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Chapter 01 Introduction to Psychology Multiple Choice Questions 1. Psychology is defined as the: A. intuition-based approach to study human behavior. B. speculative method to find answers about human cognition. C. study of mental disorders and their treatment. D. scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Answer: D. scientific study of behavior and mental processes. 2. Akira has declared psychology as his major. He will be studying: A. internal medicine. B. behavior and mental processes. C. mental disorders and their diagnosis and treatment. D. the disorders of the central nervous system. Answer: B. behavior and mental processes. 3. A single-sentence definition of psychology may be misleading because: A. it is very difficult to study the mind and behavior scientifically. B. psychology is a narrower, more specific field than a general definition might suggest. C. psychologists disagree on how broad psychology should really be. D. the discipline of psychology really has no core or center. Answer: C. psychologists disagree on how broad psychology should really be. 4. Which of the following is NOT one of the goals of psychology? A. Obfuscation B. Description C. Prediction D. Explanation Answer: A. Obfuscation 5. In order to study mind and behavior, psychologists: A. rely on the scientific method. B. use their intuition. C. rely on the study of internal medicine. D. use speculation. Answer: A. rely on the scientific method. 6. In what way are the diverse subfields of psychology related? A. They allow psychologists to explain different types of behavior in the same way. B. They ultimately share a common goal. C. They always lead to an M.D. (Doctor of Medicine) degree. D. They are not related at all other than being considered part of psychology. Answer: B. They ultimately share a common goal. 7. Dr. Alvarez studies how the degeneration of certain components of nerve cells in the brain might contribute to the development of multiple sclerosis. Dr. Alvarez's work BEST exemplifies the _____________ subfield of psychology. A. cognitive B. experimental C. developmental D. behavioral neuroscience Answer: D. behavioral neuroscience 8. Which of the following branches of psychology studies the processes of sensing, perceiving, learning, and thinking about the world? A. Behavioral neuroscience B. Developmental psychology C. Experimental psychology D. Health psychology Answer: C. Experimental psychology 9. Why is the term experimental psychologist considered somewhat misleading? A. Psychologists in every subfield use the experimental method. B. The term is no longer in existence. C. Most psychological topics are not suited to experimental study. D. Experimental methods are only appropriate to the study of the biological bases of behavior. Answer: A. Psychologists in every subfield use the experimental method. 10. Which of the following subfields of psychology is INCORRECTLY matched with its description? A. Behavioral neuroscience: examines the relationship between the nervous system and behavior B. Cognitive: examines how people grow and change from conception through death C. Experimental: examines the processes of sensing, perceiving, learning, and thinking D. Clinical: deals with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of psychological disorders Answer: B. Cognitive: examines how people grow and change from conception through death 11. Which of the following subfields of psychology is CORRECTLY matched with a sample topic? A. Behavioral neuroscience: the influence of chronic stress on physical health B. Developmental psychology: the effectiveness of drug therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder C. Cognitive psychology: the influence of an event on people's thinking D. Health psychology: the role that frustration plays in producing aggression Answer: C. Cognitive psychology: the influence of an event on people's thinking 12. How are cognitive and experimental psychology related? A. They are the same. B. They are two completely distinct subfields of psychology. C. Cognitive psychology is part of experimental psychology. D. Experimental psychology is part of cognitive psychology. Answer: C. Cognitive psychology is part of experimental psychology. 13. _____________ psychology focuses on higher mental processes, including thinking, memory, reasoning, problem solving, judging, decision making, and language. A. Developmental B. Personality C. Clinical D. Cognitive Answer: D. Cognitive 14. Developmental psychology: A. focuses primarily on educational, social, and career adjustment problems. B. studies how people grow and change from the moment of conception through death. C. focuses on higher mental processes, including thinking, memory, reasoning, problem solving, judging, decision making, and language. D. deals with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of psychological disorders. Answer: B. studies how people grow and change from the moment of conception through death. 15. Personality psychology: A. focuses primarily on educational, social, and career adjustment problems. B. focuses on the consistency in people's behavior over time and the traits that differentiate one person from another. C. focuses on higher mental processes, including thinking, memory, reasoning, problem solving, judging, decision making, and language. D. deals with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of psychological disorders. Answer: B. focuses on the consistency in people's behavior over time and the traits that differentiate one person from another. 16. Dr. Chen studies how people grow and change during late adolescence and young adulthood. Dr. Doherty focuses on several traits that distinguish one person from another. Dr. Chen is a(n) _____________ psychologist; Dr. Doherty is a _____________. A. experimental psychologist; cognitive psychologist B. health psychologist; clinical psychologist C. developmental psychologist; personality psychologist D. clinical psychologist; counseling psychologist Answer: C. developmental psychologist; personality psychologist 17. Dr. Ebrahim examines how children's friendships change through elementary and middle-school years. Dr. Ebrahim is a(n) _____________ psychologist. A. clinical B. evolutionary C. experimental D. developmental Answer: D. developmental 18. At a conference on terrorism research, a panel of psychologists is discussing suicide bombers. Dr. Gerami outlines the role of charismatic leaders in encouraging the actions of suicide bombers. Dr. Hespeler argues that sometimes suicide bombing may be seen as a rational response to a particular system of beliefs. Finally, Dr. Islington reviews the internal traits associated with suicide bombing. Which of the following alternatives BEST identifies the subfields in which each of these psychologists probably specializes? A. Dr. Gerami: personality psychology; Dr. Hespeler: cross-cultural psychology; Dr. Islington: social psychology B. Dr. Gerami: social psychology; Dr. Hespeler: personality psychology; Dr. Islington: cross-cultural psychology C. Dr. Gerami: social psychology; Dr. Hespeler: cross-cultural psychology; Dr. Islington: personality psychology D. Dr. Gerami: cross-cultural psychology; Dr. Hespeler: experimental psychology; Dr. Islington: personality psychology Answer: C. Dr. Gerami: social psychology; Dr. Hespeler: cross-cultural psychology; Dr. Islington: personality psychology 19. Enterprise City has been hard hit by a recent economic downturn. Local psychologists are holding a public workshop to help the citizens cope with the adversity. Dr. Kurutz is outlining strategies to help adults who have been laid off avoid overeating and the use of drugs or alcohol. Dr. Kurutz is most likely a(n) _____________ psychologist. A. experimental B. cross-cultural C. social D. health Answer: D. health 20. Which branch of psychology explores the relationship between psychological factors and physical ailments or disease? A. Developmental psychology B. Health psychology C. Perceptual psychology D. Clinical neuropsychology Answer: B. Health psychology 21. How do clinical and counseling psychology differ? A. Clinical psychology requires more advanced study than does counseling psychology. B. Clinical psychologists have a PhD or an MD degree, whereas counseling psychologists have a PsyD degree. C. Counseling psychologists deal with problems that are more specific than the problems that clinical psychologists deal with. D. Clinical and counseling psychology are synonymous. Answer: C. Counseling psychologists deal with problems that are more specific than the problems that clinical psychologists deal with. 22. Fiona helps students with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) develop effective study regimens and strategies. Fiona is most likely a(n) _____________ psychologist. A. health B. experimental C. developmental D. counseling Answer: D. counseling 23. Counseling psychologists are more likely than clinical psychologists to practice in: A. hospitals. B. laboratories. C. offices. D. colleges. Answer: D. colleges. 24. Dr. Growe is reading about a research study in which psychologists investigated the effect of group size on the conformity of group members. Dr. Growe is most likely reading the Journal of _____________ Psychology. A. Developmental B. Social C. Counseling D. Evolutionary Answer: B. Social 25. Social psychology: A. focuses primarily on educational, social, and career adjustment problems. B. deals with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of psychological disorders. C. investigates the similarities and differences in psychological functioning in and across various cultures and ethnic groups. D. is the study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and actions are affected by others. Answer: D. is the study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and actions are affected by others. 26. _____________ psychologists concentrate on diverse topics such as human aggression, liking and loving, persuasion, and conformity. A. Counseling B. Social C. Evolutionary D. Clinical Answer: B. Social 27. Which of the following is NOT one of the three newer branches of psychology's family tree? A. Counseling psychology B. Behavioral genetics C. Evolutionary psychology D. Clinical neuropsychology Answer: A. Counseling psychology 28. Evolutionary psychologists are especially interested in: A. how behavior is influenced by our genetic inheritance from our ancestors. B. how physical characteristics have a genetic basis. C. how thought and behavior are influenced by the structure of the brain. D. how personality traits and social behavior vary across cultures. Answer: A. how behavior is influenced by our genetic inheritance from our ancestors. 29. Charles Darwin's book On the Origin of Species was published in _____________. A. 1529 B. 1739 C. 1859 D. 1939 Answer: C. 1859 30. In what way, if any, do evolutionary psychologists go beyond Darwin's arguments? A. They suggest that culture influences the nature of behavioral and mental processes. B. They argue that our genetic heritage influences our physical characteristics. C. They argue that our genetic inheritance determines aspects of our personality and social behavior. D. They do not go beyond Darwin's original arguments. Answer: C. They argue that our genetic inheritance determines aspects of our personality and social behavior. 31. Dr. Lin and Dr. Marino both study obesity. Dr. Lin relates the likelihood of obesity to levels of the trait of neuroticism, the tendency to experience upsetting emotions. Dr. Marino relates obesity to the frequency with which individuals eat alone, with family members, or in the presence of larger groups of friends, acquaintances, or strangers. Which of the following statements is most likely TRUE regarding the subfields in which the researchers specialize? A. Dr. Marino is a social psychologist. B. Dr. Lin is a social psychologist. C. Dr. Marino is a personality psychologist. D. Dr. Lin is a behavioral psychologist. Answer: A. Dr. Marino is a social psychologist. 32. Central State University's Department of Psychology is considering expanding its doctoral program to include an additional specialty. The department wants to focus on a "growth" area likely to attract federal research funding as well as up-and-coming new faculty and bright, passionate graduate students. Which of the following specialties should the department consider most closely? A. Developmental psychology B. Evolutionary psychology C. Perceptual psychology D. Clinical neuropsychology Answer: B. Evolutionary psychology 33. What might be the most controversial aspect of the evolutionary psychology position? A. They hold the notion that our evolutionary heritage influences our physical characteristics. B. They promote the idea that our evolutionary heritage might influence aspects of our behavioral and mental processes. C. Evolutionary psychologists downplay the influence of biological inheritance on thought and behavior. D. Evolutionary psychologists minimize the role of environmental and social forces. Answer: D. Evolutionary psychologists minimize the role of environmental and social forces. 34. Which of the following areas of psychology focuses on the biological mechanisms that enable inherited behavior to unfold? A. Clinical neuropsychology B. Behavioral genetics C. Cognitive psychology D. Experimental psychology Answer: B. Behavioral genetics 35. Which of the following areas is CORRECTLY matched with its description? A. Evolutionary psychology: focuses on the biological mechanisms enabling inherited behavior to unfold B. Behavioral genetics: considers how our behavior is influenced by our genetic heritage from our ancestors C. Clinical neuropsychology: focuses on the biological origin of psychological disorders D. Cross-cultural psychology: examines the genetic basis of behavioral disorders Answer: C. Clinical neuropsychology: focuses on the biological origin of psychological disorders 36. Dr. Hart investigates how depressive disorders are related to levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain. Dr. Hart's research falls within the field of: A. clinical neuropsychology. B. behavioral genetics. C. cognitive psychology. D. experimental psychology. Answer: A. clinical neuropsychology. 37. Clinical neuropsychology: A. focuses primarily on educational, social, and career adjustment problems. B. considers how behavior is influenced by our genetic inheritance from our ancestors. C. seeks to understand how we might inherit certain behavioral traits. D. focuses on the origin of psychological disorders in biological factors. Answer: D. focuses on the origin of psychological disorders in biological factors. 