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Chapter 05 Learning Multiple Choice Questions 1. Psychologists use the term _____________ to refer to a relatively permanent change in behavior resulting from experience. A. growth B. maturation C. cognition D. learning Answer: D. learning 2. Learning reflects _____________. Maturation reflects _____________. A. nurture; nature B. nature; nurture C. nature; nature as well D. nurture; nurture as well Answer: A. nurture; nature 3. _____________ is the decrease in response to a stimulus that occurs after repeated presentations of the same stimulus. A. Sensation B. Disinhibition C. Habituation D. Conservation Answer: C. Habituation 4. You toss a newly purchased felt mouse across the floor; your cat chases it excitedly, clutches it in her paws and rolls around with it. Several tosses later, your cat yawns pointedly and settles herself for a nap. The change in your cat's behavior illustrates: A. adaptation. B. habituation. C. conditioning. D. maturation. Answer: B. habituation. 5. _____________ refers to a decrease in the response to a stimulus when it is presented repeatedly, whereas _____________ refers to the eventual disappearance of a conditioned response when an unconditioned stimulus is no longer presented. A. Extinction; habituation B. Habituation; extinction C. Habituation; adaptation D. Adaptation; habituation Answer: B. Habituation; extinction 6. _____________ is credited with laying the foundation for the study of classical conditioning in psychology. A. Thorndike B. Skinner C. Pavlov D. Watson Answer: C. Pavlov 7. _____________ is a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to bring about a response after it is paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about that response. A. Classical conditioning B. Operant conditioning C. Observational learning D. Instrumental conditioning Answer: A. Classical conditioning 8. _____________ stimulus does not naturally bring about the response of interest. A. Reflexive B. Unconditioned C. Neutral D. Normative Answer: C. Neutral 9. _____________ stimulus naturally brings about a particular response without having been learned. A. Conditioned B. Unconditioned C. Neutral D. Normative Answer: B. Unconditioned 10. In Pavlov's study, the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) was _____________; the neutral stimulus was _____________; and, finally, the conditioned stimulus (CS) was _____________. A. meat; the bell; meat B. meat; the bell; the bell C. the bell; meat; meat D. meat; meat; the bell Answer: B. meat; the bell; the bell 11. Tim loves dill pickles. Now, the sight of a jar on the supermarket shelf makes his mouth water. In the terminology of classical conditioning, the sight of the jar is a(n) _____________. A. conditioned stimulus B. unconditioned stimulus C. neutral stimulus D. conditioned response Answer: A. conditioned stimulus 12. Alexis uses cocaine, which activates her sympathetic nervous system. Expecting her dealer, her hands shake and her heart pounds when she hears a knock on the door. Which alternative below CORRECTLY identifies the neutral stimulus, the CS, and the UCS? A. Neutral stimulus—knock on the door; CS—cocaine; UCS—cocaine B. Neutral stimulus—knock on the door; CS—knock on the door; UCS—pounding heart C. Neutral stimulus—knock on the door; CS—knock on the door; UCS—cocaine D. Neutral stimulus—cocaine; CS—knock on the door; UCS—cocaine Answer: C. Neutral stimulus—knock on the door; CS—knock on the door; UCS—cocaine 13. In classical conditioning, how are the neutral stimulus and the conditioned response related? A. They are not related; they are completely different stimuli. B. They are the same thing; the terms are interchangeable. C. The neutral stimulus becomes the conditioned stimulus. D. The conditioned stimulus becomes the neutral stimulus. Answer: C. The neutral stimulus becomes the conditioned stimulus. 14. Nature is to nurture what _____________ is to _____________. A. conditioned stimulus; unconditioned stimulus B. conditioned response; unconditioned response C. neutral stimulus; conditioned stimulus D. unconditioned response; conditioned response Answer: D. unconditioned response; conditioned response 15. Classical conditioning is most successful when the neutral stimulus begins: A. just before the unconditioned stimulus begins. B. at exactly the same time that the unconditioned stimulus begins. C. long before the unconditioned stimulus begins. D. immediately after the unconditioned stimulus begins. Answer: A. just before the unconditioned stimulus begins. 16. Which pair below CORRECTLY identifies a stimulus or response in Watson and Rayner's "Little Albert" study? A. Unconditioned stimulus—noise B. Conditioned stimulus— fear C. Unconditioned response—rat D. Neutral stimulus—fear Answer: A. Unconditioned stimulus—noise 17. Jonas is a veteran of the war in Iraq. He suffers from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Now, back home in a quiet California neighborhood, he jumps when he hears a firecracker or a car backfire. In the terminology of classical conditioning, these sounds are best thought of as _____________ stimuli. A. neutral B. unconditioned C. conditioned D. normative Answer: C. conditioned 18. _____________ occurs when a previously conditioned response decreases in frequency and eventually disappears. A. Extinction B. Habituation C. Adaptation D. Deconditioning Answer: A. Extinction 19. Which of the following scenarios exemplifies extinction? A. Alexis is a former cocaine user. Now that she no longer uses cocaine, her hands no longer shake and her heart no longer pounds when she hears a car pull into her drive, like her dealer used to do in his car. B. Alexis uses cocaine. She no longer feels quite the same rush as she did when she first started using. C. Alexis is a former cocaine user in recovery. After a relapse, though, her hands shake and her heart pounds when she hears a car pull into her drive, like her dealer used to do in his car. D. Alexis uses cocaine. She finds that she is slowly losing her sense of smell. Answer: A. Alexis is a former cocaine user. Now that she no longer uses cocaine, her hands no longer shake and her heart no longer pounds when she hears a car pull into her drive, like her dealer used to do in his car. 20. Which of the following sequences CORRECTLY arranges the phases of the classical conditioning process, from first to last? A. Acquisition → spontaneous recovery → extinction B. Acquisition → extinction → spontaneous recovery C. Spontaneous recovery → acquisition → extinction D. Extinction → acquisition → spontaneous recovery Answer: B. Acquisition → extinction → spontaneous recovery 21. The reemergence of an extinguished conditioned response after a period of rest and with no further conditioning is known as _____________. A. extinction B. habituation C. spontaneous recovery D. deconditioning Answer: C. spontaneous recovery 22. Which of the following scenarios best exemplifies spontaneous recovery? A. Alexis is a former cocaine user. Now that she no longer uses cocaine, her hands no longer shake and her heart no longer pounds when she hears a car pull into her drive, like her dealer used to do in his car. B. Alexis uses cocaine. She no longer feels quite the same rush as she did when she first started using. C. Alexis is a former cocaine user in recovery. After a relapse, though, her hands shake and her heart pounds when she hears a car pull into her drive, like her dealer used to do in his car. D. Alexis uses cocaine. She finds that she is slowly losing her sense of smell. Answer: C. Alexis is a former cocaine user in recovery. After a relapse, though, her hands shake and her heart pounds when she hears a car pull into her drive, like her dealer used to do in his car. 23. _____________ is a process in which, after a stimulus has been conditioned to produce a particular response, stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus produce the same response. A. Stimulus location B. Stimulus generalization C. Stimulus reflexive D. Stimulus discrimination Answer: B. Stimulus generalization 24. Which of the following is TRUE of stimulus generalization? A. It is the process that occurs if two stimuli are sufficiently distinct from one another. B. The greater the similarity between two stimuli, the greater the likelihood of stimulus generalization. C. The conditioned response elicited by the new stimulus is usually more intense than the original conditioned response. D. Stimulus generalization provides the ability to differentiate between stimuli. Answer: B. The greater the similarity between two stimuli, the greater the likelihood of stimulus generalization. 