Preview (12 of 37 pages)

Preview Extract

Chapter 10 Personality Multiple Choice Questions 1. _____________ refers to the pattern of enduring characteristics that produce consistency and individuality in a given person. A. Personality B. Maturation C. Development D. Cognition Answer: A. Personality 2. Ashworth is interested in the pattern of enduring characteristics of people that produce consistency and individuality in them. Ashworth is interested in people's _____________. A. personality B. perception C. emotions D. cognitive growth Answer: A. personality 3. _____________ approaches to personality are approaches that assume that personality is motivated by inner forces and conflicts about which people have little awareness and over which they have no control. A. Humanistic B. Behavioral C. Evolutionary D. Psychodynamic Answer: D. Psychodynamic 4. Dr. Chase believes that one's personality largely reflects inner forces over which one has no control. Dr. Chase appears to take a(n) _____________ approach to personality. A. humanistic B. behavioral C. psychodynamic D. evolutionary Answer: C. psychodynamic 5. Which of the following psychologists is NOT aligned with the psychodynamic perspective on personality? A. Carl Jung B. Alfred Adler C. Karen Horney D. B. F. Skinner Answer: D. B. F. Skinner 6. According to Freud's theory, _____________ is only a small part of our psychological makeup and experience. A. unconscious conflict B. preconscious process C. conscious experience D. instinctual drive Answer: C. conscious experience 7. According to Freud, much of our behavior is motivated by: A. the unconscious. B. semiconscious processes. C. conscious experiences. D. the subconscious mind. Answer: A. the unconscious. 8. The _____________ is the part of the personality that contains the memories, knowledge, beliefs, feelings, urges, drives, and instincts of which the individual is not aware. A. semiconscious B. conscious C. subconscious D. unconscious Answer: D. unconscious 9. In the view of psychoanalytic psychologists, why do dreams, fantasies, and slips of the tongue offer important data? A. Dreams, fantasies, and slips of the tongue offer clues to the contents of the conscious mind. B. Dreams, fantasies, and slips of the tongue allow us to observe the contents of the unconscious mind directly. C. Dreams, fantasies, and slips of the tongue allow us to observe the contents of the preconscious mind directly. D. Dreams, fantasies, and slips of the tongue offer clues to the contents of the unconscious mind. Answer: D. Dreams, fantasies, and slips of the tongue offer clues to the contents of the unconscious mind. 10. To Freud, much of our personality is determined by the _____________. A. unconscious B. semiconscious C. conscious D. subconscious Answer: A. unconscious 11. Which of the following alternatives best expresses the relationship between the preconscious and the unconscious in Freud's theory? A. The preconscious contains the most threatening material in the unconscious mind. B. The preconscious is the largest portion of the unconscious mind. C. The preconscious is a small portion of the unconscious mind. D. The preconscious mind is separate from the unconscious mind. Answer: C. The preconscious is a small portion of the unconscious mind. 12. The _____________ contains material that is not threatening and is easily brought to mind, such as the knowledge that 2 + 2 = 4. A. preconscious B. semiconscious C. conscious D. subconscious Answer: A. preconscious 13. The _____________ provides a "safe haven" for our recollections of threatening events. A. semi-conscious B. unconscious C. conscious D. subconscious Answer: B. unconscious 14. Which of the following statements best describes the nature of the id, ego, and superego in Freud's psychoanalytic theory? A. The id, ego, and superego correspond to specific structures in the brain. B. The id, ego, and superego are abstract conceptions of a general model of personality and do not correspond to physical parts of the brain. C. The id, ego, and superego correspond to broad, distributed networks of structures in the brain. D. The id, ego, and superego relate to specific structures in the unconscious, preconscious, and conscious parts of the mind. Answer: B. The id, ego, and superego are abstract conceptions of a general model of personality and do not correspond to physical parts of the brain. 15. The _____________ is the raw, unorganized, inborn part of personality whose sole purpose is to reduce tension created by primitive drives related to hunger, sex, aggression, and irrational impulses. A. ego B. id C. superego D. conscience Answer: B. id 16. Which of Freud's personality structures is correctly described? A. The ego represents the rights and wrongs of society. B. The id consists of primitive and instinctual urges. C. The superego is the raw and inborn part of personality. D. The id balances inner desires with the demands of the outside world. Answer: B. The id consists of primitive and instinctual urges. 17. The id operates according to the _____________ principle in which the goal is the immediate reduction of tension and the maximization of satisfaction. A. pleasure B. reciprocity C. attitude D. reality Answer: A. pleasure 18. Which of Freud's personality structures is correctly matched with a descriptive term? A. Id—pleasure principle B. Ego—conscience C. Superego—reality principle D. Ego—psychic energy Answer: A. Id—pleasure principle 19. The _____________ is the part of the personality that provides a buffer between the id and the outside world. A. ego B. alter ego C. superego D. conscience Answer: A. ego 20. The ego operates according to the _____________ principle in which instinctual energy is restrained to maintain the individual's safety and to help integrate the person into society. A. pleasure B. reciprocity C. attitude D. reality Answer: D. reality 21. Which of the following components of personality is related to the reality principle? A. Ego B. Id C. Superego D. Conscience Answer: A. Ego 22. Which of the following sequences best reflects the order in which Freud's personality structures develop during infancy and childhood, from first to last? A. Superego → ego → id B. Id → superego → ego C. Id → ego → superego D. Superego → id → ego Answer: C. Id → ego → superego 23. The _____________ is the final personality structure to develop in childhood that represents the rights and wrongs of society as taught and modeled by a person's parents, teachers, and other significant individuals. A. ego B. alter ego C. superego D. id Answer: C. superego 24. The _____________ includes the conscience, which prevents us from behaving in a morally improper way by making us feel guilty if we do wrong. A. ego B. alter ego C. superego D. id Answer: C. superego 25. What do the id and the superego have in common? A. They both reflect society's rules and constraints. B. They are both unrealistic. C. They are both motivated by primitive drives. D. They are direct opposites. Answer: B. They are both unrealistic. 