38. Beatriz has just received her doctoral degree in psychology. All else being equal, in which of the following settings is she most likely to find employment? A. A college/university B. The military C. A hospital D. A large business corporation Answer: A. A college/university 39. The local state university has opened a new center devoted to the study and treatment of obesity, a major public health problem in the area. Dr. Nolan is researching the potential of a drug that influences the activity of hunger centers in the brain's hypothalamus. Dr. Osterman attempts to uncover the unconscious conflicts that may spur compulsive eating. Which of the following statements best describes the orientations of these two psychologists? A. Dr. Nolan is a clinical neuropsychologist; Dr. Osterman is a psychodynamic psychologist. B. Dr. Nolan is a clinical neuropsychologist; Dr. Osterman is a counseling psychologist. C. Dr. Nolan is a social psychologist; Dr. Osterman is a humanistic psychologist. D. Dr. Nolan is a behavioral psychologist; Dr. Osterman is a psychodynamic psychologist. Answer: A. Dr. Nolan is a clinical neuropsychologist; Dr. Osterman is a psychodynamic psychologist. 40. Approximately how many psychologists are there in the United States? A. 50,000 B. 100,000 C. 300,000 D. 600,000 Answer: C. 300,000 41. Currently, women earn _____________ of new psychology doctorate degrees in the United States. A. one-tenth B. half C. three-fourth D. ninety percent Answer: C. three-fourth 42. Which figure best approximates the percentage of American psychologists who belong to racial minority groups? A. 6% B. 15% C. 25% D. 32% Answer: A. 6% 43. Which of the following statements concerning the representation of racial and ethnic minorities among American psychologists is TRUE? A. The number of minority members entering the field is about the same as it was 10 years ago. B. The number of minority members entering the field is higher than it was 10 years ago. C. The increase in the number of degrees awarded to minority members has outpaced the growth of the minority population. D. The number of minority members entering the field has decreased over the years. Answer: B. The number of minority members entering the field is higher than it was 10 years ago. 44. Today, around _____________% of new master's degrees and _____________% of new doctorate degrees are awarded to people of color. A. 50; 15 B. 20; 16 C. 32; 8 D. 50; 25 Answer: B. 20; 16 45. How is the diversity of psychology limited in the United States? A. Racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented among psychologists. B. The majority of psychologists are male. C. Psychologists in the United States far outnumber those in all other countries combined. D. Most research is conducted outside the United States. Answer: A. Racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented among psychologists. 46. Which of the following individuals is LEAST likely to be a psychologist? A. Dionne, who holds a PhD degree B. Everett, who has an MD degree C. Fallon, who graduated with a PsyD degree D. Melinda who has written a dissertation on drug abuse and is now teaching at a university Answer: B. Everett, who has an MD degree 47. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the difference between the PhD and the PsyD degrees? A. A PhD requires more years of study than a PsyD. B. A PhD requires a dissertation based on an original investigation. C. Fewer people earn a PhD than a PsyD. D. A PhD is obtained by psychologists who wish to focus exclusively on the treatment of psychological disorders. Answer: B. A PhD requires a dissertation based on an original investigation. 48. Callie works in the field of psychology. All else being equal, there is about a _____________ chance that her highest degree is a master's degree. A. one-fifth B. one-fourth C. one-third D. one-sixth Answer: C. one-third 49. Kristen is a psychology major. Immediately following graduation, she will most likely: A. join the workforce. B. feel that her job is unrelated to her psychology background. C. continue to graduate school. D. remain unemployed. Answer: A. join the workforce. 50. Psychology majors are highly valued by employers because they can: A. strategize effectively. B. think critically. C. help other workers with their personal problems. D. communicate effectively with their co-workers. Answer: B. think critically. 51. The most common employment sector for students graduating with a bachelor's degree in psychology is _____________. A. education B. business C. the local government D. social services Answer: D. social services 52. The field of phrenology is associated with: A. Gall. B. Wundt. C. Descartes. D. Ebbinghaus. Answer: A. Gall. 53. _____________ believed that children were born into the world with minds like "blank slates" and that their experiences determined what kind of adults they would become. A. Locke B. Plato C. Wundt D. Descartes Answer: A. Locke 54. The phrase tabula rasa may be translated as: A. red tablet. B. raised table. C. new table. D. blank slate. Answer: D. blank slate. 55. The formal beginning of psychology is associated with: A. Wundt. B. James. C. Descartes. D. Ebbinghaus. Answer: A. Wundt. 56. Which of the following locations is associated with the formal beginning of psychology? A. China B. Germany C. Spain D. England Answer: B. Germany 57. Wundt began operating the first psychology lab in _____________. A. 1459 B. 1739 C. 1879 D. 1902 Answer: C. 1879 58. It is the year 2029. At the American Psychological Association's annual conference, a special keynote address commemorates the 150th anniversary of a historic event in psychology's early days. Which of the following is the event celebrated in the address? A. Wundt's operation of the first psychology laboratory B. Charles Darwin's publication of the On the Origin of Species C. G. S. Hall's founding of the American Psychological Association D. Pavlov's discovery of classical conditioning Answer: A. Wundt's operation of the first psychology laboratory 59. Dr. Leleux asserts that psychologists should attempt to identify the fundamental attributes of mental experience. Dr. Leleux appears most sympathetic to the _____________ perspective in psychology. A. functionalist B. prescriptive C. structuralist D. humanistic Answer: C. structuralist 60. _____________ is a procedure used to study the structure of the mind in which subjects are asked to describe in detail what they are experiencing when they are exposed to a stimulus. A. Inner perception B. Introspection C. Internal observation D. Intervention Answer: B. Introspection 61. Lassandra takes a sip of cola. "Sweet...cold, wet, tingly...slightly bitter," she reports. Lassandra is: A. introspecting. B. demonstrating functionalism. C. defining umami. D. taking an intelligence test. Answer: A. introspecting. 62. Which of the following was a disadvantage of introspection? A. Introspection was a complicated process. B. Introspection was time consuming. C. Introspection was too simplistic. D. Introspection was not truly scientific. Answer: D. Introspection was not truly scientific. 63. Which of the following statements is TRUE of the structuralist perspective of psychology? A. The structuralist perspective was supplanted by other views. B. The structuralist perspective triumphed over alternative ones. C. The structuralist perspective continues to coexist with other views in psychology. D. The structuralist perspective has waned somewhat, but it still remains influential today. Answer: A. The structuralist perspective was supplanted by other views. 64. Which perspective most immediately replaced structuralism in the early days of scientific psychology? A. Behaviorism B. Humanism C. Functionalism D. Gestalt psychology Answer: C. Functionalism 65. _____________ is an early approach to psychology that concentrated on what the mind does and the role of behavior in allowing people to adapt to their environments. A. Structuralism B. Functionalism C. Introspection D. Gestalt psychology Answer: B. Functionalism 66. A time travel mishap lands you at one of the first psychology conferences ever held, sometime at the dawn of the 20th century. The graying older scientists slowly losing their grip on the field are most likely _____________, whereas the passionate young up-and-comers are probably _____________. A. structuralists; functionalists B. functionalists; developmentalists C. humanists; structuralists D. humanists; functionalists Answer: A. structuralists; functionalists 67. In the context of the psychology of emotion, William James and John Dewey would be most interested in: A. the contribution of unconscious memories to one's emotional experience. B. the basic nature of an emotional feeling or experience. C. how behavior aids one's adaptation to the environment. D. the organization of perception and thinking in a "whole" sense. Answer: C. how behavior aids one's adaptation to the environment. 68. Which of the following psychologists is associated with functionalism? A. William James B. Max Wertheimer C. Hermann Ebbinghaus D. Wilhelm Wundt Answer: A. William James 69. Gestalt psychology may be seen as a reaction to _____________. A. the psychodynamic perspective B. humanism C. functionalism D. structuralism Answer: D. structuralism 70. Which of the following approaches to psychology might have been most likely to remind the audience that "the whole is different than the sum of the parts"? A. Phrenology B. Functionalism C. Structuralism D. Gestalt psychology Answer: D. Gestalt psychology 71. The Gestalt psychologists made substantial contribution to our understanding of: A. memory. B. perception. C. emotion. D. motivation. Answer: B. perception. 72. Which perspective below is CORRECTLY matched with its description? A. Structuralism: emphasized what the mind does B. Functionalism: emphasized the elements of mental experience C. Humanism: emphasized the unconscious determinants of behavior D. Gestalt psychology: emphasized the organization of perception Answer: D. Gestalt psychology: emphasized the organization of perception 73. Donna-Lynn is preparing a visual display of psychology's early history. One panel is headed "The Gay '90s." It portrays developments in the 1890s. Another panel is titled "The Roaring '20s." It is devoted to the 1920s. Which theoretical perspectives in psychology should appear in each of these panels? A. Gay '90s: functionalism; Roaring '20s: Gestalt psychology B. Gay '90s: behaviorism; Roaring '20s: structuralism C. Gay '90s: functionalism; Roaring '20s: behaviorism D. Gay '90s: Gestalt psychology; Roaring '20s: structuralism Answer: A. Gay '90s: functionalism; Roaring '20s: Gestalt psychology 74. Which of the following figures best approximates the number of major perspectives in psychology? A. One or two B. About five C. A dozen or so D. As many as there are psychologists Answer: B. About five 75. The approach that views behavior from the perspective of the brain, the nervous system, and other biological functions is known as the _____________ perspective. A. psychodynamic B. nature-nurture C. cognitive D. neuroscience Answer: D. neuroscience 76. The neuroscience perspective: A. suggests that all individuals naturally strive to grow, develop, and be in control of their lives and behavior. B. focuses on how people think, understand, and know about the world. C. considers how people and nonhumans function biologically. D. argues that behavior is motivated by inner forces and conflicts about which we have little awareness or control. Answer: C. considers how people and nonhumans function biologically. 77. Which contemporary perspective is CORRECTLY matched with its description? A. Psychodynamic perspective: emphasizes the automatic response of an individual to environmental stimuli B. Humanistic perspective: emphasizes how people know, understand, and think about the world C. Behavioral perspective: emphasizes observable behavior and objectivity D. Neuroscience perspective: emphasizes that behavior is motivated by inner forces and conflicts about which we have little awareness or control. Answer: C. Behavioral perspective: emphasizes observable behavior and objectivity 78. Noreen asserts that our behavior is motivated by inner forces and conflicts about which we have little awareness or control. This viewpoint is most consistent with the _____________ perspective in psychology. A. psychodynamic B. humanistic C. cognitive D. neuroscience Answer: A. psychodynamic 79. To many people who have never taken a psychology course, psychology begins and ends with the _____________ perspective. A. neuroscience B. behavioral C. cognitive D. psychodynamic Answer: D. psychodynamic 80. Contributions of the psychodynamic perspective include all of the following EXCEPT: A. a way to understand and treat certain types of psychological disorders. B. a way to understand such phenomena as prejudice and aggression. C. a revolutionary effect on 20th-century thinking not only in psychology but in related fields as well. D. a way to look at behavior in a more concrete, objective fashion. Answer: D. a way to look at behavior in a more concrete, objective fashion. 