25. Rosa becomes anxious when she enters the examination room at the clinic before a blood test. She also squirms when she views injections on television. This illustrates: A. observational learning. B. stimulus generalization. C. spontaneous recovery. D. stimulus discrimination. Answer: B. stimulus generalization. 26. _____________ occurs if two stimuli are sufficiently distinct from each other that one evokes a conditioned response but the other does not. A. Stimulus location B. Stimulus generalization C. Stimulus diffusion D. Stimulus discrimination Answer: D. Stimulus discrimination 27. Which of the following terms best expresses the relationship between stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination? A. They are unrelated. B. They are opposites. C. They are the same thing. D. Stimulus discrimination is a type of stimulus generalization. Answer: B. They are opposites. 28. June's cat runs to the kitchen at the sound of the electric can opener, which she has learned is used to open her food when her dinner is about to be served. The cat does not run when a blender is used, although it sounds similar. June's cat is demonstrating stimulus: A. control. B. discrimination. C. generalization. D. diffusion. Answer: B. discrimination. 29. Janine completed several tours of duty in Afghanistan. She suffers from PTSD. Now, back home in Texas, she is frightened by firecrackers and cars backfiring. The fact that these sounds scare her reflects a process of stimulus: A. diffusion. B. discrimination. C. generalization. D. control. Answer: C. generalization. 30. Stimulus _____________ provides the ability to differentiate between stimuli. A. control B. discrimination C. generalization D. diffusion Answer: B. discrimination 31. In what way does learned taste aversion seem to contradict the basic principles of classical conditioning? A. In learned taste aversion, the CS and the unconditioned response (UCR) are separated by only a brief interval. B. Learned taste aversion can occur after only a single CS-UCR pairing. C. Learned taste aversion takes longer to develop than do most classical conditioning processes. D. Learned taste aversion is subject to biologically based constraints while, classical conditioning is not. Answer: B. Learned taste aversion can occur after only a single CS-UCR pairing. 32. _____________ is learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on its favorable or unfavorable consequences. A. Classical conditioning B. Operant conditioning C. Observational learning D. Instrumental conditioning Answer: B. Operant conditioning 33. Operant conditioning most importantly involves forming associations between: A. neutral and unconditioned stimuli. B. stimuli and involuntary behavior. C. behavior and consequences. D. conditioned response and reflex. Answer: C. behavior and consequences. 34. Classical conditioning applies mostly to _____________. Operant conditioning applies mainly to _____________. A. biological responses; voluntary responses B. voluntary behavior; involuntary behavior C. voluntary behavior; biological behavior D. involuntary response; involuntary behavior Answer: A. biological responses; voluntary responses 35. The root of operant conditioning may be traced to _____________'s early studies of hungry cats learning to escape from cages. A. Skinner B. Thorndike C. Watson D. Pavlov Answer: B. Thorndike 36. "Responses that lead to satisfying consequences are more likely to be repeated." This is the law of: A. consequences. B. reward. C. effect. D. reinforcement. Answer: C. effect. 37. The most influential psychologist to study operant conditioning was: A. Freud. B. Watson. C. Pavlov. D. Skinner. Answer: D. Skinner. 38. The process by which a stimulus increases the likelihood that a preceding behavior will be repeated is called: A. habituation. B. reinforcement. C. learning. D. spontaneous recovery. Answer: B. reinforcement. 39. Which of the following approaches to treating a phobia is/are CORRECTLY matched with the type of learning it reflects? A. Conditioning client to associate a response of relaxation rather than anxiety to the feared object - observational learning B. Reinforcing client directly by interacting with the feared object - operant conditioning C. Exposing client to a model interacting successfully with the feared object - classical conditioning D. A new behavior is learned but not demonstrated until some incentive is provided for displaying it - perceptual learning Answer: B. Reinforcing client directly by interacting with the feared object - operant conditioning 40. A _____________ is any stimulus that increases the probability that a preceding behavior will occur again. A. catalyst B. rejoinder C. reinforcer D. stimulant Answer: C. reinforcer 41. Reinforcers that satisfy a biological need are called _____________ reinforcers. A. primary B. positive C. unconditioned D. reflexive Answer: A. primary 42. Nature is to nurture what _____________ reinforcers are to _____________ reinforcers. A. positive; negative B. secondary; primary C. unconditioned; conditioned D. primary; secondary Answer: D. primary; secondary 43. Which of the following reinforcers is INCORRECTLY categorized? A. Food—primary reinforcer B. Money—primary reinforcer C. Praise—secondary reinforcer D. Relief—primary reinforcer Answer: B. Money—primary reinforcer 44. Which of the following is an example of a secondary reinforcer? A. Food B. Sex C. Money D. Relief Answer: C. Money 45. As part of a behavior modification program, Kendra and her partner each agree to praise the other if she completes her assigned household chores by the end of the day. Such praise is an example of: A. primary reinforcement B. tertiary reinforcement C. positive reinforcement D. negative reinforcement Answer: C. positive reinforcement 46. The term reward is synonymous with: A. positive reinforcement only. B. reinforcement generally. C. negative reinforcement only. D. primary reinforcement only. Answer: A. positive reinforcement only. 47. A(n) _____________ reinforcer is a stimulus added to the environment, like getting paid to work, that specifically brings about an increase in a preceding response. A. primary B. positive C. unconditioned D. neutral Answer: B. positive 48. A(n) _____________ reinforcer refers to the removal of an unpleasant stimulus, putting on a sweater when your cold for example, which leads to an increase in the probability that a preceding response will be repeated in the future. A. negative B. secondary C. unconditioned D. neutral Answer: A. negative 49. One reason Carlos continues to work at his job is the check he receives every two weeks. Carlos' paycheck is a _____________ reinforcer. A. neutral B. primary C. secondary D. negative Answer: C. secondary 50. Dr. DiFonzo notices several students nodding in agreement as he lectures. Subsequently, his rhetoric becomes more confident and more passionate. The students have provided _____________ reinforcement. A. positive B. secondary C. conditioned D. neutral Answer: A. positive 51. Negative reinforcement: A. is the same thing as punishment. B. increases the likelihood that preceding behaviors will be repeated. C. decreases the likelihood that a behavior will be performed. D. is a stimulus whose removal leads to a decrease in the probability that a preceding response will be repeated. Answer: B. increases the likelihood that preceding behaviors will be repeated. 52. Which of the following scenarios exemplifies negative reinforcement? A. Vanna fastens her seatbelt as soon as she gets in her car to stop the annoying alert sound. B. Drake no longer cuts class, now that his parents confiscated his iPod. C. Maria now buys a different brand of cigarettes to get two packs for the price of one. D. Nate no longer arrives late at work following a reprimand from his boss. Answer: A. Vanna fastens her seatbelt as soon as she gets in her car to stop the annoying alert sound. 53. _____________ weakens a response through the application of an unpleasant stimulus. A. Negative reinforcement B. Negative punishment C. Positive punishment D. Normative reinforcement Answer: C. Positive punishment 54. _____________ punishment consists of the removal of something pleasant. A. Prescriptive B. Negative C. Positive D. Normative Answer: B. Negative 55. Which of the following scenarios exemplify negative punishment? A. Astrid tells her daughter she is grounded for misbehaving and cannot meet her friends for a week. B. Carly yells at her husband when he comes home drunk. C. Jim makes his middle-schoolers run extra laps when they are unruly in gym class. D. Joanie takes several ibuprofen tablets when she has a headache. Answer: A. Astrid tells her daughter she is grounded for misbehaving and cannot meet her friends for a week. 56. Which of the following is an example of positive punishment? A. You fight with your significant other and walk away B. Getting a speeding ticket C. Grounding a child for misbehaving and not letting him/her watch television D. Giving your dog a treat for rolling over Answer: B. Getting a speeding ticket 57. Sheryl's parents have told her that she is "grounded" and will not be allowed to watch any television for a week, because she is not completing her assignments on time. This is an example of: A. negative punishment. B. negative reinforcement. C. positive punishment. D. positive reinforcement. Answer: A. negative punishment. 