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Chapter 03 Sensation and Perception Multiple Choice Questions 1. Anna is reading her psychology text. The activation of receptors in her retina by a source of physical energy is called _____________. A. perception B. sensation C. integration D. interpretation Answer: B. sensation 2. The activation of the sense organs by a source of physical energy is known as _____________. A. perception B. sensation C. integration D. interpretation Answer: B. sensation 3. The sorting out, interpretation, analysis, and integration of stimuli by the sense organs and brain is known as _____________. A. perception B. sensation C. activation D. stimulation Answer: A. perception 4. Which of the following statements is true of sensation and perception? A. Perception generally precedes sensation in our processing of a stimulus. B. Sensation and perception are essentially synonyms. C. Sensation involves the interpretation of a stimulus, whereas perception does not. D. Sensation involves the activation of sense receptors; perception involves interpretation. Answer: D. Sensation involves the activation of sense receptors; perception involves interpretation. 5. The study of the relationship between the physical aspects of stimuli and our psychological experience of them is known as _____________. A. developmental psychology B. thermodynamics C. psychophysics D. experimental psychology Answer: C. psychophysics 6. Dr. Breiland examines the relationship between the physical properties of light, such as its amplitude and wavelength, and human perception of color. Which of the following terms most accurately describes Dr. Breiland's field of study? A. Developmental psychology B. Psychophysics C. Thermodynamics D. Experimental psychology Answer: B. Psychophysics 7. A(n) _____________ is the smallest intensity of a stimulus that must be present for the stimulus to be detected. A. difference threshold B. absolute threshold C. adaptation threshold D. intensity threshold Answer: B. absolute threshold 8. A(n) _____________ threshold is the stimulus intensity that is detected 50% of the time. A. difference B. absolute C. adaptation D. frequency Answer: B. absolute 9. One can detect a single drop of perfume diffused in an area the size of a one-bedroom apartment. This is due to: A. absolute threshold. B. difference threshold. C. adaptation threshold. D. psychophysical minimum. Answer: A. absolute threshold. 10. Which of the following most closely approximates the meaning of the term noise as psychophysicists use it? A. Only unwanted stimuli B. An unpleasant sound C. Any distraction D. Only auditory stimuli Answer: C. Any distraction 11. The smallest level of added or reduced stimulation required to sense that a change in stimulation has occurred is known as the _____________. A. difference threshold B. absolute threshold C. adaptation threshold D. intensity threshold Answer: A. difference threshold 12. A snack manufacturer realizes that he must increase the salt content of his company's chips by 3% in order for a sample of consumers to notice that the chips are saltier than they were before. This example most nearly illustrates the concept of a(n): A. absolute threshold. B. difference threshold. C. frequency threshold. D. adaptation threshold. Answer: B. difference threshold. 13. Weber's law states that a just noticeable difference is a _____________. A. fixed value B. constant proportion of the intensity of an initial stimulus C. variable proportion of the intensity of an initial stimulus D. random value Answer: B. constant proportion of the intensity of an initial stimulus 14. Acme Foods wants to make its chips saltier, but it doesn't want to spend more than it has to on salt. A sample of consumers are asked to compare its current chip (saltiness = 100) with saltier versions and to say whether the new version is saltier. On average, sample consumers reliably say the new chip is saltier when its saltiness value is 108, but not when its saltiness value is below 108. Assuming Acme Foods' sample consumers are representative of people in general, which of the following best represents the just noticeable difference for saltiness? A. 8% B. 108 C. 80% D. 100 Answer: A. 8% 15. _____________ is a basic law of psychophysics stating that a just noticeable difference is a constant proportion to the intensity of an initial stimulus. A. Fitt's law B. Weber's law C. Bloch's law D. Hick's law Answer: B. Weber's law 16. The function relating the value of a stimulus along some dimension to the just noticeable difference is known as _____________ law. A. Wernicke's B. Wundt's C. Weber's D. Wertheimer's Answer: C. Weber's 17. Which of the following laws would help explain why a person in a quiet room is more startled by the ringing of a telephone than a person who is already in a noisy room? A. Fitt's law B. Weber's law C. Bloch's law D. Hick's law Answer: B. Weber's law 18. _____________ is an adjustment in sensory capacity after prolonged exposure to unchanging stimuli. A. Adaptation B. Accommodation C. Acclimation D. Attenuation Answer: A. Adaptation 19. "It's so noisy! How can you stand it?" remarks Caitlyn as the thruway traffic screams past her friend Dave's ground floor apartment. "I don't even notice it anymore," Dave replies. This exchange best exemplifies the concept of: A. adaptation. B. accommodation. C. acclimation. D. attenuation. Answer: A. adaptation. 20. In the context of what we see in our world, the range of wavelengths that humans are sensitive to is called the _____________. A. power spectrum B. mass spectrum C. frequency spectrum D. visual spectrum Answer: D. visual spectrum 21. Which of the following words is most nearly synonymous with the term refract? A. Bend B. Transmit C. Split D. Reflect Answer: A. Bend 22. The _____________ bends light as it passes, playing a primary role in focusing the light more sharply. A. cornea B. pupil C. iris D. lens Answer: A. cornea 23. The _____________ is a dark hole in the center of the _____________, the colored part of the eye. A. pupil; iris B. iris; pupil C. cornea; lens D. lens; cornea Answer: A. pupil; iris 24. Refraction is to accommodation what the _____________ is to the _____________. A. pupil; lens B. cornea; pupil C. cornea; lens D. lens; cornea Answer: C. cornea; lens 25. Which of the following sequences accurately reflects the order in which light passes through the structures of the eye during vision? A. Pupil → cornea → lens → retina B. Pupil → lens → cornea → retina C. Cornea → lens → pupil → retina D. Cornea → pupil → lens → retina Answer: D. Cornea → pupil → lens → retina 26. The part of the eye that converts the electromagnetic energy of light to electrical impulses for transmission to the brain is known as the _____________. A. retina B. fovea C. iris D. pupil Answer: A. retina 27. As compared to cones, rods: A. are more densely concentrated in the fovea. B. are responsible for color perception. C. are highly sensitive to light. D. are less numerous. Answer: C. are highly sensitive to light. 