81. Penny is a recovering drug addict. Her treatment program emphasizes the influence of her environment—"people, places, and things"—on her use of her drug of choice. Her program reflects the _____________ perspective in psychology. A. psychodynamic B. behavioral C. cognitive D. neuroscience Answer: B. behavioral 82. Which of the following psychologists is associated with the behavioral perspective? A. Rogers B. Skinner C. Maslow D. Hollingworth Answer: B. Skinner 83. Dr. Greenway argues that psychology should focus on observable, measurable behavior. Dr. Cech suggests that psychology should study how people think about and understand the world. Which option below CORRECTLY identifies their respective perspectives? A. Dr. Greenway—behavioral perspective; Dr. Cech—cognitive perspective B. Dr. Greenway—cognitive perspective; Dr. Cech—behavioral perspective C. Dr. Greenway—behavioral perspective; Dr. Cech—humanistic perspective D. Dr. Greenway—psychodynamic perspective; Dr. Cech—humanistic perspective Answer: A. Dr. Greenway—behavioral perspective; Dr. Cech—cognitive perspective 84. Which psychologist is INCORRECTLY matched with an associated perspective? A. Abraham Maslow: humanistic B. Sigmund Freud: psychodynamic C. Karen Horney: cognitive D. B.F. Skinner: behavioral Answer: C. Karen Horney: cognitive 85. The computer metaphor is at the heart of the _____________ perspective. A. cognitive B. neuroscience C. behavioral D. humanistic Answer: A. cognitive 86. The cognitive perspective is said to have evolved in part from the _____________ perspective in early psychology and to represent a reaction to _____________. A. structuralist; humanism B. structuralist; behaviorism C. humanist; behaviorism D. humanist; functionalism Answer: B. structuralist; behaviorism 87. Driving to work one day, Owen suspects that drivers talking on their cell phones pay less attention to the road than do other drivers. This hypothesis would most likely be tested by a _____________ psychologist. A. behavioral B. humanistic C. cognitive D. psychodynamic Answer: C. cognitive 88. The humanistic perspective rejects the view that behavior reflects biological forces, unconscious processes, or the environment. In other words, it rejects the _____________, _____________, and _____________ perspectives, respectively. A. cognitive; psychodynamic; behavioral B. neuroscience; cognitive; behavioral C. cognitive; psychodynamic; neuroscience D. neuroscience; psychodynamic; behavioral Answer: D. neuroscience; psychodynamic; behavioral 89. The emphasis of the humanistic perspective is on: A. free will. B. environmental determinism. C. natural selection. D. unconscious motives. Answer: A. free will. 90. Free will stands in contrast to _____________. A. naturism B. unconscious motives C. determinism D. natural selection Answer: C. determinism 91. Dr. Petrovic tries to help his clients see how their behavior reflects choices they have made. He is most likely a _____________ therapist. A. psychodynamic B. clinical neuroscience C. humanistic D. gestalt Answer: C. humanistic 92. Psychologists adhering to the _____________ perspective are probably the LEAST likely to take a "nature" stance on the nature vs. nurture issue. A. behaviorist B. cognitive C. neuroscience D. evolutionary Answer: B. cognitive 93. Which of the following perspectives of psychology emphasizes observable responses? A. Behavioral B. Cognitive C. Neuroscience D. Psychodynamic Answer: A. Behavioral 94. Recall Watson's quote: "Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select—doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations and race of his ancestors." If 1 = extreme nature and 10 = extreme nurture, where would you place Watson on the nature vs. nurture issue? A. 1 or 2 B. 3 or 4 C. 5 or 6 D. 9 or 10 Answer: D. 9 or 10 95. Dr. Quinones studies the achievement motivation of junior high school students. He asserts that such motivation mainly reflects the parenting and educational practices the students have experienced. This statement is most directly related to the _____________ issue; Dr. Quinones' position is toward the _____________ end of the continuum. A. nature vs. nurture; nature B. nature vs. nurture; nurture C. observable behavior vs. internal mental processes; observable behavior D. observable behavior vs. internal mental processes; internal mental processes Answer: B. nature vs. nurture; nurture 96. Dr. Reynolds believes that depression reflects aspects of a patient's early relationship with her parents of which she may be completely unaware. Dr. Smith, by contrast, argues that depression stems from a patient's negative self-talk. The two psychologists appear to disagree on the _____________ issue. A. nature vs. nurture B. conscious vs. unconscious causes C. free will vs. determinism D. structuralism vs. functionalism Answer: B. conscious vs. unconscious causes 97. _____________ is the idea that people's behavior is produced primarily by factors outside of their willful control. A. Naturism B. Vigilantism C. Determinism D. Factualism Answer: C. Determinism 98. Individual differences are to universal principles what the _____________ perspective is to the _____________ perspective. A. neuroscience; humanistic B. cognitive; behavioral C. humanistic; neuroscience D. behavioral; cognitive Answer: C. humanistic; neuroscience 99. Which of the following is NOT a likely trend in psychology's near future? A. Psychology will become increasingly specialized. B. Neuroscientific approaches will have an increasing influence on psychology. C. Psychology will become an increasingly unified discipline. D. Diversity will assume increasing importance in psychology. Answer: C. Psychology will become an increasingly unified discipline. 100. Pablo is taking part in a psychology experiment. He watches two political campaign ads—one highlighting the candidate's positive attributes and another emphasizing the opponent's negative features. During each ad, Pablo's brain is scanned. This experiment is most likely conducted by a _____________ neuroscientist. A. clinical B. social C. behavioral D. counseling Answer: B. social 101. The approach used by psychologists to systematically acquire knowledge and understanding about behavior and other phenomena of interest is called: A. the trial and error method. B. the informed speculation method. C. the scientific method. D. the educated guessing method. Answer: C. the scientific method. 102. Which of the following is the first step in the scientific method? A. Formulating an explanation B. Identifying questions of interest C. Communicating the findings D. Carrying out research designed to support or refute the explanation Answer: B. Identifying questions of interest 103. After identifying the question of interest, which is the next step in the scientific method? A. Formulating an explanation B. Evaluating the findings C. Communicating the findings D. Carrying out research designed to support or refute the explanation Answer: A. Formulating an explanation 104. Which of the following sequences correctly arranges the steps in the scientific method from first to last? A. Identify problem → formulate explanation → carry out research → communicate findings B. Carry out research → formulate explanation → identify problem → communicate findings C. Identify problem → carry out research → formulate explanation → communicate findings D. Carry out research → identify problem → formulate explanation → communicate findings Answer: A. Identify problem → formulate explanation → carry out research → communicate findings 105. Frederico is presenting the outcomes of an experiment he conducted in a talk at a regional psychology conference. Frederico is engaged in the _____________ step of the scientific method, namely _____________. A. first; communicating results B. first; formulating an explanation C. last; communicating results D. last; formulating an explanation Answer: C. last; communicating results 106. The development of a hypothesis occurs in which of the following steps of a scientific method? A. Formulating an explanation B. Identifying questions of interest C. Communicating the findings D. Carrying out research designed to support or refute the explanation Answer: A. Formulating an explanation 107. Collection and analysis of data is done in which of the following steps of the scientific method? A. Formulating an explanation B. Identifying questions of interest C. Communicating the findings D. Carrying out research designed to support or refute the explanation Answer: D. Carrying out research designed to support or refute the explanation 108. Which of the following is the final step in the scientific method? A. Formulating an explanation B. Identifying questions of interest C. Communicating the findings D. Carrying out research designed to support or refute the explanation Answer: C. Communicating the findings 109. _____________ are broad explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest. A. Theories B. Hypotheses C. Operational definitions D. Suppositions Answer: A. Theories 110. Andrea is reading a general, comprehensive account of human aggression in the introduction to a research report in psychology. Andrea is reading a(n): A. theory. B. hypothesis. C. operational definition. D. supposition. Answer: A. theory. 111. Regarding theories, which of the following statements is true? A. Theories vary in their breadth. B. Theories are translations of hypotheses into specific procedures. C. Theories stem from hypotheses. D. Theories are predictions stated in a way that allow them to be tested. Answer: A. Theories vary in their breadth. 112. As compared to the theories about human behavior we all develop in daily life, those formulated by psychologists are: A. more general. B. broader. C. more complex. D. more formal. Answer: D. more formal. 113. According to Bibb Latane and John Darley's theory of _____________, the greater the number of bystanders or witnesses to an event that calls for helping behavior, the more the responsibility for helping is perceived to be shared by all the bystanders. A. diffusion of responsibility B. command responsibility C. social responsibility D. collective responsibility Answer: A. diffusion of responsibility 114. "People with opposite personality traits are more likely to be attracted to each other." This is a(n): A. hypothesis. B. correlation. C. theory. D. operational definition. Answer: A. hypothesis. 115. A hypothesis is best defined as a: A. prediction stated in a way that allows it to be tested. B. specification of a variable in terms of the procedures that will be used to measure it. C. broad, general explanation of the phenomenon of interest. D. behavior, event, or other characteristic that can assume different values. Answer: A. prediction stated in a way that allows it to be tested. 116. When asked to define "popularity," Brianna offers, "It's when everyone likes you." Chrissy suggests, "It's basically the number of friends you have." How do the two girls' definitions differ? A. Chrissy's is a procedural definition; Brianna's is not. B. Brianna's is an operational definition; Chrissy's is not. C. Brianna's is a procedural definition; Chrissy's is not. D. Chrissy's is an operational definition; Brianna's is not. Answer: D. Chrissy's is an operational definition; Brianna's is not. 117. Which of the following is an operational definition of happiness? A. An individual's feeling of joy B. An individual's sense of achievement and spirituality C. An individual's self-rating on a 10-point happiness scale D. An individual's feeling of contentment Answer: C. An individual's self-rating on a 10-point happiness scale 118. Regarding operational definitions, which of the following statements is most accurate? A. For a given hypothesis, there are usually two operational definitions. B. For a given hypothesis, there is a single best operational definition. C. For a given hypothesis, many operational definitions are usually possible. D. Some hypotheses cannot be translated into operational definitions. Answer: C. For a given hypothesis, many operational definitions are usually possible. 119. Which of the following statements best expresses the relationship between a theory and a hypothesis? A. A theory is more focused than a hypothesis. B. A theory is broader than a hypothesis. C. A theory is the same as a hypothesis. D. A theory is unrelated to a hypothesis. Answer: B. A theory is broader than a hypothesis. 120. Prediction is to explanation what _____________ is to _____________. A. hypothesis; theory B. theory; hypothesis C. variable; supposition D. hypothesis; variable Answer: A. hypothesis; theory 121. Which of the following sequences is correct? A. Operational definition → hypothesis → theory B. Operational definition → theory → hypothesis C. Hypothesis → theory → operational definition D. Theory → hypothesis → operational definition Answer: D. Theory → hypothesis → operational definition 122. _____________ is defined as the systematic inquiry aimed at the discovery of new knowledge. A. Theory B. Critical thinking C. Coherent observation D. Research Answer: D. Research 123. Each of the following is a descriptive research technique except: A. experimental research. B. case study research. C. naturalistic observation. D. archival research. Answer: A. experimental research. 124. Research in which existing data, such as census documents, college records, and newspaper clippings, are examined to test a hypothesis is known as _____________. A. experimental research B. archival research C. naturalistic research D. a case study Answer: B. archival research 125. Dr. Carruthers is using crime statistics available in a federal database as part of a study. Dr. Carruthers is conducting a(n): A. case study. B. naturalistic observation. C. archival research. D. survey. Answer: C. archival research. 126. Wallace is engaged in archival research. In which of the following projects is he most likely engaged? A. Comparing the effects of cell phone distractions to those of text message distractions on participants' performance in a driving simulator B. Asking a large sample of community dwellers a set of questions about their perceptions of healthcare reform C. Recording language comprehension deficits in a woman with left hemisphere brain damage D. Examining the registrar's records at a state university to explore the relationship between SAT scores and freshman GPA Answer: D. Examining the registrar's records at a state university to explore the relationship between SAT scores and freshman GPA 127. Which of the following is not a drawback of archival research? A. Existing records are often incomplete. B. It is expensive to conduct. C. Existing data may not have been collected systematically. D. Data may not be in a form that allows the researcher to test a hypothesis fully. Answer: B. It is expensive to conduct. 128. Evelyn, a psychology graduate, watches parent-child interactions in a park. She simply records what she sees and does not make a change in the situation. The method she uses is known as _____________. A. naturalistic observation B. archival research C. experimentation D. a case study Answer: A. naturalistic observation 129. Naturalistic observation entails: A. the systematic, detailed study of a single individual. B. examining existing records such as census documents. C. asking a sample of individuals a set of questions. D. examining behavior in the setting in which it typically occurs. Answer: D. examining behavior in the setting in which it typically occurs. 130. DeAndre is recording instances of physical aggression among children in a schoolyard at recess. DeAndre is undertaking: A. a naturalistic observation. B. an archival research. C. a survey. D. a case study. Answer: A. a naturalistic observation. 131. Brooke is engaged in naturalistic observation. In which of the following projects is she most likely engaged? A. Asking a sample of college students a set of questions about tendency to become angry in different situations. B. Watching and recording interactions between subordinates and their supervisors in a large corporate office. C. Conducting an in-depth investigation of the history and current behavior of an autistic boy. D. Examining crime statistics from the Department of Justice to see if the rate of property crimes is related to the rate of violent crimes. Answer: B. Watching and recording interactions between subordinates and their supervisors in a large corporate office. 132. Which of the following descriptive research methods is correctly matched with a description? A. Archival research—in-depth investigation of an individual B. Naturalistic observation—behavior is investigated in the environment in which it typically occurs, without intervention by the researcher C. Case study—a sample is asked a series of questions about their thoughts, attitudes, or behaviors D. Survey research—existing data is examined to test a hypothesis Answer: B. Naturalistic observation—behavior is investigated in the environment in which it typically occurs, without intervention by the researcher 133. Which of the following descriptive research methods is incorrectly matched with an advantage? A. Archival research—inexpensive B. Naturalistic observation—examines behavior in the "real world" C. Survey—small sample can give accurate picture of much larger population D. Case study—it controls any of the factors of interest Answer: D. Case study—it controls any of the factors of interest 134. Which of the following statements best expresses the relationship between a sample and a population? A. A sample includes a population. B. A population includes a sample. C. A population is similar to a sample. D. A sample is completely separate from a population. Answer: B. A population includes a sample. 