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Chapter 11 Health Psychology: Stress, Coping, and Well-Being Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following statements best expresses the position of most health psychologists on the mind-body issue? A. The mind and the body are separate entities. B. The mind and the body are one and the same. C. The mind and the body are clearly linked. D. Health psychologists are concerned only with the body. Answer: C. The mind and the body are clearly linked. 2. Dr. Alastair examines the relationship among psychological factors, the immune system, and the brain. Dr. Alastair is a: A. psychoimmunologist. B. psychoneuroimmunologist. C. psychoneurologist. D. neuroimmunologist. Answer: B. psychoneuroimmunologist. 3. Which of the following sequences best captures the "stress cycle," from the beginning to the end of one cycle? A. Stressor → stress → coping → adaptation B. Stress → stressor → coping → adaptation C. Stress → stressor → adaptation → coping D. Stressor → adaptation → stress → coping Answer: A. Stressor → stress → coping → adaptation 4. Which of the following is TRUE of stress? A. Although adaptation is often major, it requires minimal effort when stress is very severe or long lasting. B. Stress is a very personal thing. C. Positive events never produce stress. D. Our attempts to overcome stress may produce biological and psychological responses that improve our overall health. Answer: B. Stress is a very personal thing. 5. Which of the following types refers to strong stressors that occur suddenly and typically affect many people at once? A. Personal stressors B. Cataclysmic events C. Background stressors D. Daily hassles Answer: B. Cataclysmic events 6. Which of the following would qualify as an example of a cataclysmic event? A. Being stranded in an earthquake affected area B. Getting ready for the first day at work C. Getting irritated due to slow Internet connection at work D. Suffering from a severe headache Answer: A. Being stranded in an earthquake affected area 7. Which category of stressor is correctly matched with an example? A. Background stressor—the 2010 BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico B. Personal stressor—being fired C. Cataclysmic event—spending time on hold on the phone D. Personal stressor—realizing that there is no fuel in your car when you have to rush to work Answer: B. Personal stressor—being fired 8. Which of the following is an example of a personal stressor? A. Getting stuck in a severe traffic jam B. Waiting in a restaurant for a long duration for an order to be taken C. Being informed about a suicide bomb attack D. Giving birth to a baby Answer: D. Giving birth to a baby 9. Posttraumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, may result from: A. cataclysmic events and severe personal stressors. B. personal stressors only. C. background stressors only. D. background stressors and uplifts. Answer: A. cataclysmic events and severe personal stressors. 10. The suicide rate for veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars is _____________ the general population. A. twice as high as B. the same as C. less than half for D. three times as high as Answer: A. twice as high as 11. What is the approximate percentage of soldiers returning from Iraq who show symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)? A. 50% B. 25% C. 20% D. 15% Answer: D. 15% 12. Which of the following statements best captures the relationship between background stressors and daily hassles? A. Background stressors are less severe than daily hassles. B. Background stressors and daily hassles are the same thing. C. Daily hassles help overcome background stressors. D. Daily hassles are a type of background stressor. Answer: B. Background stressors and daily hassles are the same thing. 13. Misplacing one's keys illustrates a: A. personal stressor. B. background stressor. C. cataclysmic event. D. catastrophic event. Answer: B. background stressor. 14. Sally was irritated as her cell phone got switched off due to low battery. This is an example of a _____________. A. personal stressor B. background stressor C. cataclysmic event D. catastrophic event Answer: B. background stressor 15. Which of the following would qualify as an example of a background stressor? A. Losing one's sibling in a train accident B. Getting married to one's childhood sweetheart C. Getting irritated because one is stuck in a huge traffic jam D. Losing an eye during a bomb blast Answer: C. Getting irritated because one is stuck in a huge traffic jam 16. The number of hassles people experience is _____________ correlated with the frequency of such problems as the flu, a sore throat, and backaches. The number of uplifts people experience is _____________ correlated with the frequency of these sorts of problems. A. not; not B. not; negatively C. positively; not D. positively; negatively Answer: D. positively; negatively 17. Which of the following is TRUE of stress? A. The greater the number of uplifts we experience, the fewer the psychological symptoms we report later. B. Stress increases the immune system response. C. Continued exposure to stress results in an improvement in the body’s overall level of biological functioning because of the constant secretion of stress-related hormones. D. Stress is a universal phenomenon and not a personal thing. Answer: A. The greater the number of uplifts we experience, the fewer the psychological symptoms we report later. 18. Which of the following is TRUE of the consequences of stress? A. Only negative stressors affect you physiologically. B. Stress produces both biological and psychological consequences. C. Stress does not have direct physiological results. D. Stress increases the immune system response. Answer: B. Stress produces both biological and psychological consequences. 19. Susan has been working tirelessly for the past few weeks to meet tight deadlines. She is also being compelled by her parents to get married and settle down. Susan is stressed and has been diagnosed with high blood pressure, skin rashes, and fatigue. She is in a helpless state and thinks her life is in turmoil. Susan is suffering from a(n) _____________. A. emotional insulation B. defense mechanism C. psychophysiological disorder D. general adaptation syndrome Answer: C. psychophysiological disorder 20. In the psychology of health and stress, Hans Selye is associated with the study of: A. the hardy personality. B. coping strategies. C. the general adaptation syndrome. D. Type A and Type B personalities. Answer: C. the general adaptation syndrome. 21. Which of the following sequences correctly orders the stages of the general adaptation syndrome, from first to last? A. Alarm → exhaustion → resistance B. Alarm → resistance → exhaustion C. Resistance → alarm → exhaustion D. Exhaustion → resistance → alarm Answer: B. Alarm → resistance → exhaustion 22. Which of the following is TRUE about the general adaptation syndrome? A. In the mobilization stage, people use a variety of means to cope with the stressor— sometimes successfully but at a cost of some degree of physical or psychological well-being. B. In the alarm stage, the sympathetic nervous system becomes weak due to the sudden onset of stress. C. The first stage of the general adaptation syndrome is known as the alarm and mobilization stage. D. If exhaustion is inadequate, people enter the resistance stage to cope with stress. Answer: C. The first stage of the general adaptation syndrome is known as the alarm and mobilization stage. 