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Chapter 14 Social Psychology Multiple Choice Questions 1. Mr. Muller has an unfavorable view of an offshore drilling moratorium enacted in the wake of a major oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico. A social psychologist would most likely say that Mr. Muller has a(n): A. attribution for the moratorium. B. schema for the moratorium. C. impression of the moratorium. D. attitude toward the moratorium. Answer: D. attitude toward the moratorium. 2. Which of the following is TRUE of factors that determine changes in attitudes? A. Two-sided messages are less effective than one-sided messages. B. Fear-producing messages are generally less effective when they provide the audience with a means for reducing the fear. C. The communicator's expertise and trustworthiness are related to the impact of a message. D. There is no existence of gender differences in persuasibility. Answer: C. The communicator's expertise and trustworthiness are related to the impact of a message. 3. When compared to a one-sided message, a two-sided message is: A. equally persuasive. B. somewhat less persuasive. C. much less persuasive. D. more persuasive. Answer: D. more persuasive. 4. Which of the following occurs when the recipient thoughtfully considers the issues and arguments involved in persuasion? A. Central route processing B. Cognitive dissonance C. Peripheral route processing D. Emotional appeal Answer: A. Central route processing 5. Which of the following statements is TRUE of central route processing? A. Central route processing occurs when people are persuaded on the basis of factors unrelated to the nature or quality of the content of a persuasive message. B. In central route processing, people are swayed in their judgments by the logic, merit, and strength of arguments. C. In central route processing, people are persuaded on the basis of factors that are extraneous to the issue, such as how long the arguments are, or the emotional appeal of the arguments. D. People who are disinterested, unmotivated, bored, or distracted use central route processing to comprehend a message. Answer: A. Central route processing occurs when people are persuaded on the basis of factors unrelated to the nature or quality of the content of a persuasive message. 6. _____________ occurs when people are persuaded on the basis of factors unrelated to the nature or quality of the content of a persuasive message. A. Cognitive dissonance B. Logical conclusion C. Peripheral route processing D. Central route processing Answer: C. Peripheral route processing 7. An ad agency creates two ads for a particular car. One stresses the car's safety and gas mileage; the other simply shows how fun it is to drive. The first ad relies on the _____________ route to persuasion; the second, on the _____________ route. A. peripheral; central B. central; peripheral C. primary; secondary D. secondary; primary Answer: B. central; peripheral 8. Blanche is extremely interested in politics and believes an upcoming election is very important to the future. Blanche would most likely be persuaded by a campaign message relying on the _____________ route to persuasion. A. primary B. secondary C. central D. peripheral Answer: C. central 9. Which of the following is TRUE of central route processing? A. People who are disinterested, unmotivated, bored, or distracted use central route processing to comprehend a message. B. People who have a low need for cognition are more likely to employ central route processing. C. People who have a low need for cognition become impatient when forced to spend too much time thinking about an issue, and consequently use central route processing. D. People with a high habitual level of thoughtfulness and cognitive activity are more likely to employ central route processing. Answer: D. People with a high habitual level of thoughtfulness and cognitive activity are more likely to employ central route processing. 10. Richard, a venture capitalist, funds budding entrepreneurs on the basis of the business plans presented. When a business plan is complex, logical, and presented in a detailed manner, Richard is convinced and provides funding to the entrepreneur. This implies that Richard: A. has a low need for cognition. B. is more likely persuaded by using central route processing. C. becomes impatient when forced to spend too much time thinking about an issue. D. does not enjoy thinking and reflecting on the world, and hence uses peripheral route processing. Answer: B. is more likely persuaded by using central route processing. 11. A person who enjoys thinking, reflecting, and philosophizing is most likely to score high on a measure of the need for: A. achievement. B. ideation. C. affiliation. D. cognition. Answer: D. cognition. 12. Which of the following is TRUE of peripheral route processing? A. People who enjoy thinking, philosophizing, and reflecting on the world, use peripheral route processing. B. People who use peripheral route processing are persuaded by factors other than the quality and detail of messages. C. People who use peripheral route processing are likely to be persuaded by complex, logical, and detailed messages. D. People who have a high need for cognition are more likely to employ peripheral route processing. Answer: B. People who use peripheral route processing are persuaded by factors other than the quality and detail of messages. 13. You are developing advertisements to promote a political candidate. One ad is a radio spot airing during "drive time," when listeners are stressed, distracted, and impatient. Another advertisement is a print ad to appear in national newspapers and business magazines. Based on this information, which of the following would you recommend? A. Both the radio spot and the print ad should rely on the peripheral route to persuasion. B. The radio spot should rely on the peripheral route to persuasion. C. Both the radio spot and the print ad should rely on the central route to persuasion. D. The print ad should rely on the peripheral route to persuasion. Answer: B. The radio spot should rely on the peripheral route to persuasion. 14. Carter loves philosophical discussions and theoretical debates; Dante, by contrast, is more interested in the practical and concrete and becomes impatient with hypothetical speculations. Carter is most likely to be persuaded via the _____________ route; Dante, via the _____________. A. peripheral route; peripheral route as well B. peripheral route; central route C. central route; central route as well D. central route; peripheral route Answer: D. central route; peripheral route 15. Andrea and Lily went together to watch a movie. Andrea was very excited to watch the movie, whereas Lily was absolutely bored and disinterested. While Andrea liked the script and the message of the movie, Lily liked only the location and the clothes worn by the lead actors in the movie. Based on this information, one can infer that Lily: A. has a high need for cognition. B. reflects on persuasive messages by employing central route processing. C. makes judgments based on logical and complex messages. D. is persuaded by using peripheral route processing. Answer: D. is persuaded by using peripheral route processing. 16. An advertising agency creates two television commercials for a line of kitchen and laundry appliances. Commercial A emphasizes the sleek styling of the appliances, whereas Commercial B stresses the reliability and energy efficiency of the machines. Will the effectiveness of the two commercials vary as a function of the viewers' need for cognition? A. Commercials A and B should be equally effective, regardless of the viewers' need for cognition. B. Commercial A should be more effective than Commercial B, regardless of the viewers' need for cognition. C. Commercial A should be more effective than Commercial B for viewers with a low need for cognition, whereas Commercial B should be more effective than Commercial A for viewers with a high need for cognition. D. Commercial B should be more effective than Commercial A for viewers with a low need for cognition, whereas Commercial A should be more effective than Commercial B for viewers with a high need for cognition. Answer: C. Commercial A should be more effective than Commercial B for viewers with a low need for cognition, whereas Commercial B should be more effective than Commercial A for viewers with a high need for cognition. 17. Social psychologist Leon Festinger is associated with the study of: A. routes to persuasion. B. cognitive dissonance. C. conformity. D. obedience. Answer: B. cognitive dissonance. 18. The mental conflict that occurs when a person holds two contradictory attitudes or thoughts is known as: A. social cognition. B. halo effect. C. cognitive dissonance. D. schema. Answer: C. cognitive dissonance. 19. Sets of cognitions about people and social experiences are called _____________. A. images B. algorithms C. halo effects D. schemas Answer: D. schemas 20. Fallon has an idea of what politicians are like: they are often lawyers; they are smooth and communicate well; but they are not always honest. These characteristics are components of Fallon's _____________ of politicians. A. concept B. schema C. image D. propositional framework Answer: B. schema 21. Which of the following is TRUE of schemas? A. A schema occurs when a person holds two contradictory attitudes or thoughts. B. Schemas are never susceptible to error. C. Schemas are absolutely accurate as our moods affect how we perceive others and we make judgments based on our moods. D. Schemas help us predict what others are like on the basis of relatively little information. Answer: D. Schemas help us predict what others are like on the basis of relatively little information. 