58. Which of the following is an example of negative punishment? A. You fight with your significant other and walk away. B. Spanking a child for misbehaving. C. Yelling at your spouse for being irresponsible. D. Informing an employee that he has been demoted because of a poor job evaluation. Answer: D. Informing an employee that he has been demoted because of a poor job evaluation. 59. Which of the following types of consequences is CORRECTLY matched with an example? A. Positive reinforcement - Vickie applies lotion to lessen the discomfort of a small burn B. Negative reinforcement - Ella's parents confiscate her car keys for breaking curfew C. Positive punishment - Laurel's mother yells at her when Laurel takes $20 from her mom's purse D. Negative punishment - Maddie receives a bonus for outstanding work performance Answer: C. Positive punishment - Laurel's mother yells at her when Laurel takes $20 from her mom's purse 60. Which of the following types of consequences is CORRECTLY matched with an example? A. Positive reinforcement - Harvey is suspended when he vandalizes school property B. Negative reinforcement - Jeff puts up his umbrella when it starts to sprinkle so he won't get wet C. Positive punishment - Jacqueline's teacher puts a cute sticker on an arithmetic exercise completed without mistakes D. Negative punishment - Tommy receives a written reprimand from his boss following a series of customer complaints Answer: B. Negative reinforcement - Jeff puts up his umbrella when it starts to sprinkle so he won't get wet 61. Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of punishment? A. It is ineffective if it is not delivered immediately after the undesirable behavior. B. Physical punishment sends the message that aggressive behavior is appropriate. C. It tends to change behavior very slowly. D. Punishment does not suggest which alternative behaviors might be more desirable. Answer: C. It tends to change behavior very slowly. 62. Behavior that is reinforced every time it occurs is said to be on a(n) _____________ reinforcement schedule. A. secondary B. positive C. intermittent D. continuous Answer: D. continuous 63. You don't receive a smile or a "thank you" each time you hold a door for the person behind you. It is acknowledged sometimes. Door-holding is reinforced on a(n) _____________ reinforcement schedule. A. continuous B. partial C. regular D. fixed Answer: B. partial 64. Vending machine is to slot machine what _____________ reinforcement is to _____________ reinforcement. A. secondary; primary B. continuous; intermittent C. partial; intermittent D. variable; fixed Answer: B. continuous; intermittent 65. A fixed-ratio schedule is a schedule: A. by which reinforcement is given only after a specific number of responses are made. B. by which reinforcement occurs after a varying number of responses rather than after a fixed number. C. that provides reinforcement for a response only if a fixed time period has elapsed, making overall rates of response relatively low. D. by which the time between reinforcements varies around some average rather than being fixed. Answer: A. by which reinforcement is given only after a specific number of responses are made. 66. Which of the following promotions exemplifies the use of a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement? A. A café prints "You are a winner" on a random one-twelfth of its coffee lids; patrons receiving such a lid can redeem it for a free beverage. B. A café offers its customers a punch card. Each time a patron purchases a beverage, a hole is punched; when ten holes are punched, the patron receives a free beverage. C. A café offers each patron an early morning two-for-one free-beverage-with-purchase deal from 5 to 6 a.m. on Monday mornings. D. Now and then, a café announces a two-for-one deal. Answer: B. A café offers its customers a punch card. Each time a patron purchases a beverage, a hole is punched; when ten holes are punched, the patron receives a free beverage. 67. Dr. Arceneaux wants his students to take advantage of online practice quizzes on his course site. Which of the following is the most effective plan to increase the number of practice quizzes completed? A. 1 bonus point for every 2 online practice quizzes completed B. 5 points deducted from course total if no quizzes are completed C. 1 bonus point awarded every 2 weeks if 2 or more quizzes have been completed D. 1 bonus point awarded every now and then (about 2 weeks on average) if 2 or more quizzes have been completed recently Answer: A. 1 bonus point for every 2 online practice quizzes completed 68. A variable-ratio schedule is a schedule: A. by which reinforcement is given only after a specific number of responses are made. B. by which reinforcement occurs after a fluctuating number of responses rather than after a fixed number. C. that provides reinforcement for a response only if a fixed time period has elapsed, making overall rates of response relatively low. D. by which the time between reinforcements varies around some average rather than being fixed. Answer: B. by which reinforcement occurs after a fluctuating number of responses rather than after a fixed number. 69. Dr. Arceneaux has developed several alternative plans to increase the number of online practice quizzes his students complete. Which plan below is INCORRECTLY matched with the related schedule? A. 1 bonus point for every two online practice quizzes completed—fixed-ratio B. 1 bonus point awarded every 2 weeks if two or more quizzes have been completed—fixed-interval C. 1 bonus point awarded every now and then (about 2 weeks on average) if two or more quizzes have been completed recently—variable-ratio D. 1 bonus point awarded randomly, either for every 2 online quizzes taken or 2 bonus points for all those students taken within the first week—variable-interval Answer: C. 1 bonus point awarded every now and then (about 2 weeks on average) if two or more quizzes have been completed recently—variable-ratio 70. Imagine that you graphed the cumulative number of bar-press responses over time of four rats, each reinforced on a different one of the four schedules of intermittent reinforcement. Each rat's behavior is graphed on a separate line. The line with the greatest slope should be that displaying the behavior of the rat reinforced on the _____________ schedule. A. fixed-ratio B. fixed-interval C. variable-interval D. variable-ratio Answer: D. variable-ratio 71. In general, _____________ schedules of reinforcement yield high response rates. A. variable-interval B. fixed-interval C. variable-ratio D. fixed-ratio Answer: C. variable-ratio 72. Typically long pauses in responding are found in _____________ schedules. A. fixed-interval B. fixed-ratio C. variable-interval D. variable-ratio Answer: A. fixed-interval 73. A privately funded program pays low-income parents $50 every two months for each child who attends school regularly during that period. This incentive illustrates a _____________ schedule of reinforcement. A. fixed-interval B. fixed-ratio C. variable-interval D. variable-ratio Answer: A. fixed-interval 74. A fixed-interval schedule is a schedule: A. by which reinforcement is given only after a specific number of responses are made. B. by which reinforcement occurs after a varying number of responses rather than after a fixed number. C. that provides reinforcement for a response only if an unvarying time period has elapsed, making overall rates of response relatively low. D. by which the time between reinforcements varies around some average rather than being constant. Answer: C. that provides reinforcement for a response only if an unvarying time period has elapsed, making overall rates of response relatively low. 75. Paychecks and semester grades are delivered on a _____________ schedule of reinforcement. A. fixed-ratio B. fixed-interval C. variable-ratio D. variable-interval Answer: B. fixed-interval 76. A variable-interval schedule is a schedule: A. by which reinforcement is given only after a specific number of responses are made. B. by which reinforcement occurs after a varying number of responses rather than after a fixed number. C. that provides reinforcement for a response only if a fixed time period has elapsed, making overall rates of response relatively low. D. by which the time between reinforcements fluctuates around some average rather than being fixed. Answer: D. by which the time between reinforcements fluctuates around some average rather than being fixed. 