23. During the _____________ stage of the general adaptation syndrome, the body is actively fighting the stressor on a biological level. A. exhaustion B. resistance C. alarm D. mobilization Answer: B. resistance 24. People enter the last stage of the general adaptation syndrome—exhaustion—when: A. resistance is inadequate. B. they just become aware of the presence of a stressor. C. their sympathetic nervous system starts to become energized. D. they attempt to cope with the stressor. Answer: A. resistance is inadequate. 25. At which stage of Hans Selye's general adaptation model (GAS) are individuals the most likely to show negative consequences of stress? A. Exhaustion B. Resistance C. Alarm D. Mobilization Answer: A. Exhaustion 26. Which stage of the general adaptation syndrome model is correctly matched with an example? A. Alarm—drinking coffee and energy drinks to stay up late each night, writing the political science paper B. Resistance—realizing that a major term paper is due in 2 weeks in your political science course C. Exhaustion—coming down with a bad cold the day after you hand in the political science paper D. Alarm—visiting the library daily to do reference and research work to write the political science paper. Answer: C. Exhaustion—coming down with a bad cold the day after you hand in the political science paper 27. Which of the following is TRUE of the exhaustion stage of the general adaptation syndrome? A. During the exhaustion stage, the sympathetic nervous system becomes energized, which helps a person cope initially with the stressor. B. During the exhaustion stage, a person's ability to fight the stressor is highest. C. During the exhaustion stage, sometimes people escape a stressor. D. During the exhaustion stage, the body is actively fighting the stressor on a biological level. Answer: C. During the exhaustion stage, sometimes people escape a stressor. 28. Some health psychologists have criticized the general adaptation syndrome because: A. it suggests that one's physiological reaction to stress is rapidly changing, which may not be true. B. it does not take into account how an individual interprets or appraises a stressful event. C. they believe people's biological responses are not specific to the way they appraise a stressful event. D. they believe that the physiological response to stress follows the same set pattern regardless of the cause of stress. Answer: B. it does not take into account how an individual interprets or appraises a stressful event. 29. Stress may impair our production of disease-fighting white blood cells called: A. leukocytes. B. lymphocytes. C. monocytes. D. hemocytes. Answer: B. lymphocytes. 30. Efforts to control, reduce, or learn to tolerate the threats that lead to stress are known as: A. coping. B. adaptation. C. resistance. D. reactance. Answer: A. coping. 31. Eve was stressed as she had got transferred to Italy. She decided to look at the brighter side of her relocation by telling herself that it will be a new experience, that she will be able to meet different people, and see new places. Eve is displaying _____________ coping. A. emotion-focused B. proactive C. avoidant D. defensive Answer: A. emotion-focused 32. Following an ugly confrontation with a coworker, Simon seeks sympathy from his friends. Simon is practicing _____________ coping. A. problem-focused B. emotion-focused C. avoidant D. proactive Answer: B. emotion-focused 33. Faced with overlapping, unrealistic deadlines at work, Ivan recruits his friends to perform some of the routine clerical tasks associated with the projects. Ivan is engaged in _____________ coping. A. problem-focused B. emotion-focused C. avoidant D. proactive Answer: A. problem-focused 34. Which of the following statements is TRUE about emotion-focused coping? A. In emotion-focused coping, a person may use wishful thinking to reduce stress or use more direct escape routes. B. Taking time-out from stress by creating positive events is a type of emotion-focused coping. C. Emotion-focused coping may be more effective than problem-focused coping when the situation is unchangeable. D. Emotion-focused coping attempts to modify the source of stress. Answer: C. Emotion-focused coping may be more effective than problem-focused coping when the situation is unchangeable. 35. Which of the following statements is TRUE about problem-focused coping? A. Problem-focused coping leads to changes in behavior or to the development of a plan of action to deal with stress. B. People use problem-focused strategies more frequently when they perceive circumstances as being unchangeable. C. Problem-focused coping includes strategies such as accepting sympathy from others and looking at the bright side of a situation. D. In problem-focused coping, a person may use wishful thinking to reduce stress or use more direct escape routes. Answer: A. Problem-focused coping leads to changes in behavior or to the development of a plan of action to deal with stress. 36. Wishful thinking and the use of drugs exemplify the use of _____________ coping. A. problem-focused B. emotion-focused C. avoidant D. proactive Answer: A. problem-focused 37. Steve gets himself a couple of drinks at his favorite pub, every day after work, in order to reduce his stress. Steve is engaging himself in _____________ coping. A. problem-focused B. emotion-focused C. proactive D. avoidant Answer: D. avoidant 38. Which of the following is found to be the least successful coping method for dealing with stress? A. Avoidant coping B. Proactive coping C. Emotion-focused coping D. Problem-focused coping Answer: A. Avoidant coping 39. Which of the following refers to unconscious strategies that people use to reduce anxiety by concealing the source from themselves and others? A. Subjective well-being tactics B. Defense mechanisms C. Cataclysmic events D. Type B behavior patterns Answer: B. Defense mechanisms 40. Which of the following is TRUE of defense mechanisms? A. Defense mechanisms deal with reality. B. Defense mechanisms are personality characteristics associated with a lower rate of stress-related illness. C. Defense mechanisms permit people to avoid stress by acting as if the stress were not even there. D. People who practice defense mechanisms are generally optimistic, good-natured, and have good social skills. Answer: C. Defense mechanisms permit people to avoid stress by acting as if the stress were not even there. 41. A 1988 study conducted by Lehman and Taylor reports that California students living in dormitories, close to areas of geological fault, unlikely to withstand an earthquake were more likely to doubt earthquake predictions than were students living in safer structures. This example best illustrates: A. avoidant coping. B. a projection. C. emotion-based coping. D. a defense mechanism. Answer: D. a defense mechanism. 42. Agreeing with the statement "Sometimes I feel like I can't do anything about my life" would reflect: A. learned helplessness. B. emotion-focused coping. C. emotional insulation. D. problem-focused coping. Answer: A. learned helplessness. 43. People sometimes stop even trying to cope with stress if they feel that they have no control over the bad things that happen to them. This state is referred to as: A. emotional insulation. B. learned helplessness. C. avoidant reactance. D. denial. Answer: B. learned helplessness. 44. "Don't wait for the storm to pass—learn to dance in the rain," exhorts an inspirational poster you notice in an office. This quote most directly relates to the _____________ component of hardiness. A. commitment B. challenge C. control D. coping Answer: B. challenge 45. Which of the following refers to the ability to withstand, overcome, and actually thrive after profound adversity? A. Emotional insulation B. Avoidant coping C. Hostility D. Resilience Answer: D. Resilience 46. Despite growing up in an environment characterized by unemployment, violence, drug abuse, and poverty, Geoff finished college and is successful and thriving today. Geoff is: A. hostile. B. hardy. C. resilient. D. fortunate. Answer: C. resilient. 