26. Developmental periods that children pass through during which they encounter conflicts between the demands of society and their own sexual urges are known as _____________ stages. A. psychosexual B. behavioral C. cognitive D. socio-cultural Answer: A. psychosexual 27. In Freud's theory, concerns that persist beyond the developmental period in which they first occur are termed: A. fixations. B. defense mechanisms. C. complexes. D. conflicts. Answer: A. fixations. 28. Which of the following sequences indicates the order of the first three stages in Freud's theory of psychosexual development, from first to last? A. Oral → phallic → anal B. Anal → oral → phallic C. Anal → phallic → oral D. Oral → anal → phallic Answer: D. Oral → anal → phallic 29. According to Freud, the _____________ stage is a stage from birth to age 12 to 18 months in which an infant's center of pleasure is the mouth. A. oral B. phallic C. anal D. genital Answer: A. oral 30. Which of the following stages of psychosexual development is correctly matched with a key task or term? A. Oral—weaning B. Anal—Oedipal conflict C. Phallic—toilet training D. Genital—identification Answer: A. Oral—weaning 31. Which of the following stages of psychosexual development is correctly matched with an age range? A. Oral - 3–6 years B. Phallic - 0–1 years C. Anal - 1–3 years D. Genital - 6–12 years Answer: C. Anal - 1–3 years 32. From around age 12 to 18 months until 3 years of age—a period when the emphasis in Western cultures is on toilet training—a child enters the _____________ stage. A. oral B. phallic C. anal D. genital Answer: C. anal 33. According to Freud, a period beginning around age 3 during which a child's pleasure focuses on the genitals is known as the _____________ stage. A. oral B. phallic C. anal D. genital Answer: B. phallic 34. According to Freud, the developing child must negotiate the Oedipal conflict during _____________ stage of psychosexual development. A. oral B. genital C. anal D. phallic Answer: D. phallic 35. Young children resolve the Oedipus conflict by wanting to be as much like the same-sex parent as possible, a process termed: A. identification. B. projection. C. reflection. D. sublimation. Answer: A. identification. 36. _____________ is the process of wanting to be like another person as much as possible, imitating that person's behavior and adopting similar beliefs and values. A. Identification B. Projection C. Reflection D. Sublimation Answer: A. Identification 37. After the resolution of the Oedipal conflict, typically around age 5 or 6, children move into the _____________ period, which lasts until puberty. A. oral B. genital C. anal D. latency Answer: D. latency 38. According to Freud, the _____________ stage is the period from puberty until death, marked by mature sexual behavior (that is, sexual intercourse). A. oral B. genital C. anal D. phallic Answer: B. genital 39. In Freud's theory of psychosexual development, mature adult sexuality develops during the: A. latency period. B. genital stage. C. phallic stage. D. oral stage. Answer: B. genital stage. 40. Which component of the personality uses defense mechanisms, and why? A. The id uses defense mechanisms to express its impulses. B. The superego uses defense mechanisms to help the id express its impulses. C. The superego uses defense mechanisms to help the individual conform to society. D. The ego uses defense mechanisms to prevent excessive anxiety. Answer: D. The ego uses defense mechanisms to prevent excessive anxiety. 41. In order to protect herself from experiencing anxiety, Nancy is attributing her own unacceptable aggressive impulses to another individual. Nancy is using a(n): A. self-actualization principle. B. fixation process. C. defense mechanism. D. preconscious process. Answer: C. defense mechanism. 42. Probably the most primary of the defense mechanisms is that of: A. denial. B. repression. C. projection. D. sublimation. Answer: B. repression. 43. _____________ is the primary defense mechanism in which unacceptable or unpleasant id impulses are pushed back into the unconscious. A. Denial B. Repression C. Projection D. Sublimation Answer: B. Repression 44. The study of defense mechanisms is associated not only with Sigmund Freud but also with: A. Bertha Pappenheim. B. Alfred Adler. C. David Buss. D. Anna Freud. Answer: D. Anna Freud. 45. When regression is used as a defense mechanism people, _____________. A. divert unwanted impulses into socially approved thoughts, feelings, or behaviors B. behave as if they were at an earlier stage of development C. provide self-justifying explanations in place of the actual, but threatening, reason for their behavior D. attribute unwanted impulses and feelings to someone else Answer: B. behave as if they were at an earlier stage of development 46. In order to protect herself from unconscious anxiety, Susie convinces herself that she hates action movies, whereas on an unconscious level she actually loves them. This illustrates the defense mechanism known as: A. repression. B. reaction formation. C. projection. D. rationalization. Answer: B. reaction formation. 47. Which defense mechanism is correctly matched with a definition? A. Displacement—an unwanted feeling is redirected from a threatening individual to a less threatening one B. Reaction formation—unacceptable impulses are channeled into socially acceptable activities C. Projection—unacceptable impulses are expressed as their opposites D. Sublimation—unacceptable impulses are attributed to another person Answer: A. Displacement—an unwanted feeling is redirected from a threatening individual to a less threatening one 48. Read the following: (1) Liz has become more responsive to her partner's advances since a really beautiful woman moved in next door; (2) Unable to accept his desire for other young men, 15-year-old Juan immerses himself into his studies; (3) Shauntel tells people that her coworker Mary dislikes her; though if she were honest, Shauntel would realize that it is actually she who dislikes Mary; (4) "Ben's nasty; he's disgusting," says Renee; but Renee secretly finds Ben attractive. Which individual is correctly matched with the defense mechanism he or she is using? A. Liz—projection B. Juan—sublimation C. Shauntel—repression D. Renee—displacement Answer: B. Juan—sublimation 49. Which of the following defense mechanisms is used when people provide self-justifying explanations in place of the actual, but threatening, reason for their behavior? A. Rationalization B. Reaction formation C. Projection D. Sublimation Answer: A. Rationalization 50. Which of the following Freudian notions appears to have been supported in current research? A. Unconscious processes contribute to dreams and implicit memory. B. Much of our behavior reflects an attempt to guard against unacceptable sexual and aggressive impulses. C. Adult personality reflects fixation at particular childhood psychosexual development. D. None of these ideas have received much empirical support. Answer: A. Unconscious processes contribute to dreams and implicit memory. 