77. Which of the following is TRUE about stimulus control training? A. In stimulus control training, a behavior is reinforced in the presence of a specific stimulus. B. In stimulus control training, a behavior is reinforced in the absence of a specific stimulus. C. Stimulus control training is the process of teaching a complex behavior by rewarding closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior. D. Stimulus control training is the process of teaching a simple behavior by rewarding closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior. Answer: A. In stimulus control training, a behavior is reinforced in the presence of a specific stimulus. 78. Ewan is convinced that a woman across the bar is "sending signals." A learning theorist would term such signals: A. conditioned stimuli. B. discriminative stimuli. C. positive reinforcers. D. intermittent reinforcers. Answer: B. discriminative stimuli. 79. Sheryl makes pleasant small talk and pays her boss a compliment before asking for a personal day, because such a strategy was successful with a few of her previous bosses. This example most clearly illustrates: A. stimulus generalization. B. stimulus control. C. stimulus discrimination. D. shaping. Answer: A. stimulus generalization. 80. The process of teaching a complex behavior by reinforcing closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior is called: A. stimulus control training. B. discrimination training. C. shaping. D. behavior modification. Answer: C. shaping. 81. Mrs. Martin, a third-grade teacher, is instructing cursive writing. At first, she reinforces even crude attempts to reproduce letters with an encouraging word; as time goes on, though, she reinforces only well-formed letters. By reinforcing progressively better attempts at writing letters, Mrs. Martin is using: A. discrimination training. B. shaping. C. stimulus control training. D. behavior modification. Answer: B. shaping. 82. Which of the following does NOT accurately reflect a distinction between classical and operant conditioning? A. Classical conditioning entails forming an association between stimuli; operant conditioning involves forming an association between a behavior and its consequences. B. Classical conditioning applies to voluntary behavior, while operant conditioning applies to involuntary behavior. C. In the case of classical conditioning, before conditioning, an unconditioned stimulus leads to an unconditioned response; in operant conditioning reinforcement leads to an increase in behavior. D. In the case of classical conditioning, after conditioning, a conditioned stimulus leads to a conditioned response; in operant conditioning punishment leads to a decrease in behavior. Answer: B. Classical conditioning applies to voluntary behavior, while operant conditioning applies to involuntary behavior. 83. Which of the following is TRUE of classical conditioning? A. Its basic principle is that reinforcement increases the frequency of the behavior preceding it; punishment decreases the frequency of the behavior preceding it. B. It applies to involuntary behavior. C. According to classical conditioning, reinforcement leads to an increase in behavior. D. According to classical conditioning, organism voluntarily operates on its environment to produce a desirable result. After behavior occurs, the likelihood of the behavior occurring again is increased or decreased by the behavior's consequences. Answer: B. It applies to involuntary behavior. 84. Dr. Simonelli is a practicing behavior analyst. What does she do? A. She helps clients explore the unconscious motivations behind their behaviors. B. She helps clients change how they think about their own behavior and that of others. C. She specializes in behavior modification techniques. D. She conducts basic research into conditioning mechanisms and principles. Answer: C. She specializes in behavior modification techniques. 85. _____________ is a formalized technique for promoting the frequency of desirable conducts and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones. A. Functional modification B. Genetic modification C. Posttranslational modification D. Behavior modification Answer: D. Behavior modification 86. The cognitive learning concept of _____________ learning is associated most prominently with _____________. A. latent; Tolman B. latent; Thorndike C. implicit; Tolman D. implicit; Thorndike Answer: A. latent; Tolman 87. The _____________ is an approach to the study of learning that focuses on the thought processes that underlie learning. A. transformative learning theory B. behavioral learning theory C. cognitive learning theory D. constructivism learning theory Answer: C. cognitive learning theory 88. Psychologists working within the cognitive learning perspective: A. deny the importance of classical and operant conditioning. B. go beyond classical and operant conditioning. C. perform research essentially identical to that conducted by more traditional learning theorists. D. have probably never heard of classical and operant conditioning. Answer: B. go beyond classical and operant conditioning. 89. Which of the following does the cognitive learning theory emphasize? A. Expectations B. Imitation C. Consolidation D. Associations Answer: A. Expectations 90. The focus of classical and operant conditioning is on _____________; the focus of the cognitive learning approach is on _____________. A. external stimuli, responses, and reinforcement; internal thoughts and expectations of learners B. external stimuli, responses, and reinforcement; external stimuli, responses, and reinforcement as well C. internal thoughts and expectations of learners; external stimuli, responses, and reinforcement D. internal thoughts and expectations of learners; internal thoughts and expectations of learners as well Answer: A. external stimuli, responses, and reinforcement; internal thoughts and expectations of learners 91. Learning in which a new behavior is acquired but is not demonstrated until some incentive is provided for displaying it is known as _____________ learning. A. tangential B. latent C. perceptual D. spatial Answer: B. latent 92. Which theorist is CORRECTLY matched with the concept with which he is associated? A. Bandura—classical conditioning B. Tolman—latent learning C. Pavlov—observational learning D. Watson—associative learning Answer: B. Tolman—latent learning 93. _____________ learning occurs without reinforcement. A. Latent B. Operant C. Subliminal D. Manifest Answer: A. Latent 94. Recall Tolman's latent learning experiments in which rats learned to run a maze. What was the critical result? A. Rats that were never given an incentive, never learned to run the maze. B. Rats that were never given an incentive still learned to run the maze. C. Rats that began to receive an incentive halfway through the experiment rapidly matched the performance of rats that had been reinforced from the beginning of the experiment. D. Rats that began to receive an incentive halfway through the experiment never learned to run the maze. Answer: C. Rats that began to receive an incentive halfway through the experiment rapidly matched the performance of rats that had been reinforced from the beginning of the experiment. 95. A(n) _____________ is a mental representation of spatial locations and directions. A. algorithm B. prototype C. cognitive map D. perceptual blueprint Answer: C. cognitive map 96. You have a kind of picture in your head of your hometown, a mental representation of its layout and the location of key landmarks, like rivers, buildings, freeways, and parks. This representation is called a(n): A. internal navigator. B. mental GPS. C. cognitive map. D. perceptual blueprint. Answer: C. cognitive map. 97. Learning by watching the behavior of another person, or model is known as _____________. A. perceptual learning B. observational learning C. latent learning D. tangential learning Answer: B. observational learning 98. Bandura's Bobo doll experiment was intended to demonstrate: A. shaping. B. observational learning. C. latent learning. D. stimulus control training. Answer: B. observational learning. 99. Observational learning is based in part on the activity of _____________ neurons in the brain. A. mirror B. reflexive C. imitative D. modeling Answer: A. mirror 100. Which of the following statements INCORRECTLY describes the effects on observational learning of the reinforcement or punishment of the model? A. We are more likely to imitate reward models than we are to imitate non-reward models. B. Observational learning does not occur when the model is punished. C. Observing the punishment of a model does not stop observers from learning the behavior. D. Observational learning is likely to occur when the model is rewarded. Answer: B. Observational learning does not occur when the model is punished. 