47. Which of the following is TRUE of resilience? A. Resilient people are not able to work with what they have and tend to complain about whatever situation they find themselves in. B. Resilient people conclude that there is no link between the responses they make and the outcomes that occur. C. Resilience occurs when people conclude that unpleasant or aversive stimuli cannot be controlled. D. Resilience results in the release of the hormone cortisol which is helpful in responding to challenges although too much can produce damage. Answer: D. Resilience results in the release of the hormone cortisol which is helpful in responding to challenges although too much can produce damage. 48. Which of the following should be followed to cope with a stressful situation? A. One should stick to one's goals. B. One should change one's appraisal of the situation. C. One should avoid taking physical action. D. One should try to turn a challenge into a threat. Answer: B. One should change one's appraisal of the situation. 49. The strategy of preparing for stress before it happens is termed _____________ coping. A. anticipatory B. proactive C. preventive D. reactive Answer: B. proactive 50. The _____________ behavior pattern is a cluster of behaviors involving hostility, competitiveness, time urgency, and feeling driven. A. Type B B. Type D C. Type C D. Type A Answer: D. Type A 51. Vivian always makes sure that he submits his class assignments before anybody else does. Also, he aims at getting the highest score among his classmates. Vivian has a _____________ behavior pattern. A. Type C B. Type B C. Type A D. Type D Answer: C. Type A 52. Katie was very excited about the athletics event to be held in her school. She got injured just a few days before the event and was asked by her physician to take rest for one full day. She was very frustrated and worried that she might be replaced by her friend, Elaine, if she misses her daily practice. She ignored her physician's advice, went ahead with her practice, and worsened the injury. Katie is most likely a _____________ personality. A. Type B B. Type A C. Type C D. Type D Answer: B. Type A 53. Annie is a Type A individual. She is likely to display _____________ behavior. A. hostile B. patient C. cooperative D. noncompetitive Answer: A. hostile 54. Eric has a Type A behavior pattern. Which of the following characteristics is Eric likely to exhibit? A. Patience B. Time urgency C. Lower stress levels D. Cooperation Answer: B. Time urgency 55. The _____________ behavior pattern is characterized by a patient and nonaggressive manner. A. Type A B. Type B C. Type C D. Type D Answer: B. Type B 56. Martha has a Type B behavior pattern. Which of the following characteristics is likely to be observed in Martha? A. Hostility B. Time urgency C. Competitiveness D. Cooperation Answer: D. Cooperation 57. Kim is aggressive, competitive, and ambitious. Lonnie is relaxed, cooperative, and patient. Morrie is anxious, tense, and pessimistic. Which individual is correctly paired with the behavior pattern he or she reflects? A. Lonnie—Type B B. Morrie—Type A C. Kim—Type D D. Kim—Type C Answer: A. Lonnie—Type B 58. Which of the following behavior patterns is correctly matched with its typical trait? A. Type A: insecure B. Type B: cooperative C. Type D: hostile D. Type A: noncompetitive Answer: B. Type B: cooperative 59. Patrick is a typical Type B personality. Patrick would be characterized by _____________ behavior. A. hostile B. competitive C. insecure D. nonaggressive Answer: D. nonaggressive 60. Jane is a calm and composed person who believes in working patiently. She hates the idea of employees working aggressively to win more incentives than their coworkers. She is cooperative with her coworkers and helps them whenever they are in need. Jane is a _____________ individual. A. Type C B. Type A C. Type B D. Type D Answer: C. Type B 61. Neil, a team lead in an advertising firm, is a harmonious person who provides constant support to his teammates without any hassles, is cooperative, and patient. Neil is most likely a _____________ personality. A. Type D B. Type A C. Type C D. Type B Answer: D. Type B 62. Owen is a Type B personality. Owen would be characterized by _____________ behavior. A. noncompetitive B. stressful C. hostile D. panicky Answer: A. noncompetitive 63. The Type A and Type B behavior patterns are best seen as: A. distinct categories. B. overlapping categories. C. the ends of a continuum. D. orthogonal dimensions. Answer: C. the ends of a continuum. 64. Mick is a dedicated basketball player who believes in cultivating his sports skills by competing with others. He always feels driven to practice and improve his techniques of shooting, passing, and rebounding. Also, he is extremely patient and cooperative when he teaches the technique to his teammates. Mick's behavior: A. reflects a Type B behavior pattern. B. falls between Type A and Type B behavior patterns. C. is a combination of Type C and Type D behavior patterns. D. represents insecurity, anxiety, and hostility. Answer: B. falls between Type A and Type B behavior patterns. 65. The component of the Type A pattern most strongly linked to coronary heart disease is that of: A. hostility. B. competitiveness. C. time urgency. D. ambitiousness. Answer: A. hostility. 66. Which of the following is TRUE of the Type A behavior pattern? A. Men who display the Type A behavior pattern suffer significantly less fatal heart attacks than those classified as having the Type B pattern. B. Patience is the key component of the Type A behavior pattern which is related to non-aggressiveness. C. The importance of the Type A behavior pattern lies in its links to coronary heart disease. D. The Type A behavior pattern is characterized by a patient, cooperative, noncompetitive, and nonaggressive manner. Answer: C. The importance of the Type A behavior pattern lies in its links to coronary heart disease. 67. The key component of the Type A behavior pattern, hostility, is highly toxic because it: A. produces excessive physiological arousal in stressful situations. B. affects the course of cancer through links to the immune system. C. decreases heart rate and blood pressure. D. results in decreased production of the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine. Answer: A. produces excessive physiological arousal in stressful situations. 68. Being insecure, negative, and anxious are personality traits that are characteristics of the _____________ personality style. A. Type A B. Type B C. Type D D. Type C Answer: C. Type D 69. Which of the following is TRUE of cancer? A. Development of cancer is directly related to the Type A behavior pattern. B. Cancer is a disease which cannot be cured even if detected early. C. Cancer spreads when certain cells in the body become altered and multiply rapidly in an uncontrolled fashion. D. Conclusive evidence suggests that cancer patients are less emotionally reactive, suppress anger, and lack outlets for emotional release. Answer: C. Cancer spreads when certain cells in the body become altered and multiply rapidly in an uncontrolled fashion. 