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Chapter 06 Memory Multiple Choice Questions 1. The process by which we encode, store, and retrieve information is known as _____________. A. perception B. memory C. rehearsal D. cognition Answer: B. memory 2. Which of the following sequences best reflects the order in which memory processes occur, from first to last? A. Encoding → storage → retrieval B. Storage → retrieval → encoding C. Encoding → retrieval → storage D. Storage → encoding → retrieval Answer: A. Encoding → storage → retrieval 3. Material in memory storage has to be located and brought into awareness to be useful. This process is known as _____________. A. potentiation B. retrieval C. encoding D. storage Answer: B. retrieval 4. When answering such questions as "Who was your date to the Junior Prom?" or "Which costume did you wear last Halloween?" you are relying most explicitly on the memory process of: A. encoding. B. potentiation. C. retrieval. D. storage. Answer: C. retrieval. 5. Which of the following sequences best reflects the order of stages in the three-stage model of memory? A. Sensory memory → short-term memory → long-term memory B. Short-term memory → sensory memory → long-term memory C. Short-term memory → working memory → long-term memory D. Working memory → short-term memory → long-term memory Answer: A. Sensory memory → short-term memory → long-term memory 6. _____________ memory refers to the initial, momentary storage of information that lasts only an instant. A. Working B. Long-term C. Sensory D. Short-term Answer: C. Sensory 7. Which of the following is true of sensory memory? A. The precision of sensory memory is low due to its brief duration. B. Sensory memory is the memory store in which information first has meaning. C. Sensory memory permits us to keep information in an active state briefly so that we can do something with the information. D. Sensory memory can store an almost exact replica of each stimulus to which it is exposed. Answer: D. Sensory memory can store an almost exact replica of each stimulus to which it is exposed. 8. The study of sensory memory is associated with: A. Elizabeth Loftus B. George Miller C. George Sperling D. Hermann Ebbinghaus Answer: C. George Sperling 9. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, psychologist George Sperling conducted key studies of: A. sensory memory. B. short-term memory. C. semantic networks. D. long-term memory. Answer: A. sensory memory. 10. A research participant is required to report as much of a poem as he can remember, immediately after having read the poem once. We would expect the greatest number of recall errors in lines: A. at the beginning of the poem. B. in the middle of the poem. C. at the end of the poem. D. anywhere in the poem. Answer: B. in the middle of the poem. 11. Which of the following expressions best reflects the capacity of short-term memory? A. One or two items B. Unlimited C. About seven +/- two chunks D. About a dozen chunks Answer: C. About seven +/- two chunks 12. Tommy is repeating a series of digits in the order in which he heard an experimenter read them. The experimenter is testing the capacity of Tommy's _____________ memory. Tommy should be able to repeat about _____________ digits correctly. A. short-term; four B. short-term; seven C. sensory; four D. sensory; seven Answer: B. short-term; seven 13. Grouping pieces of information together to expand the effective capacity of short-term memory is termed _____________. A. chunking B. clumping C. consolidating D. compacting Answer: A. chunking 14. When you tell an acquaintance your telephone number, you do not recite the digits one by one at a constant rate, as in "3, 3, 7, 2, 3, 4, 8, 3, 9, 2." Rather, you might say, "3, 3, 7 . . . 2, 3, 4 . . . 83, 92." This exemplifies _____________, a strategy to enhance _____________ memory. A. consolidation; sensory B. consolidation; short-term C. chunking; sensory D. chunking; short-term Answer: D. chunking; short-term 15. We look up a number in the phone book, push the book away, and then begin to dial the number. Why do we discourage an interruption during this process? A. Information lasts only 15–25 seconds in short-term memory. B. Information lasts only 5–6 seconds in short-term memory. C. Information can only last a minute or so in short-term memory. D. Short-term memory can only hold one or two chunks of information. Answer: A. Information lasts only 15–25 seconds in short-term memory. 16. Rehearsal refers to the: A. inability to recall information that one realizes one knows. B. grouping of information that can be stored in short-term memory. C. repetition of information that has entered short-term memory. D. memory task in which individuals are presented with a stimulus and asked whether they have been exposed to it in the past. Answer: C. repetition of information that has entered short-term memory. 17. Rehearsal serves to: A. refresh sensory memory. B. keep information in sensory memory. C. transfer information into long-term memory. D. retrieve specific information exclusively. Answer: C. transfer information into long-term memory. 18. _____________ rehearsal occurs when information is considered and organized in some fashion. A. Primary B. Elaborative C. Rote D. Maintenance Answer: B. Elaborative 19. The concept of working memory represents a contemporary conceptualization of _____________ memory. A. sensory B. short-term C. long-term D. declarative Answer: B. short-term 20. _____________ memory is defined as a memory system that holds information temporarily while actively manipulating and rehearsing that information. A. Declarative B. Semantic C. Long-term D. Working Answer: D. Working 21. "She did WHAT?" your roommate questions, as you relate an anecdote about a mutual friend. Your roommate is processing your story in _____________ memory. A. working B. sensory C. semantic D. long-term Answer: A. working 22. On your computer desktop, you can see all sorts of different files. Each file is immediately accessible because you are actively working on them, and you can open them whenever you want. These files are in fact very similar to the kind of information held in: A. long-term memory. B. working memory. C. sensory memory. D. procedural memory. Answer: B. working memory. 23. As you work on a complex multiplication problem in your head, the numbers you are manipulating are in your _____________ memory, and the multiplication tables you are drawing from are in _____________ memory. A. working; long-term B. working; sensory C. long-term; working D. sensory; working Answer: A. working; long-term 24. Which of the following statements is TRUE of working memory? A. Sensory memory is referred to as working memory. B. Working memory avoids the use of cognitive resources of information. C. Working memory stores information on a relatively permanent basis, although it may be difficult to retrieve. D. Working memory permits us to keep information in an active state briefly so that we can do something with the information. Answer: D. Working memory permits us to keep information in an active state briefly so that we can do something with the information. 25. Which of the following accurately describes the processing of information in working memory? A. Working memory is the initial, momentary storage of information, lasting only an instant. B. Working memory uses cognitive resources during its operation, which makes us less aware of our surroundings. C. Stress can increase the effectiveness of working memory by reducing its capacity. D. Working memory is a set of permanent memory stores that actively manipulate and rehearse information. Answer: B. Working memory uses cognitive resources during its operation, which makes us less aware of our surroundings. 26. Which of the following best describes the effect of stress on working memory capacity? A. Stress has no effect on the capacity of working memory. B. Stress increases the capacity of working memory only marginally. C. Stress increases the capacity of working memory dramatically. D. Stress can reduce the effectiveness of working memory by reducing its capacity. Answer: D. Stress can reduce the effectiveness of working memory by reducing its capacity. 27. The distinction between long- and short-term memory: A. is somewhat artificial. B. has failed to gain empirical support in memory research. C. is supported by the effects of certain kinds of brain damage. D. is supported by the distinction between declarative memory and procedural memory. Answer: C. is supported by the effects of certain kinds of brain damage. 