51. How do neo-Freudians' thought differ from Freud's original theory? A. The neo-Freudians placed even more emphasis on sex than did Freud himself. B. The neo-Freudians tended to emphasize the importance of the ego rather than that of the id. C. The neo-Freudians paid less attention to cultural influences on behavior. D. The neo-Freudians focused less on the social environment. Answer: B. The neo-Freudians tended to emphasize the importance of the ego rather than that of the id. 52. Which of the following is NOT one of the neo-Freudian psychoanalysts? A. Alfred Adler B. Raymond Cattell C. Carl Jung D. Erik Erikson Answer: B. Raymond Cattell 53. Which neo-Freudian psychoanalytic theorist is correctly matched with a key concept? A. Carl Rogers; inferiority complex psychology B. Alfred Adler; unconditional positive regard C. Karen Horney; archetype D. Carl Jung; collective unconscious Answer: D. Carl Jung; collective unconscious 54. According to Carl Jung, _____________ are universal symbolic representations of a particular person, object, or experience (such as good and evil). A. prototypes B. archetypes C. stereotypes D. subtypes Answer: B. archetypes 55. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is a personality assessment widely used in business, industry, and education. Ultimately, it stems from _____________ theory. A. Sigmund Freud's B. Carl Jung's C. Alfred Adler's D. Erik Erikson's Answer: B. Carl Jung's 56. _____________ is often considered the first feminist psychologist. A. Karen Horney B. Mary Calkins C. Bertha Pappenheim D. Anna Freud Answer: A. Karen Horney 57. Karen Horney's conceptualizations were developed in the: A. 1920s. B. 1930s and 1940s. C. 1950s. D. 1960s and 1970s. Answer: B. 1930s and 1940s. 58. According to Adler, parents can facilitate their children's development by: A. helping them overcome feelings of personal inferiority. B. helping them master key tasks like weaning and toilet training. C. providing consistently and adequately for their needs. D. helping them master key tasks like weaning and toilet training. Answer: A. helping them overcome feelings of personal inferiority. 59. Dr. Montgomery, a personality theorist, seeks to identify the basic attributes necessary to describe personality and consistencies in individuals' behavior. Dr. Montgomery is a(n) _____________ theorist. A. trait B. psychosexual C. humanistic D. cognitive Answer: A. trait 60. Which of the following sequences correctly arranges Gordon Allport's trait categories from the most specific to the broadest? A. Secondary → central → cardinal B. Secondary → cardinal → central C. Cardinal → secondary → central D. Cardinal → central → secondary Answer: A. Secondary → central → cardinal 61. A _____________ trait is a single characteristic that directs most of a person's activities. A. secondary B. central C. primary D. cardinal Answer: D. cardinal 62. In Gordon Allport's view, how many central traits do most people possess? A. 5 to 10 B. 20 to 25 C. 0 or 1 D. Dozens Answer: A. 5 to 10 63. An all-consuming need for power is sometimes known as Machiavellianism. Because the trait is named in his honor, it would be reasonable to suppose that the need for power was a(n) _____________ trait for the Italian prince. A. secondary B. auxiliary C. peripheral D. cardinal Answer: D. cardinal 64. _____________ traits are characteristics that affect behavior in fewer situations and are less influential than other traits. A. Secondary B. Central C. Primary D. Cardinal Answer: A. Secondary 65. A graduate student is using a statistical method of identifying associations among a large number of variables to reveal more general patterns. She is performing a _____________ analysis. A. trend B. matrix C. factor D. correlation Answer: C. factor 66. Which trait theorist is correctly matched with the number of basic personality dimensions proposed in his theory? A. Gordon Allport; 16 B. Raymond Cattell; 5 C. Hans Eysenck; 3 D. Raymond Cattell; 10 Answer: C. Hans Eysenck; 3 67. Which of the following is NOT one of Hans Eysenck's major personality dimensions? A. Extraversion B. Agreeableness C. Neuroticism D. Psychoticism Answer: B. Agreeableness 68. Which of the following phrases is correctly labeled with one of Hans Eysenck's major personality dimensions? A. Distorted reality — psychoticism B. Degree of sociability — openness C. Emotional stability — conscientiousness D. Distorted reality — neuroticism Answer: A. Distorted reality — psychoticism 69. Which of the following is NOT one of the "Big Five" personality dimensions? A. Extraversion B. Openness to experience C. Neuroticism D. Psychoticism Answer: D. Psychoticism 70. Which of the following specific traits is correctly paired with a description in terms of the Big Five dimensions? A. Kind — high extraversion B. Impulsive — low conscientiousness C. Calm — high agreeableness D. Imaginative — high openness Answer: D. Imaginative — high openness 71. Garner is imaginative, independent, and prefers variety. Brandy is conventional, down-to-earth, and has limited interests. It is likely that Garner scores high, while Brandy scores low on the Big Five personality dimension of: A. neuroticism. B. openness. C. extraversion. D. agreeableness. Answer: B. openness. 