101. _____________ is associated with the Fearless-Peer experiment. The experiment demonstrates _____________. A. Pavlov; classical conditioning B. Bandura; observational learning C. Skinner; operant conditioning D. Thorndike; latent learning Answer: B. Bandura; observational learning 102. Based on your reading of the text, the average child in the United States has viewed more than _____________ murders on network TV by the time he or she graduates from elementary school. A. 12 B. 500 C. 8,000 D. 6,000 Answer: C. 8,000 103. According to one survey, approximately one- _____________ of violent young male offenders in Florida had attempted to commit a media-inspired copycat crime. A. fifth B. fourth C. third D. half Answer: B. fourth 104. Based on your reading of the text, exposure to actual firearm violence increases by a factor of _____________ the likelihood that an adolescent will commit serious violence within the succeeding two years. A. 1.5 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 Answer: B. 2 105. Travis is an intuitive thinker with a highly developed ability to remember verbal material, especially if it is highly relevant. Janet is detail-oriented, with an excellent memory for abstract material. She is not easily dissuaded by dull tasks. Which of the following statements best identifies the learning styles of these two individuals? A. Travis has an analytical learning style. Janet's learning style is relational. B. Travis has a relational learning style. Janet's learning style is analytical. C. Both Travis and Janet have analytical learning styles. D. Both Travis and Janet have relational learning styles. Answer: B. Travis has a relational learning style. Janet's learning style is analytical. 106. Which alternative below CORRECTLY pairs a learning style described in your text with one of its characteristics? A. Relational style - shows intuitive thinking B. Relational style - able to focus on details C. Analytical style - displays improvisational, intuitive thinking D. Analytical style - displays good memory for relevant, verbal material Answer: A. Relational style - shows intuitive thinking 107. Neal, an Asian-American student would most likely: A. focus on detail. B. have a good memory for verbally presented ideas and information. C. learn materials that have a human, social content. D. perceive information as part of total picture. Answer: A. focus on detail. 108. An analytic learning style is most likely to be displayed by: A. Caucasian males. B. Asian-American females. C. Hispanic-American females. D. Native-American males. Answer: A. Caucasian males. 109. Which of the following students is most likely to display an analytical learning style? A. Jamal, an African-American male B. Lee, an Asian-American male C. Mona, a Caucasian female D. Nina, a Hispanic-American female Answer: B. Lee, an Asian-American male Worksheet Questions 110. _____________ is a decline in the behavioral response following repeated exposure to the same stimulus. Answer: Habituation 111. In Pavlov's study, the bell is both a(n) _____________ stimulus and a conditioned stimulus. Answer: neutral 112. A bright flash automatically causes us to blink. It is a(n) _____________ response. Answer: unconditioned 113. _____________ are intense, irrational fears. Answer: Phobias 114. _____________ occurs when an extinguished conditioned response reappears after a period of rest. Answer: Spontaneous recovery 115. Adam was badly stung by a bee when he was a child. Now he is frightened not only of bees but of all flying insects. This example illustrates _____________. Answer: stimulus generalization 116. Olympia consumed some poorly stored sushi on a hot day; she became violently ill. Now Olympia can't stand the sight of sushi. She has developed a(n) _____________ . Answer: learned taste aversion 117. A stimulus that increases the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated is termed a(n) _____________ . Answer: reinforcer 118. Money is an example of a _____________ reinforcer. Answer: secondary 119. Positive punishment _____________ a response through the application of an unpleasant stimulus. Answer: weakens 120. A weekly paycheck is an example of _____________ schedule. Answer: fixed-interval 121. When a behavior is reinforced in the presence of a specific stimulus, but not in its absence it is known as _____________ training. Answer: stimulus control 122. When your partner says "I'm going up to bed early," you follow expectantly. When he or she says, "I'm tired," you stay behind and say you'll read in the living room for a while. This is an example of a _____________ stimulus. Answer: discriminative 123. Shaping is one way that organisms learn _____________ behavior. Answer: complex 124. Dr. Margate specializes in using behavior modification techniques to help adults engage in health-promoting behaviors, such as exercising, quitting smoking, and so forth. Dr. Margate is a behavior _____________ . Answer: analyst 125. Dr. Tabachnik focuses on the expectations participants develop regarding the likelihood that a given behavior will be punished. Dr. Tabachnik might be described as a(n) _____________ theorist. Answer: cognitive learning 126. In the latent learning study described in the text, the rats that were reinforced only during the latter portion of the experiment would be considered a(n) _____________ group. Answer: experimental 127. In observational learning, the organism whose behavior is observed is termed the _____________ . Answer: model 128. _____________ are neurons that fire when we observe another person’s behavior. Answer: Mirror neurons 129. Although a "phonics" approach to reading instruction might capitalize on an analytic learning style, the "whole-word" approach may be better suited to a(n) _____________ learning style. Answer: relational Essay Questions 130. Explain classical conditioning with a suitable example. Answer: Students’ examples may vary. Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus (such as the experimenter's footsteps) comes to elicit a response after being paired with a stimulus (such as food) that naturally brings about that response. To demonstrate classical conditioning, Pavlov attached a tube to the salivary gland of a dog, allowing him to measure precisely the dog's salivation. He then rang a bell and, just a few seconds later, presented the dog with meat. This pairing occurred repeatedly and was carefully planned so that, each time, exactly the same amount of time elapsed between the presentation of the bell and the meat. At first the dog would salivate only when the meat was presented, but soon it began to salivate at the sound of the bell. In fact, even when Pavlov stopped presenting the meat, the dog still salivated after hearing the sound. The dog had been classically conditioned to salivate to the bell. Classical conditioning is a type of learning where a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus to produce a reflexive response. Example: Pavlov's dogs learned to salivate at the sound of a bell (neutral stimulus) after repeatedly hearing it before being fed (meaningful stimulus). Eventually, the bell alone triggered salivation, illustrating how a new response (salivation) was elicited by a previously neutral stimulus (bell) through association with an unconditioned stimulus (food). 131. In the case of Pavlov and his dog, identify and describe the following: neutral stimulus, unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus, and conditioned response. Answer: Before conditioning, there are two unrelated stimuli: the ringing of a bell and meat. We know that normally the ringing of a bell does not lead to salivation but to some irrelevant response, such as pricking up the ears or perhaps a startle reaction. The bell is therefore called the neutral stimulus, because it is a stimulus that, before conditioning, does not naturally bring about the response in which we are interested. We also have meat, which naturally causes a dog to salivate—the response we are interested in conditioning. The meat is considered an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) because food placed in a dog's mouth automatically causes salivation to occur. The response that the meat elicits (salivation) is called an unconditioned response (UCR)—a natural, innate, reflexive response that is not associated with previous learning. Unconditioned responses are always brought about by the presence of unconditioned stimuli. When conditioning is complete, the bell has evolved from a neutral stimulus to a conditioned stimulus (CS). At this time, salivation that occurs as a response to the conditioned stimulus (bell) is considered a conditioned response (CR). After conditioning, then, the conditioned stimulus evokes the conditioned response. 