28. Our ability to recall an item from a list depends on where, in the list, the item occurs. This is the _____________ effect. A. serial position B. list memory C. cereal position D. item order Answer: A. serial position 29. The primacy effect refers to the fact that: A. the most important items in a list are remembered better than the less important items. B. items presented early in a list are remembered better than items in the middle of the list. C. items presented late in a list are remembered better than items presented earlier. D. items in a list which have the greatest emotional impact are those with the greatest likelihood of recall. Answer: B. items presented early in a list are remembered better than items in the middle of the list. 30. “Cat food, cola, toothpaste.” Your roommate begins reciting items as you get to ready to leave to the store. He continues to list a few more items. Finally, he wraps up: “Coffee creamer, spaghetti sauce, dish liquid, and ice-tea mix.” You forget a couple of things, but you do manage to get the cat food, cola, and toothpaste. Your memory for these items reflects the _____________ effect. A. primacy B. recency C. serial memory D. item order Answer: A. primacy 31. You examine the schedule for your favorite soccer team. The team plays sixteen games each season. Later, you try recalling that schedule for a friend who likes the same team you do. Chances are, you will recall opponents at the beginning of the schedule particularly well. This is an example of the _____________ effect. A. list B. consolidation C. primacy D. depth-of-processing Answer: C. primacy 32. The recency effect refers to the fact that: A. items presented late in a list are remembered better than items presented in the middle of a list. B. the first several items on a list are remembered better than the items in the middle of the list. C. rehearsed items are more likely to be remembered than unrehearsed items. D. the most personally relevant items on a list are most likely to be remembered. Answer: A. items presented late in a list are remembered better than items presented in the middle of a list. 33. "Milk, cereal, candy." Your roommate begins reciting items as you get ready to leave to the store. He continues to list a few more items. Finally, he wraps up: "Spaghetti sauce, dish liquid, and ice- tea mix." You forget a few things, but the spaghetti sauce, dish liquid, and ice-tea mix are in the bag. Your memory for these items reflects the _____________ effect. A. primacy B. recency C. list memory D. serial order Answer: B. recency 34. When you try to list all the classes you've ever taken in college, chances are you will recall your last few classes particularly well. What is this phenomenon called? A. Chunking B. Primacy effect C. Recency effect D. Memory consolidation Answer: C. Recency effect 35. Which of the following refers to declarative memory? A. Memory for habits B. Memory for skills C. Memory for how to do things D. Memory for names Answer: D. Memory for names 36. Which of the following forms of memory refers to memory for skills and habits? A. Declarative memory B. Semantic memory C. Episodic memory D. Procedural memory Answer: D. Procedural memory 37. _____________ memory is the memory for general knowledge and facts about the world, as well as memory for the rules of logic that are used to deduce other facts. A. Episodic B. Semantic C. Non-declarative D. Procedural Answer: B. Semantic 38. Knowing how to serve a badminton birdie is an example of a(n) _____________ memory. A. episodic B. declarative C. procedural D. semantic Answer: C. procedural 39. Cory knows that the capital of Vermont is Montpelier. This is an example of _____________ memory. A. semantic B. episodic C. procedural D. non-declarative Answer: A. semantic 40. Having done “21 for 21” shots, Deanna barely remembers her 21st birthday. That is, her _____________ memory is sketchy. A. procedural B. semantic C. episodic D. working Answer: C. episodic 41. Which of the following statements accurately captures the relationship among the modules of long-term memory? A. Episodic and semantic memory are both components of procedural memory. B. Episodic and semantic memory are both components of declarative memory. C. Declarative and semantic memory are both types of episodic memory. D. Declarative and semantic memory are both types of procedural memory Answer: B. Episodic and semantic memory are both components of declarative memory. 42. Activating one memory triggers the activation of related memories in a process known as: A. spreading activation. B. elaborative rehearsal. C. network priming. D. rote learning. Answer: A. spreading activation. 43. The hippocampus is located in the _____________ lobe. A. frontal B. parietal C. temporal D. occipital Answer: C. temporal 44. Which of the following is TRUE of the neuroscience of memory? A. In the process of long-term potentiation, memories become fixed and stable in long-term memory. B. The process called consolidation shows that certain neural pathways become easily excited while a new response is being learned. C. The initial encoding of information aided by the amygdala is passed along to the hippocampus where it is actually stored. D. The engram is the physical memory trace in the brain that corresponds to a memory. Answer: D. The engram is the physical memory trace in the brain that corresponds to a memory. 45. Which of the following is TRUE of the neuroscience of memory? A. The initial encoding of information aided by the hippocampus is passed along to the amygdala. B. The amygdala is especially involved with memories involving emotion. C. The hippocampus is located within the brain's frontal lobes. D. The amygdala aids in the initial encoding of information, acting as a kind of neurological e-mail system. Answer: B. The amygdala is especially involved with memories involving emotion. 46. Estelle remembers the night she was mugged and brutally beaten. This memory probably involves not only her hippocampus, but also her: A. cerebellum. B. hypothalamus. C. thalamus. D. amygdala. Answer: D. amygdala. 47. Long-term potentiation refers to the process whereby: A. the number of synaptic and dendritic connections between neurons increases with experience. B. memories become fixed and stable in the long term. C. neural pathways become activated more easily as learning occurs. D. disturbing memories seem to gain in intensity over time. Answer: C. neural pathways become activated more easily as learning occurs. 48. Maguire, Woollett, & Spiers conducted an fMRI study of the role of the hippocampus in spatial memory. The study showed that years of experience driving a taxi in London was _____________ correlated with the size of posterior portions of the hypothalamus and _____________ correlated with the size of anterior portions of the hypothalamus. A. positively; negatively B. positively; positively C. negatively; negatively D. negatively; positively Answer: A. positively; negatively 49. Why is the term engram generally discouraged by psychologists studying memory? A. Psychologists do not believe it is possible to identify the physical brain bases of a memory. B. There is probably no single site or process in the brain corresponding to a particular memory. C. Any given memory probably involves many simultaneous brain processes and locations because a stimulus contains a single sensory aspect. D. The term engram typically involves physical memory that corresponds only to sensory memory. Answer: B. There is probably no single site or process in the brain corresponding to a particular memory. 50. "I know it! It’'s um . . . um . . . It starts with ‘G’," begins a trivia-game contestant excitedly. The contestant is falling prey to the _____________ phenomenon. A. tip-of-the-tongue B. flashbulb memory C. motivated forgetting D. retrograde interference Answer: A. tip-of-the-tongue 51. Almost everybody has had the feeling of knowing the answer to a question, but not being quite able to say it. This is called the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon and is a failure of: A. retention. B. storage. C. retrieval. D. trace consolidation. Answer: C. retrieval. 