135. Amy is conducting a survey of dating attitudes and behaviors among young adults as part of her masters' thesis work. Amy distributes questionnaires to 200 randomly selected students enrolled in an introductory psychology course at her university. The 200 students constitute Amy's _____________. The people whom she assumes her results will generalize are termed the _____________. A. control group; population B. experimental group; population C. population; sample D. sample; population Answer: D. sample; population 136. Wilma is undertaking survey research. Which of the following is she probably doing? A. Recording the behaviors of sea lions in their natural habitat B. Observing the problem-solving strategies of an extremely gifted middle school girl C. Comparing students' performance on abstract and concrete versions of problems D. Asking a sample of students a series of questions about their sexual attitudes and behaviors Answer: D. Asking a sample of students a series of questions about their sexual attitudes and behaviors 137. Dr. Estevez prepares a set of questions to ask college students about their drinking behavior and their attitudes toward alcohol. Dr. Estevez is undertaking a(n): A. survey research. B. case study. C. naturalistic observation. D. archival research. Answer: A. survey research. 138. Dr. Gigliotti is conducting an in-depth, intensive investigation of a patient with dissociative identity disorder. He uses psychological tests and interviews to better understand the patient. Dr. Gigliotti is undertaking a(n): A. survey research. B. archival research. C. case study. D. naturalistic observation. Answer: C. case study. 139. _____________ is an in-depth, intensive investigation of an individual or small group of people. A. Archival research B. Survey research C. Naturalistic observation D. Case study Answer: D. Case study 140. Which of the following researchers is conducting a case study? A. Dr. Henriette, who is investigating the effect of word imageability on list memory by handing out questionnaires B. Dr. Innis, who is investigating in detail the tactile perception of a blind woman C. Dr. Jefferson, who is observing children on a playground D. Dr. Kulik, who is studying newspaper stories on serial killers Answer: B. Dr. Innis, who is investigating in detail the tactile perception of a blind woman 141. Behaviors, events, or other characteristics that can change in some way are referred to as: A. variables. B. constants. C. operational definitions. D. hypotheses. Answer: A. variables. 142. Correlation research is: A. research in which an investigator simply observes some naturally occurring behavior and does not make a change in the situation. B. research in which people chosen to represent a larger population are asked a series of questions about their behavior, thoughts, or attitudes. C. research in which the relationship between two sets of variables is examined to determine whether they are associated. D. research in which existing data, such as census documents, college records, and newspaper clippings, are examined to test a hypothesis. Answer: C. research in which the relationship between two sets of variables is examined to determine whether they are associated. 143. Irving has noticed a pattern: The more alcohol people drink, the more aggressive they seem to be. Which research method is aimed at verifying a relationship between two variables? A. Naturalistic observation B. Case study C. Correlational research D. Archival research Answer: C. Correlational research 144. Which term is most nearly synonymous with the term correlation? A. Association B. Explanation C. Observation D. Manipulation Answer: A. Association 145. The correlation coefficient ranges from _____________ to _____________. A. 1 to 10 B. +1.0 to -1.0 C. 0 to 1 D. -10 to +10 Answer: B. +1.0 to -1.0 146. The strength and direction of the relationship between the two variables are represented by a mathematical statistic known as a(n) _____________. A. standard deviation B. affiliation C. operational definition D. correlation Answer: D. correlation 147. A positive correlation indicates that: A. as the value of one variable increases, the value of the other increases. B. as the value of one variable increases, the value of the other decreases. C. little or no relationship exists between two variables. D. one variable causes the other. Answer: A. as the value of one variable increases, the value of the other increases. 148. Using a sample of young adolescents, Dr. Nguyen finds a correlation of +.55 between scores on a measure of neglectful or uninvolved parenting and scores on a measure of delinquent behavior. Which of the following might Dr. Nguyen legitimately conclude? A. Uninvolved parenting causes juvenile delinquency. B. Parenting that is more neglectful is related to a lower degree of delinquent behavior. C. Uninvolved parenting is unrelated to delinquency. D. Parenting that is more neglectful is related to a higher degree of delinquent behavior. Answer: D. Parenting that is more neglectful is related to a higher degree of delinquent behavior. 149. Which of the following correlation coefficients represents the strongest relationship between two variables? A. -.75 B. +.60 C. .00 D. +.30 Answer: A. -.75 150. Which of the following sequences of correlation coefficients correctly arranges the relationships between three pairs of two variables in order of increasing strength? A. -.60, +.10, +.50 B. +.10, +.50, -.60 C. -.60, +.50, +.10 D. .00, -.60, +.50 Answer: B. +.10, +.50, -.60 151. In a negative correlation: A. the values of both variables increase simultaneously. B. as the value of one variable increases, the value of the other decreases. C. the values of both variables decrease simultaneously. D. one variable is the cause of the other variable. Answer: B. as the value of one variable increases, the value of the other decreases. 152. No relationship between two variables is represented by a: A. negative sign. B. sigma. C. zero. D. positive sign. Answer: C. zero. 153. Experimental research is to correlational research what _____________ is to _____________. A. association; cause B. description; prediction C. cause; association D. description; association Answer: C. cause; association 154. The only way psychologists can establish cause-and-effect relationships through research is by carrying out a(n) _____________. A. correlational research B. survey research C. experiment D. survey Answer: C. experiment 155. Dr. Ingram deliberately varied the imageability of items on a list and later measured participants' recall of the items. Dr. Ingram conducted a(n) _____________ research. A. correlational B. archival C. observational D. experimental Answer: D. experimental 156. Experimental research requires that the responses of _____________ group(s) be examined. A. at least one B. at least five C. at least two D. at least three Answer: C. at least two 157. Experimental group is to control group what _____________ is to _____________. A. treatment; no treatment B. no treatment; treatment C. independent variable; dependent variable D. dependent variable; independent variable Answer: A. treatment; no treatment 158. In the context of psychological research, _____________ is any group that receives a treatment. A. research group B. experimental group C. control group D. secondary group Answer: B. experimental group 159. _____________ is a group participating in an experiment that receives no treatment. A. Research group B. Experimental group C. Control group D. Secondary group Answer: C. Control group 160. Why are control groups included in experiments? A. To determine whether two variables are correlated B. To ascertain cause-and-effect relationships C. To ensure that participant characteristics are essentially the same in each group D. To translate the hypothesis into something testable Answer: B. To ascertain cause-and-effect relationships 161. In an experiment, the _____________ variable is deliberately manipulated by the researcher. A. control B. dependent C. independent D. experimental Answer: C. independent 162. In an experiment, the _____________ variable is measured and is expected to change due to the experimenter's manipulation. A. control B. dependent C. independent D. experimental Answer: B. dependent 163. In an experiment, the dependent variable is: A. applied to the treatment group. B. randomized across groups. C. measured by the researcher and is expected to change. D. deliberately manipulated by the researcher. Answer: C. measured by the researcher and is expected to change. 164. In an experiment, the independent variable is: A. applied to the control group. B. randomized across groups. C. measured by the researcher and is expected to change. D. deliberately manipulated by the researcher. Answer: D. deliberately manipulated by the researcher. 165. Doctors Chase and Sanborn are conducting an experiment on the effects of caffeine on memory. Participants are randomly assigned to a caffeine or a no-caffeine group; their recall of items on a word list is later assessed. Which pair correctly identifies a variable in this experiment? A. Caffeine—dependent variable B. Caffeine—independent variable C. Word recall—independent variable D. Word recall—experimental variable Answer: B. Caffeine—independent variable 166. Doctors Chase and Sanborn are conducting an experiment on the effects of caffeine on memory. Participants are randomly assigned to a caffeine or a no-caffeine group; their recall of items on a word list is later assessed. In this experiment, word recall is the _____________ variable. A. subject B. control C. independent D. dependent Answer: D. dependent 167. Doctors Chase and Sanborn are conducting an experiment on the effects of caffeine on memory. Participants are randomly assigned to a caffeine or a no-caffeine group; their recall of items on a word list is later assessed. Which pair below correctly names and identifies the variables in this experiment? A. Word recall—control variable; caffeine—experimental variable B. Word recall—independent variable; caffeine—dependent variable C. Word recall—dependent variable; caffeine—independent variable D. Word recall—experimental variable; caffeine—control variable Answer: C. Word recall—dependent variable; caffeine—independent variable 168. In a typical Latane and Darley "bystander" experiment, _____________ is the independent variable and _____________ is the dependent variable. A. the presence of bystanders; whether a false emergency occurs B. whether a false emergency occurs; the presence of bystanders C. whether the participant helps; the number of people present D. number of people present; whether the participant helps Answer: D. number of people present; whether the participant helps 169. The people taking part in an experiment are referred to as _____________. A. patients B. subjects C. confederates D. assignees Answer: B. subjects 170. The purpose of random assignment is to: A. combine the results of a number of similar studies. B. determine how likely it is that the results of a treatment were due to chance. C. ensure that participant characteristics are equivalent across the various groups. D. determine whether two variables are related. Answer: C. ensure that participant characteristics are equivalent across the various groups. 171. In which of the following procedures are participants assigned to different experimental groups on the basis of chance and chance alone? A. Operationalization B. Correlation C. Random sampling method D. Random assignment to condition Answer: D. Random assignment to condition 172. An experimenter flips a coin for each participant and assigns the participant to one group when "heads" came up and to the other group when "tails" came up. This process is referred to as: A. operationalization. B. random assignment to condition. C. purposive sampling. D. correlation. Answer: B. random assignment to condition. 173. Which of the following is an advantage of archival research? A. It provides a thorough, in-depth understanding of participants. B. It provides a sample of people in their natural environment. C. A small sample can be used to infer attitudes and behavior of a larger population. D. Data collection is easy because data already exists. Answer: D. Data collection is easy because data already exists. 174. Which of the following is an advantage of survey research? A. It provides a thorough, in-depth understanding of participants. B. It provides a sample of people in their natural environment. C. A small sample can be used to infer attitudes and behavior of a larger population. D. Data collection is easy because data already exists. Answer: C. A small sample can be used to infer attitudes and behavior of a larger population. 175. Which of the following is a disadvantage of survey research? A. It is dependent on the availability of existing data. B. The "typically occurring habitat" being observed cannot be controlled. C. A small sample cannot be used to infer attitudes and behavior of a larger population. D. The sample may not be representative of the larger population. Answer: D. The sample may not be representative of the larger population. 176. Which of the following is an advantage of a case study? A. It provides a thorough, in-depth understanding of participants. B. It provides a sample of people in their natural environment. C. A small sample can be used to infer attitudes and behavior of a larger population. D. Data collection is easy because data already exists. Answer: A. It provides a thorough, in-depth understanding of participants. 177. Which of the following is a disadvantage of a case study? A. It is dependent on the availability of existing data. B. The "typically occurring habitat" being observed cannot be controlled. C. Results may not be generalizable beyond the sample. D. It fails to provide a thorough, in-depth understanding of participants. Answer: C. Results may not be generalizable beyond the sample. 