132. Making specific reference to such terms as UCS, CS, UCR, CR, and stimulus generalization, explain how classical conditioning may account for the development of a specific phobia. Answer: The acquisition of a phobia begins with an unconditioned stimulus that reflexively elicits a startled, anxious, or fearful response. Such UCSs include loud noises, a loss of bodily support, and tissue damage. Neutral stimuli occurring along with the unconditioned stimulus may become conditioned stimuli, able to elicit a conditioned response of fear or anxiety. In Watson and Rayner's "Little Albert" study, for example, a previously neutral white rat was presented along with an unconditioned stimulus of loud noise; Little Albert came to fear the rat. Through the process of stimulus generalization, fear or anxiety may be elicited not only by the original CS, but by similar stimuli as well; Little Albert, for example, became fearful of other white or furry objects in addition to rats. Example: Fear of flying: A fear of flying may be seen as essentially a fear of falling, of the loss of bodily support. During a period of turbulence, a flight passenger may experience a dropping or plummeting sensation, an unconditioned stimulus eliciting an unconditioned fear response. Surrounding stimuli, such as the flight cabin, may act as conditioned stimuli capable of eliciting a conditioned fear response. This response may generalize to the airplane itself and to other stimuli associated with flying. 133. Making reference to neutral, unconditioned, conditioned stimuli, unconditioned, and conditioned responses, distinguish between (a) extinction and spontaneous recovery and (b) stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination. Give an original example of either extinction or spontaneous recovery, and of either stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination. Answer: The answer should contain the following points: Extinction vs. spontaneous recovery: Extinction refers to the weakening and eventual disappearance of a conditioned response when the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus. For example, a cat conditioned to run toward the kitchen at the sound of an electric can opener may eventually stop doing so when its owner begins to feed it only dry food, rather than canned wet food. Spontaneous recovery refers to the reemergence of an extinguished conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus is again presented along with the conditioned stimulus. Returning to the previous example, a cat may immediately resume running toward the kitchen at the sound of the can opener when its owner again feeds it canned wet food after a period of feeding it only dry food. Stimulus generalization vs. stimulus discrimination: Stimulus generalization occurs when a conditioned stimulus is elicited not only by the original conditioned stimulus, but also by similar stimuli. An individual with a needle phobia may react with anxiety not only to injections or blood tests, but to also to the mere sight of an injection on television or of a discarded needle on the sidewalk. By contrast, stimulus generalization occurs when a stimulus that might seem somewhat similar to the original conditioned stimulus fails to elicit the conditioned stimulus. For example, an individual with a needle phobia may react with anxiety to the sight of an injection on television or of a discarded needle on the sidewalk, but not to the sight of scissors, knives, or other sharp objects. (a) Extinction vs. Spontaneous Recovery: • Extinction: Occurs when a conditioned response gradually diminishes or disappears when the conditioned stimulus is presented without the unconditioned stimulus (e.g., ringing a bell without food eventually stops eliciting salivation). • Spontaneous Recovery: After a period of extinction, the reappearance of a previously extinguished conditioned response following the presentation of the conditioned stimulus alone (e.g., the bell briefly causing salivation again after a break in training). (b) Stimulus Generalization vs. Stimulus Discrimination: • Stimulus Generalization: When similar stimuli to the conditioned stimulus elicit the conditioned response (e.g., a dog conditioned to salivate to a bell also salivates to a similar bell sound). • Stimulus Discrimination: Occurs when an organism learns to respond differently to various stimuli that are similar (e.g., a dog learns to only salivate to a specific pitch or tone of bell used during conditioning). 134. How have psychologists challenged Pavlov's traditional account of classical conditioning? Answer: Psychologists have challenged Pavlov's original description of classical conditioning by suggesting that biology influences the ease with which associations may be conditioned. Learning theorists influenced by cognitive psychology have argued that learners actively develop an understanding and expectancy about which particular unconditioned stimuli are matched with specific conditioned stimuli. A ringing bell, for instance, gives a dog something to think about: the impending arrival of food. Pavlov implied that all associations may be acquired with more or less equal ease. However, it appears that organisms are biologically prepared to learn certain associations more readily than others. One example is conditioned taste aversion. If a food makes an organism sick, the organism may acquire an association between stimuli associated with the food, such as its appearance or smell, and illness or nausea rapidly, perhaps after a single experience with illness following the food. 135. Imagine that you are a parent, a teacher, or a supervisor in a workplace. Give specific examples of how you might use (a) positive reinforcement, (b) negative reinforcement, (c) positive punishment, and (d) negative punishment to bring about desirable changes in the behavior of a child, student, or subordinate worker. Answer: Students’ examples may vary. The answer might include examples such as the following: Parent: Positive reinforcement. A parent may give a child money for completing household chores, thereby increasing the likelihood that he or she will complete chores in the future. Negative reinforcement. Following the exemplary completion of a series of chores, a parent might excuse the child from an odious chore he or she may have originally been expected to perform. The child may be more likely in the future to complete his or her chores. Positive punishment. A parent may reprimand a child harshly for hitting a sibling. The child should be less likely to hit the sibling in the future. Negative punishment. A parent may send a child to his or her room without dessert if the child throws a tantrum during the evening meal. The child should be less likely to throw tantrums in the future. Teacher: Positive reinforcement. A teacher may praise a student for completing an assignment without errors, thereby increasing the likelihood that he or she will complete assignments correctly in the future. Negative reinforcement. A teacher may eliminate a homework assignment if recent homework has been completed in a timely and accurate fashion; the student's performance may improve in the future as a result. Positive punishment. A teacher may write harsh comments on a carelessly done homework assignment, perhaps reducing the likelihood that assignments will be completed sloppily in the future. Negative punishment. A child may be forced to sit alone in a corner or in the cloakroom if he or she behaves aggressively toward classmates; aggressive behavior should decrease in the future as a result. Supervisor: Positive reinforcement. A supervisor may give an employee a value card to a local restaurant or department store following a highly productive week, thereby encouraging future productivity. Negative reinforcement. A supervisor may grant an employee a personal day or an extended lunch hour for exemplary work performance, encouraging high performance in the future. Positive punishment. A supervisor may lecture an employee for making an off-color remark to another worker; the employee may be less likely to make such remarks in the future. Negative punishment. A supervisor may eliminate a perk such as free coffee when employees abuse workplace privileges. Workers should be less likely to abuse privileges in the future. (a) Positive Reinforcement: As a teacher, praising a student for completing homework on time to encourage consistent academic effort. (b) Negative Reinforcement: As a supervisor, removing a tedious task from a worker's responsibilities after they meet performance targets, reinforcing productivity. (c) Positive Punishment: As a parent, giving extra chores to a child who misbehaves, associating the unwanted behavior with an unpleasant consequence. (d) Negative Punishment: As a teacher, temporarily taking away recess privileges from a disruptive student, aiming to decrease disruptive behavior in the classroom. 