72. Pearl is kind, cooperative, appreciative, and sympathetic. Ruby is outgoing, talkative, fun-loving, and sociable. Pearl probably scores high on the Big Five dimension of _____________, whereas Ruby likely scores high on _____________. A. openness; agreeableness B. eagerness; cheerfulness C. agreeableness; extraversion D. extraversion; openness Answer: C. agreeableness; extraversion 73. Carlos is emotionally unstable, insecure, anxious, and moody. Quinn is disorganized, careless, and impulsive. Johann is quiet, serious, and rather timid. Finally, Kristy is imaginative, independent, and fond of variety. Which of these individuals is correctly matched with a Big Five personality description? A. Quinn — low conscientiousness B. Carlos — low openness C. Kristy — high extraversion D. Johann — high agreeableness Answer: A. Quinn — low conscientiousness 74. Which of the following alternatives incorrectly identifies an advantage or disadvantage of the trait approach to personality? A. Con: Trait approaches are merely descriptions of personality, not explanations. B. Con: Trait approaches do not facilitate the objective comparison of one person with another. C. Pro: Trait approaches have led to many useful personality assessment inventories. D. Pro: Trait approaches provide a clear, straightforward explanation of people's behavioral consistencies. Answer: B. Con: Trait approaches do not facilitate the objective comparison of one person with another. 75. Dr. Plater believes that personality is simply the sum of learned responses that have been reinforced by various situations. Dr. Plater endorses the _____________ approach to personality. A. trait B. learning C. cognitive D. psychodynamic Answer: B. learning 76. One of the main proponents of the social cognitive approach to personality is: A. Gordon Allport. B. B.F. Skinner. C. Raymond Cattell. D. Albert Bandura. Answer: D. Albert Bandura. 77. Which approach to personality emphasizes the role played by self-efficacy? A. Bandura's social cognitive approach B. Skinner's behaviorist approach C. Gordon Allport's trait theory D. Rogers's humanistic theory Answer: A. Bandura's social cognitive approach 78. _____________ is the belief that we have the personal capabilities to master a situation and produce positive outcomes. A. Self-efficacy B. Self-regulation C. Self-esteem D. Self-actualization Answer: A. Self-efficacy 79. Rhiannon is confident she can complete a difficult problem set in one of her engineering courses. Rhiannon has high _____________. A. self-esteem B. self-efficacy C. self-actualization D. self-awareness Answer: B. self-efficacy 80. Mrs. Linley is a middle school math teacher. She provides constant, consistent feedback on her students' math assignments. She wants her students to have faith in their abilities to produce positive outcomes. Mrs. Linley is trying to develop her students': A. self-awareness. B. self-regulation. C. self-efficacy. D. self-actualization. Answer: C. self-efficacy. 81. _____________ is the component of personality that encompasses our positive and negative self-evaluations. A. Self-regulation B. Self- esteem C. Self-actualization D. Self-awareness Answer: B. Self- esteem 82. Which of the following statements is TRUE about self-esteem? A. An individual's sense of self-esteem is one dimensional. B. Self-esteem is strongly affected by culture. C. Self-esteem is pretty much the same concept in every culture. D. Self-esteem underlies people's faith in their ability to carry out a specific task or produce a desired result. Answer: B. Self-esteem is strongly affected by culture. 83. Which of the following statements does NOT reflect a contribution of the learning approach to personality? A. Such approaches have increased the objectivity of personality psychology. B. Such approaches have generated a range of successful treatments for psychological disorders. C. Such approaches have increased our appreciation of individuals' complex inner lives. D. Learning approaches have had a major impact on the study of personality. Answer: C. Such approaches have increased our appreciation of individuals' complex inner lives. 84. _____________ approaches to personality are theories that suggest that important components of personality are inherited. A. Biological and evolutionary B. Trait and learning C. Humanistic and trait D. Learning and evolutionary Answer: A. Biological and evolutionary 85. Tellegen's twin studies of the genetic basis of personality revealed that the trait of _____________ has a larger genetic component than does the trait of _____________. A. traditionalism; need for achievement B. need for achievement; traditionalism C. social potency; social closeness D. social closeness; traditionalism Answer: C. social potency; social closeness 86. The inborn behavioral style and characteristic way of responding that emerges early in life is known as: A. outlook. B. attachment style. C. trait. D. temperament. Answer: D. temperament. 87. Baby Celeste is busy, active, and sleeps fitfully; her sister, by contrast, was calm and placid as a baby. This vignette illustrates differences in: A. outlook. B. intelligence. C. temperament. D. attachment style. Answer: C. temperament. 88. Studies of the potential genetic basis of personality have identified a gene that may contribute to differences between people in the trait of: A. thrill-seeking. B. conscientiousness. C. intuitiveness. D. aggressiveness. Answer: A. thrill-seeking. 89. The neurotransmitter most closely related to individual differences in thrill- or sensation-seeking is: A. norepinephrine. B. serotonin. C. acetylcholine. D. dopamine. Answer: D. dopamine. 90. _____________ approaches to personality emphasize people's inherent goodness and their tendency to move toward higher levels of functioning. A. Evolutionary B. Humanistic C. Learning D. Biological Answer: B. Humanistic 91. Which approach to personality takes the most optimistic view of people's nature—that individuals are essentially "good"? A. Evolutionary B. Humanistic C. Learning D. Biological Answer: B. Humanistic 92. _____________ is a prominent psychologist associated with the humanistic perspective. A. Albert Bandura B. B. F. Skinner C. Carl Rogers D. Sigmund Freud Answer: C. Carl Rogers 93. Humanistic psychologists suggest that people are consciously motivated to reach their maximum potential, each in a unique way; that is, people have a fundamental drive toward: A. self-regulation. B. self-esteem. C. self-actualization. D. self-efficacy. Answer: C. self-actualization. 94. According to Carl Rogers, people experience anxiety when: A. they feel inferior in the face of a challenging task. B. they become conscious of unacceptable sexual urges. C. they cannot satisfy their basic needs. D. their self-concept is at odds with their experience. Answer: D. their self-concept is at odds with their experience. 95. Humanistic approaches in psychology have been most influential in: A. business. B. academia. C. therapeutic settings. D. social service. Answer: C. therapeutic settings. 