22. Unusually important characteristics that help one form an initial overall impression of another individual are called _____________ traits. A. primary B. cardinal C. central D. schematic Answer: C. central 23. One forms an impression of another individual: A. very quickly, within a few seconds. B. very quickly, within a few minutes. C. gradually, over time. D. within the first several encounters. Answer: A. very quickly, within a few seconds. 24. _____________ are brought about by something in the environment. A. Dispositional causes B. Situational causes C. Internal causes D. Personality causes Answer: B. Situational causes 25. Fiona got an e-mail from her manager, Rebecca, asking her to meet to discuss a past project. Unfortunately, Fiona was struggling to complete a project due that afternoon and had to reply that she was too busy to meet today. Rebecca was not pleased with Fiona's refusal to meet her and told another coworker that she thought Fiona was "too busy and important" to meet with her supervisor, thus she is an unpleasant snob. Rebecca is making a _____________ attribution of Fiona. A. situational B. dispositional C. primary D. secondary Answer: B. dispositional 26. Perceived causes of behavior that are based on internal traits or personality factors are called _____________ causes. A. situational B. circumstantial C. environmental D. dispositional Answer: D. dispositional 27. "Probably, he cheated on the test because he is a dishonest person." This is a(n) _____________ attribution. A. dispositional B. situational C. central D. peripheral Answer: A. dispositional 28. Which of the following attribution biases is correctly matched with its definition? A. Halo effect—An initial impression that an individual has some positive (or negative) traits leads us to infer that they have many other positive (or negative) characteristics as well. B. Self-serving bias—We overemphasize dispositional factors when explaining other people's behavior. C. Fundamental attribution error—We assume that other people are similar to ourselves, even when we first meet them. D. Assumed-similarity bias—The tendency to attribute personal success to personal factors (skill, ability, or effort) and to attribute failure to factors outside oneself. Answer: A. Halo effect—An initial impression that an individual has some positive (or negative) traits leads us to infer that they have many other positive (or negative) characteristics as well. 29. Sharon was made the captain of her softball team due to her excellent playing skills. However, the fact that she did not display good team management skills and was not very cooperative with her teammates was ignored while making her the captain. Which of the following biases is illustrated in this instance? A. Fundamental attribution error B. Assumed-similarity bias C. Self-serving bias D. Halo effect Answer: D. Halo effect 30. George met Paul at a seminar for the first time. When Paul expressed his political interests, George felt that Paul was very much like him as they shared the same opinions on political ideals. George's inference is an example of: A. selective perception. B. self-serving bias. C. assumed-similarity bias. D. fundamental attribution error. Answer: C. assumed-similarity bias. 31. Shaun is angry at the way a coworker has treated him. Shaun feels justified in his anger because "surely, anybody would feel the same way if the same thing happened to them." This example reveals Shaun's susceptibility to the: A. halo effect. B. assumed-similarity bias. C. self-serving bias. D. fundamental attribution error. Answer: B. assumed-similarity bias. 32. The tendency to attribute personal success to personal factors (skill, ability, or effort) and to attribute failure to factors outside oneself is known as the: A. assumed-similarity bias. B. halo effect. C. self-serving bias D. fundamental attribution error. Answer: C. self-serving bias 33. If you are exhibiting the self-serving bias, which statement would be your most likely explanation for a poor grade on the test? A. "The professor doesn't know how to teach." B. "I'm just not very good at this subject." C. "I didn't study well enough to get a good grade." D. "In general, I'm not very smart." Answer: A. "The professor doesn't know how to teach." 34. If we do well on a test, we say, "I got an A!" If we do poorly, we say, "She gave me an F." This best illustrates: A. the assumed-similarity bias. B. the fundamental attribution error. C. the self-serving bias. D. the halo effect. Answer: C. the self-serving bias. 35. Which of the following is TRUE of the fundamental attribution error? A. There are weak group level differences in the use of the fundamental attribution error. B. It is actually not very common, either in Western or Eastern cultures. C. It is more common in Western than in Eastern cultures. D. It is more common in Eastern than in Western cultures. Answer: C. It is more common in Western than in Eastern cultures. 36. In determining the causes of others' behavior, we overemphasize _____________ factors; this is the _____________. A. dispositional; self-serving bias B. dispositional; fundamental attribution error C. situational; self-serving bias D. situational; fundamental attribution error Answer: B. dispositional; fundamental attribution error 37. The fundamental attribution error is very common because: A. when we view another person's behavior in a particular setting, the most conspicuous information is the person's immediate surroundings. B. we center on an individual's immediate surroundings which change rapidly without focusing on the person's behavior. C. of the nature of information available to the people making an attribution. D. we tend to exaggerate the importance of environmental factors in producing others' behavior and minimize the influence of personality characteristics. Answer: C. of the nature of information available to the people making an attribution. 38. While making a fundamental attribution error, we center our attention on the person whose behavior we're considering because: A. we are more likely to make attributions based on personal situational factors and less likely to make attributions relating to the dispositional factors. B. the individual's immediate surroundings remain relatively unchanged and less attention-grabbing. C. we tend to exaggerate the importance of environmental factors in producing others' behavior and minimize the influence of personality characteristics. D. when we view another person's behavior in a particular setting, the most conspicuous information is the person's immediate surroundings. Answer: B. the individual's immediate surroundings remain relatively unchanged and less attention-grabbing. 39. The field of _____________ examines the influence of cognitive biases and attribution errors on people's economic decision making. A. forensic psychology B. economic psychology C. industrial/organizational psychology D. behavioral economics Answer: D. behavioral economics 40. Behavioral economists: A. focus on the irrationality of judgments. B. view people as rational beings. C. view people as thoughtful decision makers. D. see people as decision makers who impartially weigh choices to draw conclusions. Answer: A. focus on the irrationality of judgments. 41. _____________ is the process by which communal groups and individuals exert pressure on an individual, either deliberately or unintentionally. A. Central interaction B. Altruism C. Diffusion of responsibility D. Social influence Answer: D. Social influence 42. Which of the following statements is TRUE of a group? A. The existence of a person in a group does not affect any other group member. B. People in a group do not perceive themselves as part of a group. C. A group consists of people who are interdependent. D. The behavior of members does not have any significant consequence for the success of the group in meeting its goals. Answer: C. A group consists of people who are interdependent. 43. Dahlia is trying to make partner at one of the city's most prestigious law firms. It is generally understood that associates remain hard at work in the office until at least 7 or 8 each evening. This is an element of the firm's group: A. role. B. schema. C. norm. D. attitude. Answer: C. norm. 44. _____________ refers to a change in behavior or attitudes brought about by a desire to follow the beliefs or standards of other people. A. Dissonance B. Conformity C. Schema D. Incongruity Answer: B. Conformity 45. Which of the following statements is TRUE of conformity? A. People working on ambiguous tasks and questions (those with no clear answer) are less susceptible to conformity. B. The less attractive a group appears to its members, the greater its ability to produce conformity. C. Conformity is considerably lower when people must respond publicly. D. Subtle or even unspoken social pressure results in conformity. Answer: D. Subtle or even unspoken social pressure results in conformity. 