28. Thin, cylindrical receptor cells in the retina that are highly sensitive to light are called _____________. A. lenses B. pons C. rods D. cones Answer: C. rods 29. _____________ are light-sensitive receptor cells in the retina that are responsible for sharp focus and color perception, particularly in bright light, and are concentrated on the part of the retina called the fovea. A. Lenses B. Pons C. Rods D. Cones Answer: D. Cones 30. Adelaide notices a flicker of motion out of the corner of her eye as she hurries down a dimly lit alley late at night. Sydney deciphers a complex wiring diagram under the bright glare of her desk lamp. Adelaide's vision is driven mainly by her _____________. Sydney is mainly using her _____________. A. cones; cones as well B. rods; rods as well C. cones; rods D. rods; cones Answer: D. rods; cones 31. Which of the following is TRUE of cones? A. They play a key role in night vision. B. They are thin, cylindrical receptor cells that are highly sensitive to light. C. They are primarily responsible for the sharply focused perception of color. D. They play a key role in seeing objects that are outside the main center of focus. Answer: C. They are primarily responsible for the sharply focused perception of color. 32. The _____________ play a key role in peripheral vision, seeing objects that are outside the main center of focus. A. lenses B. pons C. rods D. cones Answer: C. rods 33. Which of the following sequences accurately reflects the order in which light stimulates cells early in the visual processing of an image? A. Bipolar cells → ganglion cells → rods and cones B. Bipolar cells → rods and cones → ganglion cells C. Ganglion cells → rods and cones → bipolar cells D. Rods and cones → bipolar cells → ganglion cells Answer: D. Rods and cones → bipolar cells → ganglion cells 34. _____________ cells receive information directly from the rods and cones and communicate that information to the _____________ cells. A. Bipolar; ganglion B. Dendritic; microglial C. Adrenergic; peptidergic D. Squamous; columnar Answer: A. Bipolar; ganglion 35. The _____________ nerve is a bundle of ganglion axons that carry visual information to the brain. A. cochlear B. optic C. lacrimal D. phrenic Answer: B. optic 36. The point at which the optic nerves meet and then split is termed the optic: A. callosum. B. fissure. C. chiasm. D. sulcus. Answer: C. chiasm. 37. A major function of the ganglion cells is to: A. detect variations in light and darkness. B. detect a variety of basic visual features, such as motion. C. detect specific types of objects in the visual field. D. integrate the activity of different neural systems for vision. Answer: A. detect variations in light and darkness. 38. The ultimate processing of visual images takes place in the visual _____________ of the brain. A. callosum B. thalamus C. cortex D. medulla Answer: C. cortex 39. _____________ is the activation of neurons in the cortex by visual stimuli of specific shapes or patterns. A. Blob detection B. Interest point detection C. Corner detection D. Feature detection Answer: D. Feature detection 40. As compared to women, color blindness is _____________ among men. A. less common B. about as common C. five times less common D. more common Answer: D. more common 41. In the most common form of color blindness: A. everything is seen in black and white. B. blue and yellow cannot be distinguished. C. all red and green objects appear yellow. D. green objects appear red. Answer: C. all red and green objects appear yellow. 42. Damon is among the 7% of males with color blindness. He suffers from the most common form of color blindness. Which of the following statements best illustrates Damon's experience of color? A. The blue sky and green grass appear to be the same color. B. A pound of butter looks to be the same color as the blue dish on which it is resting. C. Everything looks black, gray, or white. D. Red apples on a tree seem to be yellow. Answer: D. Red apples on a tree seem to be yellow. 43. The _____________ states that there are three kinds of cones in the retina, each of which responds primarily to a specific range of wavelengths. A. opponent-process theory B. emission theory C. trichromatic theory of color vision D. visual perception theory Answer: C. trichromatic theory of color vision 44. The trichromatic theory was first proposed by _____________. The opponent-process theory was first proposed by _____________. A. Thomas Young; Ewald Hering B. Ewald Hering; Hermann von Helmholtz C. Hermann von Helmholtz; Thomas Young D. Thomas Young; Hermann von Helmholtz Answer: A. Thomas Young; Ewald Hering 45. According to the _____________ of color vision, receptor cells are linked in pairs, working in opposition to each other. A. opponent-process theory B. emission theory C. trichromatic theory of color vision D. visual perception theory Answer: A. opponent-process theory 46. Which of the following is TRUE of the opponent-process theory? A. According to the opponent-process theory, perception of color is influenced by the relative strength with which each of the three kinds of cones is activated. B. The opponent-process theory suggests that in addition to black and white, there are four, rather than three, colors. C. According to the opponent-process theory, the cells that respond to color operate independently, rather than in conjunction. D. The opponent-process theory provides a weak explanation for afterimages. Answer: B. The opponent-process theory suggests that in addition to black and white, there are four, rather than three, colors. 47. Suppose you stare at an illustration of the American flag for a while, then glance at a blank white page. The red stripes look green when you glance at the blank page because: A. cones responsive to green light begin firing. B. cones responsive to red light stop firing. C. the receptor cells for the red component of the pairing become fatigued. D. the receptor cells for the green component of the pairing begin to adapt. Answer: C. the receptor cells for the red component of the pairing become fatigued. 48. With respect to the trichromatic and the opponent-process theories of color perception, which of the following statements is most accurate? A. The trichromatic theory has largely been discredited. B. The opponent-process theory has largely been discredited. C. Trichromatic process works within the retina itself; whereas opponent mechanisms operate both in the retina and at later stages of neuronal processing. D. The opponent-process theory describes color processing early in the visual system; trichromatic theory describes color processing later on in the visual system. Answer: C. Trichromatic process works within the retina itself; whereas opponent mechanisms operate both in the retina and at later stages of neuronal processing. 49. The eardrum is a: A. part of the outer ear that vibrates when sound waves hit it. B. thin membrane leading to the inner ear. C. coiled tube in the inner ear filled with fluid that vibrates in response to sound. D. vibrating structure that runs through the center of the cochlea, dividing it into an upper chamber and a lower chamber and containing sense receptors for sound. Answer: A. part of the outer ear that vibrates when sound waves hit it. 50. The cochlea is a: A. part of the outer ear that vibrates when sound waves hit it. B. thin membrane leading to the inner ear. C. coiled tube in the inner ear filled with fluid that vibrates in response to sound. D. vibrating structure that runs through the center of the cochlea, dividing it into an upper chamber and a lower chamber and containing sense receptors for sound. Answer: C. coiled tube in the inner ear filled with fluid that vibrates in response to sound. 