96. Which of the following approaches to personality is least likely to emphasize the stability of personality? A. Learning B. Psychodynamic C. Trait D. Biological/evolutionary Answer: A. Learning 97. Proponents of which of the following approaches to personality are most likely to take an interactionist stand on the nature vs. nurture issue, rather than a strict "nature" or a strict "nurture" position? A. Psychodynamic B. Biological/evolutionary C. Humanistic D. Learning Answer: C. Humanistic 98. A psychological test is reliable when it: A. measures what it is supposed to measure. B. has been normed using a sample representative of those for whom the test has been designed. C. yields consistent measurements. D. measures the positives. Answer: C. yields consistent measurements. 99. Which term indicates the ability of a test to measure what it is actually designed to measure? A. Reliability B. Consistency C. Precision quotient D. Validity Answer: D. Validity 100. A researcher develops a questionnaire to assess impulsiveness among adults. In a journal article, she presents evidence that college students tend to get essentially the same score if they take the test twice, two months apart. However, when you look at the sample questionnaire items she included in the article, it seems to you that they relate more to whether a person is sociable, outgoing, and fun than to whether an individual is impulsive. You are specifically questioning the _____________ of the researcher's questionnaire. A. reliability B. validity C. norm D. generalizability Answer: B. validity 101. Dr. Cavanaugh examines the relationship between the trait of hardiness and senior citizens' compliance with medication regimes; however, the hardiness measure he uses was based on college students. Based on this information, which of the following is the most apparent weakness of Dr. Cavanaugh's study? A. The validity of the resilience measure B. The norming of the resilience measure C. The generalizability of compliance D. The reliability of the resilience measure Answer: B. The norming of the resilience measure 102. Because of federal legislation, race norming on tests such as the General Aptitude Test Battery: A. was discontinued in the 1970s. B. continues today. C. was discontinued in the early 1990s. D. was reinstated in the 1980s. Answer: C. was discontinued in the early 1990s. 103. One of the best examples of a self-report measure, and one of the most frequently used personality tests, is the: A. TAT. B. NEO-PI-R. C. MMPI-2-RF. D. 16 PF. Answer: C. MMPI-2-RF. 104. The _____________ is a widely used self-report test that identifies people with psychological difficulties and is employed to predict some everyday behaviors. A. TAT B. NEO-PI-R C. MMPI-2-RF D. 16 PF Answer: C. MMPI-2-RF 105. Dr. Portillo's research team is using various methods to assess the trait of extraversion. Dr. Portillo interpreting participants' responses to TAT pictures. Her postdoctoral research fellow is recording the number and length of conversations participants initiate in a laboratory situation. Finally, Dr. Portillo's graduate student is examining her own extraversion scores on a test of the Big Five dimensions. Which research team member is correctly paired with the type of personality assessment he or she is using? A. Dr. Portillo — self-report measure B. Postdoctoral research fellow — projective test C. Graduate student — self-report measure D. Dr. Portillo — behavioral assessment Answer: C. Graduate student — self-report measure 106. The TAT and the Rorschach are _____________ tests of personality. A. objective B. reflective C. projective D. self-report Answer: C. projective 107. The best-known projective test of personality is the: A. MMPI-2-RF. B. TAT. C. NEO-PI-R. D. Rorschach. Answer: D. Rorschach. 108. A series of symmetrical stimuli is to picture what _____________ is to _____________. A. Rorschach; TAT B. TAT; Rorschach C. MMPI-2-RF; TAT D. Rorschach; MMPI-2-RF Answer: A. Rorschach; TAT 109. Minnie is taking the TAT. Tammy is taking the Rorschach. Minnie is looking at _____________. Tammy is examining _____________. A. a series of symmetrical stimuli; pictures B. a series of symmetrical stimuli; a series of symmetrical stimuli, too C. pictures; pictures, too D. pictures; a series of symmetrical stimuli Answer: D. pictures; a series of symmetrical stimuli 110. Behavioral assessment relies most heavily on: A. the use of ambiguous stimuli. B. the observation of people in their own settings. C. the rigorous standardization of personality questionnaires. D. the interpretive skill of the examiner. Answer: B. the observation of people in their own settings. 111. Which of the following is NOT one of the text's recommended strategies for being an informed consumer of psychological test data? A. Remember that test results are not always accurate. B. Be apprised of data on test popularity. C. Base no decision on the results of only one test. D. Understand what the test claims to measure. Answer: B. Be apprised of data on test popularity. Worksheet Questions 112. The notion that behavior is motivated by unconscious inner forces and conflicts about which people have little awareness and over which they have no control is the _____________ approach to personality. Answer: psychodynamic 113. The id is to the pleasure principle what the ego is to the _____________ principle. Answer: reality 114. Davina cannot bear to be late for anything. She is particular about how people have to do things "just right" for her to be satisfied. A psychodynamic theorist might suggest that Davina is fixated at the _____________ stage of development. Answer: anal 115. The primary defense mechanism is that of _____________ , in which unacceptable feelings or impulses are pushed back into the unconscious. Answer: repression 116. Carl Jung might suggest that the questing hero figure prominent in many legends, stories, epic poems, and so forth represents a(n) _____________ , a symbolic representation of a universal experience. Answer: archetype 117. Adler proposed that the primary human motivation is a striving for _____________ . Answer: superiority 118. Neo-Freudian theorist _____________ is often termed the "first feminist psychologist." Answer: Karen Horney 119. The _____________ theory seeks to explain in a straightforward way the consistencies in individuals' behavior. Answer: trait 120. _____________ is a statistical method of identifying patterns among a large number of variables. Answer: Factor analysis 121. Your text offers the acronym OCEAN as a way to help you remember the "Big Five" personality dimensions. The A stands for _____________ . Answer: agreeableness 122. Albert Bandura is one of the