46. Classic experimental studies of conformity were conducted in the 1950s by: A. Solomon Asch. B. Stanley Milgram. C. Philip Zimbardo. D. Leon Festinger. Answer: A. Solomon Asch. 47. In Asch's classic conformity studies, participants thought they were taking part in a study of: A. learning. B. perceptual skills. C. prison life. D. visual learning. Answer: B. perceptual skills. 48. In Asch's study on conformity, what percentage of the subjects conformed at least once when they knew their answer to be false? A. 10% B. 35% C. 50% D. 75% Answer: D. 75% 49. The social rank held within a group is termed _____________. A. social support B. status C. groupthink D. social pressure Answer: B. status 50. Which of the following was a significant finding in studies conducted by Asch on conformity? A. Conformity is considerably higher when people must respond publicly. B. People working on ambiguous tasks and questions (those with no clear answer) are less susceptible to conformity. C. Groups that unanimously support a position show the least pronounced conformity pressures. D. Tasks at which an individual is less competent than others in the group make conformity less likely. Answer: A. Conformity is considerably higher when people must respond publicly. 51. Identify the correct statement regarding conformity. A. Conformity is considerably higher when people must respond privately. B. The higher a person's status in the group, the greater the groups' power over that person's behavior. C. People without a clear answer are more susceptible to conformity. D. Conformity does not arise from subtle social pressure. Answer: C. People without a clear answer are more susceptible to conformity. 52. Which of the following is TRUE of the findings made by Asch on conformity? A. The more attractive a group appears to its members, the lesser its ability to produce conformity. B. Conformity is considerably higher when people must respond privately than it is when they can do so publicly. C. There is less chance for conformity when an individual is less competent at a task than others in the group. D. Groups that unanimously support a position show the most pronounced conformity pressures. Answer: D. Groups that unanimously support a position show the most pronounced conformity pressures. 53. According to Asch's pioneering work on conformity, which of the following statements is true? A. Groups that unanimously support a position show the least pronounced conformity pressures. B. Having just one person present who shares the minority point of view is sufficient to reduce conformity pressures. C. Conformity refers to behavior that occurs only in response to direct social pressure. D. The more attractive a group appears to its members, the lesser its ability to produce conformity. Answer: B. Having just one person present who shares the minority point of view is sufficient to reduce conformity pressures. 54. How might the presence of a single dissenter influence the degree of conformity seen in a study modeled on Asch's classic investigation? A. It would have no effect. B. It would reduce it, but only slightly. C. It would greatly reduce it. D. It would actually increase it, because of groupthink. Answer: C. It would greatly reduce it. 55. Which of the following statements is TRUE of groupthink? A. Groupthink typically leads to excellent decisions. B. Under groupthink, members lose the ability to critically evaluate alternative points of view. C. Groupthink is most likely to occur when a weak leader is surrounded by people of powerful status. D. Under groupthink, groups increase the list of possible solutions and spend maximum time on considering various alternatives. Answer: B. Under groupthink, members lose the ability to critically evaluate alternative points of view. 56. _____________ refers to a circumstance in which commitments to a failing point of view or course of action are increased to justify investments in time and energy that have already been made. A. Catharsis B. Fundamental attribution C. Door-in-the-face effect D. Entrapment Answer: D. Entrapment 57. A petroleum company enacts a plan to stem the flow of oil gushing from a broken rig. The plan is largely unsuccessful. Nevertheless, the company continues to promote and finance the plan. Which of the following concepts is illustrated in this example? A. Cognitive dissonance B. Foot-in-the-door effect C. Self-serving bias D. Entrapment Answer: D. Entrapment 58. Which of the following statements is TRUE of social roles and social norms? A. Social role refers to behavior that occurs in response to direct social pressure. B. Social roles are the behaviors that are associated with people in a given position. C. Conforming to a social role does not induce people to change their behavior in undesirable ways. D. Social norms are less specific than social norms, because they do not apply to particular social positions. Answer: B. Social roles are the behaviors that are associated with people in a given position. 59. The influential "prison" study of the power of social roles was conducted by: A. Solomon Asch. B. Stanley Milgram. C. Philip Zimbardo. D. Leon Festinger. Answer: C. Philip Zimbardo. 60. Which alternative below correctly defines a social influence concept? A. Conformity - a change in behavior in response to commands B. Compliance - a change in behavior or attitudes in response to direct social pressure C. Obedience - a change in behavior or attitudes in order to follow social norms D. Conformity - a change in behavior or attitudes in response to direct social pressure Answer: B. Compliance - a change in behavior or attitudes in response to direct social pressure 61. In the _____________ technique, one asks a person to agree to a small request which—because it is small—the likelihood that he or she will comply is fairly high. A. not-so-free B. foot-in-the-door C. door-in-the-face D. that's-not-all Answer: B. foot-in-the-door 62. A magazine publisher asks you to commit to a brief trial subscription. Having committed to the trial subscription, you may be more likely to buy a full year-long subscription. This exemplifies the _____________ compliance technique. A. door-in-the-face B. foot-in-the-door C. foot-in-the-mouth D. that's-not-all Answer: B. foot-in-the-door 63. The foot-in-the-door technique works because: A. of the effectiveness of the norm of reciprocity. B. an incentive, discount, or bonus is always offered. C. the first large request is always refused and the smaller request is accepted. D. involvement with the small request leads to an interest in an issue. Answer: D. involvement with the small request leads to an interest in an issue. 64. In the _____________ technique, someone makes a large request, expects it to be refused, and follows it with a smaller one. A. not-so-free B. foot-in-the-door C. door-in-the-face D. that's-not-all Answer: C. door-in-the-face 65. A man asks you for $10 as you walk down the street. You refuse. He then asks for $2. You give it to him. The man has used the _____________ compliance technique. A. door-in-the-face B. foot-in-the-door C. foot-in-the-mouth D. that's-not-all Answer: A. door-in-the-face 66. Which of the following compliance techniques is correctly matched with its description? A. Foot-in-the-door—Someone makes a large request, expects it to be refused, and follows it with a smaller one. B. Door-in-the-face—When salespeople provide samples to potential customers, they do so to instigate the norm of reciprocity. C. That's-not-all technique—When a salesperson offers you a deal at an inflated price, immediately after the initial offer, the salesperson offers an incentive, discount, or bonus to clinch the deal. D. Not-so-free sample—You ask a person to agree to a small request which—because it is small—the likelihood that he or she will comply is fairly high. Answer: C. That's-not-all technique—When a salesperson offers you a deal at an inflated price, immediately after the initial offer, the salesperson offers an incentive, discount, or bonus to clinch the deal. 67. On late-night TV, you see an infomercial claiming that the price of the product has been slashed for a special offer and now includes a bonus sample size of something that is in adjunct to the product. This illustrates the _____________ compliance technique. A. door-in-the-face B. foot-in-the-door C. foot-in-the-mouth D. that's-not-all Answer: D. that's-not-all 68. Which of the following sales techniques is based on the "norm of reciprocity"? A. That's-not-all technique B. Door-in-the-face technique C. Not-so-free-sample technique D. Foot-in-the-door technique Answer: C. Not-so-free-sample technique 69. Dr. Greene studies ways to increase the safety behavior of workers on offshore oil platforms. Dr. Greene is a(n) _____________ psychologist. A. developmental B. social C. cognitive D. industrial-organizational Answer: D. industrial-organizational 70. The classic "shock" study of obedience is associated with: A. Solomon Asch. B. Stanley Milgram. C. Philip Zimbardo. D. Leon Festinger. Answer: B. Stanley Milgram. 71. Milgram's participants were told that the study concerned: A. obedience. B. visual perception. C. learning. D. problem solving. Answer: C. learning. 