51. The basilar membrane is a: A. part of the outer ear that vibrates when sound waves hit it. B. a tube like passage that leads to the eardrum. C. coiled tube in the inner ear filled with fluid that vibrates in response to sound. D. vibrating structure that runs through the center of the cochlea, dividing it into an upper chamber and a lower chamber and containing sense receptors for sound. Answer: D. vibrating structure that runs through the center of the cochlea, dividing it into an upper chamber and a lower chamber and containing sense receptors for sound. 52. The bones of the middle ear include each of the following EXCEPT the: A. hammer. B. anvil. C. pinna. D. stirrup. Answer: C. pinna. 53. Which of the following sequences correctly arranges the structures of the inner ear from the largest and most inclusive to the smallest and most specific? A. Cochlea → basilar membrane → hair cells B. Cochlea → hair cells → basilar membrane C. Basilar membrane → hair cells → cochlea D. Basilar membrane → cochlea → hair cells Answer: A. Cochlea → basilar membrane → hair cells 54. Hair cells for hearing are located in the: A. eardrum. B. cochlea. C. auditory canal. D. semicircular canals. Answer: B. cochlea. 55. Making an analogy between hearing and vision, the auditory hair cells in the _____________ are similar to the _____________ in the _____________. A. cochlea; rods and cones; retina B. cochlea; ganglion cells; cornea C. eardrum; rods and cones; cornea D. eardrum; ganglion cells; retina Answer: A. cochlea; rods and cones; retina 56. _____________ is the number of wave cycles that occur in a second. A. Amplitude B. Wavelength C. Frequency D. Sound pressure Answer: C. Frequency 57. People can detect sounds ranging in frequency from _____________ to _____________. A. 20 dB; 20,000 dB B. 50 dB; 50,000 dB C. 20 cycles per second; 20,000 cycles per second D. 50 cycles per second; 50,000 cycles per second Answer: C. 20 cycles per second; 20,000 cycles per second 58. _____________ is a feature of wave patterns that allows us to distinguish between loud and soft sounds. A. Amplitude B. Wavelength C. Frequency D. Sound pressure Answer: A. Amplitude 59. Amplitude range is measured in _____________. A. decibels B. hertz C. sones D. phones Answer: A. decibels 60. The _____________ states that different areas of the basilar membrane respond to different frequencies. A. place theory of hearing B. proximal stimuli theory C. frequency theory of hearing D. wave theory Answer: A. place theory of hearing 61. The _____________ suggests that the entire basilar membrane acts as a microphone, vibrating as a whole in response to a sound. A. place theory of hearing B. proximal stimuli theory C. frequency theory of hearing D. wave theory Answer: C. frequency theory of hearing 62. Which of the following statements is true about the place theory and the frequency theory? A. Place theory and frequency theory explain our perception of high- but not low-frequency sounds. B. Place theory and frequency theory explain our perception of low- but not high-frequency sounds. C. Both place theory and frequency theory provide the full explanations for hearing. D. Place theory accounts for the perception of high-frequency sounds; frequency theory explains our perception of low-frequency sounds. Answer: D. Place theory accounts for the perception of high-frequency sounds; frequency theory explains our perception of low-frequency sounds. 63. The _____________ consists of three tubes containing fluid that sloshes through them when the head moves, signaling rotational or angular movement to the brain. A. oval window B. auditory canal C. Eustachian tube D. semicircular canal Answer: D. semicircular canal 64. Which of the following ear structures is correctly matched with an auditory or body sense? A. Otoliths; hearing B. Semicircular canals; rotational or angular motion of the body C. Cochlea; body acceleration D. Eardrum; body balance Answer: B. Semicircular canals; rotational or angular motion of the body 65. Which of the following sequences correctly arranges structures from the largest and most inclusive to the smallest and most specific? A. Inner ear → otoliths → semicircular canal B. Inner ear → semicircular canals → otoliths C. Otoliths → semicircular canals → inner ear D. Otoliths → inner ear → semicircular canals Answer: B. Inner ear → semicircular canals → otoliths 66. The brain's inexperience in interpreting messages from the weightless _____________ is the cause of the space sickness commonly experienced by two-thirds of all space travelers. A. hair cells B. otoliths C. Eustachian tube D. cochlea Answer: B. otoliths 67. The human sense of smell permits us to detect _____________ separate smells. A. more than 10,000 B. 1,000-10,000 C. 100-1,000 D. 10-100 Answer: A. more than 10,000 68. Gustation is to olfaction what _____________ is to _____________. A. hearing; smell B. taste; hearing C. taste; smell D. small; taste Answer: C. taste; smell 69. Which of the following statements regarding smell is FALSE? A. Men generally have a better sense of smell than women. B. People can distinguish men from women based only on the smell of breath. C. People can distinguish happy from sad emotions based on underarm smells. D. Women are able to identify their babies solely on the basis of smell just a few hours after birth. Answer: A. Men generally have a better sense of smell than women. 70. _____________ are chemicals nonhumans secrete into the environment that produce a reaction in other members of the same species, permitting the transmission of messages such as sexual availability. A. Pheromones B. Ketones C. Hydratones D. Kairomones Answer: A. Pheromones 71. How many basic types of taste are there? A. 1-3 B. 4-5 C. 6-7 D. 8-10 Answer: B. 4-5 72. Roast beef with a rich brown gravy is often described as a "savory" dish. The basic taste prominent in such a dish is: A. bitter. B. salty. C. umami. D. sweet. Answer: C. umami. 73. Which of the following is true of "supertasters"? A. They seek out relatively sweeter and fattier foods than nontasters. B. They are prone to obesity. C. They are relatively insensitive to taste. D. They find sweets sweeter, cream creamier, and spicy dishes spicier. Answer: D. They find sweets sweeter, cream creamier, and spicy dishes spicier. 74. Nerve receptor cells for the skin senses are: A. located at a uniform depth throughout the skin. B. evenly distributed throughout the skin. C. unevenly distributed throughout the skin. D. not related to the sense of pressure. Answer: C. unevenly distributed throughout the skin. 75. Approximately how much does pain cost the United States each year? A. $100 billion B. $1 billion C. $100 million D. $3.49 Answer: A. $100 billion 76. Which of the following is the main reason for the fact that women experience pain more intensely than men? A. Women produce certain hormones related to the menstrual cycle. B. Women have more pain gates in the nervous system than men. C. Women have more substance P than do men. D. Women are encouraged by our culture to experience and express pain more intensely than men. Answer: A. Women produce certain hormones related to the menstrual cycle. 77. The body's own painkillers are called: A. substance Ps. B. endorphins. C. g factors. D. opioids. Answer: B. endorphins. 