52. Mickey is about to take his psychology finals. Just before the exam, the person sitting next to him asks him the name of the physiologist who worked on classical conditioning. Mickey suddenly realizes that he cannot quite remember the name, but he knows that it starts with a P and is two syllables long. Mickey is experiencing: A. repression. B. simple decay. C. retrograde amnesia. D. the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon. Answer: D. the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon. 53. Why is it so difficult to retrieve information from long-term memory? A. The capacity of long-term memory is limited. B. The duration of long-term memories is limited. C. There is so much information being stored in long-term memory. D. The material that makes its way to long-term memory is temporary. Answer: C. There is so much information being stored in long-term memory. 54. A stimulus that facilitates the recall of information from long-term memory is called a: A. retrieval cue. B. flashbulb memory. C. conservation. D. chunking. Answer: A. retrieval cue. 55. An old song playing on the radio may remind you of events that occurred when the song was current. The song is acting as a(n): A. retrieval cue. B. mnemonic. C. flashbulb. D. schema. Answer: A. retrieval cue. 56. Chad is puzzling over a difficult question on a multiple-choice sociology test. He re-reads the question, scans the options beneath the question, and glances at other questions on the test. Most likely, Chad is looking for: A. mnemonics. B. flashbulb memories. C. retrieval cues. D. a miracle. Answer: C. retrieval cues. 57. Ralph is preparing a report on his academic field trip to a manufacturing plant. He is trying to remember each event of the trip in the order in which it occurred to prepare an accurate report in a presentable form. Which of the following memory tasks is Ralph using? A. Rehearsal B. Recognition C. Consolidation D. Recall Answer: D. Recall 58. Three-year-old Jane had learned the names of fruits from a picture book. She was taken to a grocery store and asked to identify apples and melons kept in the store. Which of the following memory tasks would be used by Jane to identify the fruits? A. Rehearsal B. Recognition C. Consolidation D. Recall Answer: B. Recognition 59. "Discuss several factors that contributed to the economic collapse of late-2008," asks a question in the midterm paper of an economics course. Such a question is a test of _____________ memory. A. recall B. procedural C. recognition D. non-declarative Answer: A. recall 60. _____________ is a memory task in which individuals are presented with a stimulus and asked whether they have been exposed to it in the past or to identify it from a list of alternatives. A. Recall B. Recognition C. Rehearsal D. Chunk Answer: B. Recognition 61. The levels-of-processing approach: A. assumes that the longer the material is in working memory, the deeper will be its memory traces. B. is primarily concerned with a type of memory called "procedural." C. suggests that thinking about material leads to better memory than does maintenance rehearsal. D. holds that meaningless material produces greater depth of processing than does material that can easily be fitted into meaningful contexts. Answer: C. suggests that thinking about material leads to better memory than does maintenance rehearsal. 62. Which of the following is TRUE of the levels-of-processing theory? A. At deep levels of processing, information is processed in terms of its physical and sensory aspects. B. At shallow levels of processing, information is analyzed in terms of its meaning. C. When the initial level of processing of specific information is shallow, the information will be retained for longer. D. At an intermediate level of processing, information is translated into meaningful units. Answer: D. At an intermediate level of processing, information is translated into meaningful units. 63. The levels-of-processing approach suggests: A. that specific information will be retained for longer when the level of information processing is deeper. B. the existence of the three separate memory stores: sensory memory, shot-term memory, and long-term memory. C. that the lesser the intensity of the initial processing of information, the more likely we are to remember it. D. that when the initial level of processing of specific information is shallow, the information will be retained for longer. Answer: A. that specific information will be retained for longer when the level of information processing is deeper. 64. According to the levels-of-processing theory, which of the following study techniques would enhance memory best? A. Highlighting important passages in the text B. Reading aloud important passages in the text C. Focusing on the meaning of important passages in the text D. Visualizing pages from the text, then "reading" the material contained in them Answer: C. Focusing on the meaning of important passages in the text 65. According to the levels-of-processing theory, which of the following students should retrieve information more successfully on classroom tests? A. Grant, who attempts to memorize his notes B. Irene, who pays close attention to what is taught in class C. Noel, who reads the content in his text loudly D. Giselle, who underlines the important content in the text Answer: B. Irene, who pays close attention to what is taught in class 66. A typical multiple-choice question on a psychology test is an example of both a _____________ and an _____________ test of memory. A. recall; implicit B. recall; explicit C. recognition; implicit D. recognition; explicit Answer: D. recognition; explicit 67. Which of the following searches explicit memory? A. Jumping out of the path of an automobile coming toward us B. A feeling of vague dislike for an acquaintance without knowing why we have that feeling C. Trying to remember a name encountered or learned about previously D. Picking up the phone whenever it rings Answer: C. Trying to remember a name encountered or learned about previously 68. Julia is puzzled over a fill-in-the-blank question in her sociology test paper. To answer the question correctly, Julia has to use _____________ memory. A. explicit B. implicit C. subconscious D. implied Answer: A. explicit 69. "I know it! It's um . . . um . . . ," begins a trivia-game contestant excitedly. The contestant is engaged in a test of her _____________ memory. A. external B. explicit C. internal D. implicit Answer: B. explicit 70. Bart remembers the release date of his favorite movie director's upcoming project. Which of the following forms of memory would have helped Bart? A. Implicit memory B. External memory C. Explicit memory D. Internal memory Answer: C. Explicit memory 71. Memories of which we are not consciously aware of are called _____________ memories. A. internal B. subliminal C. subconscious D. implicit Answer: D. implicit 72. Which of the following is TRUE of explicit memory and implicit memory? A. Explicit memory and implicit memory cannot exist side by side. B. Explicit memory can be studied through experiments that use priming. C. Implicit memory is involved in prejudice and discrimination. D. Implicit memory refers to memories of which people are consciously aware. Answer: C. Implicit memory is involved in prejudice and discrimination. 73. _____________ is a phenomenon in which exposure to a word or concept later makes it easier to recall related information, even when there is no conscious memory of the word or concept. A. Rehearsal B. Priming C. Chunking D. Flashbulb Answer: B. Priming 74. Some psychologists consider classical conditioning to be a form of implicit memory. Which of the following is probably the best reason for suggesting that classical conditioning is a type of implicit memory? A. Classical conditioning occurs outside awareness. B. Classical conditioning requires conscious awareness. C. Classical conditioning is one mechanism whereby we learn actions and skills that we can recollect intentionally. D. Classical conditioning allows us to learn from experience. Answer: A. Classical conditioning occurs outside awareness. 75. The 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center, Princess Diana's death, and the 1986 Challenger explosion. People's memories of the moment in which they learned of these events are termed _____________ memories. A. non-declarative B. flashbulb C. implicit D. procedural Answer: B. flashbulb 76. Flashbulb memories: A. typically concern major, unexpected public or personal events. B. are remarkably accurate, even years after the initial event. C. must be due to special encoding mechanisms for emotionally charged events. D. are generally less accurate than memories for more mundane events because of the emotion surrounding the original event. Answer: A. typically concern major, unexpected public or personal events. 