70. Smoking is the number _____________ preventable cause of death in the United States; one in _____________ deaths in the United States is/are caused by smoking. A. one; five B. one; four C. two; five D. two; four Answer: A. one; five 71. Approximately what percentage of current smokers report that they would like to quit? A. 90% B. 75% C. 65% D. 50% Answer: B. 75% 72. The rate of lung cancer among African-American smokers is _____________ than it is among white smokers. A. 75% lower B. 25% higher C. 50% higher D. 50% lower Answer: C. 50% higher 73. Overall, only about _____________ of those who try to quit smoking actually succeed over the long term. A. 25% B. 15% C. 5% D. 1% Answer: B. 15% 74. The average smoker tries to quit about _____________ times before being successful. A. 3 to 4 B. 5 to 6 C. 8 to 10 D. 12 to15 Answer: C. 8 to 10 75. After a year of avoiding cigarettes, the probability of relapse is _____________. A. 10% B. 25% C. 35% D. 50% Answer: A. 10% 76. Which of the following is supposed to be the most successful method of quitting smoking? A. Using the patch or nicotine replacement gum B. Going cold turkey C. Attending counseling, along with using nicotine replacement patches or gums D. Using Zyban or similar drugs Answer: C. Attending counseling, along with using nicotine replacement patches or gums 77. In the long term, the most effective means of reducing smoking may be: A. using the patch or nicotine replacement gum. B. going cold turkey. C. changes in societal norms and attitudes toward the habit. D. using Zyban or similar drugs. Answer: C. changes in societal norms and attitudes toward the habit. 78. Approximately _____________% of high school students are active cigarette smokers by the time they graduate. A. 10 B. 15 C. 25 D. 35 Answer: C. 25 79. According to the World Health Organization, what percentage of the world's population will die as a result of smoking? A. 2% B. 5% C. 10% D. 20% Answer: C. 10% 80. Blythe takes the medication prescribed by her doctor. However, she takes an increased dose and combines the drug with other medications based on her past experience. Blythe is practicing: A. reactance. B. creative nonadherence. C. modified compliance. D. hardiness. Answer: B. creative nonadherence. 81. Linda was suffering from an eye infection. Her doctor prescribed her eye drops that she had to use 4 times a day and advised her to apply warm compresses 5 times every day. The doctor also asked her to avoid using eye makeup. However, Linda used the solution only once a day and rarely applied warm compresses to her eye. She also continued to use eye makeup. Linda is practicing: A. reactance. B. modified compliance. C. creative nonadherence. D. hardiness. Answer: C. creative nonadherence. 82. What proportion of patients cannot say how long they are supposed to continue a course of prescribed medication? A. 10% B. 20% C. 35% D. 50% Answer: D. 50% 83. What proportion of patients cannot state the purpose of the medication they are prescribed? A. 10% B. 25% C. 35% D. 50% Answer: B. 25% 84. Which of the following is TRUE of physicians' communication with their patients? A. There is no relation between the amount of physician-patient communication and the sex of a physician and patient. B. Overall, male primary care physicians provide more patient-centered communications than do female primary care physicians. C. Cultural values and expectations do not contribute to communication barriers between patients and their physicians as medical practices are similar across all cultures. D. Patient-physician communication difficulties can occur because the material that must be communicated is too technical for patients. Answer: D. Patient-physician communication difficulties can occur because the material that must be communicated is too technical for patients. 85. Which of the following is TRUE of physicians' communication with their patients? A. Patients often prefer an interview with questions of a technical nature. B. Patients often prefer opposite-sex physicians. C. Patients may be reluctant to volunteer information that might cast them in a bad light. D. Patients prefer physicians choosing specific treatment that they favor without consulting them. Answer: C. Patients may be reluctant to volunteer information that might cast them in a bad light. 86. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding male and female physicians' communication with their patients? A. Female physicians provide more patient-centered communication than do male physicians. B. Female physicians provide less patient-centered communication than do male physicians. C. Female and male physicians provide equivalent amounts of patient-centered communication. D. Male physicians provide more information regarding the diagnosis and the prescribed treatment than do their female counterparts. Answer: A. Female physicians provide more patient-centered communication than do male physicians. 87. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding patients' preference for male or female physicians? A. Patients prefer female physicians. B. Patients prefer male physicians. C. Patients prefer same-sex physicians. D. Patients prefer opposite-sex physicians. Answer: C. Patients prefer same-sex physicians. 88. Andrew was told by his physician that he would be able to control his diabetes if he controls his diet and avoids the use of sugar in his diet. Andrew was given a(n) _____________ framed health message by his physician. A. positively B. neutrally C. negatively D. ambiguously Answer: A. positively 89. The Surgeon General is developing new warning labels for cigarette packages. A certain label states, "Quitting smoking now will improve respiratory and cardiovascular health." Label A is a(n) _____________ framed health message. A. positively B. neutrally C. negatively D. ambiguously Answer: A. positively 90. Preventive health behavior is best motivated by _____________ framed messages; behavior leading to the detection of a disease is best motivated by _____________. A. negatively; positively framed messages B. positively; negatively framed messages C. negatively; negatively framed messages as well D. positively; positively framed messages as well Answer: B. positively; negatively framed messages 91. Which of the following messages is most likely to motivate the maintenance of an exercise program? A. "If you exercise, you'll feel more energetic and look more attractive." B. "If you don't exercise, you'll gain weight and feel sluggish." C. "If you sit at home all day without any exercise, you will become obese." D. "If you do not exercise, you will start looking ugly." Answer: A. "If you exercise, you'll feel more energetic and look more attractive." 92. "If you don't drink at least one full glass of water each day, you're going to get kidney stones," admonishes your friend. This is a(n) _____________ framed health message. A. negatively B. neutrally C. positively D. invasively Answer: A. negatively 93. Tim was told by his doctor that if he did not stop eating fast food, he will become diabetic and obese. This is an example of a(n) _____________ framed health message. A. neutrally B. positively C. ambiguously D. negatively Answer: D. negatively 94. Happy people: A. are realistic. B. are modest. C. hold moderately inflated views of themselves. D. hold greatly inflated views of themselves. Answer: C. hold moderately inflated views of themselves. 95. Which of the following is TRUE of happy people? A. Happy people see themselves as less intelligent. B. Happy people feel they are the pawns of others. C. Happy people enjoy more as they have a sense of control that is less firm. D. Happy people have high self-esteem. Answer: D. Happy people have high self-esteem. 96. Identify the correct statement relating to happy people. A. Men and women are always made happy by the same sorts of activities. B. Happy people like to be around other people. C. Happy people do not see themselves as more intelligent than the average person. D. Happy people enjoy more as they have a sense of control that is less firm. Answer: B. Happy people like to be around other people. 97. In relation to the gender differences in happiness, which of the following statements is most accurate? A. Men and women are generally made happy by same sorts of activities. B. Men and women are made happy by the same things. C. Men and women are made happy by few of the same things. D. Men and women are made happy by different things. Answer: A. Men and women are generally made happy by same sorts of activities. 