78. Which of the following treatments for pain is most effective for people who continually say to themselves, "This pain will never stop," "The pain is ruining my life"? A. Cognitive restructuring B. Biofeedback and relaxation techniques C. Light therapy D. Nerve and brain stimulation Answer: A. Cognitive restructuring 79. Whenever Mr. Redding catches himself saying, "This pain is ruining my life," he is supposed to immediately tell himself, "STOP! I am in control of my pain." This pain management technique is known as _____________ restructuring. A. psychodynamic B. cognitive C. neuroscience D. personality Answer: B. cognitive 80. To manage Mrs. Sampson's excruciating pain, a low-voltage electric current is occasionally passed through her lower back, the affected body part. Which of the following pain management techniques is Mrs. Sampson using? A. Acupuncture B. Cognitive restructuring C. Biofeedback D. Nerve stimulation Answer: D. Nerve stimulation 81. How does light therapy work? A. It passes an electric current through the part of the body that is affected by pain. B. It stimulates nerve cells in the brain to provide direct pain relief. C. It stimulates the production of healing enzymes. D. It encourages the development of different thought patterns and beliefs. Answer: C. It stimulates the production of healing enzymes. 82. _____________ is a condition in which exposure to one sensation evokes an additional one. A. Synesthesia B. Polythesia C. Multithesia D. Hyperthesia Answer: A. Synesthesia 83. Which of the following alternatives is most accurate? A. Synesthesia is rare. Exposure to one sensation evokes an additional one in most people with synesthesia. B. Synesthesia is rare. Exposure to sound does not evoke different hues in most people with synesthesia. C. Synesthesia is common. Senses work independently in most people with synesthesia. D. Synesthesia is common. Perception is multimodal in most people with synesthesia. Answer: A. Synesthesia is rare. Exposure to one sensation evokes an additional one in most people with synesthesia. 84. _____________ is series of principles that describe how we organize bits and pieces of information into meaningful wholes. A. Gestalt laws of organization B. Taylor's principles of scientific management C. The neoclassical perspective D. The bureaucratic theory Answer: A. Gestalt laws of organization 85. Artie organizes the binders in his office by color. This color-coding exemplifies the Gestalt principle of: A. proximity. B. similarity. C. chromaticity. D. closure. Answer: B. similarity. 86. Consider the figure within parentheses: (XX XX XX). That we perceive three pairs of Xs reflects the Gestalt principle(s) of: A. symmetry. B. proximity. C. closure. D. chromaticity. Answer: B. proximity. 87. In a general sense, the overriding Gestalt principle of perceptual organization is: A. complexity. B. simplicity. C. symmetry. D. similarity. Answer: B. simplicity. 88. Which of the following Gestalt laws is correctly defined? A. Similarity—the tendency to fill in small gaps in objects B. Simplicity—stimuli resembling one another tend to be grouped together C. Proximity—stimuli closer to one another tend to be grouped together D. Closure—stimuli are perceived in the most basic manner possible Answer: C. Proximity—stimuli closer to one another tend to be grouped together 89. Which of the following statements is most accurate with respect to the role of Gestalt psychology in contemporary psychology? A. The Gestalt influence has diminished over the years and is barely evident today. B. Gestaltists remain a major force in the psychology of perception. C. Gestalt psychology no longer plays a prominent role, but the Gestaltists' focus on the organization of perceptual elements remains influential. D. Gestalt psychology is no longer a major school of thought, but the Gestaltists' focus on bottom-up processing elements remains influential. Answer: C. Gestalt psychology no longer plays a prominent role, but the Gestaltists' focus on the organization of perceptual elements remains influential. 90. Perception that is guided by higher-level knowledge, experience, expectations, and motivations is known as _____________. A. horizontal processing B. bottom-up processing C. top-down processing D. diagonal processing Answer: C. top-down processing 91. Perception that consists of the progression of recognizing and processing information from individual components of a stimuli and moving to the perception of the whole is known as _____________. A. horizontal processing B. bottom-up processing C. top-down processing D. diagonal processing Answer: B. bottom-up processing 92. Which of the following statements most accurately expresses the relationship between top-down and bottom-up processing? A. Some stimuli are processed in a bottom-up fashion, while others are processed in a top-down manner. B. The contribution to perception of top-down processes is much smaller than researchers originally supposed. C. Top-down processing permits us to process the fundamental characteristics of stimuli. D. Top-down and bottom-up processes occur simultaneously in the perception of the world around us. Answer: D. Top-down and bottom-up processes occur simultaneously in the perception of the world around us. 93. The ability to view the world in three dimensions and to perceive distance is known as _____________. A. multistable perception B. depth perception C. haptic perception D. direct perception Answer: B. depth perception 94. The difference in the images seen by the left eye and the right eye is known as _____________. A. fixation disparity B. stereopsis C. retinal slip D. binocular disparity Answer: D. binocular disparity 95. Which of the following is a monocular cue? A. Motion parallax B. Convergence C. Shadow stereopsis D. Retinal disparity Answer: A. Motion parallax 96. _____________ is the change in position of an object on the retina caused by movement of your body relative to the object. A. Shadow stereopsis B. Convergence C. Motion parallax D. Retinal disparity Answer: C. Motion parallax 97. Mark and a Jacob are driving home on a college break. Mark is in the passenger seat. Bored, Mark gazes into the middle of an empty field. He notices that distant hilltops seem to move slowly in the same direction in which their car is moving; by contrast, mile markers on the side of the highway seem to whiz past them in the opposite direction. The difference in the apparent speed and direction of objects' motion serves as a depth cue termed motion: A. disparity. B. parallax. C. perspective. D. gradient. Answer: B. parallax. 98. You are sitting in a stationary train at a busy station. Suddenly, you feel like you are slowly sliding backward as the train next to you begins to pull out. This illusion reflects the operation of the _____________ cue of _____________. A. monocular; motion parallax B. binocular; motion parallax C. monocular; linear perspective D. binocular; binocular disparity Answer: A. monocular; motion parallax 99. From the window of an office on a skyscraper's 90th floor, taxis on the street look tiny. Of course, you know they are not toy cars; you are just really far up. This example illustrates the _____________ cue of _____________. A. monocular; relative size B. binocular; relative size C. monocular; texture gradient D. binocular; texture gradient Answer: A. monocular; relative size 100. You are standing on the beach; the sea is choppy. You observe that the crests of distant waves appear less distinct than the crests of waves nearer the beach. This example illustrates a monocular cue known as: A. linear perspective. B. relative size. C. texture gradient. D. binocular disparity. Answer: C. texture gradient. 