178. Meaningful results that make it possible for researchers to feel confident that they have confirmed their hypotheses is known as a _____________. A. mutually exclusive result B. subjective outcome C. significant outcome D. conditional result Answer: C. significant outcome 179. Research that is conducted, sometimes using other procedures, settings, and groups of participants, to increase confidence in prior finding is referred to as _____________. A. replicated research B. archival research C. naturalistic research D. survey research Answer: A. replicated research 180. Iyesha reads a journal article reporting a study in which a small sample of women undertook tests of spatial ability at two points during their menstrual cycle. Iyesha conducts a similar study using not only spatial ability but also verbal ability tests. In addition, Iyesha tests a larger sample of women. She aims to confirm the findings of the study mentioned in the journal. Iyesha performs a _____________. A. meta-analysis B. replicated research C. significance test D. control study Answer: B. replicated research 181. Kendra is combining the results of a number of experiments to yield an overall conclusion. Kendra is performing a _____________. A. meta-analysis B. significance test C. cross-validation D. sensitivity analysis Answer: A. meta-analysis 182. Which of the following statements most accurately captures the opinion of most psychologists in the context of the use of deception? A. It is integral to the conduct of scientifically valid research. B. It is often necessary in psychological research. C. It is sometimes necessary to safeguard the study's true purpose. D. It has absolutely no place in psychological research. Answer: C. It is sometimes necessary to safeguard the study's true purpose. 183. Before participating in an experiment, the participants must sign a document affirming that they have been told the basic outlines of the study and are aware of what their participation will involve, what risks the experiment may hold, and the fact that their participation is purely voluntary and they may terminate it at any time. This refers to which ethical principle of research? A. Informed consent B. Debriefing C. Experimental manipulation D. Significant outcome Answer: A. Informed consent 184. Which of the following is not a component of informed consent? A. A detailed explanation of the study and its procedures. B. A statement of the potential risks of participating in the study. C. An assurance that participation is completely voluntary. D. The knowledge that a participant can terminate his/her participation at any time. Answer: A. A detailed explanation of the study and its procedures. 185. Dr. O'Connor is telling his participants before he begins the experiment that their participation is completely voluntary and that they can stop taking part at any time. Dr. O'Connor is: A. debriefing his participants. B. obtaining informed consent. C. using experimental manipulation. D. assuring confidentiality. Answer: B. obtaining informed consent. 186. When a researcher debriefs her participants, she: A. reveals the outcome of the study. B. provides a detailed explanation of the study. C. tells them they can stop taking part at any time. D. assures the participants of confidentiality. Answer: B. provides a detailed explanation of the study. 187. Dr. O'Malley is informing participants before he begins the experiment that their participation is completely voluntary and that they can stop taking part at any time. Dr. Hensley is providing a detailed explanation of the study to participants who have just completed participating in the study. Which of the following statements is true? A. Dr. O'Malley is obtaining informed consent from his participants. Dr. Hensley is debriefing her participants. B. Dr. O'Malley is debriefing his participants. Dr. Hensley is obtaining informed consent from her participants. C. Dr. O'Malley and Dr. Hensley are obtaining informed consent from their participants. D. Dr. O'Malley and Dr. Hensley are debriefing their participants. Answer: A. Dr. O'Malley is obtaining informed consent from his participants. Dr. Hensley is debriefing her participants. 188. Which of the following sequences best reflects the order of events in an experiment? A. Informed consent → experiment → debriefing B. Informed consent → debriefing → experiment C. Debriefing → informed consent → experiment D. Experiment → informed consent → debriefing Answer: A. Informed consent → experiment → debriefing 189. Which of the following is not one of the reasons that college students are so often used as participants in psychological research? A. They are representative of the population at large. B. They are generally readily available to researchers. C. They are inexpensive. D. Most research occurs in university settings. Answer: A. They are representative of the population at large. 190. A college student sample differs from the population it is implicitly intended to represent—that is, people in general, in each of the following ways except that: A. they tend to come from industrialized cultures. B. they tend to come from Western cultures. C. they are better educated. D. they tend to be poor. Answer: D. they tend to be poor. 191. Which of the following guidelines is true regarding the use of nonhuman animals in experiments? A. Researchers must minimize discomfort, illness, and pain for the animals. B. Researchers must house, feed, and care for the animals properly. C. Researchers must promote the animals' well-being, at least for some species. D. Research with animals has failed to provide psychologists with valuable information. Answer: A. Researchers must minimize discomfort, illness, and pain for the animals. 192. Factors that distort the way the independent variable affects the dependent variable are referred to as: A. double-blinds. B. placebo effects. C. experimental bias. D. participant bias. Answer: C. experimental bias. 193. To guard against participant expectations biasing the results of an experiment, the experimenter may: A. disclose to participants how earlier participants tested. B. explain to the participant what the desired outcome should be. C. try to disguise the true purpose of the experiment. D. allow the participant to interact with people who have already been part of the experiment. Answer: C. try to disguise the true purpose of the experiment. 194. When cues are transmitted to participants about how they are expected to behave in particular experimental conditions, the research results may reflect _____________ expectations. When people develop their own ideas about the topic of the research, the investigation's outcomes may be biased by _____________. A. experimenter; participant expectations B. experimenter; experimenter expectations C. participant; participant expectations D. participant; experimenter expectations Answer: A. experimenter; participant expectations 195. In Dr. Suarez's social psychology lab, some college students taking part in the research suspect that interpersonal attraction processes are under study. This knowledge influences the way they interact with each other. In a play session during a child development study, Dr. Thomas' research assistants are more likely to unconsciously reinforce aggressive behavior among children who view a violent video clip than among children viewing a nonviolent clip. Dr. Suarez's research is susceptible to _____________ expectations. Dr. Thomas' work is prone to _____________. A. experimenter; participant expectations B. experimenter; experimenter expectations C. participant; participant expectations D. participant; experimenter expectations Answer: D. participant; experimenter expectations 196. What is a placebo? A. A small marsupial B. A Japanese "hybrid" car C. A false experimental treatment D. A sac that contains and nourishes a fetus Answer: C. A false experimental treatment 197. A _____________ is a false treatment, such as a pill, "drug," or other substance, without any significant chemical properties or active ingredients. A. double-blind procedure B. correlation coefficient C. placebo D. single-blind procedure Answer: C. placebo 198. A team of researchers conduct an experiment to test the effectiveness of a new drug in treating anxiety disorders. The participants in the control group receive sugar pills without active ingredients, while those in the experimental group receive the new, anti-anxiety drug. In this example, the researchers use a: A. double-blind procedure. B. correlation coefficient. C. placebo. D. single-blind procedure. Answer: C. placebo. 199. In an experiment involving a placebo: A. all the participants receive a treatment. B. the participants in the control group aware of the purpose of the research. C. the experimenter who interacts with the participant is unaware of the nature of the drug that is being administered. D. the participants belong to diverse ethnicities. Answer: A. all the participants receive a treatment. 200. A placebo is intended to minimize _____________ expectations; a double-blind procedure minimizes _____________. A. participant; experimenter expectations B. participant; participant expectations C. experimenter; experimenter expectations D. experimenter; participant expectations Answer: A. participant; experimenter expectations 201. In a _____________ both the participant and the experimenter who interacts with the participant is unaware of the nature of the drug that is being administered. A. double-blind procedure B. control treatment C. placebo experiment D. single-blind procedure Answer: A. double-blind procedure 202. A pharmaceutical company is conducting an experiment to test the effectiveness of a tricyclic antidepressant. Which of the following, if true, would indicate that the experimenters used a placebo? A. The participants were assigned to the experimental or control groups by drawing lots. B. The participants were informed about the medication they would be taking and its possible side effects before starting the treatment. C. The participants in both groups did not know if they were getting a real or a false treatment. D. The research assistants who administered the drugs were asked to establish rapport with the participants. Answer: C. The participants in both groups did not know if they were getting a real or a false treatment. 203. A double-blind procedure is administered to overcome _____________. A. participant expectations B. memory bias C. reporting bias D. experimenter expectations Answer: D. experimenter expectations 204. A pharmaceutical company wishes to test the efficacy of a new antidepressant using a double-blind procedure. Which alternative correctly describes the procedure the company would use? A. The research assistants would know which participants were receiving the new drug and which were receiving an inert pill. Each patient would also know which type of pill he or she was taking. B. The research assistants would know which participants were receiving the new drug and which were receiving an inert pill. Each patient, though, would not know which type of pill he or she was taking. C. The research assistants would not know which participants were receiving the new drug and which were receiving an inert pill. Each patient, though, would know which type of pill he or she was taking. D. The research assistants would not know which participants were receiving the new drug and which were receiving an inert pill. Also, each patient would not know which type of pill he or she was taking. Answer: D. The research assistants would not know which participants were receiving the new drug and which were receiving an inert pill. Also, each patient would not know which type of pill he or she was taking. Worksheet Questions 205. Psychology is the science of _____________ . Answer: behavior and mental processes 206. Dr. Thibodeaux examines sensory, learning, and cognitive processes. She is a(n) _____________ psychologist. Answer: experimental 207. Ursula is interested in helping students develop effective study practices and manage test anxiety. Her advisor suggests that she consider a career in _____________ psychology. Answer: counseling 208. Consider the fields of evolutionary psychology, behavioral genetics, and clinical neuropsychology. Of these three fields, _____________ is the least specific in its focus. Answer: evolutionary psychology 209. The relatively new field of _____________ unites the areas of neuroscience and clinical psychology. Answer: clinical neuropsychology 210. Most psychologists have a doctorate, either a PhD or a(n) _____________ . Answer: PsyD 211. Of the two degrees, PhD and PsyD, the less research-oriented is the _____________ . Answer: PsyD 212. Associated with William James, the _____________ perspective focused on what the mind does. Answer: functionalist 213. The psychodynamic perspective originated in the work of _____________ , an Austrian physician. Answer: Sigmund Freud 214. The _____________ perspective was championed by B. F. Skinner. Answer: behavioral 215. The _____________ perspective focuses on how people think, understand, and know about the world. Answer: cognitive 216. According to the cognitive perspective, thinking is similar to _____________ by a computer. Answer: information processing 217. Many psychologists who adhere to the cognitive perspective compare human thinking to the workings of a(n) _____________ . Answer: computer 218. Wanda is a humanistic psychologist who believes that behavior reflects an individual's own choices—that is, she endorses the notion of _____________ . Answer: free will 219. The humanistic perspective is explicit in its rejection of _____________ , the notion that behavior is caused by factors outside the individual's control. Answer: determinism 220. _____________ psychologists adopting a psychodynamic perspective argue that psychological disorders are brought about by unconscious factors. Answer: Clinical 221. While neuroscientists tend to seek universal principles of behavior, humanistic psychologists are more interested in _____________ . Answer: individual differences 222. Dr. Young activates social stereotypes his participants might hold; simultaneously, he records changes in the brain's electrical activity. Dr. Young is part of an evolving field known as _____________ . Answer: social neuroscience 223. The approach used by psychologists to systematically acquire knowledge and understanding about behavior and other phenomena of interest is called the _____________ . Answer: scientific method 224. Alyssa predicts that caffeine will improve her participants' performance on a visual tracking task. Alyssa has formed a(n) _____________ . Answer: hypothesis 225. A(n) _____________ is the translation of a hypothesis into specific, testable procedures that can be measured and observed. Answer: operational definition 226. Systematic inquiry aimed at generating new knowledge is called _____________ . Answer: research 227. _____________ research includes archival research, naturalistic observation, survey research, and the case study method. Answer: Descriptive 228. Dr. Leblanc is examining interactions among primates in the wild; he does not intervene. Dr. Leblanc is performing a _____________ . Answer: naturalistic observation 229. In _____________ , a sample of people chosen to represent a larger group of interest is asked a series of questions about their behavior, thoughts, or attitudes. Answer: survey research 230. A(n) _____________ is a representative subset of a population. Answer: sample 231. One disadvantage of using _____________ surveys to collect data is that participants may be unaware of their feelings or attitudes. Answer: