intelligence from that required for academic success. Whereas academic success is based on knowledge of a specific information base obtained from reading and listening, practical intelligence is learned mainly through observation of others’ behavior. People who are high in practical intelligence are able to learn general norms and principles and apply them appropriately. In addition to practical intelligence, Sternberg argues there are two other basic, interrelated types of intelligence related to life success: analytical and creative. Analytical intelligence focuses on abstract but traditional types of problems measured on IQ tests, while creative intelligence involves the generation of novel ideas and products. 251. Define (a) practical and (b) emotional intelligence. To what extent are these types of intelligence related to the sort of intelligence that is traditionally assessed by standardized tests? Answer: Practical intelligence—According to psychologist Sternberg, practical intelligence is intelligence related to overall success in living. Sternberg argues that career success requires a very different type of intelligence from that required for academic success. Whereas academic success is based on knowledge of a specific information base obtained from reading and listening, practical intelligence is learned mainly through observation of others’ behavior. People who are high in practical intelligence are able to learn general norms and principles and apply them appropriately. Emotional intelligence—Emotional intelligence comprises a set of skills underlying the accurate assessment, evaluation, expression, and regulation of emotions. It is the basis of empathy for others, self-awareness, and social skills. It encompasses the ability to get along well with others. Like practical intelligence, emotional intelligence may be more strongly related than traditional academic intelligence to life success. It explains why people with only modest scores on traditional intelligence tests can be quite successful: the basis of their success may be a high emotional intelligence, which allows them to respond appropriately and quickly to others’ feelings. Practical and emotional intelligence are only weakly related to traditional academic intelligence, if at all. 252. Suppose you develop a new intelligence test. Distinguish between reliability and validity. Outline how you would standardize the test. Answer: The answer should include the following points: Reliability vs. validity—Reliability refers property by which tests measure consistently what they are trying to measure. Validity refers to the degree that a test actually measures what it is supposed to measure. Knowing that a test is reliable is no guarantee that it is also valid. If a test is unreliable, it cannot be valid. Assuming that all other factors— motivation to score well, knowledge of the material, health, and so forth—are similar, if a person scores high the first time he or she takes a specific test and low the second time, the test cannot be measuring what it is supposed to measure. Therefore, the test is both unreliable and not valid. Test validity and reliability are prerequisites for accurate assessment of intelligence— as well as for any other measurement task carried out by psychologists. Standardization—Tests for which norms have been developed are known as standardized tests. They are developed by calculating the average score achieved by a specific group of people for whom the test has been designed. Then the extent to which each person’s score differs from the scores of the other individuals who have taken the test in the past can be determined and a qualitative sense of their performance can be provided for future test-takers. Reliability refers to the consistency of the test results over time and across different administrations. Validity concerns whether the test accurately measures what it intends to measure, such as intelligence rather than other factors. To standardize the test, I would administer it to a large, diverse sample under controlled conditions, ensuring consistent instructions and timing. I would analyze the results to establish norms and assess internal consistency using statistical measures like Cronbach's alpha, and validate the test by comparing scores with established intelligence measures. 253. Identify the levels of mental retardation described in the text. Associate a range of IQ scores with each level. Review what is known about the causes of mental retardation. Answer: The response should include the following points: Levels of mental retardation: Mild: IQs of 55-69 Moderate: IQs of 40-54 Severe: IQs of 25-39 Profound: IQs below 25 Causes of mental retardation—In nearly one-third of the cases there is an identifiable cause related to biological or environmental factors. The most common preventable cause of intellectual disabilities is fetal alcohol syndrome, produced by a mother’s use of alcohol while pregnant. Increasing evidence shows that even small amounts of alcohol intake can produce intellectual deficits. Down syndrome represents another major cause of intellectual disabilities. Down syndromeresults when a person is born with 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46. In most cases, there is an extra copy of the 21st chromosome, which leads to problems in how the brain and body develop. In other cases of intellectual disabilities, an abnormality occurs in the structure of particular chromosomes. Birth complications, such as a temporary lack of oxygen, may also cause retardation. In some cases, intellectual disabilities begin after birth following a head injury, a stroke, or infections such as meningitis. However, the majority of cases of intellectual disabilities are classified as familial retardation, in which no apparent biological defect exists but there is a history of retardation in the family. Whether the family background of intellectual disabilities is caused by environmental factors, such as extreme continuous poverty leading to malnutrition, or by some underlying genetic factor is usually impossible to determine. The levels of mental retardation described are: 1. Mild: IQ range approximately 50-70. 2. Moderate: IQ range approximately 35-49. 3. Severe: IQ range approximately 20-34. 4. Profound: IQ range below 20. Causes of mental retardation include genetic factors (such as Down syndrome), prenatal factors (like exposure to toxins or infections), perinatal factors (such as complications during birth), and postnatal factors (such as head trauma or severe malnutrition). 254. "Nerds." "Geeks." Briefly describe Terman's pioneering study of the intellectually gifted and suggest how its results contradict popular stereotypes of the intellectually gifted. Answer: The answer should include the following points: In a famous study by psychologist Lewis Terman that started in the early 1920s, 1,500 children who had IQ scores above 140 were followed for the rest of their lives. From the start, the members of this group were more physically, academically, and socially capable than their nongifted peers. In addition to doing better in school, they also showed better social adjustment than average. All these advantages paid off in terms of career success: As a group, the gifted received more awards and distinctions, earned higher incomes, and made more contributions in art and literature than typical individuals. Perhaps most important, they reported greater satisfaction in life than the nongifted. Terman's pioneering study, known as the Genetic Studies of Genius, followed intellectually gifted individuals from childhood to adulthood. His findings contradicted stereotypes by showing that intellectually gifted individuals were socially well-adjusted, successful in various fields beyond academia, and not socially isolated or awkward as commonly believed. Terman's work highlighted the diversity and positive outcomes among the intellectually gifted, challenging negative stereotypes like those of "nerds" or "geeks." 255. "The discrepancy in IQ scores between whites and blacks in the United States has nothing to do with race." Support this reference using empirical data. Answer: Blacks who are raised in economically enriched environments have IQ scores similar to whites in comparable environments. For example, in a study of black children who had been adopted at an early age by white middle-class families of above-average intelligence, the IQ scores of those children averaged 106—about 15 points above the average IQ scores of unadopted black children in the study. Other research shows that the racial gap in IQ narrows considerably after a college education and cross-cultural data demonstrate that when racial gaps exist in other cultures, the economically disadvantaged groups typically have lower scores. In short, the evidence that genetic factors play the major role in determining racial differences in IQ is not compelling. Furthermore, drawing comparisons between different races on any dimension, including IQ scores, is an imprecise, potentially misleading, and often fruitless venture. By far, the greatest discrepancies in IQ scores occur when comparing individuals, not when comparing mean IQ scores of different groups. There are blacks who score high on IQ tests and whites who score low, just as there are whites who score high and blacks who score low. For the concept of intelligence to aid in the betterment of society, one must examine how individuals perform and not the groups to which they belong. Test Bank for Essentials of Understanding Psychology Robert S. Feldman 9780077861889, 9781259255786, 9781260829013

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