101. At the beginning of a drawing class, the instructor suggests that an illusion of depth may be created in a two-dimensional picture by including parallel lines that converge at a vanishing point. Your instructor is making reference to a monocular depth cue known as: A. linear perspective. B. linear parallax. C. relative size. D. texture gradient. Answer: A. linear perspective. 102. Which depth cue is correctly matched with a description? A. Motion parallax - more distant objects produce smaller images on the retina B. Texture gradient - change in the body's position produces change in an object's retinal position C. Relative size - details becomes less distinct with increasing distance D. Linear perspective - parallel lines appear to converge with increasing distance Answer: D. Linear perspective - parallel lines appear to converge with increasing distance 103. _____________ constancy is a phenomenon in which physical objects are perceived as unvarying and consistent despite changes in their appearance or in the physical environment. A. Perceptual B. Objective C. Virtual D. Direct Answer: A. Perceptual 104. At night, the moon appears smaller when it is overhead than when it is on the horizon. This is an example of: A. perceptual constancy. B. objective constancy. C. virtual constancy. D. direct constancy. Answer: A. perceptual constancy. 105. _____________ are physical stimuli that consistently produce errors in perception. A. Tactile illusions B. Auditory illusions C. Gestalt illusions D. Visual illusions Answer: D. Visual illusions 106. _____________ refers to the perception of messages about which we have no awareness. A. Direct perception B. Extrasensory perception C. Subliminal perception D. Haptic perception Answer: C. Subliminal perception 107. _____________ refers to perception that does not involve our known senses. A. Direct perception B. Extrasensory perception C. Subliminal perception D. Haptic perception Answer: B. Extrasensory perception 108. Approximately what proportion of the American population believes that extrasensory perception, or ESP, exists? A. 5 percent B. 10 percent C. 25 percent D. 50 percent Answer: D. 50 percent 109. Why might contemporary, mainstream psychologists reconsider the possibility that extrasensory perception, or ESP, exists? A. A lot of people believe in ESP; they might be on to something. B. The research supporting ESP's existence is methodologically sound. C. Psychologists have developed plausible theories of how ESP might work. D. The topic has been addressed by a credible and prestigious psychological journal. Answer: D. The topic has been addressed by a credible and prestigious psychological journal. Worksheet Questions 110. A(n) _____________ is any passing source of physical energy that produces a response in a sense organ. Answer: Stimulus 111. Dr. Garner studies the relationship between the objective brightness of visual stimuli and observers' subjective impression of their brightness. Dr. Garner is a(n) ___________. Answer: Psychophysicist 112. The difference threshold is also known as a(n) ___________. Answer: just noticeable difference 113. The lens focuses light by changing its own thickness. This process is known as ___________. Answer: accommodation 114. You turn your head to look directly at an unusual butterfly your friend spotted in the garden. In doing so, you ensure that the insect's image falls on your ___________. Answer: fovea 115. Rods contain ___________, a complex reddish-purple substance whose composition changes chemically when energized by light. Answer: rhodopsin 116. The optic nerves from each eye meet at a point roughly between the two eyes called the ___________. Answer: optic chiasm 117. The activation of neurons in the cortex by visual stimuli of a particular shape or pattern is known as ___________. Answer: feature detection 118. Hearing a ring, you reach for your bag to retrieve your phone. At that instant, a nearby woman flips open her phone and begins talking. Looking at your silent bag, you realize you have failed to _____________ the ringing sound correctly. Answer: localize 119. The _____________ divides the cochlea into lower and upper chambers. Answer: basilar membrane 120. _____________ is the characteristic that makes sound seem "high" or "low." Answer: Pitch 121. When the _____________ are bent by the vibrations entering the cochlea, the cells send a neural message to the brain. Answer: hair cells 122. Olfaction is to _____________ what smell is to taste. Answer: gustation 123. When a cell is damaged, it releases a chemical called ___________. Answer: substance P 124. _____________ are a series of principles that describe how we organize bits and pieces of information into meaningful wholes. Answer: Gestalt laws of organization 125. Your expectations play a key role in your perception in ___________. Answer: top-down processing 126. _____________ is the change in position of an object on the retina caused by movement of your body relative to the object. Answer: Motion parallax 127. _____________ is the phenomenon in which physical objects are perceived as unvarying and consistent despite changes in their appearance or in the physical environment. Answer: Perceptual constancy 128. _____________ is the perception that a stationary object is moving. Answer: Apparent movement 129. _____________ refers to the perception of messages about which we have no awareness. Answer: Subliminal perception Essay Questions 130. Define sensation and perception. Discuss each of the senses and how researchers study sensation and perception. Answer: To consider how psychologists understand the senses and, more broadly, sensation and perception, one needs a basic working vocabulary. In formal terms, sensation is the activation of the sense organs by a source of physical energy. Perception is the sorting out, interpretation, analysis, and integration of stimuli carried out by the sense organs and brain. A stimulus is any passing source of physical energy that produces a response in a sense organ. Stimuli vary in both type and intensity. Different types of stimuli activate different sense organs. For instance, we can differentiate light stimuli (which activate the sense of sight and allow us to see the colors of a tree in autumn) from sound stimuli (which, through the sense of hearing, permit us to hear the sounds of an orchestra). In addition, stimuli differ in intensity, relating to how strong a stimulus needs to be before it can be detected. 