136. Suppose that you are asked to lead a workshop for parents on the use of punishment and reinforcement to manage child and adolescent behavior. What might you tell the parents regarding the appropriate and inappropriate use of punishment? Provide concrete examples to support your points. Suggest how parents might use punishment more effectively and how they might substitute reinforcement for punishment. Provide concrete examples to support your points. Answer: Students’ examples may vary. Punishment is sometimes appropriate. It is the most rapid means of suppressing behavior that may be dangerous to continue, such as running into the street or playing with matches. Punishment has also been applied successfully to prevent self-injury among autistic children. Punishment is often used ineffectively by parents. First, punishment is only effective if it is delivered immediately after the undesirable behavior. For example, the threat, "Wait until your father gets home!" will do little to stop a toddler from writing on the wall. If punishment is to be used, it should be delivered while the behavior is underway. Second, the use of physical punishment—e.g., spanking, whipping—conveys the message that physical aggression is appropriate. It may cause the child to fear or evade the parent, and it may damage a child's self-esteem. A child may conceal his undesirable behavior, such as by writing on the walls inside a closet. Third, punishment is really only effective if it is accompanied by the reinforcement of desirable alternatives to the punished behavior. A parent might additionally reinforce drawing or writing on paper rather than on the wall, rather than only punishing the child when he writes on the wall. Punishment in and of itself does little to convey information regarding more appropriate behaviors. I would advise parents that punishment should be used sparingly and appropriately: • Appropriate Use: Setting clear expectations and consequences, such as a time-out for hitting a sibling, to teach alternatives to aggressive behavior. • Inappropriate Use: Avoiding harsh physical punishments that can lead to fear or resentment, like spanking for minor infractions. Encouraging effective use of reinforcement: • Positive Reinforcement: Praising a child for completing chores or displaying good manners to encourage consistent positive behavior. • Substitution for Punishment: Instead of scolding for a messy room, reinforcing organization skills by rewarding tidying efforts with extra playtime. 137. What are the pros and cons of punishment? Answer: Punishment often presents the quickest route to changing behavior that, if allowed to continue, might be dangerous to an individual. There are some rare instances in which punishment can be the most humane approach to treating certain severe disorders. For example, some children suffer from autism, a psychological disorder that can lead them to abuse themselves by tearing at their skin or banging their heads against the wall, injuring themselves severely in the process. In such cases—and when all other treatments have failed—punishment in the form of a quick but intense electric shock has been used to prevent self-injurious behavior. Such punishment, however, is used only to keep the child safe and to buy time until positive reinforcement procedures can be initiated. Punishment has several disadvantages that make its routine questionable. For one thing, punishment is frequently ineffective, particularly if it is not delivered shortly after the undesired behavior or if the individual is able to leave the setting in which the punishment is being given. Even worse, physical punishment can convey to the recipient the idea that physical aggression is permissible and perhaps even desirable. In addition, physical punishment is often administered by people who are themselves angry or enraged. It is unlikely that individuals in such an emotional state will be able to think through what they are doing or control carefully the degree of punishment they are inflicting. Finally, punishment does not convey any information about what an alternative, more appropriate behavior might be. To be useful in bringing about more desirable behavior in the future, punishment must be accompanied by specific information about the behavior that is being punished, along with specific suggestions concerning a more desirable behavior. 138. Draw on your knowledge of positive and negative reinforcement, punishment, schedules of reinforcement, stimulus control training, discriminative stimuli, shaping, and biological constraints on learning to describe how you might use operant conditioning to train domestic animals—e.g., dogs, cats, horses, etc.—to perform desired behaviors. Answer: Students' answers may vary. Positive reinforcement. We may reward a kitten with a cuddle when it begins to use its litter box. Punishment. We may squirt a cat with water each time it climbs on the furniture or the curtains. Schedules of reinforcement. When training a puppy to sit on command, we might reinforce it on a continuous schedule at first to facilitate the acquisition of the behavior; we may then fade the reinforcement schedule, reinforcing it on a fixed- or variable-ratio intermittent schedule to make the behavior resistant to extinction. Stimulus control training and discriminative stimuli. We might wish to train a cat to use an outdoor litter box rather than a flower bed; we might reinforce the cat for using the box but punish it for using the flower bed. Shaping. When training a puppy to sit on command, we might reinforce successive approximations to the desired behavior. For example, we might initially reinforce even fairly general squatting motions; later we might reinforce only a full sit. Biological constraints on learning. We may take advantage of species-typical behaviors to train animals. Examples include the tendency of cats to bury their feces, the tendency of some breeds of dogs to burrow, and so on. To train domestic animals using operant conditioning: • Positive Reinforcement: Reward desired behaviors like sitting with treats or praise to increase their frequency. • Negative Reinforcement: Remove aversive stimuli when the animal complies, such as stopping leash tension when walking calmly beside you. • Schedules of Reinforcement: Use intermittent reinforcement to maintain behaviors, such as rewarding only occasionally after the behavior is established. • Stimulus Control and Discriminative Stimuli: Use specific cues (like a clicker for dogs) to signal when the behavior is expected, enhancing learning efficiency. 139. Identify and define the four schedules of intermittent or partial reinforcement. Provide day-to-day examples of each of the four schedules. Identify two specific ways that college professors might use our understanding of the schedules to increase the frequency with which students study course materials. Answer: Students’ examples may vary. The answer should include the following: Four schedules of intermittent reinforcement: Fixed-interval (FI), fixed-ratio (FR), variable-interval (VI), and variable-ratio (VR) schedules. Definitions and examples: Fixed-interval (FI). Reinforcement is delivered following a set or constant time period. Typical examples include grades and paychecks. Fixed-ratio (FR). Reinforcement is delivered following a set or constant number of responses. Piecework offers a typical example. Variable-interval (VI). Reinforcement is delivered following a time period that varies around an average. Fishing and holding on the phone are reinforced on a VI schedule. Variable-ratio (VR). Reinforcement is delivered following a variable number of responses. Salespeople are reinforced with sales on such a schedule. Slot machines deliver payoffs on a VR schedule. Professors might try to take advantage of the higher rates of responding seen under ratio schedules. Using an FR schedule, for example, professors could award points for each chapter summary or review completed. The text also suggests that giving quizzes on a VI rather than an FI schedule—that is, giving "pop" quizzes—might encourage students to study more regularly. The four schedules of intermittent reinforcement are: 1. Fixed Ratio (FR): Reinforcement is given after a fixed number of responses. • Example: A coffee shop offers a free coffee after every 10 purchases. 2. Variable Ratio (VR): Reinforcement is given after a variable number of responses. • Example: Playing a slot machine where a win can occur unpredictably after several plays. 3. Fixed Interval (FI): Reinforcement is given for the first response after a fixed time interval. • Example: Checking for mail at the same time every day to catch the mail carrier. 