77. Which of the following is true of flashbulb memories? A. The less distinctive a stimulus is, the more likely we are to recall it later. B. A distinctive stimulus always helps us remember where the information came from. C. Flashbulb memories contain every detail of an original scene. D. The details recalled in flashbulb memories are often inaccurate. Answer: D. The details recalled in flashbulb memories are often inaccurate. 78. Christopher clearly remembers that he was practicing his dialogues for his school play when he heard that the governor of his state had been assassinated. This is an example of a(n) _____________ memory. A. non-declarative B. flashbulb C. implicit D. procedural Answer: B. flashbulb 79. _____________ amnesia occurs when an individual has a memory for some material but cannot recall where he or she encountered it. A. Retrograde B. Source C. Anterograde D. Dissociative Answer: B. Source 80. "I don't know who told me first, but I heard that Kenny" Lana begins, sharing gossip on the phone with a friend. Lana is experiencing: A. anterograde amnesia. B. retrograde amnesia. C. dissociative amnesia. D. source amnesia. Answer: D. source amnesia. 81. During a conversation, Jerry told his friend that their favorite rock band was going to perform in their city. However, he could not remember the medium through which he got the information about the show. Jerry was experiencing: A. anterograde amnesia. B. retrograde amnesia. C. dissociative amnesia. D. source amnesia. Answer: D. source amnesia. 82. _____________ is a process in which memories are influenced by the meaning we give to events. A. Non-declarative process B. Consolidation C. Constructive process D. Long-term potentiation Answer: C. Constructive process 83. The first psychologist to emphasize the importance of constructive processes in memory was: A. Frederic Bartlett. B. Hermann Ebbinghaus. C. George Miller. D. George Sperling. Answer: A. Frederic Bartlett. 84. A schema is: A. a conceptual framework for interpreting a situation. B. a form of proactive interference. C. an important result of decay. D. an item that has been forgotten. Answer: A. a conceptual framework for interpreting a situation. 85. How does use of a schema improve memory? A. A schema improves memory for details. B. A schema provides a framework to use in interpreting a situation. C. A schema helps avoid making errors in remembering the details of a situation. D. A schema prevents the erosion of implicit memories. Answer: B. A schema provides a framework to use in interpreting a situation. 86. Dr. Tranh has given so many lectures that he gives little thought to what he expects might happen. He assumes students will assemble, take notes, and occasionally ask a question. That Dr. Tranh finds the process so routine reflects the development of: A. a semantic association. B. explicit memory. C. a retrieval path. D. a schema. Answer: D. a schema. 87. Loftus and Palmer (1974) conducted an experiment in which participants estimated the speed of a car described as either contacting or smashing into another. To which of the following conclusions regarding eyewitness memory is this study most relevant? A. The presence of a weapon attracts witnesses' attention, impairing their memory. B. Eyewitnesses’ confidence is only weakly related to eyewitness memory. C. Eyewitness memory can be heavily influenced by leading questions. D. Child eyewitnesses are especially suggestible. Answer: B. Eyewitnesses’ confidence is only weakly related to eyewitness memory. 88. The unconscious process whereby disturbing memories are prevented from entering awareness is called: A. repression. B. denial. C. projection. D. suppression. Answer: A. repression. 89. The idea that disturbing memories may be repressed derives from: A. Freud's psychoanalytic theory. B. Bartlett's constructive memory approach. C. Loftus's notion of false memories. D. the three-stage model of memory. Answer: A. Freud's psychoanalytic theory. 90. Which of the following alternatives best expresses psychologist Elizabeth Loftus' position on the validity of repressed memories? A. Repressed memories are often false. They reflect confusion regarding the source of a memory. B. Repressed memories are often false. They reflect an impairment of implicit memory mechanisms. C. Repressed memories are often false. They reflect a failure of maintenance rehearsal. D. Repressed memories are often true. They reflect the operation of defense mechanisms protecting us from unpleasant or disturbing thoughts. Answer: A. Repressed memories are often false. They reflect confusion regarding the source of a memory. 91. Middle-aged Mrs. Lovett is recalling her first Christmas as a young newlywed at her in-laws' Wyoming ranch. This is a(n) _____________ memory. A. procedural B. implicit C. autobiographical D. non-declarative Answer: C. autobiographical 92. Which of the following best encapsulates autobiographical memory? A. Autobiographical memory is just as inaccurate as other types of memory. The different periods of one's life are remembered with equal ease. B. Autobiographical memory is just as inaccurate as other types of memory. Some periods of one's life are recalled more easily than are others. C. Autobiographical memory is more accurate than other types of memory. The different periods of one's life are remembered with equal ease. D. Autobiographical memory is more accurate than other types of memory. Some periods of one's life are recalled more easily than others. Answer: B. Autobiographical memory is just as inaccurate as other types of memory. Some periods of one's life are recalled more easily than are others. 93. One's culture is most likely to influence: A. short-term memory capacity. B. the structure of long-term memory. C. the strategies one uses to recall information from long-term memory. D. the structure of procedural memory. Answer: C. the strategies one uses to recall information from long-term memory. 94. In the context of the potential influence of a written language on the recall ability of a culture's members, research has: A. revealed that a written language tends to decrease people's memory ability. B. shown that a written language tends to increase people's memory ability. C. revealed that a written language probably has little influence on people's memory ability. D. not yielded a definitive conclusion as yet. Answer: C. revealed that a written language probably has little influence on people's memory ability. 95. The first attempts to scientifically study forgetting were made by the German psychologist: A. Hermann Ebbinghaus. B. Wilhelm Wundt. C. Ernst Heinrich Weber. D. Georg Elias Muller. Answer: A. Hermann Ebbinghaus. 96. Which of the following statements best describes the forgetting function that Ebbinghaus discovered? A. Material is forgotten at a relatively constant rate once it has been learned. B. Nothing is ever really forgotten. C. Material is forgotten at a relatively slow rate at first, and then the rate of forgetting speeds up. D. Material is forgotten relatively rapidly at first, and then the rate of forgetting slows down. Answer: D. Material is forgotten relatively rapidly at first, and then the rate of forgetting slows down. 97. Which of the following best describes the results of Ebbinghaus's work on forgetting? A. You'll remember what you learn pretty well for a day or two, but then you'll begin rapidly forgetting the material. B. Beginning immediately, you'll slowly forget what you've learned at a relatively constant rate. C. You'll forget most of it right away, and you'll keep on forgetting more of it, though at a slower rate. D. I forget. Answer: C. You'll forget most of it right away, and you'll keep on forgetting more of it, though at a slower rate. 98. Jerry is at a party. He is introduced to three different people in the span of a moment. Later, he is approached by the first person he met and cannot remember her name. Which of the following is most likely the source of Jerry's difficulty? A. Jerry failed to encode the woman's name. B. Jerry's working memory capacity was exceeded by the number of people he met. C. Jerry experienced interference in retrieving the woman's name. D. Jerry failed to rehearse the woman's name sufficiently. Answer: A. Jerry failed to encode the woman's name. 99. Drew is unable to recall whether Lincoln's head faces left or right on the penny. Which of the following is probably the best explanation for Drew's memory failure? A. The information is difficult to retrieve because it is stored along with so many other pieces of information in Drew's long-term memory. B. The information was learned so long ago that it is no longer stored in Drew's long-term memory. C. The information was not encoded, because Drew never really paid attention to Lincoln's head on the penny. D. The information was immediately displaced from Drew's working memory after it was encoded. Answer: C. The information was not encoded, because Drew never really paid attention to Lincoln's head on the penny. 