research 232. _____________ is a procedure in which a carefully designed set of questions is used to gain some insight into the personality of the individual or group. Answer: Psychological testing 233. _____________ are behaviors, events, or other characteristics that can change, or vary, in some way. Answer: Variables 234. The strength and direction of the relationship between the two variables are represented by a mathematical statistic formally known as a(n) _____________ . Answer: correlation coefficient 235. In an experiment, a researcher manipulates participants' exposure to a stimulus. Exposure is a(n) _____________ ariable in this example. Answer: independent 236. A(n) _____________ outcome is not due to chance. Answer: significant 237. Miranda is statistically combining the results of all the published studies on the effects of the presence of a weapon on eyewitness accuracy. Miranda is performing a(n) _____________ . Answer: meta-analysis 238. Sometimes, to prevent participants from being influenced by what they think a study's true purpose is, investigators must engage in _____________ . Answer: deception 239. Before the outset of a study, participants must give _____________ , indicating that they know the potential risks of the study and are aware that their participation is voluntary. Answer: informed consent 240. At the conclusion of an experimental session, Nia tells her participants the purpose of the study and explains the procedures she used. Nia is _____________ her participants. Answer: debriefing 241. _____________ refers to factors that distort the way the independent variable affects the dependent variable. Answer: Experimental bias 242. In a test of a new antianxiety medication, participants are given either the medication or a placebo; the personnel administering the study, moreover, do not know which participants receive the medication and which receive the placebo. This experiment may be described as a(n) _____________ study. Answer: double-blind Essay Questions 243. Dr. MacGyvers is a developmental psychologist; Dr. Cooper is a cross-cultural psychologist; and Dr. Breaux is a cognitive psychologist. For each of these psychologists, briefly define the subfield in which he or she specializes and suggest one issue or question in which he or she might be especially interested. Answer: Students’ suggestions may vary. Developmental psychology—examines how people grow and change throughout the life span. Sample issue or question: how children's problem-solving abilities change through the elementary and middle-school years. Cross-cultural psychology—examines the similarities and differences in psychological functioning among various cultures. Sample issue or question: whether depression is experienced and expressed differently in Asian cultures than in western cultures. Cognitive psychology—studies higher mental processes, such as memory, thinking, problem solving, decision making, and language. Sample issue or question: how memory of an event is influenced by subsequent experiences. • Dr. MacGyvers (Developmental Psychologist): Specializes in studying the psychological growth and changes that occur throughout a person's life. Interest: How early childhood experiences influence cognitive and emotional development. • Dr. Cooper (Cross-Cultural Psychologist): Examines how cultural factors influence human behavior and mental processes. Interest: How cultural differences affect social interactions and communication styles. • Dr. Breaux (Cognitive Psychologist): Focuses on understanding mental processes such as perception, memory, and problem-solving. Interest: How memory retrieval processes can be improved in individuals with cognitive impairments. 244. Evolutionary psychology, behavioral genetics, and clinical neuropsychology are three growing fields on the frontiers of today's psychology. Briefly describe each of these fields and suggest a topic that a psychologist in each might investigate. Answer: Students’ suggestions may vary. Evolutionary psychology—examines how behavior reflects our genetic heritage. Sample issue or question: the evolutionary basis of gender differences in mate selection preferences. Behavioral genetics—explores the genetic mechanisms that allow inherited behavior to unfold. Sample issue or question: the chromosomal abnormalities that might underlie certain learning disabilities. Clinical neuropsychology—focuses on the origin of psychological disorders in biological factors. Sample topic: brain chemistry abnormalities underlying bipolar disorder. • Evolutionary Psychology: Explores how evolutionary principles shape human behavior and mental processes. • Behavioral Genetics: Studies the role of genetic and environmental influences on behavior. 245. Briefly, in 1–2 paragraphs, discuss the under representation of racial and ethnic minorities among psychologists in the United States and the significance this may have on the field as a whole. Please provide one possible example that illustrates the effects this may have. Answer: Students’ examples may vary. The vast majority of psychologists in the United States are white, limiting the diversity of the field. Only 6% of all psychologists are members of racial minority groups. Although the number of minority individuals entering the field is higher than a decade ago, the numbers have not kept up with the dramatic growth of the minority population at large. The underrepresentation of racial and ethnic minorities among psychologists is significant for several reasons. First, the field of psychology is diminished by a lack of the diverse perspectives and talents that minority-group members can provide. Furthermore, minority-group psychologists serve as role models for members of minority communities, and their underrepresentation in the profession might deter other minority-group members from entering the field. Finally, because members of minority groups often prefer to receive psychological therapy from treatment providers of their own race or ethnic group, the rarity of minority psychologists can discourage some members of minority groups from seeking treatment. The underrepresentation of racial and ethnic minorities among psychologists in the United States can lead to a lack of culturally sensitive care and understanding, which may negatively impact the effectiveness of mental health services for diverse populations. This disparity also means fewer role models and mentors for aspiring psychologists from minority backgrounds, perpetuating the cycle of underrepresentation. For example, a Hispanic client seeking therapy might struggle to find a psychologist who understands their cultural background and specific stressors, potentially leading to miscommunication and less effective treatment. This underscores the need for increased diversity within the field to ensure all individuals receive equitable and culturally competent care. 246. Briefly discuss what types of education level, or degree, different types of psychologists have and how many years one might expect to invest earning said degrees. Does the area of psychology one is interested in working in dictate the level of schooling required? Please provide two examples that relate area of work interest and degree necessary to illustrate your statements. Answer: Students’ examples may vary. Most psychologists have a doctorate, either a PhD (doctor of philosophy) or, less frequently, a PsyD (doctor of psychology). The PhD is a research degree that requires a dissertation based on an original investigation. The PsyD is obtained by psychologists who wish to focus on the treatment of psychological disorders. (Psychologists are distinct from psychiatrists, who have a medical degree and specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders, often using treatments that involve the prescription of drugs.) Both the PhD and the PsyD typically take 4 or 5 years of work past the bachelor's level. Some fields of psychology involve education beyond the doctorate. For instance, doctoral-level clinical psychologists, who deal with people with psychological disorders, typically spend an additional year doing an internship. About a third of people working in the field of psychology have a master's degree as their highest degree, which they earn after 2 or 3 years of graduate work. These psychologists teach, provide therapy, conduct research, or work in specialized programs dealing with drug abuse or crisis intervention. Some work in universities, government, and business, collecting and analyzing data. Psychologists typically hold a master's degree (2-3 years) or a doctoral degree (Ph.D. or Psy.D., 5-7 years). The area of psychology one is interested in often dictates the required level of education. For instance, a clinical psychologist typically needs a Ph.D. or Psy.D. for licensure and practice, while a school psychologist might require a specialist-level degree (Ed.S., around 3 years) or a master's degree for entry-level positions. 247. What are the career options available to psychology majors? Answer: Although some psychology majors head for graduate school in psychology or an unrelated field, the majority join the workforce immediately after graduation. Most report that the jobs they take after graduation are related to their psychology background. An undergraduate major in psychology provides excellent preparation for a variety of occupations. Because undergraduates who specialize in psychology develop good analytical skills, are trained to think critically, and are able to synthesize and evaluate information well, employers in business, industry, and the government value their preparation. The most common areas of employment for psychology majors are in the social services, including working as an administrator, serving as a counselor, and providing direct care. Some 20% of recipients of bachelor's degrees in psychology work in the social services or in some other form of public affairs. In addition, psychology majors often enter the fields of education or business or work for federal, state, and local governments. 248. Briefly describe Gestalt psychology and functionalism in one paragraph each Also, compare and contrast these two approaches. Answer: An important reaction to structuralism was the development of Gestalt psychology in the early 1900s. Gestalt psychology emphasizes how perception is organized. Instead of considering the individual parts that make up thinking, gestalt psychologists took the opposite tack, studying how people consider individual elements together as units or wholes. Led by German scientists such as Hermann Ebbinghaus and Max Wertheimer, gestalt psychologists proposed that "The whole is different from the sum of its parts," meaning that our perception, or understanding, of objects is greater and more meaningful than the individual elements that make up our perceptions. Gestalt psychologists have made substantial contributions to our understanding of perception. The perspective that replaced structuralism is known as functionalism. Rather than focusing on the mind's structure, functionalism concentrated on what the mind does and how behavior functions. Functionalists, whose perspective became prominent in the early 1900s, asked what role behavior plays in allowing people to adapt to their environments. Led by the American psychologist William James, the functionalists examined how behavior allows people to satisfy their needs and how our "stream of consciousness" permits us to adapt to our environment. 249. You have been invited to participate in a program aimed at encouraging high school girls to pursue scientific careers. You wish to tell the girls that despite formidable obstacles, women made many important contributions to the science of psychology in its earliest days. Outline several points you might make in support of your argument. Answer: Students’ answers may vary. At the turn of the 20th century, women were often barred from pursuing advanced degrees in psychology. Nevertheless, many women made key contributions to the field, including: Margaret Floy Washburn: She was the first woman to receive a doctorate in psychology and contributed to our understanding of animal behavior. Leta Stetter Hollingworth: She focused on child development and women's issues and refuted the notion that women's abilities decline during portions of the menstrual cycle. Mary Calkins: She studied memory and was the first female president of the American Psychological Association. Karen Horney: She focused on the sociocultural foundations of personality. June Etta Downey: She spearheaded the study of personality traits and was the first woman to head a psychology department at a state university. Anna Freud: She contributed to the treatment of abnormal behavior. Mamie Phipps Clark: She performed foundational work on how children of color come to recognize racial differences. 1. Pioneering Women: Highlight early trailblazers like Mary Whiton Calkins, the first female president of the American Psychological Association, despite being denied a Ph.D. from Harvard. 2. Foundational Work: Discuss Margaret Floy Washburn, the first woman to earn a Ph.D. in psychology, and her influential research on animal behavior and motor theory. 3. Clinical Innovations: Mention Leta Stetter Hollingworth, whose work on intelligence testing and gifted children significantly advanced educational psychology. 4. Breaking Barriers: Emphasize the perseverance and impact of these women, demonstrating that significant contributions can be made despite societal and institutional challenges. 250. List and briefly describe three major perspectives in contemporary psychology. Identify one or two prominent psychologists associated with each of the perspectives you list. Answer: Psychodynamic perspective—the approach based on the view that behavior is motivated by unconscious inner forces over which the individual has little control; Freud, Jung Behavioral perspective—proposes that observable, measurable behavior should be the focus of study; Watson, Skinner Humanistic perspective—proposes that all individuals naturally strive to grow, develop, and be in control of their lives and behavior; Maslow, Rogers 251. Describe a behavioral or mental phenomenon in which you are especially interested. Discuss how the phenomenon might be approached from at least two of the following perspectives: neuroscientific, psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive, and humanistic. Answer: Any behavioral or mental phenomenon might be mentioned as long as it is plausibly connected to two of the perspectives as they are defined in the text. Example: Depression—the neuroscientific approach would seek the biological basis of depression, as well as physiologically-oriented treatment, whereas the cognitive perspective would focus on the type of thinking that contributes to depression, such as irrational beliefs that nothing good will ever happen and that one is bound to fail in any endeavor. Treatment from the cognitive perspective would focus on changing negative thought patterns. 