72. Approximately _____________ of the participants in Milgram's experiment were willing to deliver the maximum shock level to the participant. A. 35% B. 50% C. 65% D. 75% Answer: C. 65% 73. Which alternative correctly names the psychologist often associated with a given social influence concept? A. Conformity - Cialdini B. Compliance - Asch C. Obedience - Festinger D. Obedience - Milgram Answer: D. Obedience - Milgram 74. _____________ refers to a negative (or positive) evaluation of a particular group and its members. A. Discrimination B. Prejudice C. Diffusion of responsibility D. Reciprocity-of-liking effect Answer: B. Prejudice 75. Discrimination refers to: A. a negative (or positive) evaluation of a particular group and its members. B. a set of generalized beliefs and expectations about a particular group and its members. C. behavior directed toward individuals on the basis of their membership in a particular group. D. consideration of individuals for their personal qualities and not their membership in a group. Answer: C. behavior directed toward individuals on the basis of their membership in a particular group. 76. Neil was selected for his college baseball team because of his racial origin. Which of the following is illustrated in this scenario? A. Discrimination B. Reciprocity-of-liking effect C. Acculturation D. Diffusion of responsibility Answer: A. Discrimination 77. A(n) _____________ is an expectation about the occurrence of a future event or behavior that acts to increase the likelihood the event or behavior will occur. A. reciprocity-of-liking effect B. self-fulfilling prophecy C. diffusion of responsibility D. entrapment Answer: B. self-fulfilling prophecy 78. In Juanita's community, girls are not expected to enjoy or excel at mathematics. Juanita's algebra grades drop; by the time she is a high school junior, she is enrolled only in consumer mathematics courses. Which concept does Juanita's example best illustrate? A. Cognitive dissonance B. Social identification C. Entrapment D. Self-fulfilling prophecy Answer: D. Self-fulfilling prophecy 79. The _____________ theory suggests that people tend to be ethnocentric, viewing the world from their own perspective and judging others in terms of their group membership. A. social identity B. resource competition C. observational learning D. social neuroscience Answer: A. social identity 80. As an adolescent, Travis realizes that he is gay. Immediately on coming out, he withdraws from his heterosexual friends and promotes positions more radical than those he formerly endorsed. He favors the "outing" of closeted public figures under all circumstances, and he argues that gays who wish to marry are imitating heterosexual values. Which account of prejudice does Travis' example illustrate most clearly? A. Cognitive categorization B. Resource competition C. Observational learning D. Social identity Answer: D. Social identity 81. The use of group membership to provide social respect produces an unfortunate outcome because we may: A. inflate the negative aspects of our ingroup and, at the same time, devalue outgroups. B. come to think that our own group is better than groups to which we don't belong. C. start to view members of outgroups as superior to members of our group. D. start to prejudice members of our ingroup and inflate the positive aspects of outgroups. Answer: B. come to think that our own group is better than groups to which we don't belong. 82. Dr. Neilson examines the structures in the brain regarding social behavior. Dr. Neilson's work exemplifies the emerging field of: A. social cognition. B. social neuroscience. C. neurosocial psychology. D. behavioral neuroscience. Answer: B. social neuroscience. 83. The Implicit Association Test was developed because: A. people may not be consciously aware of their own racial attitudes. B. people are very direct and frank while reporting their racial attitudes. C. existing measures failed to tap into the emotional aspect of racial attitudes. D. people do not censor their responses regarding their own racial attitudes. Answer: A. people may not be consciously aware of their own racial attitudes. 84. Research using the Implicit Association Test reveals that _____________% of participants show a pro-white bias. This _____________ the results of research examining the activation of the amygdala in response to black faces. A. 50; supports B. 50; refutes C. 90; supports D. 90; refutes Answer: C. 90; supports 85. Which of the following statements is TRUE of the Implicit Association Test? A. The test is based on questions such as, "Would you prefer interacting with a member of Group X rather than Group Y?" that typically identify the most blatant prejudices. B. The test makes use of the fact that people's automatic reactions often provide the most valid indicator of what they actually believe. C. The test was developed in part, as a reaction to the frank and uncensored responses of people regarding their racial attitudes. D. The test proves that people cannot be prejudiced if they do not know that they are engaged in it. Answer: B. The test makes use of the fact that people's automatic reactions often provide the most valid indicator of what they actually believe. 86. Which of the following statements reflects a criticism that has been leveled against the Implicit Association Test? A. The test measures only conscious racial attitudes. B. The test requires people to directly report their racial feelings. C. The biases that the test measures may not affect overt behavior. D. The test proves that people cannot be prejudiced if they do not know that they are engaged in it. Answer: C. The biases that the test measures may not affect overt behavior. 87. Psychologists have found that prejudice and discrimination may be reduced by: A. decreasing contact among ingroup and outgroup members. B. making values and norms against prejudice less conspicuous. C. educating people about other groups. D. encouraging stereotype vulnerability. Answer: C. educating people about other groups. 88. Courtney is enrolled in an advanced physics class at her high school. She is one of only three girls in the class, and she is aware of the notion that girls are poorer at math and science than boys. This knowledge may actually hinder Courtney's performance in the class as a result of: A. entrapment. B. stereotype threat. C. cognitive dissonance. D. diffusion of responsibility. Answer: B. stereotype threat. 89. Which of the following potential explanations is correctly paired with the process it reflects? A. Awareness of a negative view of ones' group generates anxiety, which impairs performance - stereotype threat B. One sees high-status individuals, such as celebrities or athletes, receive reinforcement for reflecting stereotypes in their behavior - cognitive dissonance C. Behavior is brought in line with a stereotype to reduce the tension created by the discrepancy between the stereotype and one's own experience - observational learning D. A change in behavior in response to the commands of others - conformity Answer: A. Awareness of a negative view of ones' group generates anxiety, which impairs performance - stereotype threat 90. Which of the following is TRUE of the factors that initially attract two people to each other? A. Chances are that one becomes bored of those who live geographically closest to him or her. B. The less similar others are, the more we like them. C. Repeated exposure to a person is often not sufficient to produce attraction. D. Proximity leads to liking. Answer: D. Proximity leads to liking. 91. The reciprocity-of-liking effect means that we like: A. people we've seen repeatedly. B. people who live nearby. C. people similar to ourselves. D. people who like us. Answer: D. people who like us. 92. _____________ involves a state of intense absorption in someone that includes intense physiological arousal, psychological interest, and caring for the needs of another. A. Companionate love B. Affectionate love C. Passionate love D. Cathartic love Answer: C. Passionate love 93. "But are you in love?" Lynette asks her friend. Lynette is trying to determine whether her friend is experiencing _____________ love. A. companionate B. passionate C. physical D. cathartic Answer: B. passionate 94. The love we feel for family members and close friends is termed _____________ love. A. committed B. compassionate C. companionate D. consummate Answer: C. companionate 95. Ten-year-old Joanne expresses her love for her mother every morning before she leaves to school. This is an example of _____________ love. A. romantic B. passionate C. consummate D. companionate Answer: D. companionate 96. Consider the distinction many researchers make between passionate and companionate love. How do the two types of love differ? A. Passionate love does not involve feelings of closeness and connectedness; companionate love does. B. Passionate love does not involve commitment; companionate love does. C. Companionate love does not involve feelings of closeness and connectedness; passionate love does. D. Companionate love does not involve physical intimacy; passionate love does. Answer: D. Companionate love does not involve physical intimacy; passionate love does. 97. According to Sternberg, the _____________ component of love involves initial thoughts that one loves someone and the longer-term feelings of commitment to maintain love. A. intimacy B. passion C. decision D. closeness Answer: C. decision 98. According to Sternberg, the _____________ component of love includes feelings of closeness and connectedness. A. intimacy B. passion C. decision D. commitment Answer: A. intimacy 99. According to Sternberg, the _____________ component of love includes the motivational drives relating to sex, physical closeness, and romance. A. intimacy B. passion C. decision D. closeness Answer: B. passion 100. Which of the following is suggested by Sternberg in his theory on love? A. The different combinations of the three components vary over the course of relationships. B. Sternberg proposes that love is not a necessary ingredient of marriage. C. The love we feel for our parents, other family members, and even some close friends belongs to the category of passionate love. D. Relationships are happiest in which the strength of the various components are different between the two partners. Answer: A. The different combinations of the three components vary over the course of relationships. 