98. Oliver is a happy person most of the time. Which of the following characteristics would be observed in Oliver? A. Emotional insulation B. Lethargy C. Defense mechanism D. Optimism Answer: D. Optimism 99. The level of subjective well-being is very stable because: A. people prefer very few changes in their lives. B. people are part of the same social system. C. people have a general set point for happiness. D. people have mundane life styles. Answer: C. people have a general set point for happiness. 100. Research shows that winning the lottery usually leads to: A. a long-term spike in happiness. B. an initial surge in happiness, followed by a slow return to previous levels. C. an initial surge in happiness, followed by a slide into deep depression. D. no change in happiness levels, even in the short-term. Answer: B. an initial surge in happiness, followed by a slow return to previous levels. 101. Dewey just won a million-dollar lottery jackpot. One year from now, he is likely to be: A. more ecstatic than he was before he won the lottery. B. about as broke as he was before he won the lottery. C. more depressed than he was before he won the lottery. D. about as happy as he was before he won the lottery. Answer: D. about as happy as he was before he won the lottery. 102. Overall, the set point for happiness is _____________ and it is determined: A. relatively high; at least partly by genetics B. rather low; at least partly by genetics C. relatively high; almost wholly by the environment D. rather low; almost wholly by the environment Answer: A. relatively high; at least partly by genetics 103. Most individuals in the United States would rate themselves as: A. unhappy. B. pretty happy. C. neither happy nor unhappy. D. either happy or unhappy, depending on the time of day. Answer: B. pretty happy. 104. Most people think that they are _____________ famous people like Oprah Winfrey. A. somewhat less happy than B. just as happy as C. happier than D. much less happy than Answer: C. happier than 105. Which of the following statements is TRUE about happiness? A. Men and women report being equally happy. B. African Americans are much less happy than whites. C. People in poor countries are much less happy than people are in the West. D. Countries that are not economically prosperous do not have happy residents. Answer: A. Men and women report being equally happy. 106. Identify the correct statement concerning the happiness of people. A. It is a universally accepted feature that money buys happiness for everybody. B. Men are generally happier than women across all cultures. C. The level of subjective well-being is highly unstable. D. Few differences exist between members of different demographic groups. Answer: D. Few differences exist between members of different demographic groups. 107. Which of the following is TRUE about happiness? A. Generally, money does not buy happiness. B. Countries that are not economically prosperous do not have happy residents. C. Women are generally happier than men across all cultures. D. There is no relation between people's set points and genetic factors. Answer: A. Generally, money does not buy happiness. Worksheet Questions 108. The branch of psychology that investigates the psychological factors related to wellness and illness, including the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of medical problems is called _____________ . Answer: health psychology 109. Events representing a threat to our well-being—like that calculus midterm next week—are called _____________ . Answer: stressors 110. Based on the categories of stressors, one would consider Hurricane Katrina in 2005 to be a(n) _____________ for the residents of New Orleans. Answer: cataclysmic event 111. When Nell prays at night, she tries to be grateful for the small positive experiences of the day no matter how mundane they may seem. Health psychologists call these gratifying day-to-day experiences _____________ . Answer: uplifts 112. Medical problems influenced by an interaction of psychological, emotional, and physical difficulties are called _____________ disorders. Answer: psychophysiological 113. The pioneering stress theorist _____________ proposed the general adaptation syndrome to describe the body's response to stressors. Answer: Hans Selye 114. The _____________ suggests that a person's response to a stressor consists of three stages: alarm and mobilization, resistance, and exhaustion. Answer: general adaptation syndrome 115. Bruce prays for the strength to remain calm, even-tempered, and flexible no matter what stressors he may encounter. Bruce is engaged in _____________ coping. Answer: emotion-focused 116. Jermaine remains impassive and emotionless in the face of both positive and negative events in his life. Jermaine appears to cope with stress through _____________ . Answer: emotional insulation 117. Kay seems to have given up; she believes she has no control over what happens, so she doesn't even try to deal with the stress. Kay seems dispirited and depressed. She is likely exhibiting _____________ . Answer: learned helplessness 118. Commitment, challenge, and control are the three Cs of _____________ . Answer: hardiness 119. Brandy is making sure she gets a full night's sleep tonight, so she'll be well-rested before her mother-in-law's visit—a visit which she believes will surely be trying. She is practicing _____________ coping. Answer: proactive 120. Joan is gentle, friendly, laid-back, and cooperative; she displays a(n) _____________ behavior pattern. Answer: Type B 121. The component of the Type A pattern linked to heart disease is _____________ . Answer: hostility 122. Hostility may trigger the release of such hormones as _____________ , which may ultimately elevate the risk of heart disease. Answer: epinephrine/norepinephrine 123. One in _____________ U.S. deaths is attributable to smoking cigarettes. Answer: five 124. Rosalynn takes 45 mg of Adderall each day rather than the 30 mg that was prescribed; she asserts that her Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is severe and that her semester is exceptionally demanding. Rosalynn is practicing _____________ . Answer: creative nonadherence 125. Prevention is to _____________ as positively framed health messages are to negatively framed health messages. Answer: detection 126. Chantal believes she is better at her job than she really is. Chantal's inflated view of her competence reflects what psychologists term a(n) _____________ . Answer: positive illusion 127. _____________ refers to one's overall evaluation of one's life in terms of both one's thoughts and feelings. Answer: Subjective well-being Essay Questions 128. Distinguish between cataclysmic events, personal stressors, and background stressors. Discuss the various effects on stress and well-being associated with these different types of events. Illustrate your answer with references to specific events you have experienced. Answer: Students' answers may vary. The answer should include the following points: Cataclysmic events: These are strong stressors that occur suddenly and affect many people at once. Disasters such as tornadoes and plane crashes as well as terrorist attacks are examples of cataclysmic events that can affect hundreds or thousands of people simultaneously. Although it might seem that cataclysmic events would produce potent, lingering stress, in many cases they do not. In fact, cataclysmic events involving natural disasters may produce less stress in the long run than events that initially are not as devastating. One reason is that natural disasters have a clear resolution. Once they are over, people can look to the future knowing that the worst is behind