100. Which of the following is the best reason that we have trouble remembering the license plate number of a car that we just passed ten minutes ago? A. Working memory lasts only a minute or so. B. License plate numbers are too difficult to remember easily. C. We probably never encoded the number in the first place. D. The memory, though present, is too difficult to retrieve except under special circumstances, such as hypnosis or substantial amounts of stress. Answer: C. We probably never encoded the number in the first place. 101. Which theory of forgetting is correctly matched with its description? A. Decay—Information is lost over time as a result of nonuse. B. Interference—Forgetting occurs when there are too few "triggers" to recall the information. C. Cue-dependent—Forgetting occurs because other information in memory disrupts the retrieval of the information we are trying to remember. D. Retroactive interference—Information learned earlier disrupts the recall of newer material. Answer: A. Decay—Information is lost over time as a result of nonuse. 102. Which of the following statements best describes the fate of the decay theory of forgetting in psychology? A. It has been completely discredited as a theory of forgetting. B. It is an incomplete theory of forgetting. C. It has largely been affirmed as a theory of forgetting. D. It has been supplanted by more contemporary theories of forgetting. Answer: B. It is an incomplete theory of forgetting. 103. In _____________ interference, information learned earlier disrupts the recall of information learned more recently; in _____________ interference, recently learned information disrupts the recall of information learned earlier. A. retroactive; proactive B. proactive; retroactive C. regressive; progressive D. progressive; regressive Answer: B. proactive; retroactive 104. Owen has trouble remembering a friend's new phone number; he keeps recalling the old number instead. Completing a rental application, Pippa finds she can't recall one of her previous addresses as she's had several addresses since. Owen is experiencing _____________ interference; Pippa is experiencing _____________. A. retrograde; anterograde interference B. proactive; retroactive interference C. proactive; proactive interference, as well D. retroactive; proactive interference Answer: B. proactive; retroactive interference 105. _____________, an illness characterized in part by severe memory problems, is the fourth leading cause of death among adults in the United States. A. Korsakoff's syndrome B. Parkinsonism C. Alzheimer's disease D. Stickler syndrome Answer: C. Alzheimer's disease 106. In _____________ amnesia, memory is lost for events preceding an injury or accident; in _____________ amnesia, memory is lost for events following an injury or accident. A. retrograde; anterograde B. anterograde; retrograde C. retroactive; proactive D. proactive; retroactive Answer: A. retrograde; anterograde 107. Omar experienced a dissociative-fugue state. He suddenly snapped out of it in front of the pet-supplies display in a discount store; he had no memory whatsoever of his previous life in Greensboro, NC. Omar's amnesia is best described as: A. proactive B. anterograde C. retroactive D. retrograde Answer: D. retrograde 108. Rhonda can't remember anything about the first several minutes immediately following a car crash in which she was injured. Rhonda is experiencing _____________ amnesia. A. anterograde B. retrograde C. retroactive D. proactive Answer: A. anterograde 109. Pierre has been an alcoholic for several decades. Now in his 50s, his intellectual abilities are intact, but he suffers from memory deficits and hallucinations. Based on this information, you suspect that Pierre may be afflicted with: A. proactive interference. B. Alzheimer's disease. C. anterograde amnesia. D. Korsakoff's syndrome. Answer: D. Korsakoff's syndrome. 110. Dr. Peter Ziemer is seeing a new patient, Mrs. Aaronson. She is experiencing memory losses. Dr. Ziemer tests her language and problem-solving abilities. He also asks her if she has a history of alcohol abuse. What might the language and problem-solving tests tell Dr. Ziemer? What would the answer to the alcohol-abuse question tell him? A. The language and problem-solving tests would help Dr. Ziemer determine whether Mrs. Aaronson suffers from Alzheimer's disease on the one hand, or some form of amnesia on the other. The answer to the alcohol-abuse question would let Dr. Ziemer know whether Korsakoff's syndrome is a possibility in her case. B. The language and problem-solving tests would help Dr. Ziemer determine whether Mrs. Aaronson suffers from Alzheimer's disease on the one hand, or Korsakoff's syndrome on the other. The answer to the alcohol-abuse question would let Dr. Ziemer know whether anterograde amnesia is a possibility in her case. C. The language and problem-solving tests would help Dr. Ziemer determine whether Mrs. Aaronson suffers from Korsakoff's syndrome on the one hand, or some form of amnesia on the other. The answer to the alcohol-abuse question would let Dr. Ziemer know whether Alzheimer's disease is a possibility in her case. D. The language and problem-solving tests would help Dr. Ziemer determine whether Mrs. Aaronson suffers from anterograde amnesia on the one hand, or retrograde amnesia on the other. The answer to the alcohol-abuse question would let Dr. Ziemer know whether Korsakoff's syndrome is a possibility in her case. Answer: A. The language and problem-solving tests would help Dr. Ziemer determine whether Mrs. Aaronson suffers from Alzheimer's disease on the one hand, or some form of amnesia on the other. The answer to the alcohol-abuse question would let Dr. Ziemer know whether Korsakoff's syndrome is a possibility in her case. Worksheet Questions 111. While a computer's hard drive may be likened to the memory process of storage, its keyboard is analogous to the process of _____________ . Answer: encoding 112. You have just listened to your current favorite song on your iPod. You can still hear traces of the final chorus, even though the song has just ended. For a few seconds, the song will be represented in auditory sensory memory, or _____________ memory. Answer: echoic 113. A(n) _____________ is a meaningful group of stimuli that can be stored as a unit in short-term memory. Answer: chunk 114. When faced with a list of terms to memorize in one of his college courses, Brendan creates an acrostic—a sentence in which successive words begin with the same letter as the corresponding list word. Formal organizational strategies such as this are termed _____________ Answer: mnemonics 115. Mental arithmetic entails the activity of both the visual and the verbal stores in working memory; the _____________ coordinates the operation of these two subsystems. Answer: central executive 116. Semantic and episodic memory are subdivisions of _____________ memory. Answer: declarative 117. Rhoda is thinking about her family reunion from last summer. This reminds her that a close friend is attending the same college in which her cousin is enrolled; her thoughts then turn to the reading assignments she has neglected in one of her classes. The process of _____________ describes how one memory brings up another in our network of mental representations. Answer: spreading activation 118. Dr. Sally acquired her neurosurgery degree at an online college based in the West Indies. Unfortunately, during her first brain surgery, she inadvertently destroyed her patient's hippocampus, impairing his process of _____________ , whereby memories are stabilized in long-term memory. Answer: consolidation 119. A _____________ is a stimulus that allows us to recall more easily information that is in long-term memory. Answer: retrieval cue 120. "You'll probably do better on the test if you put more effort into understanding what the chapter's trying to say in the first place," one of your professors admonishes the class. You are reminded of the _____________ theory of memory retrieval. Answer: levels-of-processing 121. "It's like riding a bike; once you know how, you don't forget." This adage suggests that procedural memories do not require conscious attempts at recall; that is, procedural memories are often _____________ . Answer: implicit 122. Implicit memory is often