131. Define and provide original examples from your own experience of (a) an absolute threshold; (b) a difference threshold; and (c) adaptation. Answer: Students’ examples may vary. Absolute threshold—The minimum intensity stimulus that must be present for it to be detected. Example: the lightest touch of a feather that we can feel; the faintest sound that we can hear. Difference threshold—The minimum change in stimulus intensity necessary for a difference in intensity to be detected. Example: A cup of coffee may taste bitter; we may add just enough sugar to make it taste just noticeably sweeter. Example: we may adjust the air conditioner or the heater just barely enough to make the room feel just noticeably cooler or warmer. Adaptation—a decrease in the response of a sensory system following prolonged exposure to an unchanging stimulus. Example: A pair of shoes may feel tight or pinch when we first put them on, but we no longer notice the pinching after a while. Example: bath water may feel hot at first, but we become accustomed to the temperature after a few minutes. Ideally, the examples provided should be drawn from everyday life, rather than from the laboratory. (a) Absolute threshold: The minimum intensity of a stimulus required for detection by a person's senses. Example: Hearing the faint ticking of a clock in a quiet room. (b) Difference threshold (or just noticeable difference): The smallest amount by which two stimuli must differ in order for an individual to perceive them as different. Example: Noticing a change in brightness when a light bulb's intensity is slightly increased. (c) Adaptation: The decrease in sensitivity to a constant stimulus over time. Example: Becoming less aware of the scent of flowers after being in a garden for some time. 132. Define what adaptation is in regards to sensation and perception. Provide an example of accommodation from either the text or your own experiences. Answer: Students’ examples may vary. Adaptation is an adjustment in sensory capacity after prolonged exposure to unchanging stimuli. Adaptation occurs as people become accustomed to a stimulus and change their frame of reference. In a sense, our brain mentally turns down the volume of the stimulation that it's experiencing. One example of adaptation is the decrease in sensitivity that occurs after repeated exposure to a strong stimulus. If you were to hear a loud tone over and over again, eventually it would begin to sound softer. Similarly, although jumping into a cold lake may be temporarily unpleasant, eventually you probably will get used to the temperature. This apparent decline in sensitivity to sensory stimuli is due to the inability of the sensory nerve receptors to fire off messages to the brain indefinitely. Because these receptor cells are most responsive to changes in stimulation, constant stimulation is not effective in producing a sustained reaction. Judgments of sensory stimuli are also affected by the context in which the judgments are made. This is the case because judgments are made not in isolation from other stimuli but in terms of preceding sensory experience. Adaptation in sensation and perception refers to the process by which sensory systems adjust their sensitivity to prolonged stimulation. This allows individuals to focus on new or changing stimuli rather than constant ones. Example: After entering a dark movie theater from bright sunlight, it takes a few minutes for your eyes to adjust and perceive details in the dimly lit environment. 133. Distinguish between rods and cones with respect to both their structure and their function. Answer: Rods are thin, cylindrical receptors. They are highly sensitive to light in dimly lit situations and play a key role in peripheral vision. However, they are largely insensitive to color and detail. Cones are tapered, cone-shaped receptors. They are concentrated in the center of the retina, or the fovea. They are responsible for the perception of fine details and color and play a key role in vision under well-illuminated or daytime viewing conditions. In the dark, cones reach their maximum level of adaptation very quickly, within a few minutes. By contrast, rods continue to dark-adapt for 20-30 minutes. 134. Review the processing of a visual image (a) prior to the retina; (b) from the retina to the cortex; and (c) within the cortex. Answer: Prior to the retina: The ray of light being reflected off the tree first travels through the cornea, a transparent, protective window. The cornea, because of its curvature, bends (or refracts) light as it passes through, playing a primary role in focusing the light more sharply. After moving through the cornea, the light traverses the pupil. The pupil is a dark hole in the center of the iris, the colored part of the eye, which in humans ranges from a light blue to a dark brown. The size of the pupil opening depends on the amount of light in the environment. The dimmer the surroundings are, the more the pupil opens to allow more light to enter. Once light passes through the pupil, it enters the lens, which is directly behind the pupil. The lens acts to bend the rays of light so that they are properly focused on the rear of the eye. The lens focuses light by changing its own thickness, a process called accommodation. It becomes flatter when viewing distant objects and rounder when looking at closer objects. From the retina to the cortex: The retina is a thin layer of light-sensitive receptor cells at the back of the eye. There are two kinds of receptor cells in the retina: rods and cones. Rods are highly sensitive to light in dimly lit situations and play a key role in peripheral vision. However, they are largely insensitive to color and detail. Cones are concentrated in the center of the retina, or the fovea. They are responsible for the perception of fine details and color and play a key role in vision under well-illuminated or daytime viewing conditions. Stimulation of the nerve cells in the eye triggers a neural response that is transmitted to other nerve cells in the retina called bipolar cells and ganglion cells. The axons of the ganglion cells form the optic nerve, which carries the visual message into the brain. Ultimately, impulses from the right half of each retina travel to the left hemisphere; those from the left half of each retina travel to the right hemisphere. Within the cortex: The cortex contains specialized neurons, called feature detectors, which respond to visual stimuli containing specific shapes, patterns, and so on. Some feature detectors, for example, are activated only by moving rather than stationary stimuli; others are activated only by lines oriented in a particular direction. 135. Distinguish between the trichromatic and opponent-process theories of color vision. Provide evidence in support of each theory. Answer: Trichromatic theory—There are three kinds of cones in the retina, each of which responds to a specific range of wavelengths: blue-violet, green, and yellow-red. Our perception of color is determined by the proportion of each of the three cone types that are active. Evidence suggests that trichromatic theory accurately describes color processing in the retina itself. Opponent-process theory—Color-sensitive receptor cells are linked in pairs: black-white pairs, yellow-blue pairs, and red-green pairs. If an object reflects blue (short wavelength) light, it will simultaneously excite the blue sensitive receptors and inhibit the yellow-sensitive ones. Opponent-process theory explains color vision at the level of the ganglion cells and in the cortex. It provides a good explanation of afterimages: When the yellow-sensitive component of the yellow-blue pairing, for example, becomes fatigued through continued stimulation, only the blue component is able to respond, shifting the perceptual balance toward that color. 