them. Moreover, others who also experienced the disaster share the stress induced by cataclysmic events. Such sharing permits people to offer one another social support and a firsthand understanding of the difficulties others are going through. Personal stressors: These are major life events, such as going off to college, losing a job, getting married, or experiencing the death of a family member. The stressors produce a major immediate reaction that soon tapers off. For example, stress arising from the death of a loved one tends to be greatest just after the time of death, but people begin to feel less stress and are better able to cope with the loss after the passage of time. Background stressors: Sometimes called daily hassles, these are the minor irritations of life that we all face all the time. Waiting in line at the supermarket is one example of a background stressor. These stressors do not usually require much in the way of coping, but the negative emotions associated with them tend to add up. The more hassles a person experiences, the more psychological and health problems they experience. In fact, the number of daily hassles people face is associated with psychological symptoms and health problems such as flu, sore throat, and backaches. Cataclysmic events are sudden and often large-scale occurrences like natural disasters, causing acute stress. Personal stressors are individual challenges such as job loss, contributing to ongoing stress. Background stressors are persistent factors like daily hassles, leading to chronic stress. For instance, experiencing a hurricane (cataclysmic), losing a job (personal), and dealing with traffic daily (background) can each affect stress levels and overall well-being differently. 129. Define and describe posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). What are its symptoms? Review the prevalence of PTSD among veterans of the Iraq wars and among New York City residents experiencing the 9/11 attacks. Answer: The answer should mention the following: PTSD is posttraumatic stress disorder subsequent to the experience of a traumatic event. PTSD may include vivid flashbacks or dreams in which the event is re-experienced. Emotional numbing, sleep difficulties, interpersonal problems, substance abuse, and even suicide are associated with PTSD. About 16% of soldiers returning from Iraq show symptoms of PTSD; 11% of New Yorkers had some form of PTSD in the months following the 9/11 attacks. An episode of PTSD may be triggered by an otherwise innocent stimulus, such as the sound of a honking horn, which leads a person to re-experience a past event that produced considerable stress. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition triggered by experiencing or witnessing a traumatic event. Symptoms include intrusive memories, avoidance of reminders, negative changes in mood and thinking, and increased arousal or reactivity. Among veterans of the Iraq wars, PTSD prevalence varies but can be significant due to combat exposure. Among New York City residents after 9/11, PTSD prevalence was around 20%, reflecting the profound impact of mass trauma events on mental health. 130. Describe the three phases of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS). Answer: The general adaptation syndrome has three phases: The first stage—alarm and mobilization—occurs when people become aware of the presence of a stressor. On a biological level, the sympathetic nervous system becomes energized, which helps a person cope initially with the stressor. However, if the stressor persists, people move into the second response stage: resistance. During this stage, the body is actively fighting the stressor on a biological level. During resistance, people use a variety of means to cope with the stressor—sometimes successfully but at a cost of some degree of physical or psychological well-being. For example, a student who faces the stress of failing several courses might spend long hours studying seeking to cope with the stress. If resistance is inadequate, people enter the last stage of the GAS: exhaustion. During the exhaustion stage, a person's ability to fight the stressor declines to the point where negative consequences of stress appear: physical illness and psychological symptoms in the form of an inability to concentrate, heightened irritability, or, in severe cases, disorientation and a loss of touch with reality. In a sense, people wear out, and their physiological resources to fight the stressor are used up. 131. Stress has many direct and indirect consequences resulting in potential declines. Identify two such effects. Select one of these effects and describe in as much detail as you can and how you would investigate it empirically using correlational or experimental research techniques. Answer: Focusing on the outcomes of stress, contemporary health psychologists have identified three main consequences of it. First, stress has direct physiological results, including an increase in blood pressure, an increase in hormonal activity, and an overall decline in the functioning of the immune system. Second, stress leads people to engage in behaviors that are harmful to their health, including increased nicotine, drug, and alcohol use; poor eating habits; and decreased sleep. Finally, stress produces indirect consequences that result in declines in health: a reduction in the likelihood of obtaining health care and decreased compliance with medical advice when it is sought. For example, high levels of stress reduce the likelihood a person will seek health care. 132. Define emotion-focused, problem-focused, avoidant, and proactive coping. Briefly describe your responses to two stressors this past year; classify your responses as one of the coping types mentioned above. Answer: Students' answers may vary. The answer should contain the following ideas: Emotion-focused coping—attempts to manage one's emotions in the face of stress, such as trying to look at the bright side of a problem, accepting sympathy from others, and so on. Problem-focused coping—attempts to modify the stressor itself, such as seeking tutoring for a difficult required class. Problem-focused strategies lead to changes in behavior or to the development of a plan of action to deal with stress. In addition, one might take a time-out from stress by creating positive events. For example, taking a day off from caring for a relative with a serious, chronic illness to go a health club or spa can bring significant relief from stress. Avoidant coping—In avoidant coping, a person may use wishful thinking or escapist tactics such as substance use. Getting drunk after a bad fight with a friend is one example. Avoidant coping usually results in a postponement of dealing with a stressful situation, and this often makes the problem even worse. Proactive coping—Proactive coping includes anticipating and preparing for stress before it happens. Following these definitions, students should correctly classify their responses to two different stressors. Following a low test grade, for example, one student might binge drink, an example of avoidant coping. Facing an anxiety-provoking oral presentation, a student might practice the speech again and again ahead of time to make the presentation easier, an example of proactive coping. Emotion-focused coping involves managing emotions related to stress, while problem-focused coping targets the stressor itself. Avoidant coping involves ignoring or avoiding stressors, and proactive coping is preemptively addressing potential stressors. In response to a work deadline, I used problem-focused coping by breaking tasks into manageable parts. During a family conflict, I employed emotion-focused coping by talking to friends for emotional support. 