leading proponents of the _____________ approach to personality. Answer: social cognitive 123. _____________ is a sense of success in forming close bonds with other people. Answer: Relationship harmony 124. Learning approaches to personality suggest that much of behavior is shaped primarily by forces beyond the individual's control—that is, they are _____________ . Answer: deterministic 125. Annie is an extremely active baby; her activity level is a component of her _____________ . Answer: temperament 126. According to Carl Rogers, people's _____________ contain the set of beliefs they hold about what they are like as individuals. Answer: self-concepts 127. John's therapist strives to provide an atmosphere of acceptance and respect no matter what comes up during the sessions. In the context of humanistic approaches to personality, John's therapist is providing _____________ . Answer: unconditional positive regard 128. "Every time I take it, it comes up with something different!" remarks Rita, turning away from the online personality quiz she just completed. Rita is complaining about the test's _____________ . Answer: reliability 129. The _____________ , or MMPI-2-RF, is the most widely used self-report measure of personality. Answer: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form 130. Barry is trying to come up with an interpretation of an abstract collage of colors, lines, and shapes he is looking at. Barry is most probably taking some sort of _____________ personality test. Answer: projective 131. Direct measures of an individual's behavior used to describe personality characteristics are known as _____________ . Answer: behavioral assessments Essay Questions 132. Describe in detail the id, ego, and superego in Freud's theory of personality. Be sure to mention the guiding principles of the id and the ego, the extent to which each of the three processes is conscious, and the point at which each of the three develops during infancy or childhood. Answer: The response should include the following points: Id—The id is innate. It attempts to satisfy primitive drives related to hunger, sex, and aggression. The id operates on the pleasure principle, in which the goal is the immediate reduction of tension and maximization of satisfaction. The id is wholly unconscious. Ego—The ego begins to develop soon after birth. It attempts to balance the desires of the id with the constraints of the outside world. The ego operates on the reality principle, in which the goal is to maintain the individual's safety and aid their integration into society. The ego is partly unconscious and partly conscious. Superego—The superego develops in early childhood. It represents the rules of society as modeled by parents, teachers, and other significant figures. In includes the conscience. The superego's goal is to ensure that we conform to the dictates of society. The superego is partly unconscious, but largely conscious. In Freud's theory, the id operates on the pleasure principle, seeking immediate gratification of desires. It is entirely unconscious and develops at birth. The ego follows the reality principle, balancing the demands of the id, superego, and reality. It operates mostly at a conscious level and develops in early childhood. The superego represents internalized societal and parental standards, striving for moral perfection, and becomes established around age five or six. 133. Identify and describe the first three stages of Freud's theory of psychosexual development and be sure to identify the key developmental task associated with each stage and the potential effects on adult personality of fixation at each stage. Answer: The following stages should be described in detail: Oral stage (birth to 12 to18 months): The mouth is an infant's main source of pleasure and exploration. Weaning is the key developmental task to be accomplished during this phase. If an infant is overindulged or frustrated in its search for oral gratification, oral fixation might occur, producing an adult who is either hostile and sarcastic or dependent and gullible. Anal stage (12 to18 months to 3 years): The anus is the toddler's source of pleasure: children gain pleasure from both the retention and expulsion of feces. Toilet training is the main task to be accomplished in this stage. If toilet training is too rigid or too lax, anal fixation may develop—producing an adult who is either overly controlled and rigid, or extremely sloppy and disorganized. Phallic stage (age 3 to age 5 or 6): The focus in this stage is on the genitals and the pleasure derived from fondling them. The key task in this phase is handling the Oedipal conflict. As children focus on their genitals, the difference between male and female anatomy becomes apparent. A young boy becomes attracted to his mother; he sees the father as a rival and wishes to kill him. The boy fears, that because the father is larger and more powerful, he may castrate the boy; the boy thus represses his desire for the mother and begins to identify with his father so that he may possess a woman like his mother. A young girl blames her mother for her "missing" penis; ultimately, though, she begins to identify with the mother so that she can one day incorporate the penis of a man like her father. 134. How do the theories of the neo-Freudian psychodynamic theorists differ from Freud's pioneering views? Identify two neo-Freudians and describe some of their major contributions to psychological theory. Answer: The neo-Freudian theorists placed less emphasis on the id and on sex than did Freud; instead, they emphasized the ego and the sociocultural environment to a greater extent than did Freud. Two of the following neo-Freudian theorists should be described briefly, with some of the following points mentioned, in the students’ answers. Carl Jung: He provided a positive interpretation of unconscious urges, suggesting that they represented a positive life force, an urge toward creativity. Carl Jung posited a universal collective unconscious, a common set of ideas, images, and feelings that we have inherited from our ancestors. The collective unconscious is revealed in universal experiences and behaviors. The collective unconscious contains archetypes, universal symbols of broadly shared experiences. One example is the "mother" archetype. Carl Jung's personality theory, finally, forms the basis of the Myer-Briggs Type Indicator, a personality assessment still widely used in applied settings today. Karen Horney: Often called the first feminist psychologist, Karen Horney suggested that personality develops in familial and social contexts. She disagreed with the Freudian notion of penis envy, suggesting instead that what women envy is the freedom and autonomy that men enjoy. She suggested that society's rigid gender roles cause women to feel ambivalent about success. Alfred Adler: He believed that our primary motive is the striving for superiority, namely, the desire to improve and perfect ourselves. Inferiority complexes may develop when we are unable to overcome the powerlessness we first experienced as children. 