136. What is sound? Describe the concepts of frequency, amplitude, and pitch and provide examples of each. Answer: What we refer to as sound is actually the physical movement of air molecules in regular, wavelike patterns caused by a vibrating source. Sometimes it is even possible to see these vibrations: We are able to see the audio speaker moving when low notes are played because of a primary characteristic of sound called frequency. Frequency is the number of wave cycles that occur in a second. At very low frequencies there are relatively few wave cycles per second. These cycles are visible to the naked eye as vibrations in the speaker. Low frequencies are translated into a sound that is very low in pitch. (Pitch is the characteristic that makes sound seem "high" or "low.") Higher frequencies are heard as sounds of higher pitch. At the upper end of the sound spectrum, people can detect sounds with frequencies as high as 20,000 cycles per second. Amplitude is a feature of wave patterns that allows us to distinguish between loud and soft sounds. Amplitude is the spread between the up-and-down peaks and valleys of air pressure in a sound wave as it travels through the air. Waves with small peaks and valleys produce soft sounds; those with relatively large peaks and valleys produce loud sounds. We are sensitive to broad variations in sound amplitudes. The strongest sounds we are capable of hearing are over a trillion times as intense as the very weakest sound we can hear. This range is measured in decibels. Sound is the vibration of air molecules that propagates as a wave through a medium, typically heard by the human ear. • Frequency: Refers to the number of cycles per second (measured in Hertz, Hz). Example: A high-pitched whistle has a higher frequency than a low-pitched drumbeat. • Amplitude: Represents the intensity or loudness of sound waves (measured in decibels, dB). Example: A loud rock concert produces sound waves with greater amplitude than a soft whisper. • Pitch: Perception of how high or low a sound is, determined by its frequency. Example: A high-pitched flute produces sounds with higher frequencies compared to a low-pitched tuba. 137. Briefly describe how the sense of smell works including the role receptors play. What is one form on chemical communication discussed in the text that operates via smell? Answer: The human sense of smell (olfaction) permits us to detect more than 10,000 separate smells. The sense of smell is sparked when the molecules of a substance enter the nasal passages and meet olfactory cells, the receptor neurons of the nose, which are spread across the nasal cavity. More than 1,000 separate types of receptors have been identified on those cells so far. Each of these receptors is so specialized that it responds only to a small band of different odors. The responses of the separate olfactory cells are then transmitted to the brain, where they are combined into recognition of a particular smell. Smell may also act as a hidden means of communication for humans. It has long been known that nonhumans release pheromones, chemicals they secrete into the environment that produce a reaction in other members of the same species, permitting the transmission of messages such as sexual availability. 138. Briefly describe how the sense of gustation or taste works including the role receptors play and the five categories of taste described in the text. Provide examples of each of the categories of taste. Answer: Students’ examples may vary. The sense of taste (gustation) involves receptor cells that respond to four basic stimulus qualities: sweet, sour, salty, and bitter. A fifth category also exists, a flavor called umami, although there is controversy about whether it qualifies as a fundamental taste. Umami is a hard-to-translate Japanese word, although the English "meaty" or "savory" comes close. Chemically, umami involves food stimuli that contain amino acids (the substances that make up proteins). Examples are: sweet-sugar; sour-lime; salty-curry; bitter-bitter melon;umami-seaweed. Although the specialization of the receptor cells leads them to respond most strongly to a particular type of taste, they also are capable of responding to other tastes as well. Ultimately, every taste is simply a combination of the basic flavor qualities, in the same way that the primary colors blend into a vast variety of shades and hues. The receptor cells for taste are located in roughly 10,000 taste buds, which are distributed across the tongue and other parts of the mouth and throat. The taste buds wear out and are replaced every 10 days or so. That's a good thing, because if our taste buds weren't constantly reproducing, we'd lose the ability to taste after we'd accidentally burned our tongues. The sense of taste differs significantly from one person to another, largely as a result of genetic factors. Some people, dubbed "supertasters," are highly sensitive to taste; they have twice as many taste receptors as "nontasters," who are relatively insensitive to taste. Supertasters (who, for unknown reasons, are more likely to be female than male) find sweets sweeter, cream creamier, and spicy dishes spicier, and weaker concentrations of flavor are enough to satisfy any cravings they may have. In contrast, because they aren't so sensitive to taste, nontasters may seek out relatively sweeter and fattier foods in order to maximize the taste. As a consequence, they may be prone to obesity. Gustation, or taste, involves taste receptors located on the tongue and other parts of the mouth that detect molecules in food. Receptors send signals to the brain, where taste sensations are processed. The five categories of taste are sweet (e.g., sugar), sour (e.g., lemon), salty (e.g., salt), bitter (e.g., coffee), and umami (e.g., soy sauce). • Sweet: Example: Chocolate. • Sour: Example: Lemon. • Salty: Example: Potato chips. • Bitter: Example: Dark chocolate. • Umami: Example: Parmesan cheese. 139. Fifty million Americans suffer from chronic pain. Describe three of the pain-management techniques mentioned in your text. Indicate the applications for which each technique is most appropriate. Answer: Three of the following pain-management techniques should be described: Medication—painkilling drugs are the most popular pain relief technique. Some medications treat the source of the pain, such as the swelling in painful joints; others treat the symptoms. Recent innovations include pumping pain medication directly into the spinal cord. Nerve/brain stimulation—a low-voltage electric current is passed through the pain-afflicted body part; in other cases, electrodes may be planted into the brain, or a handheld battery pack can stimulate nerve cells to provide direct relief. Light therapy—involves exposure to red/infrared light; seems to facilitate the production of enzymes that promote healing. Hypnosis—has proven effective at relieving pain for those who can be hypnotized. Biofeedback/relaxation techniques—people can be trained to relax muscles voluntarily; helps if the pain involves muscles, as in the case of headaches or back pain. Surgery—nerve fibers carrying pain messages to the brain can be cut surgically. An extreme, last-resort measure, used most frequently with dying patients. Cognitive restructuring—used to promote more positive self-talk; helps people increase their sense of control over their pain, actually reducing the amount of pain they experience. 