133. Write a note on coping stress through social support. Answer: Our relationships with others can help us cope with stress. Researchers have found that social support, the knowledge that we are part of a mutual network of caring, interested others, enables us to experience lower levels of stress and better cope with the stress we do undergo. The social and emotional support people provide each other helps in dealing with stress in several ways. For instance, such support demonstrates that a person is an important and valued member of a social network. Similarly, other people can provide information and advice about appropriate ways of dealing with stress. Finally, people who are part of a social support network can provide actual goods and services to help others in stressful situations. For instance, they can supply temporary living quarters to a person whose house has burned down, or they can offer study help to a student who is experiencing stress because of poor academic performance. Findings that attendance at religious services (as well as spirituality in general) provides health-related benefits also illustrate the importance of social support. For example, healthy people who regularly attend religious services live longer than those who do not attend regularly. 134. Describe the hardy personality and define resilience. Explain how hardiness and resilience help individuals cope with stress and potentially reduce the likelihood of stress-related illness. Answer: The answer should include the following points: The hardy personality: Hardiness consists of three components: commitment, or the tendency to immerse oneself fully in one's activities, believing that what one is doing is important and meaningful; challenge, or the tendency to view change as an opportunity rather than a threat; and control, the sense that one can influence the events in one's life. Hardiness helps one cope with stress because it is associated with optimism and the tendency to take direct action when dealing with stressors. Resilience: the ability to withstand, overcome, and actually thrive after profound adversity. Resilient people are generally easygoing and independent. They usually have good social skills. Like hardiness, it serves as a buffer against the effects of stress because it is associated with a perception of control over one's life. Hardy personality traits include commitment, control, and challenge, fostering resilience against stress. Resilience is the ability to bounce back from adversity and adapt positively. Hardy individuals perceive stress as a challenge rather than a threat, maintain a sense of control, and commit to meaningful activities, reducing stress-related illness through proactive coping strategies and maintaining psychological well-being despite adversity. 135. Describe hypothetical individuals displaying Type A, Type B, and Type D behavior patterns. Discuss the association of Type A and Type D behavior patterns with negative health consequences. Answer: Students' answers may vary. The answer should be similar to the following: Type A: Keira is always in a hurry. She is impatient, hates waiting in line, and is always trying desperately to multitask so that she can get more done. She tends to be somewhat hostile and gets angry easily. Type B: Tristan goes with the flow. He is more a team player than a loner. He is friendly, pleasant, and cooperative; he rarely gets stressed about anything. Type D: Dominic tends to be pessimistic. He is always worried and tied up in knots about one thing or another. He is insecure and anxious. Men with the Type A pattern are twice as likely as Type B men to develop coronary heart disease, and they suffer more fatal heart attacks than do Type B men. The hostility component of the Type A pattern is mainly responsible for the link with heart diseases. Hostility appears to produce excessive arousal in stressful situations, increasing production of epinephrine and norepinephrine, which increases heart rate and blood pressure. The Type D pattern, characterized by neuroticism, appears to be linked to the risk for repeated heart attacks. Hardy individuals exhibit commitment to their goals and values, maintain a sense of control over their circumstances, and view challenges as opportunities for growth rather than overwhelming obstacles. This mindset fosters resilience by enabling them to adapt effectively to stressors, reducing the negative impact on mental and physical health. Overall, hardiness supports psychological well-being and helps individuals navigate adversity with greater ease and effectiveness. 136. Explain the psychological aspects of cancer. Answer: Most people think of cancer in terms of lingering pain, and being diagnosed with the disease is typically viewed as receiving a death sentence. Certain cells in the body become altered and multiply rapidly in an uncontrolled fashion. As those cells grow, they form tumors; if left unchecked, the tumors suck nutrients from healthy cells and body tissue and ultimately destroy the body's ability to function properly. Although the processes involved in the spread of cancer are basically physiological, some research suggests that the emotional responses of cancer patients to their disease may affect its course. For example, some findings show that a "fighting spirit" leads to better coping. On the other hand, there is little evidence that long-term survival rates are better than for patients with a less positive attitude. Despite conflicting evidence, health psychologists believe that patients' emotions may at least partially determine the course of their disease. In the case of cancer, it is possible that positive emotional responses may help generate specialized "killer" cells that help control the size and spread of cancerous tumors. Conversely, negative emotions may suppress the ability of those cells to fight tumors. It is clear that certain types of psychological therapy have the potential for improving quality of life and even extending the lives of cancer patients. For example, the results of one study showed that women with breast cancer who received psychological treatment lived at least a year and a half longer and experienced less anxiety and pain than women who did not participate in therapy. 137. Why do people smoke? Explain. Answer: The answer should mention the following points: Heredity seems to determine, in part, whether people will become smokers, how much they will smoke, and how easily they can quit. Genetics also influences how susceptible people are to the harmful effects of smoking. However, although genetics plays a role in smoking, most research suggests that environmental factors are the primary cause of the habit. Smoking at first may be seen as "cool" or sophisticated, as a rebellious act, or as facilitating calm performance in stressful situations. Greater exposure to smoking in media such as film also leads to a higher risk of becoming an established smoker. In addition, smoking a cigarette is sometimes viewed as a "rite of passage" for adolescents undertaken at the urging of friends and viewed as a sign of growing up. Ultimately, smoking becomes a habit. And it’s an easy habit to pick up: Smoking even a single cigarette leads to a smoker finding that not smoking requires an effort or involves discomfort. Subsequently, people begin to label themselves smokers, and smoking becomes part of how they view themselves. Moreover, they become dependent physiologically because nicotine, a primary ingredient of tobacco, is highly addictive. A complex relationship develops among smoking, nicotine levels, and a smoker’s emotions in which a certain nicotine level becomes associated with a positive emotional state. As a result, people smoke in an effort to regulate both emotional states and nicotine levels in the blood. People smoke for various reasons, including social influences, stress relief, habituation, and nicotine addiction. Social factors like peer pressure and cultural norms can encourage smoking behavior. Nicotine, a highly addictive substance in cigarettes, contributes to continued smoking due to its rewarding effects and withdrawal symptoms when absent. Additionally, some individuals perceive smoking as a coping mechanism for stress and anxiety, despite its detrimental health effects. 