101. Based on Sternberg's theory of love, which of the following statements is TRUE? A. Relationships are happiest in which the strength of the various components are similar between the two partners. B. Companionate love includes intense physiological arousal, psychological interest, and caring for the needs of another. C. The intimacy component of love includes initial thoughts that one loves someone and the longer-term feelings of commitment to maintain love. D. The different combinations of the three components of love remain stable over the course of relationships. Answer: A. Relationships are happiest in which the strength of the various components are similar between the two partners. 102. According to instinct theories of aggression, which of the following statements is TRUE? A. The shorter the energy builds up, the greater the amount of the aggression displayed when it is discharged. B. Aggression is primarily the outcome of innate—or inborn—urges. C. Aggression includes both intentional and unintentional injury to another person. D. Instinct theories note the prevalence of aggression in animals but not in humans. Answer: B. Aggression is primarily the outcome of innate—or inborn—urges. 103. Which of the following was suggested by ethologist Konrad Lorenz regarding aggression? A. Lorenz argued that aggression is a primary instinctual drive observed only in animals. B. Lorenz believed that society should offer people acceptable ways of permitting catharsis. C. Lorenz said that the shorter the energy builds up, the greater the amount of the aggression displayed when it is discharged. D. Lorenz suggested that participation in aggressive sports and games would encourage the discharge of aggression in less socially desirable ways. Answer: B. Lorenz believed that society should offer people acceptable ways of permitting catharsis. 104. According to instinct theories of aggression, which of the following statements is most likely to be TRUE regarding aggression? A. We have pent-up aggression that needs to be released on a regular basis. B. Most children are not influenced by watching violent shows on TV. C. We have very little influence over our own aggressive behavior. D. Certain stimuli act as aggressive cues, making aggressive acts much more likely when the cues are present. Answer: D. Certain stimuli act as aggressive cues, making aggressive acts much more likely when the cues are present. 105. The likelihood that an individual will help someone in an emergency situation is _____________ correlated with the number of other people present. A. negatively B. positively C. not D. curvilinearly Answer: A. negatively 106. Which of the following is TRUE of people's tendency to help someone in an emergency? A. When more than one person witnesses an emergency situation, the sense of diffusion of responsibility reduces among the bystanders. B. The more people who are present in an emergency, the less personally responsible each individual feels. C. When there are many potential helpers in an emergency situation, each individual feels substantial personal responsibility. D. If there are many people present in an emergency situation, they believe that responsibility for intervening cannot be shared. Answer: B. The more people who are present in an emergency, the less personally responsible each individual feels. 107. Roger was screaming for help as he was being beaten up by a group of muggers on a street. There were about 15 people standing nearby. However, none of the bystanders came forward to help Roger. This scenario representing lack of help illustrates: A. catharsis. B. altruism. C. diffusion of responsibility. D. frustration. Answer: C. diffusion of responsibility. 108. The notion of a diffusion of responsibility is most usually applied to the study of: A. group decision making. B. prosocial behavior. C. aggression. D. social influence. Answer: B. prosocial behavior. 109. While Jonathan was jogging in the park, he saw a small girl crying for help. He also saw many people standing nearby not taking any action. This made Jonathan wonder if the girl really needed help. According to one of the models of the helping process, which of the following steps was not followed by Jonathan that affected his helping behavior? A. Noticing a person, event, or situation that may require help B. Interpreting the event as one that requires help C. Deciding on and implementing the form of helping D. Assuming responsibility for helping Answer: B. Interpreting the event as one that requires help 110. According to one of the models of the helping process, during which of the following steps is there a possibility for the diffusion of responsibility to occur if others are present? A. Deciding on and implementing the form of helping B. Noticing a person, event, or situation that may require help C. Assuming responsibility for helping D. Interpreting the event as one that requires help Answer: C. Assuming responsibility for helping 111. Behavior that helps others but that involves some self-sacrifice is termed: A. altruism. B. prosocial behavior. C. catharsis. D. empathy. Answer: A. altruism. 112. Generally, which of the following is TRUE of moral decisions made by people? A. There is no relation between moral decisions made by people and situational factors. B. Most social psychologists agree that no single set of attributes differentiates helpers from nonhelpers. C. Most psychologists believe that prosocial behavior always contains an element of self-sacrifice. D. Psychologists using a neuroscience perspective believe that if the rational side wins out, we're less likely to take a logical view of moral situations. Answer: B. Most social psychologists agree that no single set of attributes differentiates helpers from nonhelpers. 113. Which among the following strategies is the most effective means of dealing with anger? A. Never take another person's perspective on the situation. B. Use language effectively by saying "you," not "I." C. Fantasize about expressing your anger and act on it. D. Minimize the importance of the situation. Answer: D. Minimize the importance of the situation. Worksheet Questions 114. Evaluations of a particular person, behavior, belief, or concept are termed _____________ . Answer: attitudes 115. A cell phone manufacturer uses a trendy celebrity to advertise its product to teenagers. The company is relying on the _____________ route to persuasion. Answer: peripheral 116. Dr. Altschuler loves nothing more than a knotty theoretical issue in his field. He also enjoys crossword puzzles, brain teasers, and the like. Dr. Altschuler has a high need for _____________ . Answer: cognition 117. _____________ refers to the way people understand and make sense of others and themselves. Answer: Social cognition 118. One's impression of another individual may be strongly influenced by the presence of especially important characteristics, called _____________ traits. Answer: central 119. _____________ theory considers how we decide, on the basis of samples of a person's behavior, what the specific causes of that behavior are. Answer: Attribution 120. Mrs. Beatty keeps an extremely clean and tidy house. One neighbor says she's compulsive; Mrs. Beatty, though, says that her job forces her to stay organized, and that she wants to set a good example for her children. These contrasting explanations illustrate the difference between _____________ and situational attributions. Answer: dispositional 121. We expect the people we meet to be more or less the same as we are. Social psychologists call this the _____________ . Answer: assumed-similarity bias 122. Dusty earned a PhD at a prestigious university, despite her parents' poverty. Dusty credits her educational success to hardiness and resilience, but she blames her inability to manage money on the culture of poverty in which she was raised. Dusty reflects an attribution bias known as the _____________ . Answer: self-serving bias 123. A social _____________ is the set of behavioral expectations associated with a particular social position. Answer: role 124. _____________ is to conformity as Milgram is to obedience. Answer: Asch 125. _____________ is a type of thinking in which group members