studied through experiments that use _____________ . Answer: primes (or priming) 123. I was a second-semester freshman. I was eating fries in the college cafeteria when my friend Liz came up. She was wearing that plaid coat with her yellow skirt, along with that moss-green embroidered bag, the one with a Grecian urn embroidered on it. She told me the shuttle blew up. This is my _____________ memory of the 1986 Challenger disaster. Answer: flashbulb 124. _____________ processes are processes in which memories are influenced by the meaning we give to events. Answer: Constructive 125. Organized bodies of information stored in memory that bias the way new information is interpreted, stored, and recalled are called _____________ . Answer: schemas 126. _____________ memories are recollections of events that are initially so shocking that the mind responds by pushing them into the unconscious. Answer: Repressed 127. _____________ memories are our recollections of circumstances and episodes from our own lives. Answer: Autobiographical 128. The phenomenon by which information in memory disrupts the recall of other information is called _____________ . Answer: interference 129. _____________ is a memory disorder in which memory losses occur in the absence of other cognitive decrements. Answer: Amnesia 130. Trey is studying German vocabulary for an upcoming test. He forms an image corresponding to an English word that sounds similar to the German word he is trying to learn. Trey is using the _____________ technique. Answer: keyword Essay Questions 131. Short-term memory is limited both in the amount of information it can hold at one time, and in how long it can hold that information. Describe several strategies one might use to overcome the capacity and duration limitations of short-term memory. How might one use these strategies when studying for course materials? Provide concrete examples. Answer: The answer should contain the following elements: Capacity—Short-term memory can hold seven+/- two chunks of information. Increasing the size of the chunks by grouping or relating larger amounts of information may help expand the capacity of short-term memory. For example, grouping or chunking a list of twelve vocabulary words into one or two sentences may be helpful, even if the sentences are somewhat nonsensical. Even applying a simple rhythm to a list of items during rehearsal may serve as a chunking device. Creating a sentence, story, or song from a list of items is an oft-used study technique. Duration—Items may be held in short-term memory for only 15 to 25 seconds. Rehearsal is the key to extending the shelf-life of items in short-term memory. Maintenance rehearsal serves to refresh information within short-term memory. Repeating a list of vocabulary words, stages in a sequence, or other ordered items is a frequent strategy immediately before a test. For example, one might repeat, "sensorimotor, pre-op, concrete-op, formal-op," as a developmental psychology test is being distributed. Elaborative rehearsal serves to facilitate the transfer of short-term memory items to longer-term memory. One might relate information one is learning to material one has learned in similar courses in the past. For example, one might consciously recall material from an educational psychology course when one is studying developmental psychology, or sociology material when one is preparing for a criminal justice test. Strategies to overcome short-term memory limitations include: 1. Chunking: Grouping information into smaller, meaningful units (e.g., phone numbers like 555-123-4567). 2. Rehearsal: Repetitively reviewing information to keep it active in memory (e.g., reciting key terms or concepts aloud). 3. Visualization: Creating mental images to link information visually (e.g., picturing a flowchart or diagram of key concepts). When studying, applying these strategies involves breaking down material into manageable chunks, rehearsing them regularly, and using visual aids like mind maps or diagrams to reinforce connections and aid recall during exams or assignments. 132. Compare and contrast the capacity and duration of sensory and short-term memory. Describe the experimental and neuropsychological evidence supporting the distinction between short- and long-term memories. Answer: The answer should include the following points: Sensory and short-term memory—Both sensory and short-term memory hold information for brief periods of time. Information can last for only a second in visual sensory memory, or iconic memory. Auditory sensory memory, or echoic memory, can hold information for two or three seconds. Finally, the duration of short-term memory is about 15 to 25 seconds. However, while sensory memory holds everything experienced in a given sensory system, short-term memory is severely limited in its capacity, holding only about 7 items. Short- and long-term memory—The distinction between short- and long-term memory is supported experimentally by the serial-position effect, in which the ability to recall information in a list depends on where in the list an item appears. Items presented early in a list are well remembered. This is the primacy effect and reflects the fact that these early items have been encoded into long-term memory. Items presented toward the end of the list are also well remembered. This is called the recency effect; it reflects the fact that items near the end of the list are still in short-term memory when it is time to remember the list. The distinction between short- and long-term memories is supported by cases of brain damage in which short-term memory is impaired but long-term memory is preserved. Sensory memory holds large amounts of sensory information for a very brief duration (milliseconds to seconds), while short-term memory retains smaller amounts of information for about 15-30 seconds without rehearsal. Experimental evidence includes the Sperling's iconic memory experiments demonstrating the fleeting nature of sensory memory. Neuropsychological studies, such as those on patients with amnesia, highlight intact short-term memory despite impaired long-term memory, confirming separate storage systems. 133. Describe working memory. Answer: Working memory is defined as a set of active, temporary memory stores that actively manipulate and rehearse information. Working memory is thought to contain a central executive processor that is involved in reasoning and decision making. The central executive coordinates three distinct storage-and-rehearsal systems: the visual store, the verbal store, and the episodic buffer. The visual store specializes in visual and spatial information, whereas the verbal store holds and manipulates material relating to speech, words, and numbers. The episodic buffer contains information that represents episodes or events. Working memory permits us to keep information in an active state briefly so that we can do something with the information. Although working memory aids in the recall of information, it uses a significant amount of cognitive resources during its operation. In turn, this can make us less aware of our surroundings. Furthermore, stress can reduce the effectiveness of working memory by reducing its capacity. 134. Define and provide original examples from your own experience of each of the following types of long-term memory: declarative, procedural, episodic, and semantic. Answer: The answer might include definitions and examples such as the following: Declarative memory—Memory for factual information: names, dates, faces, and facts. Example: The knowledge that Al Gore was the Vice President under President Bill Clinton. Procedural memory—Memory for skills and habits. Example: Remembering how to skip stones. Episodic memory—Memory for particular events. Example: Remembering the events that occurred during the week one pledged a fraternity or sorority. Semantic memory—Memory for general knowledge and world facts; memory for the rules of logic. Example: The knowledge that the two rivers flowing through Washington, DC are the Potomac and the Anacostia. 1. Declarative Memory: Involves factual knowledge that can be consciously recalled. Example: Recalling historical dates or capital cities. 2. Procedural Memory: Stores information about how to perform skills or procedures. Example: Riding a bicycle or tying shoelaces. 3. Episodic Memory: Records personal experiences and events tied to specific times and places. Example: Remembering your first day of school or a memorable vacation. 4. Semantic Memory: Stores general knowledge about the world and language. Example: Knowing that Paris is the capital of France or understanding grammar rules. 