135. Describe trait approaches to personality. Briefly describe one of Gordon Allport's, Raymond Cattell's, or Hans Eysenck's trait theories of personality. Identify the Big Five personality dimensions central to contemporary trait approaches. Outline several ways in which the validity of the Big Five theory is supported. Answer: Students' answers may vary. The answer should define the trait approach to personality. Trait approaches seek to find the basic dimensions underlying the consistency in an individual's behavior across situations. One of the following trait theories should be described in the students’ answers. Gordon Allport's theory: He suggested that there are three types of traits: cardinal, central, and secondary. A cardinal trait is a single characteristic that directs most of an individual's activities. Most people do not develop single, comprehensive cardinal traits. Central traits are the major traits that make up the personality of most individuals. Most people have, say, five to ten core central traits. Finally, secondary traits are those that are less influential than central traits; they may influence an individual's behavior only in a few specific situations. Raymond Cattell's theory: He used a statistical procedure called factor analysis to isolate the basic dimensions of personality, which he called source traits. Raymond Cattell suggested there were 16 pairs of source traits. Hans Eysenck's theory: He used factor analysis to isolate the basic dimensions of personality. Hans Eysenck suggested that only three major dimensions were necessary to describe personality: extraversion (sociability), neuroticism (emotional stability), and psychoticism (reality distortion). The Big Five dimensions are openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. The Big Five appear general across age groups, languages, and cultures; moreover, brain-imaging studies now relate the dimensions to the way people process information. Trait approaches to personality focus on identifying and measuring consistent patterns of behavior, emotions, and thoughts that characterize individuals. Raymond Cattell's trait theory emphasized 16 primary personality factors, while Hans Eysenck focused on three major dimensions: extraversion-introversion, neuroticism-emotional stability, and psychoticism. The Big Five personality dimensions include openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism (OCEAN). Their validity is supported by extensive cross-cultural research, stability across the lifespan, predictive power in various life outcomes like academic and occupational success, and neurobiological correlates such as brain structure and function. 136. Distinguish between self-efficacy and self-esteem. How do these concepts reflect their origins in social learning theory? Suggest how self-esteem may vary across cultures. Answer: The student’s answer should contain the following points: Self-efficacy refers to one's belief in one's capability to complete a specific task. Self-esteem refers to our overall positive and negative evaluations of the self. These concepts stem from the idea that we observe others receiving reinforcement for completing tasks and that we can form expectations regarding our own ability to receive reinforcement from the environment for our behavior. In this way, the concepts of self-efficacy and self-esteem reflect the influence of social learning theory. The basis for self-esteem may differ from one culture to another. In Asian cultures, one's ability to maintain harmonious relationships with others contributes more importantly to self-esteem than it does in the more individualistic societies of the West. Self-efficacy refers to an individual's belief in their ability to achieve specific goals or perform tasks effectively, influenced by past experiences and feedback. In contrast, self-esteem pertains to one's overall evaluation of their self-worth and value as a person, often shaped by social comparisons and feedback from others. These concepts originate from social learning theory, emphasizing the importance of observation, modeling, and reinforcement in developing beliefs about competence and self-worth. Self-esteem may vary across cultures due to differing cultural values and norms regarding individualism versus collectivism, social hierarchy, and the emphasis placed on personal achievement versus group harmony. Cultural practices such as parenting styles and educational systems also play significant roles in shaping self-esteem beliefs among individuals. 137. Evaluate the learning approaches to personality. Answer: Because they ignore the internal processes that are uniquely human, traditional learning theorists such as Skinner have been accused of oversimplifying personality to such an extent that the concept becomes meaningless. Their critics think that reducing behavior to a series of stimuli and responses and excluding thoughts and feelings from the realm of personality leaves behaviorists practicing an unrealistic and inadequate form of science. Of course, some of these criticisms are blunted by social cognitive approaches, which explicitly consider the role of cognitive processes in personality. Still, learning approaches tend to share a highly deterministic view of human behavior, which maintains that behavior is shaped primarily by forces beyond the individual's control. As in psychoanalytic theory (which suggests that personality is determined by the unconscious forces) and trait approaches (which views personality in part as a mixture of genetically determined traits), learning theory's reliance on deterministic principles de-emphasizes people's ability to pilot their own course through life. Nonetheless, learning approaches have had a major impact on the study of personality. For one thing, they have helped make personality psychology an objective, scientific venture by focusing on observable behavior and the effects of their environments. In addition, they have produced important, successful means of treating a variety of psychological disorders. The degree of success of these treatments is a testimony to the merits of learning theory approaches to personality. 