share such a strong motivation to achieve consensus that they lose the ability to critically evaluate alternative points of view. Answer: Groupthink 126. A neighbor asks for a small favor; you agree. The following week, he asks for a larger favor. Having previously agreed to the smaller favor, you are now more likely to consent to the larger favor than you would be otherwise. Your neighbor has gained your compliance through the _____________ technique. Answer: foot-in-the-door 127. The norm of _____________ is the well-accepted societal standard dictating that we should treat other people as they treat us. Answer: reciprocity 128. Marisol consults with middle managers to determine how decision making may be improved in corporations. Marisol specializes in _____________ psychology. Answer: industrial-organizational 129. A change in behavior in response to a direct command is termed _____________ . Answer: obedience 130. _____________ is a set of generalized beliefs and expectations about a particular group and its members. Answer: Stereotype 131. The _____________ account of prejudice is supported by the fact that children as young as 3 show a preference for their own race. Answer: observational learning 132. Fear of confirming a negative stereotype about one's group may hinder one's performance in a particular domain; this phenomenon is known as _____________ . Answer: stereotype threat 133. We tend to like people we see again and again: This is the influence of _____________ on liking. Answer: mere exposure 134. _____________ refers to positive feelings for others; liking and loving. Answer: Interpersonal attraction 135. The _____________ effect refers to a tendency to like those who like us. Answer: reciprocity-of-liking 136. _____________ love is the strong affection we have for those with whom our lives are deeply involved. Answer: Companionate 137. The intentional injury of, or harm to, another person is called _____________ . Answer: aggression 138. The process of discharging built-up aggressive energy is called _____________ . Answer: catharsis 139. Putting oneself at risk to help an individual in danger exemplifies _____________ behavior. Answer: altruistic Essay Questions 140. Distinguish between the central and peripheral routes to persuasion. Answer: The answer should make the following points: Central vs. peripheral routes. The central route to persuasion entails a careful consideration of the logic, merit, and strength of the arguments in a persuasive message. By contrast, the peripheral route reflects persuasion on the basis of less relevant factors like the emotional appeal of a message, the length of the arguments, the attractiveness of the communicator, and so forth. Example. An advertisement may attempt to sell lots in a subdivision by stressing the quality of local schools, the proximity of transportation networks, or the quality of the construction. These appeals reflect the central route to persuasion. Alternatively, the advertisement may try to evoke an upscale, carefree lifestyle by showing appealing landscapes or attractive models: this is the peripheral route to persuasion. Effectiveness. The central route is effective when the audience is motivated and involved, and when audience members are high in the need for cognition. The peripheral route is more useful when the audience is bored or distracted, or when audience members are low in the need for cognition. The central route to persuasion involves a deep, systematic evaluation of arguments and evidence presented in a message. This route relies on thoughtful consideration and cognitive processing of information. In contrast, the peripheral route to persuasion involves superficial cues such as attractiveness of the speaker or emotional appeals rather than the content of the message itself. It relies more on heuristics and quick judgments rather than in-depth analysis. 141. Define cognitive dissonance. Review Festinger and Carlsmith's (1959) classic demonstration of cognitive dissonance, being sure to identify the independent and dependent variables in their study. Suggest one real-world example potentially involving cognitive dissonance and indicate several ways that dissonance may be reduced in the situation you describe. Answer: Students’ examples may vary. The answer should include the following elements: Cognitive dissonance refers to an unpleasant state of psychological tension arising when an individual holds two contradictory beliefs or attitudes. Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) asked participants to complete a boring task, such as peg-turning. Some participants were offered $1 to describe the task as interesting, whereas others were offered $20 to do so; this was the independent variable. Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) recorded the proportion of participants in each group who described the task as interesting; this was the dependent variable. A higher proportion of the participants paid $1 than of the participants paid $20 described the task as interesting. Real-world example. Many examples are possible; a representative one follows. Clara uses drugs recreationally; however, her performance at work has suffered recently, and her boss has reprimanded her. She holds two contradictory cognitions: (1) I enjoy using drugs, and (2) my work is suffering because of drugs. She can resolve the resulting psychological tension or dissonance by: Modifying one or both of the cognitions. "I only use drugs on occasional weekends," or "I came in late twice last month—that's not really such a big deal; I work harder than anyone else here anyway." Changing the perceived importance of one of the cognitions. "If my work has slipped lately, it's not the drugs—it's the extra pressure lately and the lack of recognition around here." Adding cognitions. "Who is she to reprimand me anyway? What has she done lately that's so great?" Denying the relationship between the two cognitions. "Drugs have no effect on my job." Cognitive dissonance refers to the psychological discomfort that arises when individuals hold conflicting beliefs, attitudes, or behaviors. Festinger and Carlsmith's (1959) study involved participants performing a boring task and then either receiving a large or small reward to tell another participant that the task was enjoyable. The independent variable was the size of the reward, and the dependent variable was the participants' reported attitude towards the task. In a real-world example, someone who smokes despite knowing the health risks may experience cognitive dissonance. Ways to reduce dissonance could include quitting smoking, rationalizing that the benefits outweigh the risks, or seeking information that minimizes the health concerns associated with smoking. 142. Identify and describe three attribution biases. Provide illustrative examples. Answer: Students’ examples may vary. The answer should define three of the following attribution biases: Halo effect. An initial understanding that an individual has some positive (or negative) traits is used to assume the presence of other uniformly positive (or negative) traits. For example, if we learn that a worker is intelligent, we may assume that he is conscientious and agreeable as well. Assumed-similarity bias. We think of others as similar to ourselves, even when meeting them for the first time. Their behavior must therefore reflect the factors that would cause us to act similarly. Self-serving bias. We attribute our successes to internal, dispositional factors and our failures to external causes. For example, a coach may attribute her team's wins to her skill and its losses to the team's lack of discipline. Fundamental attribution error. We tend to overattribute others' behavior to such dispositional causes as personality traits, and to disregard the potential contributions of situational factors to others' behavior. For example, we may attribute a classmate's academic failure to a lack of intelligence or to laziness rather than to situational pressures such as outside work or financial or family stresses. Three common attribution biases include: 1. Fundamental Attribution Error: This bias involves attributing others' behaviors to internal factors (personality traits) rather than external factors (situation). For example, blaming a coworker's tardiness on laziness rather than considering traffic conditions. 2. Self-Serving Bias: This bias occurs when individuals attribute their successes to internal factors (skill or effort) but attribute their failures to external factors (bad luck or situational factors). For instance, attributing getting a job promotion to hard work but attributing failing an exam to the teacher's unfair grading. 3. Actor-Observer Bias: This bias refers to the tendency to attribute one's own behavior to external factors (situational factors) but attribute others' behavior to internal factors (personality traits). For example, explaining one's own late arrival to work as due to traffic but attributing a colleague's late arrival as due to laziness. 