138. Describe some of the effective tools for ending the habit of smoking. Answer: Among the most effective tools for ending the smoking habit are drugs that replace the nicotine found in cigarettes. Whether in the form of gum, patches, nasal sprays, or inhalers, these products provide a dose of nicotine that reduces dependence on cigarettes. Another approach is exemplified by the drugs Zyban and Chantix; rather than replacing nicotine, they reduce the pleasure from smoking and suppress withdrawal symptoms that smokers experience when they try to stop. Behavioral strategies, which view smoking as a learned habit and concentrate on changing the smoking response, can also be effective. Initial "cure" rates of 60% have been reported, and one year after treatment more than half of those who quit have not resumed smoking. Individual or group counseling also increases the rate of success in breaking the habit. The best treatment seems to be a combination of nicotine replacement and counseling. In the long term, the most effective means of reducing smoking may be changes in societal norms and attitudes toward the habit. For instance, many cities and towns have made smoking in public places illegal; legislation based on strong popular sentiment that bans smoking in places such as college classrooms and buildings is being passed with increasing frequency. In addition, smokers are more likely to quit when their friends are quitting, so the social support of others quitting is helpful. 139. Discuss some of the barriers to communication between health-care practitioners and their clients. Review some of the strategies clients might adopt to improve communication with health-care practitioners. The answer should mention several of the following impediments to effective communication between health-care practitioners and their clients: • Physicians make assumptions about what patients prefer. • Physicians push specific courses of treatment. • The prestige of physicians may intimidate patients. • Patients may be reluctant to volunteer information. • Physicians may have trouble encouraging patients to provide information. • Physicians may favor a technical discussion, whereas patients rely on a more personal one. • The information may be too technical for patients. The text recommends several strategies to improve communication with a health-care provider: • Make a list of health-related concerns before the visit. • Write the names and dosages of all medications before the visit. • Consider taking along an advocate - a friend or relative - who can help you communicate more effectively. • Determine if the health-care provider will communicate with you via e-mail. Barriers to communication between health-care practitioners and clients can include language barriers, lack of cultural competence, time constraints, and differing levels of health literacy. Clients can improve communication by preparing questions before appointments, actively listening to practitioners, asking for clarification when needed, and providing accurate information about their symptoms and concerns. Building a trusting relationship with their practitioner and advocating for their health needs can also enhance communication and improve overall care outcomes. 140. Distinguish between positively and negatively framed health messages. Illustrate with hypothetical health messages as examples. When is each type of message most appropriate? Answer: Students’ examples may vary. The answer should contain the following elements: Positively framed health messages suggest that a change in behavior will lead to a gain; they emphasize the benefits of a health-related behavior. One example might be a cigarette package warning stating that "Quitting smoking now can extend your life expectancy." Negatively framed health messages indicate what you can lose by failing to perform a health-related behavior. One example might be a cigarette package warning stating that "Continuing to smoke greatly increases the risk of emphysema." Positively framed messages are most appropriate for motivating preventive health behavior; negatively framed messages are most effective in producing behavior that will lead to the detection of a disease. Positively framed health messages emphasize the benefits of adopting healthy behaviors. For example, "Eating fruits and vegetables daily boosts your immune system." These messages are effective when promoting preventive behaviors or encouraging compliance with health recommendations. Negatively framed health messages highlight the consequences of failing to adopt healthy behaviors. For instance, "Not wearing sunscreen increases your risk of skin cancer." These messages are suitable when aiming to deter risky behaviors or prompt immediate action to prevent harm. The effectiveness of each type often depends on the specific behavior and the target audience's preferences and motivations. 141. Describe some of the typical characteristics of happy people. Answer: Happy people have high self-esteem. Particularly in Western cultures, which emphasize the importance of individuality, people who are happy like themselves. They often hold positive illusions or moderately inflated views of themselves as good, competent, and desirable. Happy people have a firm sense of control: They feel more in control of events in their lives, unlike those who feel they are the pawns of others and who experience learned helplessness. Happy individuals are optimistic: Their optimism permits them to persevere at tasks and ultimately to achieve more. In addition, their health is better. Men and women generally are made happy by the same sorts of activities—but not always. Most of the time, adult men and women achieve the same level of happiness from the same things, such as hanging out with friends. But there are some differences. Happy people like to be around other people: They tend to be extroverted and have a supportive network of close relationships. 142. How happy are you? Evaluate your answer in light of the characteristics of happy people, the general level of happiness in the United States, and the influence of material prosperity on happiness. Answer: Students' answers may vary. The majority of students should answer that they are moderately happy, happy, or very happy. They should indicate that this is consistent with their high self-esteem and general sense of control over their lives. Students should respond that like other happy people, they feel optimistic and enjoy being around other people. They should mention that their level of happiness is typical of Americans, most of whom report being at least moderately happy. Answers should indicate that material prosperity has little effect on happiness. Assessing personal happiness involves considering factors such as positive relationships, engagement in meaningful activities, and a sense of purpose. In the United States, average happiness levels are moderate, influenced by socio-economic factors but also by social connections and mental well-being. Material prosperity alone does not guarantee happiness; rather, it contributes modestly to overall life satisfaction when combined with other fulfilling aspects of life. Test Bank for Essentials of Understanding Psychology Robert S. Feldman 9780077861889, 9781259255786, 9781260829013

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