138. Define self-actualization. How is unconditional positive regard critical in supporting an individual's self-actualization? Answer: The answer should include the following: Self-actualization is a state of self-fulfillment in which an individual has reached his or her highest potential. The humanistic theorists believed that we have an innate, fundamental drive toward self-actualization. Unconditional positive regard is an attitude of acceptance and respect toward another individual, no matter what the individual says or does. This acceptance ensures that the individual's experiences are not at variance with his or her self-concept and provides an atmosphere in which the individual can grow and evolve without shame or anxiety. Self-actualization, in humanistic psychology, refers to the realization of one's full potential, including personal growth, fulfillment of talents, and pursuit of meaningful goals. Unconditional positive regard, a concept from Carl Rogers' person-centered therapy, involves accepting and valuing individuals without judgment or conditions. This unconditional acceptance creates a supportive environment where individuals feel safe to explore their true selves, fostering self-awareness, autonomy, and ultimately, self-actualization. 139. Suppose you develop a new self-report measure of the broad personality trait of extraversion. Distinguish between reliability and validity. Describe how you would establish the reliability and validity of your new test. Outline how you would establish norms for the test. Answer: The student’s answer should outline the following points: Reliability vs. validity—Reliability refers to the consistency with which a test measures a construct such as intelligence. Validity refers to the degree that a test actually measures what it intends to measure. One way to establish reliability might be to give a sample the test twice, weeks or months apart. If the test is reliable, an individual's two scores should be very nearly identical. One could establish a new test's validity by showing that scores on the test correlate at least moderately with scores on measures of personality traits related to extraversion, such as sociability, impulsivity, sensation seeking, and so on. The validity of a new test might also be established by showing that scores on the new test correlate well with scores on more well-established tests of extraversion. Norming—The test should be normed using a sample representative of the intended respondents. If the test is intended to assess the extraversion of adults generally, a sample representative of the American population should be used. The average score of the sample should be determined, as should some notion of the typical variability of the scores around the mean. Reliability refers to the consistency and stability of scores obtained from a measure over time and across different conditions. Validity refers to the extent to which a test measures what it claims to measure, in this case, extraversion. To establish reliability, I would use test-retest and internal consistency methods. Validity would be assessed through content validity, construct validity (via factor analysis and correlations with other personality measures), and criterion-related validity (correlations with external criteria related to extraversion). To establish norms, I would administer the test to a large, diverse sample and analyze the distribution of scores. Norms would be established by calculating descriptive statistics such as means and standard deviations, and percentile ranks based on the distribution of scores across different demographic groups (age, gender, etc.). 140. Distinguish between self-report, projective, and behavioral assessment measures of personality. Provide an example of each measure. What are some criticisms of "projective" tests such as the Rorschach? Answer: Students’ examples may vary. The answer should include the following points: Self-report measures: These are objective, "paper-and-pencil" measures of personality. They usually include a large number of simple items asking about a relatively limited sample of their behavior. One example is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). Projective measures: These tests tend to contain a small number of relatively ambiguous stimuli, such as inkblots. The respondent is asked to interpret, describe, or tell a story about the stimuli. These measures require substantial care and skill in their interpretation. They are most common in clinical than in academic settings. Examples of projective tests include the Rorschach test and the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT). Criticisms of projective measures: Critics contend that projective tests require too much inference on the part of the examiner, that they resist standardization, and that they lack reliability and validity. Behavioral assessment measures: These are direct measures of an individual's behavior designed to describe characteristics indicative of personality. Such measures may be obtained in naturalistic or in highly controlled laboratory settings. Ideally, behavioral assessment measures are highly objective and quantifiable. They are especially useful in observing and remedying specific behavioral difficulties, such as shyness in children. Self-report measures of personality involve individuals answering questions about their own traits, attitudes, or behaviors, such as the Big Five Inventory. Projective tests, like the Rorschach Inkblot Test, present ambiguous stimuli to elicit responses that reveal unconscious thoughts or feelings. Behavioral assessments observe and record actual behaviors in various situations, such as the observation of social interactions. Critics argue that projective tests lack standardized scoring methods and reliability, and interpretations can be subjective and inconsistent among clinicians. They also raise concerns about the tests' validity in accurately assessing personality traits compared to more structured measures like self-report inventories. Test Bank for Essentials of Understanding Psychology Robert S. Feldman 9780077861889, 9781259255786, 9781260829013

Document Details

Related Documents

person
Ethan Williams View profile
Close

Send listing report

highlight_off

You already reported this listing

The report is private and won't be shared with the owner

rotate_right
Close
rotate_right
Close

Send Message

image
Close

My favorites

image
Close

Application Form

image
Notifications visibility rotate_right Clear all Close close
image
image
arrow_left
arrow_right