135. "The Search for the Engram." Has this research quest proven fruitful? Evaluate this question with respect to what is known regarding the brain basis of memory. Answer: The engram is the physical brain trace corresponding to a memory. The search for the engram has been unsuccessful if one construes the quest as that for a single brain site corresponding to a particular memory. However, brain scientists have been successful in showing that many different regions of the brain contribute to memory. For example, the hippocampus in the limbic system contributes to the consolidation or stabilization of memories. Moreover, different parts of the hippocampus seem to specialize in different types of memories, such as spatial rather than verbal memories. The amygdala, another limbic system structure, is involved with the emotional aspects of memory. The sensory aspects of a memory appear to be processed in cortical areas associated with the appropriate sensory system, such as the occipital lobe for the visual aspects of memory. At a neural level, certain neural pathways become more easily activated during learning, a process called long-term potentiation. Synaptic connections and dendritic branching also both become denser and more elaborate during learning. 136. Discuss retrieval cues, recognition vs. recall, and levels of processing. Answer: The answer should include the following definitions and examples: Retrieval cues—Retrieval cues are stimuli that allow one to more easily recall long-term memories. Recall vs. recognition—In recall, a specific piece of information must be recalled from long-term memory, such as the answer to a fill-in-the-blank question. In recognition, one is exposed to a piece of information and is asked whether he or she has been exposed to it before. An example is an alternative on a multiple-choice question. Levels-of-processing theory—The levels-of-processing theory emphasizes the degree to which new material is mentally analyzed. It suggests that the amount of information processing that occurs when material is initially encountered is central in determining how much of the information is ultimately remembered. According to this approach, the depth of information processing during exposure to material—meaning the degree to which it is analyzed and considered—is critical; the greater the intensity of its initial processing, the more likely we are to remember it. Retrieval cues are prompts or hints that facilitate the recall of information stored in memory. Recognition involves identifying information from a list of options (e.g., multiple-choice questions), while recall requires generating information from memory without cues (e.g., essay questions). Levels of processing theory suggests that deeper processing (e.g., semantic analysis) leads to better memory retention than shallow processing (e.g., structural or phonemic analysis), emphasizing the importance of meaningful engagement with information during encoding. 137. Distinguish between explicit and implicit memory. How is implicit memory studied in the laboratory? How does implicit memory research inform the continuing debate in psychology regarding the unconscious determinants of behavior? In your answer, make explicit reference to behaviors that may have important personal and social consequences. Answer: The answer should contain the following elements: Explicit vs. implicit memory—Explicit memory is the conscious or deliberate recollection of information. Implicit memory is memory of which one is not consciously aware, but which can nevertheless impact performance and behavior. Implicit memory is often studied experimentally through the use of priming procedures. Participants are first briefly exposed to a stimulus such as word or picture. The exposure is usually so brief or degraded that participants have no conscious awareness of it. After an interval ranging from minutes to months, participants are then exposed to an incomplete stimulus, such as a word fragment, and are asked to recognize or identify it. If the earlier exposure to the prime facilitates their identification of the stimulus, then they must have some implicit memory for it. The existence of implicit memory suggests that the determinants of our behavior may often be unconscious. Implicit memory has been implicated, especially, in prejudice—people may consciously deny that they harbor prejudices and that their behavior is motivated by prejudice, but assessment of their implicit memories often suggests that they have biases of which they are unaware. These biases may drive discriminatory behavior. Explicit memory involves conscious recall of past experiences and facts, while implicit memory refers to unconscious retention and influence of learned skills and behaviors. In the laboratory, implicit memory is often studied through tasks like priming, where previous exposure to stimuli influences subsequent behavior without conscious awareness. Research on implicit memory underscores the role of unconscious processes in shaping behavior, highlighting how attitudes, biases, and preferences can be influenced without awareness. This informs psychological debates on the extent of unconscious determinants in decision-making, social interactions, and societal issues like prejudice or addiction. 138. What are flashbulb memories? Answer: Flashbulb memories are memories related to a specific, important, or surprising event and that are recalled easily and with vivid imagery. Flashbulb memories do not contain every detail of an original scene. Furthermore, the details recalled in flashbulb memories are often inaccurate, particular when they involve highly emotional events. Flashbulb memories illustrate a more general phenomenon about memory: Memories that are exceptional are more easily retrieved (although not necessarily accurately) than are those relating to events that are commonplace. The more distinctive a stimulus is, and the more personal relevance the event has, the more likely we are to recall it later. Even with a distinctive stimulus, however, we may not remember where the information came from. Source amnesia occurs when an individual has a memory for some material but cannot recall where he or she encountered it. 139. Our long-term memories are often inaccurate, even when we are convinced we are correctly remembering past events. Support this statement making specific reference to research on flashbulb, eyewitness, and false and repressed memories. Answer: The answer should include the following elements: Flashbulb memories—memories related to specific, surprising, and important events, such as the 9/11 attacks. Although vivid, flashbulb memories are usually incomplete and often inaccurate. Three-quarters of Americans recall seeing the footage on Sept. 11th of two planes attacking the World Trade Center; in reality, no footage of the first plane was available until the next day. Eyewitness memory—Eyewitness memory is often inaccurate, even when eyewitnesses are highly confident regarding their recollections. Eyewitness memory is negatively impacted by the presence of a weapon displayed by the perpetrator. Leading questions can also influence eyewitness memory—Loftus and Palmer (1974) found that participants' estimates of the speed of a car shown colliding with another varied dramatically depending on whether the car was described as contacting or smashing into the other car. Repressed/false memories—While it is possible that disturbing memories may be pushed into the unconscious and remain hidden until they are triggered by some event, it is also possible that many of these memories are false, reflecting confusion about whether they were actually experienced, imagined, or heard second-hand. Research shows that memories, including flashbulb memories of significant events, can be distorted over time due to various factors such as emotions and post-event information. Eyewitness testimonies are often unreliable, influenced by leading questions and environmental conditions. Studies on false memories demonstrate how suggestive techniques can implant memories of events that never occurred, impacting legal proceedings. Additionally, repressed memories, once controversial, are now recognized as potentially unreliable due to the susceptibility to suggestion and therapy-induced confabulations. 