252. Describe a current event or topic of public interest. Suggest how at least two of the major perspectives in contemporary psychology might shed light on the topic. Answer: Any event or topic can be mentioned as long as it is plausibly connected to two of the perspectives as they are defined in the text. Example: School violence—a behavioral approach might focus on a history of being reinforced for aggressive behavior, or on having witnessed media models being reinforced for aggressive behavior. A humanistic approach might suggest that violent students are often loners and relatively low-status or powerless in their peer group and thus resort to drastic measures to gain power or control, or respect. 253. The text describes the role of psychology in addressing such current social concerns as a) the fallibility of eyewitness memory; b) economic recession; c) obesity; and d) terrorism. Select two of these issues and describe how psychologists in several different subfields might approach them. In your answer, make explicit reference to at least three of the following subfields: cognitive psychology, social psychology, personality psychology, and cross-cultural psychology. Answer: Students' answers may vary. Examples might include the following: Eyewitness memory: Cognitive psychologists might study the role of anxiety or arousal on eyewitness memory. Social psychologists might examine the influence of suggestion by such authorities as police officers and attorneys on eyewitness testimony. Economic recession: Cognitive psychologists might look at the influence of economic adversity on consumer decision making. Personality psychologists might investigate the role of such traits as resilience and optimism in coping with economic downturns. Obesity: Social psychologists might examine how other people influence one's eating behavior. Personality psychologists might explore the role of such traits as neuroticism in overeating, or conscientiousness in maintaining a diet regimen. Terrorism: Social psychologists might examine the role of charismatic leaders in encouraging terrorist behavior. Cross-cultural psychologists might look to cultural factors such as religion in promoting terrorism. Many other applications are possible. • Fallibility of Eyewitness Memory: • Cognitive Psychology: Investigates how memory processes and biases affect the accuracy of eyewitness testimonies. • Social Psychology: Examines how social influences, such as leading questions or group pressure, can alter eyewitness accounts. • Personality Psychology: Studies individual differences in susceptibility to memory distortion and suggestibility. • Obesity: • Cross-Cultural Psychology: Explores how cultural attitudes towards food and body image impact obesity rates across different societies. • Social Psychology: Analyzes the influence of social networks and norms on eating behaviors and lifestyle choices. • Personality Psychology: Investigates personality traits that may contribute to overeating or lack of physical activity, such as impulsivity or conscientiousness. 254. Identify and briefly describe any two of the key issues or controversies in psychology discussed in the text. Suggest how each of the issues or controversies you describe might surface in one or more areas of study in today's psychology. Answer: The answer should identify and briefly define two of the following issues: Nature vs. nurture—concerns the extent to which our behavior reflects heredity. Conscious vs. unconscious causes—concerns the extent to which our behavior reflects causes of which we are completely unaware. Observable behavior vs. internal mental processes—concerns the extent to which it is possible to study internal mental processes scientifically and the extent to which such processes are an appropriate focus for psychological study. Free will vs. determinism—concerns the extent to which we freely choose the behaviors we perform. Individual differences vs. universal principles—concerns the extent to which our thought and behavior is universally human. The answer should provide a plausible instantiation of two of the above issues in a topic of interest to contemporary psychology. Example—Sexual orientation: Debates regarding the "gay gene" or anatomical brain differences between gay and straight men might be seen as reflecting nature vs. nurture, while the issue of whether homosexual behavior is a choice reflects free will versus determinism. Two key issues in psychology include: 1. Nature vs. Nurture: This debate explores the relative contributions of genetics versus environment in shaping behavior and mental processes. It is relevant in developmental psychology when studying the origins of traits and disorders. 2. Ethical Concerns: Ethical considerations in research and practice involve balancing the welfare of participants with the need for scientific rigor. This issue is critical in clinical psychology when designing treatment protocols and conducting studies involving human subjects. 255. Compare and contrast several major perspectives in contemporary psychology with respect to at least three of the key issues or controversies in psychology that your text outlines. Answer: The answer should briefly describe or define at least three of the following key issues: Nature vs. nurture-concerns the extent to which our behavior reflects heredity. Conscious vs. unconscious causes—concerns the extent to which our behavior reflects causes of which we are completely unaware. Observable behavior vs. internal mental processes—concerns the extent to which it is possible to study internal mental processes scientifically and the extent to which such processes are an appropriate focus for psychological study. Free will vs. determinism—concerns the extent to which we freely choose the behaviors we perform. Individual differences vs. universal principles—concerns the extent to which our thought and behavior is universally human. The answer should then compare and contrast several major perspectives in contemporary psychology with respect to these issues. For example: Nature vs. nurture—the behavioral perspective tends to endorse nurture, while neuroscience and evolutionary perspectives are more sympathetic to the notion that our behavior reflects heredity. Conscious vs. unconscious causes—the psychodynamic perspective suggests that the roots of our behavior are often unconscious, while the cognitive perspective focuses on conscious thought processes. Observable behavior vs. internal mental processes—the behavioral perspective suggests that psychologists should focus on behavior; the cognitive perspective argues that mental processes are an important focus of study. Free will vs. determinism—the humanistic perspective champions free will, while the neuroscience perspective argues that much of our thought and behavior is biologically determined. Individual differences vs. universal principles—the humanistic perspective is interested in the uniqueness of each individual; the neuroscience perspective looks for the basis of thought and behavior in our biological architecture, which is more or less universal. In contemporary psychology, several major perspectives address key issues and controversies: 1. Nature vs. Nurture: Biological psychologists emphasize genetic and physiological influences, while behaviorists focus on environmental factors shaping behavior. 2. Ethical Concerns: Humanistic psychologists prioritize individual autonomy and ethical treatment in therapy, contrasting with cognitive psychologists who emphasize empirical research and the ethical implications of experimental design. 3. Scientific Method: Cognitive psychologists emphasize rigorous experimental methods, contrasting with psychodynamic perspectives that focus on introspective and clinical observation. Each perspective offers distinct approaches to understanding and addressing psychological phenomena and controversies. 256. It is the year 2031, ten years since you received a doctorate in psychology, and twenty since you took that first test in introductory psychology. Now a professor yourself, you wish to tell your own students how the field has changed since you began your study of psychology. Based on your text's discussion, which developments in the science might you highlight? Answer: The answer should mention some of these potential developments: a. Psychology has become increasingly specialized. b. Social neuroscience has flourished, becoming a thriving subfield in psychology. c. Psychologists have become increasingly influential in shaping society's response to issues of public interest. d. Psychology has become more diverse, and issues related to diversity have assumed increasing importance. As of 2031, significant advancements in psychology have transformed the field: 1. Integration of Technology: Psychology now leverages AI, virtual reality, and big data analytics for research and therapy. 2. Neuroscience Advances: Greater understanding of brain functions through imaging techniques like fMRI has revolutionized cognitive and clinical psychology. 3. Global Perspectives: Increased focus on cross-cultural studies and global mental health initiatives has expanded psychology's reach and applicability worldwide. These developments underscore the dynamic evolution and interdisciplinary nature of contemporary psychology. 257. You wish to help an aging family friend who is showing early signs of Alzheimer's disease. You hear about an inexpensive nutritional supplement that is supposed to slow or even reverse some of the memory losses associated with the onset of the disorder. Describe some of the steps you might take in thinking critically about the potential value of the supplement. Answer: The answer should contain the following elements: a. Evaluate the credentials of the individuals attesting to the supplement's effectiveness. b. Search for high-quality, scientific research that might support or refute the value of the supplement. c. Be aware that the low cost of the supplement may be "too good to be true." Can a low-cost supplement really help solve a difficult problem like the onset of dementia? d. Maintain a healthy skepticism regarding any claims you might hear about the supplement's effectiveness. When evaluating the potential value of the nutritional supplement for Alzheimer's disease: 1. Research Review: Examine peer-reviewed studies and clinical trials on the supplement's efficacy and safety in treating Alzheimer's symptoms. 2. Consult Experts: Seek advice from neurologists or geriatric specialists familiar with Alzheimer's treatments to understand their perspectives. 3. Consider Risks: Assess potential side effects and interactions with existing medications the family friend may be taking. 4. Long-Term Effects: Evaluate if the supplement addresses underlying causes of Alzheimer's or merely alleviates symptoms temporarily. 258. The text opens the research methods chapter by recounting Kitty Genovese's rape and murder, in which not a single neighbor came to her aid. Describe how each step of the scientific method might be applied to better understand such a phenomenon. Answer: The answer should include all four steps of the scientific method: 1. Identifying a question of interest: How could it be that absolutely no one in a crowded city would help a women being raped and killed? That's disturbing; let's use the scientific method to find an answer. 2. Formulating an explanation: Psychologists Latane and Darley developed an explanation, or theory, based on the notion of diffusion of responsibility. The more bystanders there are, the more the responsibility for helping is perceived to be spread among them. Thus, the more bystanders, the smaller the share of responsibility felt by any one bystander, and the less likely he or she is to help. 3. Carrying out research: The answer should describe an experimental scenario in which the number of bystanders to a staged emergency is varied and the helping behavior of the participant is measured. 4. Sharing the findings: The results of the experiment should be published as a journal article or presented at a conference. 1. Observation: Document and analyze the details of the incident, including witnesses' actions and reactions. 2. Hypothesis: Formulate theories about bystander apathy based on psychological principles like diffusion of responsibility or fear of social disapproval. 3. Experimentation: Conduct controlled experiments to simulate similar scenarios, varying factors like group size or presence of authority figures. 4. Analysis: Evaluate data to draw conclusions about factors influencing bystander intervention and propose interventions to promote help-seeking behavior in emergencies. 259. Distinguish between a hypothesis and a theory. Provide an example of a hypothesis, along with operational definitions of the variables included in your hypothesis. Answer: Hypothesis is a specific prediction regarding the relationship between two variables. Theories are broad explanations of the phenomena of interest. The answer should further suggest that a hypothesis is more specific than a theory. Next, the answer should contain a single-sentence hypothesis, including some notion of both an independent and a dependent variable. Finally, both the independent and dependent variables should be operationalized, or stated in quantifiable terms. Examples: intelligence = score on an intelligence test; partying = hours per week spent consuming alcohol or other psychoactive substances in the company of one or more other people; grades = GPA A hypothesis is a specific, testable prediction about the relationship between variables, while a theory is a broader, well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of evidence. Example Hypothesis: Students who sleep at least 8 hours the night before an exam will score higher than those who sleep less than 6 hours. Operational Definitions: • Sleep duration: Measured by the number of hours slept the night before the exam, self-reported by students. • Exam score: Measured by the percentage score obtained on the exam. 260. Select two of the following aphorisms: (1) Birds of a feather flock together; (2) Opposites attract; (3) The more the merrier; (4) Two heads are better the one; (5) Two's company; three's a crowd. Translate each aphorism that you select into a testable hypothesis. Provide operational definitions of each of the variables in each hypothesis. Answer: The answer should include examples similar to the following: Birds of a feather flock together. Hypothesis: The more similar two people are, the more likely they are to be attracted to each other. Operational definitions: Similarity: (high) correlation between two people's scores on personality and intelligence measures Interpersonal attraction - attraction ratings completed by the members of the couple; pupil dilation, whether a follow-up phone call takes place. Opposites attract. Hypothesis: The more dissimilar two people are, the more likely they are to be attracted to each other. Operational definitions: Dissimilar: (low or negative) correlation between two people's scores on personality and intelligence measures interpersonal attraction - attraction ratings completed by the members of the couple; pupil dilation, whether a follow-up phone call takes place. The more the merrier. Hypothesis: As more people participate in a social event, each individual's enjoyment of the event increases. Operational definitions: More people - the number of people attending an event. Enjoyment - enjoyment ratings; whether a subsequent get-together is endorsed. Two heads are better than one. Hypothesis: Problems are solved more rapidly when two individuals collaborate than when one individual attempts the problems alone. Operational definitions: Rapidly - the time it takes to solve the problem. Collaboration: a second problem solver contributes to the solution, or is absent. Two's company; three's a crowd. Hypothesis: Interpersonal attraction between members of a potential couple is higher when they meet alone than when they meet in the presence of a third individual. Operational definitions: Interpersonal attraction - attraction ratings completed by the members of the couple; pupil dilation, whether a follow-up phone call takes place. Third individual - a confederate is either present or absent. 