4. Variable Interval (VI): Reinforcement is given for the first response after a variable time interval. • Example: Checking social media for updates, as notifications arrive at unpredictable times. College professors might use these schedules to increase student study behavior by: • Implementing Fixed Interval Schedules: Releasing quizzes or study guides at regular intervals, encouraging consistent review. • Using Variable Ratio Schedules: Rewarding students randomly with bonus points or praise for engagement during lectures or discussions, promoting active participation. 140. Identify a behavior of your own that you would like to perform more frequently (e.g., studying, completing household chores or yard work) or less frequently (e.g., snacking, smoking cigarettes). Outline a step-by-step behavior modification program that might help you achieve your goal. Answer: The behavior students identify may differ. Identifying goals and target behaviors. Define the desired behavior change and state goals and specific targets in observable, measurable terms. Example: Goal—to smoke fewer cigarettes; Target—to smoke no more than five cigarettes each day. Designing a data-recording system and recording preliminary data. Collect baseline data. Example: record the number of cigarettes smoked each day for one week prior to attempting to change the behavior. Selecting a behavior change strategy. Select strategies based on operant conditioning principles. More than one strategy should be used. For example, one might reward oneself with a desired activity (e.g., a phone call to a friend) each day that one meets the five-cigarette target. One might also reinforce activities incompatible with smoking cigarettes, such as visiting the gym. Implementing the program. Apply the program consistently. Keeping records. Monitor target behaviors. Example: record the number of cigarettes smoked each day; record the delivery of reinforcements, etc. Evaluating and altering the ongoing program. Compare program data to the baseline data to determine the success of the program. If the program has been successful, it can be gradually faded; if it has not, changes may be made. Behavior: Snacking less frequently between meals. 1. Baseline Assessment: Track current snacking habits for a week to identify patterns and triggers. 2. Behavior Goal: Set a specific goal (e.g., limit to one healthy snack per day). 3. Intervention: Use stimulus control by removing tempting snacks from easy access, and implement a fixed interval schedule to delay snacking urges. 4. Reinforcement: Reward adherence to the goal with non-food rewards like a relaxing break or enjoyable activity. Adjust and monitor progress weekly to maintain motivation and success. 141. How do the phenomena of latent and observational learning force a reconsideration of the view of learning offered by classical and operant conditioning theorists? Provide as thoughtful a response as you can. Answer: Two key ideas should form the core of the answer: (1) latent and observational learning phenomena suggest that direct reinforcement may not be necessary for an individual to learn; and (2) latent and observational learning phenomena suggest that internal processes may be a necessary component of any complete explanation of learning. In Tolman's latent learning work, rats who began reinforcement for running a maze only halfway through the experiment rapidly matched the performance of rats who had been receiving reinforcement from the beginning, suggesting that they had been developing some internal representation of the maze all along. Reinforcement was not necessary for learning to occur; it was necessary only for the demonstration of learning in behavior. In Bandura's "Bobo doll" experiments, children only needed to see a model reinforced for aggressive behavior to become more aggressive themselves. Observational learning is supported internally by networks of mirror neurons. 142. Briefly describe observational learning and Bandura's Bobo doll research. Discuss how this research altered conventional views of learning. What role might mirror neurons play in observational learning? Answer: According to psychologist Albert Bandura and colleagues, a major part of human learning consists of observational learning, which is learning by watching the behavior of another person, or model. Because of its reliance on observation of others—a social phenomenon—the perspective taken by Bandura is often referred to as a social cognitive approach to learning. Observational learning is particularly important in acquiring skills in which the operant conditioning technique of shaping is inappropriate. Observational learning may have a genetic basis. For example, we find observational learning at work with mother animals teaching their young such activities as hunting. In addition, the discovery of mirror neurons that fire when we observe another person carrying out a behavior suggests that the capacity to imitate others may be innate. Not all behavior that we witness is learned or carried out, of course. One crucial factor that determines whether we later imitate a model is whether the model is rewarded for his or her behavior. Models who are rewarded for behaving in a particular way are more apt to be mimicked than are models who receive punishment. Observing the punishment of a model, however, does not necessarily stop observers from learning the behavior. Observers can still describe the model's behavior—they are just less apt to perform it. Observational learning is central to a number of important issues relating to the extent to which people learn simply by watching the behavior of others. 143. Observational learning research suggests that seeing others reinforced for particular behaviors may encourage our own acquisition of similar behaviors. To what extent is exposure to media violence associated with the acquisition of aggressive behavior? Answer: Different levels of media violence are associated with aggressive behavior. The text offers the following evidence: • One survey of incarcerated, violent young male offenders showed that 25% had tried to commit a media-inspired copycat crime. • College students who frequently played violent video games were more likely to have been involved in delinquent behavior and aggression. The text mentions three specific mechanisms by which media violence may contribute to real-life aggression: (1) it may lower inhibitions against behaving aggressively; (2) it may predispose us to see others' behavior as aggressive even when it is not; and (3) it may desensitize us to violence. 144. To what extent does culture influence learning style? Distinguish between analytic and relational learning styles and suggest how they might vary across sociocultural groups. How might they reflect cross-cultural differences in parenting or teaching practices? Answer: The answer should include the following elements: Analytic learning style—Individuals with an analytic learning style perform best when they can undertake an initial analysis of the principles and components underlying a phenomenon. Relational learning style—Individuals with a relational learning style perform best when they are first exposed to a full unit or complete phenomenon; the individual parts are best understood through their relationship to the whole. Caucasian and Asian-American males tend to display an analytic learning style; Caucasian females and African-, Native-, and Hispanic-American males and females tend to display a relational style. Parenting and teaching practices may encourage the development of one or the other of the learning styles. Western education tends to reinforce the acquisition of an analytic style, as does Caucasian-American parenting; it is possible that parenting styles among other sociocultural groups tend to encourage a more relational style. Culture significantly shapes learning styles, with analytic learning emphasizing individual tasks and detail-oriented approaches, while relational learning emphasizes relationships and holistic understanding. In some cultures, such as East Asian, analytic styles may be more prevalent due to emphasis on precision and memorization, whereas relational styles, prevalent in collectivist cultures like many in Africa or South America, prioritize interpersonal connections and context. Parenting and teaching practices may reinforce these styles; for instance, authoritative parenting in Western cultures might foster analytic skills, while communal parenting in many African cultures could cultivate relational learning through group interactions and shared responsibilities. Test Bank for Essentials of Understanding Psychology Robert S. Feldman 9780077861889, 9781259255786, 9781260829013

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