140. Write a note on top-down processing and bottom-up processing. Answer: In top-down processing, perception is guided by higher-level knowledge, experience, expectations, and motivations. Top-down processing is illustrated by the importance of context in determining how we perceive objects. Top-down processing cannot occur on its own. Even though top-down processing allows us to fill in the gaps in ambiguous and out-of-context stimuli, we would be unable to perceive the meaning of such stimuli without bottom-up processing. Bottom-up processing consists of the progression of recognizing and processing information from individual components of a stimuli and moving to the perception of the whole. Top-down and bottom-up processing occur simultaneously, and interact with each other, in our perception of the world around us. Bottom-up processing permits us to process the fundamental characteristics of stimuli, whereas top-down processing allows us to bring our experience to bear on perception. As we learn more about the complex processes involved in perception, we are developing a better understanding of how the brain continually interprets information from the senses and permits us to make responses appropriate to the environment. 141. Briefly describe the Gestalt principles of similarity, proximity, and closure. Provide simple diagrams illustrating each of these principles. Explain how each principle relates to the fundamental Gestalt principle of simplicity. Answer: The answer should include the following components: Similarity—Perceptual elements that look alike are seen as grouped together. The drawing might show several alternating columns of X's and O's. These are seen as columns of X's and O's, rather than as a series of rows containing both X's and O's. Such a drawing is certainly easier to describe as alternating, homogenous columns rather than rows of mixed composition; in some sense, then, the typical percept is the simpler one. Proximity—Elements that are closer together are grouped together. A drawing might show pairs of dots, such as (. . . . . . ). Such a figure would be seen as three pairs of dots, rather than as six unevenly spaced dots. Again, the usual percept is the simpler one. Closure—Elements are grouped to form complete or enclosed patterns rather than open or broken ones. The drawing might be that of a triangle, with sizeable gaps in each side. We still see a complete triangle, rather than three separate vertices. Describing such a figure as a triangle is easier than describing it as three separated vertices; the usual perception is again the simpler one. The Gestalt principles are fundamental to how humans perceive and organize visual information: 1. Similarity: Objects that are similar in shape, size, color, or orientation tend to be grouped together. Example: A row of circles and squares. 2. Proximity: Objects that are close to each other are perceived as forming a group. Example: Dots arranged in clusters. 3. Closure: The mind tends to perceive incomplete objects as complete by filling in gaps. Example: A circle with a small gap is perceived as a complete circle. These principles relate to the Gestalt principle of simplicity (or Prägnanz) by suggesting that the mind organizes visual stimuli in the simplest possible way, forming coherent and meaningful perceptions based on these principles. 142. Imagine that you have been asked to draw or paint either an interior scene or a landscape for an art class. Using specific examples, explain how you might use three of the monocular cues to depth perception described in the text to create an impression of three dimensions on the two-dimensional paper or canvas. Answer: Relative size—if two objects are the same size, the one that produces a smaller image on the retina is more distant than the one that generates a larger retinal image. For example, an impression of depth may be created in an interior scene if one pair of two similar pieces of furniture is shown as larger than the other; the larger one would be perceived as in the foreground. In a landscape, one of two similar trees, barns, buildings, etc., might analogously be shown as larger than the other, creating an impression of foreground and distance. Texture gradient—the details of more distant objects are usually less distinct than are the details of nearer objects. In an interior scene, the textures and patterns of fabrics and the details of décor may be shown more clearly to suggest the foreground, and in a blurred or less distinct fashion to indicate that objects are in the background. Similarly, in a landscape, the colors, textures, and patterns of vegetation may be depicted clearly in the foreground, but less distinctly in the background. Linear perspective—parallel lines seem to converge in the distance. This cue applies well to the rectilinear elements of the environment, such as floor tiles, moldings, or wainscoting in an interior scene, or fencing, pathways, driveways, roads, or railway tracks in a landscape. Parallel lines, such as the ceiling moldings and baseboards along a wall or top and bottom fence rails, should converge to suggest distance. 143. Explain the phenomenon of perceptual constancy with a suitable example. Answer: Perceptual constancy is a phenomenon in which physical objects are perceived as unvarying and consistent despite changes in their appearance or in the physical environment. Perceptual constancy leads us to view objects as having an unvarying size, shape, color, and brightness, even if the image on our retina varies. In some cases, though, our application of perceptual constancy can mislead us. One good example of this involves the rising moon. When the moon first appears at night, close to the horizon, it seems to be huge—much larger than when it is high in the sky later in the evening. You may have thought that the apparent change in the size of the moon was caused by the moon's being physically closer to the earth when it first appears. In fact, though, this is not the case at all: the actual image of the moon on our retina is the same, whether it is low or high in the sky. Perceptual constancy is not the only explanation for the moon illusion, and it remains a puzzle to psychologists. It may be that several different perceptual processes are involved in the illusion 144. Briefly explain subliminal perception. Answer: Subliminal perception refers to the perception of messages about which we have no awareness. The stimulus could be a written word, a sound, or even a smell that activates the sensory system but that is not intense enough for a person to report having experienced it. Although subliminal messages (which social psychologists refer to as priming) can influence behavior in subtle ways, there's little evidence that it can lead to major changes in attitudes or behavior. Most research suggests that they cannot. In short, although we are able to perceive at least some kinds of information of which we are unaware, there's little evidence that subliminal messages can change our attitudes or behavior in substantial ways. At the same time, subliminal perception does have at least some consequences. If our motivation to carry out a behavior is already high and the appropriate stimuli are presented subliminally, subliminal perception may have at least some effect on our behavior. Test Bank for Essentials of Understanding Psychology Robert S. Feldman 9780077861889, 9781259255786, 9781260829013

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