140. What are constructive processes in memory? Explain. Answer: Constructive processes are processes in which memories are influenced by the meaning we give to events. When we retrieve information, then, the memory that is produced is affected not just by the direct prior experience we have had with the stimulus, but also by our guesses and inferences about its meaning. The notion that memory is based on constructive processes was first put forward by Frederic Bartlett, a British psychologist. He suggested that people tend to remember information in terms of schemas, organized bodies of information stored in memory that bias the way new information is interpreted, stored, and recalled. Because we use schemas to organize information, our memories often consist of a reconstruction of previous experience. Consequently, our schemas are based not only on the actual material to which people are exposed, but also on their understanding of the situation, their expectations about the situation, and their awareness of the motivations underlying the behavior of others. 141. To what extent does culture influence basic memory processes and strategies for acquiring, rehearsing, and retrieving information? Provide as detailed a response as you can. Answer: The answer should include the following ideas: Basic processes—Culture probably has little effect on such basic properties of memory as the capacity and duration of sensory and short-term memory and the general organization of long-term memory. Strategies—Culture influences the strategies people use to frame information at encoding, to rehearse and chunk information, and to retrieve information. The lack of a written language does not appear to encourage phenomenal memory abilities, contrary to popular opinion. Culture significantly influences memory processes and strategies. For example, collectivist cultures may prioritize social and relational aspects of memory, while individualistic cultures may emphasize personal achievement and factual recall. Memory strategies such as mnemonic devices may vary based on cultural norms and educational practices, impacting how information is encoded and retrieved. Cultural narratives and storytelling traditions also shape memory formation and recall, reflecting cultural values and priorities in preserving collective knowledge. 142. Distinguish between the decay, interference, and cue-dependent theories of forgetting. Provide an example of each. Answer: The answer should include the following descriptions and examples: Decay—The loss of information through nonuse. Memory traces fade away over time. Example: Suppose you glimpse the name of a medication on a prescription pad. Its representation in iconic memory will decay or fade rapidly unless you pay attention to it and transfer it to short- and then long-term memory. Interference—Information in memory disrupts the retrieval of other information. Example: The name of a new medication may make it difficult to recall the name of an older medication you once used to treat the same condition. Cue-dependent—There are insufficient retrieval cues to rekindle information in memory. Example: You may be unable to recall the name of a medication when you are at home, away from the cues present in the doctor's office or pharmacy where you first learned the name. 1. Decay Theory: Proposes that memories fade or erode over time if they are not used or rehearsed. Example: Forgetting a friend's phone number after not using it for several years. 2. Interference Theory: Suggests that forgetting occurs when new information interferes with the retrieval of old information, or vice versa. Example: Difficulty remembering the name of a new coworker because it interferes with the memory of a previous coworker's name. 3. Cue-Dependent Theory: Argues that forgetting happens when there is a lack of appropriate retrieval cues at the time of recall. Example: Failing to recall a specific word until reminded by a contextual cue, such as seeing its written form. 143. Describe the two sorts of interference that influence forgetting. Answer: In proactive interference, information learned earlier disrupts the recall of newer material. In contrast, retroactive interference occurs when material that was learned later disrupts the retrieval of information that was learned earlier. One way to remember the difference between proactive and retroactive interference is to keep in mind that proactive interference progresses in time—the past interferes with the present. In contrast, retroactive interference retrogresses in time, working backward as the present interferes with the past. 144. Review the three organic memory dysfunctions described in your text: Alzheimer's disease, anterograde and retrograde amnesia, and Korsakoff's syndrome. Provide as detailed a response as you can. Answer: The answer should include the following points: Alzheimer's disease—A dementing illness characterized by severe memory problems and the fourth leading cause of death among U.S. adults. The disease is progressive, escalating from mild, annoying memory losses to an inability to care for oneself. The disease is at least partly genetic and reflects a disorder in the production of a protein called beta amyloid, which helps maintain neural connections. Clumps and tangles build up, inflaming nerve cells and impairing communication in the brain. Anterograde/retrograde amnesia—Amnesia refers to memory losses that occur in the absence of other intellectual deficits. Retrograde amnesia—loss of memory for events prior to trauma or injury. Retrograde amnesia is rare. The memory loss is usually selective and some of the memories tend to return over time. Anterograde amnesia—loss of memory for events following trauma or injury. One example is H.M., an epileptic whose hippocampus was destroyed during psychosurgery. Korsakoff's syndrome—A memory deficit secondary to chronic, long-term alcohol abuse. Many intellectual abilities may be intact, but sufferers display hallucinations, memory deficits, and a tendency to repeat the same things over and over. 1. Alzheimer's Disease: A progressive neurodegenerative disorder leading to severe memory loss, cognitive decline, and behavioral changes due to brain cell death, especially in the hippocampus and cortex. 2. Anterograde Amnesia: Inability to form new memories after a traumatic event or brain injury, while older memories remain intact. 3. Retrograde Amnesia: Loss of memories formed before a traumatic event or brain injury, often including personal memories and factual knowledge. 4. Korsakoff's Syndrome: Caused by severe thiamine deficiency (often due to alcohol abuse), resulting in profound memory loss, confabulation (false memories), and neurological impairments. 145. Describe three of the techniques your text recommends for improving your memory. Suggest how the techniques you describe could be applied to improve your performance in one or more specific college courses. Answer: Students' answers may vary. Keyword technique—Useful in foreign language courses or in courses with unfamiliar, technical vocabulary. Think of a familiar English word that sounds like the foreign or technical word you are trying to learn. This is the keyword. Think of the referent of keyword interacting with the referent of the word you want to learn; a vivid, interactive mental image is best. Organizational cues—In courses with extensive text reading, such as psychology, generate an organizing outline before you begin reading. This will assist deep processing and elaborative rehearsal. Effective note-taking—Less is more. Think about the material in lecture courses, rather than mindlessly writing down and memorizing everything. Write down key points as you actively listen and think about the material. Rehearsal—There is no such thing as overlearning. Studying and rehearsing past initial mastery aids long-term recall. Begin studying course material the day you acquire it, rather than only a day or two before a test. Continue studying and rehearse each day until the test. Three memory improvement techniques include: 1. Mnemonic Devices: Using acronyms or vivid imagery to aid in recalling information. 2. Spaced Repetition: Reviewing material at increasing intervals to strengthen memory retention. 3. Visualization: Creating mental images or diagrams to connect and remember complex information. Applying these techniques to college courses could involve using mnemonics for remembering key concepts in psychology, spaced repetition for vocabulary in language courses, and visualization techniques for understanding complex theories in physics or biology. Test Bank for Essentials of Understanding Psychology Robert S. Feldman 9780077861889, 9781259255786, 9781260829013

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