143. Discuss the characteristics of social influence and groups. Answer: Social influence is the process by which social groups and individuals exert pressure on an individual, either deliberately or unintentionally. Social influence is so powerful, in part because groups and other people generally play a central role in our lives. As defined by social psychologists, groups consist of two or more people who (1) interact with one another; (2) perceive themselves as part of a group; and (3) are interdependent—that is, the events that affect one group member affect other members, and the behavior of members has significant consequences for the success of the group in meeting its goals. Groups develop and hold norms, expectations regarding behavior appropriate to the group. Furthermore, we understand that not adhering to group norms can result in retaliation from other group members, ranging from being ignored to being overtly derided or even being rejected or excluded by the group. Thus, people conform to meet the expectations of the group. 144. What are the major sources of social influence? Answer: Social influence is the process by which social groups and individuals exert pressure on an individual, either deliberately or unintentionally. The three types of social pressure are conformity, compliance, and obedience. Conformity is a change in behavior or attitudes brought about by a desire to follow the beliefs or standards of other people. Compliance refers to the behavior that occurs in response to direct social pressure. Obedience refers to a change in behavior in response to the commands of others. 145. Define groupthink. Relate how groupthink might have contributed to the 2003 shuttle disaster. Suggest how groupthink and entrapment might have contributed to the decision to send American troops to Iraq in 2003 and to decisions to remain in Iraq. Answer: The answer should contain the following elements: Groupthink refers to a type of thinking in which group members share such a strong motivation to achieve consensus to critically evaluate alternative points of view. 2003 shuttle disaster—Some engineers believed that falling foam might pose problems for the space shuttle Columbia when it came time for it to land. Despite the misgivings of these engineers, there was so much pressure for a timely launch that a consensus began to form that the foam posed no danger. Such groupthink proved fatal. Iraq—Groupthink is most likely to occur when a popular or powerful leader is surrounded by people of lower status, as is the case in the U.S. administration. The decision to enter Iraq despite the lack of evidence for weapons of mass destruction represented a consensus forming around the president's opinion, despite contradictory evidence. Entrapment refers to a situation in which commitments to a failing point of view or course of action are increased to justify the investments in time and energy that have already been made. As the campaign in Iraq faltered, troop levels were maintained and even increased, and more resources were devoted to the war. Groupthink is a phenomenon where group members prioritize harmony and consensus over critical evaluation of ideas, leading to flawed decision-making. In the 2003 shuttle disaster, groupthink possibly discouraged dissenting opinions that could have identified risks. Similarly, in the decision to send troops to Iraq in 2003, groupthink and entrapment may have stifled critical evaluation of intelligence, promoting a consensus-driven decision to engage, despite dissenting views about the justification and consequences of the mission. 146. Discuss the significant findings made by Asch on conformity. Answer: Asch's significant findings focus on: a. The characteristics of the group: The more attractive a group appears to its members, the greater its ability to produce conformity. Furthermore, a person's relative status, the social rank held within a group, is critical: The lower a person's status in the group, the greater groups' power over that person's behavior. b. The situation in which the individual is responding: Conformity is considerably higher when people must respond publicly than it is when they can do so privately. c. The kind of task: People working on ambiguous tasks and questions (those with no clear answer) are more susceptible to social pressure. When asked to give an opinion on something, such as what type of clothing is fashionable, a person will more likely yield to conformist pressures than he or she will if asked a question of fact. In addition, tasks at which an individual is less competent than others in the group make conformity more likely. d. Unanimity of the group: Groups that unanimously support a position show the most pronounced conformity pressures. 147. Identify and define three compliance techniques. Provide examples of their potential use in advertising and sales. Answer: The answer should describe three of the following techniques: Foot-in-the-door technique. Having agreed to a small request, an individual is more likely to agree to a larger one thereafter. A cosmetics firm may offer samples; after accepting the samples, people are more likely to buy full-priced products. Door-in-the-face technique. A large request is made; when it is refused, though, a smaller request is more likely to be granted than it would be otherwise. Fundraisers may suggest large donations by printing the amounts associated with "friends," "benefactors," etc., on a mail-in-card. People may be more likely to make some donation after seeing these amounts than they would be otherwise. That's-not-all technique. A deal is offered at an inflated price; immediately after this initial offer, an incentive, discount, or bonus is added to clinch the deal. Consumers may be told in a television advertisement for a mail-order product that the price has been "slashed to $39.99" even though that may be the actual price of the product. Not-so-free sample. Having received a free sample, we feel the need to reciprocate, by purchasing the product. A magazine publisher may distribute a free issue to readers; some will reciprocate by buying a subscription. Three compliance techniques include: 1. Foot-in-the-door: Involves getting a person to agree to a small request initially, making it more likely they'll agree to a larger request later. Example: A charity asks for a small donation first, then follows up with a larger request. 2. Door-in-the-face: Involves making a large request that is likely to be turned down, followed by a smaller, more reasonable request. Example: A salesperson asks a customer to buy an expensive item, then offers a smaller item as an alternative. 3. Scarcity: Involves creating a sense of urgency or scarcity to persuade people to take action. Example: An advertisement states "Limited time offer" or "Only 5 left in stock" to encourage immediate purchase. 148. Briefly outline the procedure of Milgram's classic obedience study. What were the results? Evaluate Milgram's procedure with respect to the ethical guidelines of contemporary psychology. Answer: The answer should contain the following elements: Milgram's procedure. Participants were told that they were taking part in a learning experiment with another participant, who was in reality a confederate. The confederate was assigned the role of a "learner;" the participant, that of a "teacher." The teacher supplied the learner with a list of paired associates, then tested the learner. When the learner made a mistake, the teacher was instructed to deliver electric shock. The confederate received no actual shock, but acted as if he did. With each successive mistake, the teacher was instructed to deliver a stronger shock. Milgram wished to determine how strong a shock an individual would be willing to deliver. Milgram's results. The most important of Milgram's results is that fully two-thirds of the participants were willing to deliver the maximum shock level to the confederates. Ethics. Milgram's experiment involved deception, in that participants were told it was a learning experiment. In addition, the distress that participants experienced may not have been balanced by the benefit to society of this one experiment. Finally, no mention is made of any aftercare provided to participants experiencing distress in the experiment. Milgram's classic obedience study involved participants acting as "teachers" who administered electric shocks to "learners" when they answered incorrectly. The key aspect was that participants were instructed to continue shocking even when they believed it was harming the learner. Results showed a high level of obedience, with many participants delivering shocks up to dangerous levels as instructed. Milgram's procedure raised ethical concerns due to the psychological distress it caused participants and the lack of fully informed consent regarding the shocks' true nature. Today, such studies would require stringent ethical oversight and participant protection measures. 149. Review the observational learning and social identity approaches to the origin of prejudice. How do the resource competition and social neuroscience views add to our understanding of prejudice? Answer: The answer should contain the following ideas: Observational learning accounts. These approaches suggest that prejudice is learned though the modeling of the behavior of parents, other adults, and peers. Stereotypic messages in the media also contribute to the learning of prejudice. Social identity theory. Group membership is used as a source of pride and self-worth. Thus, people are ethnocentric; others are judged in terms of their group membership. To maximize our self-esteem, people judge their own group—the ingroup—as superior to other groups, or outgroups. Outgroup members are seen as inferior to ingroup members and are thus the targets of prejudice and discrimination. In addition to these accounts, competition for scarce resources such as jobs and housing may contribute to prejudice: Outgroup members may be seen as frustrating the attainment of these resources and are therefore the targets of prejudice and aggression. Recent social neuroscience work shows that among both white and black individuals, the amygdala in the brain becomes more active in response to a black than a white face: Societal messages about race have an impact even on brain activity. Observational learning posits that prejudice is acquired through observing and imitating others, while social identity theory suggests it stems from group memberships and identity. Resource competition views emphasize prejudice arising from competition over limited resources, while social neuroscience explores how brain processes influence prejudicial attitudes, providing insights into the neural mechanisms underlying prejudice. Integrating these perspectives enhances our understanding by considering both social and biological factors contributing to prejudice formation and maintenance. 150. Identify and describe three strategies for reducing prejudice and discrimination that psychologists have found to be effective. Answer: The following strategies should be described: Increasing contact between races or social groups can reduce negative stereotyping when the contact is relatively intimate, when individuals are of equal status, or when members of the different groups must cooperate with one another or are dependent on one another. Making antiprejudice values and norms stronger and more obvious. Reminding people about values of equality and fair treatment can work, as can strong antiracist statements. Providing information about other groups. Education regarding the positive characteristics of other groups can be effective. Three effective strategies for reducing prejudice and discrimination include: 1. Education and Awareness: Providing accurate information about different groups to promote understanding and empathy. 2. Intergroup Contact: Encouraging positive interactions between different groups to foster mutual respect and reduce stereotypes. 3. Legislative and Policy Changes: Implementing laws and policies that promote equal rights and opportunities for all individuals, regardless of their group identity. These strategies aim to address cognitive biases, improve intergroup relations, and create structural changes to combat discrimination effectively. 151. Identify and describe three of the factors that contribute to one's initial liking for another person. Provide illustrative examples where appropriate. Answer: The answer should describe three of the following points: Proximity. People end up liking those who are geographically closest to them, such as neighbors in the same rather than different buildings in an apartment complex. Mere exposure. Repeated exposure to an individual can increase one's liking of that individual. The repeated exposure to, say, a doorman or a delivery person engenders a positive feeling of familiarity; that positive feeling then transfers to the individual himself when we have a chance to speak to him. Similarity. We are likely to like an individual who shares our attitudes, such as our political party affiliation. Physical attractiveness. We like people who are physically attractive. Three factors that contribute to initial liking for another person include: 1. Physical Attractiveness: People tend to be initially drawn to others who are physically attractive. For example, someone might feel a natural affinity towards a person who exhibits physical features considered appealing by societal standards. 2. Similarity: Individuals often feel a connection with others who share similar attitudes, beliefs, or interests. For instance, two colleagues who both enjoy hiking may form a quick bond based on this shared interest. 3. Proximity: Physical closeness can lead to increased familiarity and liking. An example is neighbors who often develop friendships due to their close geographic proximity, leading to more frequent interactions and a sense of familiarity. These factors influence initial impressions and can form the basis for further relationship development. 152. Discuss the three major psychological theories regarding aggression. To what extent can we lessen human aggression, given these accounts? Answer: The following ideas should be included: Aggression is the intentional injury of or harm to another person. Instinct approaches stem from Freud's notion that aggression is a primary, innate, instinctual drive. Konrad Lorenz, an ethologist expanded Freud's notions by arguing that humans, along with members of other species, have a fighting instinct; the drive builds up until it is released during a process of catharsis. Lorenz suggests that society should provide acceptable outlets for the inevitable release of this innate drive; that is all we can really do to channel aggression. Organized sports may provide such an acceptable outlet. Observational learning approaches, on the other hand, maintain that we learn to be aggressive by observing others—models—receive reinforcement for aggressive behavior. This theory suggests that viewing violence on television or in movies is not cathartic; rather, it provides a model for aggressive behavior. We can lessen aggression by providing fewer instances in which models are rewarded for aggression—we can limit the amount of violence shown on television, for example. The three major psychological theories regarding aggression are: 1. Biological Theory: Emphasizes genetic, hormonal, and neurological factors influencing aggression. 2. Psychodynamic Theory: Highlights unconscious drives and early childhood experiences shaping aggressive tendencies. 3. Social Learning Theory: Focuses on how aggression is learned through observation, reinforcement, and modeling. While these theories provide insights into the origins of aggression, interventions like promoting empathy, teaching conflict resolution skills, and fostering positive social norms can potentially mitigate aggressive behavior by addressing underlying causes and providing alternative behavioral responses. 153. According to one of the models of the helping process, describe the four basic steps involved in the decision to give aid. Answer: The decision to give aid involves four basic steps: a. Noticing a person, event, or situation that may require help. b. Interpreting the event as one that requires help. Even if we notice an event, it may be sufficiently ambiguous for us to interpret it as a nonemergency situation. It is here that the presence of others first affects helping behavior. The presence of inactive others may indicate to us that a situation does not require help—a judgment we do not necessarily make if we are alone. c. Assuming responsibility for helping. It is at this point that diffusion of responsibility is likely to occur if others are present. Moreover, a bystander's particular expertise is likely to play a role in determining whether he or she helps. d. Deciding on and implementing the form of helping. After we assume responsibility for helping, we must decide how to provide assistance. Helping can range from very indirect forms of intervention, such as calling the police, to more direct forms, such as giving first aid or taking the victim to a hospital. Most social psychologists use a rewards-costs approach for helping to predict the nature of the assistance a bystander will choose to provide. 154. Identify several strategies psychologists have suggested for the effective management of anger. Answer: The answer should mention several of the following strategies: Examine the anger-provoking situation from the perspective of others. In this way you may better understand the situation as a whole; additionally, you may better understand and empathize with others, and may be more tolerant of their shortcomings. Minimize the importance of the situation. Are you "blowing the whole thing out of proportion"? Step back and reinterpret the situation in a less stress-inducing and anger-provoking way. Fantasize about getting even, but don't act on it. Fantasizing about getting even or becoming aggressive with someone can provide a safety valve. Relax. Learning relaxation techniques can mitigate angry reactions. Several strategies for the effective management of anger include: 1. Cognitive Restructuring: Changing thought patterns to reinterpret situations less provocatively. 2. Relaxation Techniques: Deep breathing, meditation, or progressive muscle relaxation to reduce physiological arousal. 3. Behavioral Strategies: Expressing feelings assertively rather than aggressively, and engaging in physical activity to release tension. These approaches help individuals recognize triggers, regulate emotional responses, and maintain constructive communication, ultimately fostering healthier anger management. Test Bank for Essentials of Understanding Psychology Robert S. Feldman 9780077861889, 9781259255786, 9781260829013

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