1. Birds of a feather flock together: • Hypothesis: Individuals with similar personality traits are more likely to form close friendships. • Operational Definitions: • Similar personality traits: Measured using a standardized personality assessment (e.g., Big Five Inventory). • Close friendships: Measured by the number of shared activities and self-reported closeness on a friendship scale. 2. Two heads are better than one: • Hypothesis: Pairs of individuals working together will solve complex problems more accurately than individuals working alone. • Operational Definitions: • Complex problems: Measured by performance on standardized problem-solving tasks (e.g., logic puzzles). • Accuracy of solutions: Measured by the number of correct solutions provided. 261. Select and describe a behavioral or mental phenomenon of particular interest to you. Describe how one might use descriptive, correlational, and experimental techniques to shed light on the phenomenon. Answer: Virtually any behavioral or mental phenomena might be selected. Examples include aggression, drinking alcohol, and depression. The answer should describe in turn the application of at least one descriptive technique, the correlational method, and the experimental technique to the phenomenon of interest. Examples: Descriptive methods: naturalistic observation—observing children at play during recess and noting instances of aggression; case study—a detailed examination of one clinically depressed individual. Correlational methods—the focus here should be on computing a correlation coefficient expressing the strength and direction of the relationship between scores on a measure of the phenomenon of interest and scores on measures of another variable that might plausibly be related to it. Example—scores on a measure of aggression and scores on measures of exposure to media violence should be positively correlated. The question does not specifically ask for operationalizations of the variables of interest. Experimental—the focus should be on the manipulation of an independent variable and the measurement of a dependent variable. Example—manipulate exposure to an aggressive model and record the subsequent aggressive behavior of children. Experimental (e.g., exposed to aggressive model) and control groups (e.g., not exposed to aggressive model) should be described, and mention should be made of the random assignment of participants to groups. 262. List and briefly describe three descriptive research methods. Provide an original example of each. Identify one advantage and one disadvantage of each of the methods you describe. Answer: The answer should contain three of the following descriptive methods, along with a description, an example, an advantage, and a disadvantage. 1. Archival research: Description: existing data or records are used to test a hypothesis Example: using crime statistics available from the government Advantage: inexpensive Disadvantage: records may not be systematic or in a form that ideally suits the purpose of the investigation 2. Case study: Description: a detailed examination of a single individual Example: in-depth study of an individual with dissociative identity disorder Advantage: rich source of data Disadvantage: may not generalize to other cases 3. Naturalistic observation: Description: thought or behavior is systematically examined in the environment in which it typically occurs Example: recording instances of helping or acts of consideration in an office to examine prosocial behavior at work Advantage: provides a sample of people in their natural environment Disadvantage: does not allow control over the factors of interest 4. Survey Description: participants are asked a set of questions about their thought and behavior Example: an inventory of 40 questions related to depression Advantage: generalizable using relatively small sample; usually inexpensive and rapid Disadvantage: people may not be aware of their attitudes or behavior; people may answer in a way that does not reflect their true attitudes or behavior. 1. Observational Method: • Description: Observing and recording behavior in natural or controlled environments without interference. • Example: Studying playground behavior of children to understand social interaction patterns. • Advantage: Provides direct insight into natural behavior. • Disadvantage: Observer bias can influence interpretation. 2. Survey Method: • Description: Gathering information from a large sample through questionnaires or interviews. • Example: Conducting a survey to assess public opinion on a political issue. • Advantage: Allows collection of data from a large population. • Disadvantage: Response bias may distort results. 3. Case Study Method: • Description: In-depth examination of a single individual, group, or event. • Example: Studying a specific patient's response to a new medical treatment over an extended period. • Advantage: Provides detailed qualitative data. • Disadvantage: Findings may not be generalizable to broader populations. 263. Describe survey research, highlighting not only its advantages, but also several issues that researchers must consider when designing survey research. Answer: The answer should include the following points: Survey research involves asking a sample of individuals a series of questions about their behavior, thoughts, or attitudes. The sample is chosen to be representative of a larger group of interest, namely, a population. Survey research is straightforward. It is efficient and allows researchers to infer with great accuracy how a large group of people would respond. Nevertheless, care must be taken to ensure that the sample is truly representative of the population: a random sample is ideal. In addition, researchers should be aware that respondents may be reluctant to admit holding socially undesirable attitudes. Moreover, people may not be consciously aware of their true attitudes or behaviors. Survey research involves gathering data from a sample of individuals to understand opinions, attitudes, behaviors, or characteristics. Its advantages include scalability, efficiency in data collection, and the ability to generalize findings. However, researchers must carefully consider issues such as sampling bias, response bias, question wording effects, and ensuring the survey's validity and reliability to produce accurate results. 264. Describe what a case study is including both the advantages and disadvantages of this method. Answer: A case study is an in-depth, intensive investigation of a single individual or a small group. Case studies often include psychological testing; a procedure in which a carefully designed set of questions is used to gain some insight into the personality of the individual or group. When case studies are used as a research technique, the goal is often not only to learn about the few individuals being examined but also to use the insights gained from the study to improve our understanding of people in general. Sigmund Freud developed his theories through case studies of individual patients. Similarly, case studies of terrorists might help identify others who are prone to violence. The drawback to case studies is that if the individuals examined are unique in certain ways, it is impossible to make valid generalizations to a larger population. Still, they sometimes lead the way to new theories and treatments for psychological disorders. 265. A researcher finds a correlation of -.45 between the amount of stress participants report having experienced recently and participants' scores on an index of physical health. What does this mean? Provide a one-sentence interpretation of this correlation coefficient. Provide three distinct cause-and-effect mechanisms that might explain this correlation. Answer: The interpretation should be similar to: "The more stress participants report having experienced; the lower their scores on a physical health index." Causal mechanisms: (1) Stress causes or produces poor health; (2) Poor health results in stress—e.g., from medical expenses, lost days at work, an inability to keep up with family demands; (3) A third variable leads to both high stress and poor health. One example might be low SES. 266. Suggest (a) two variables that are most likely positively correlated; two variables that are most likely negatively correlated; and (c) two variables that are probably uncorrelated. Answer: Many examples are possible. Positive—hours spent studying and GPA. Negative—stress and physical health. Uncorrelated—agreeableness and intelligence. Graphical representations should show a line with a positive slope to reflect a positive correlation, a line with a negative slope to portray a negative correlation, and a flat, horizontal line to relate two uncorrelated variables. (a) Positively Correlated Variables: • Hours of study and exam scores. • Physical exercise and overall health. (b) Negatively Correlated Variables: • Stress levels and quality of sleep. • Hours of TV watching and physical fitness. (c) Uncorrelated Variables: • Shoe size and intelligence. • Hair color and musical ability. 267. How is it that the experimental method allows researchers to draw cause-and-effect conclusions? Identify the critical elements of the experimental method and explain how each helps enable the development of valid causal conclusions. Answer: The answer should make mention of both (a) the deliberate manipulation of an independent variable and (b) the random assignment of participants to groups. The effects on the dependent variable of the treatment—the manipulation of the independent variable—are compared to the effects of no manipulation, in the control group. If a difference is observed, the independent variable may have an effect. Random assignment to groups minimizes the likelihood that the participants in the control group differ systematically from the participants in the experimental group, and therefore helps rule out such differences as potential causes of any difference observed between groups in the dependent variable. The experimental method allows researchers to draw cause-and-effect conclusions through its rigorous control over variables and random assignment of participants to conditions. Critical elements include the independent variable (the factor being manipulated), dependent variable (the outcome measured), control group (provides baseline comparison), and experimental group (receives the treatment). By manipulating the independent variable and observing its effects on the dependent variable while controlling for extraneous factors, researchers can infer causal relationships between variables with greater confidence. 268. Suggest one variable other than the presence and number of bystanders that you think might influence the likelihood that an individual will come to someone's aid. State a hypothesis and explain how you might test it experimentally. Specify the independent and dependent variables, making sure to provide an operational definition of each. Describe the experimental and control groups and briefly outline the procedure. Answer: Many variables are possible that might influence the likelihood that an individual will come to someone's aid. One might be apparent status of the victim, operationalized perhaps as dress—with the high-status victim in business attire and the low-status victim in dirty, unkempt attire. The hypothesis should relate the proposed independent variable to the likelihood that the participant will help the victim. Example—People are more likely to help a high-status than a low-status victim. An operationalization of the independent variable should be provided—that is, a description of how the variable will be manipulated should appear in the answer. Dress may be one way to manipulate status. Groups should be identified. Example—participants will be randomly assigned to high-status victim and low-status victim groups. Finally, the procedure should be described in general terms; the procedure should make mention of a false emergency, as in the Latane and Darley experiment. Participants are randomly assigned to either the competent or incompetent condition. They witness a simulated emergency where a confederate (acting as the person in distress) requires assistance. The experimental group sees cues indicating competence (e.g., clear and calm communication), while the control group sees cues indicating incompetence (e.g., confusion and indecision). The number of participants who intervene in each group is recorded and compared to determine the effect of perceived competence on helping behavior. 269. Define the terms replicated research and meta-analysis. Identify the role of replicated research and meta-analysis in hypothesis testing and theory building. Answer: The response should include the following: Replicated research: attempting to repeat findings, sometimes using other procedures, other settings, or different groups of participants. Meta-analysis: a statistical procedure allowing psychologists to combine the results of many separate studies into one overall conclusion. Replication and meta-analysis reflect the scientific ideal that hypotheses are subject to stringent test and ultimately supported only if they are confirmed many times across a range of specific situations. Our confidence in a hypothesis is increased if it is supported by replications and meta-analyses; these procedures affirm the generality of a hypothesis. Such confidence in a hypothesis in turn contributes to the development of more accurate theories, or explanations, of thought and behavior. Replicated research involves conducting the same or similar studies again to verify initial findings and ensure their reliability. Meta-analysis, on the other hand, involves statistically combining results from multiple studies on the same topic to draw overall conclusions. In hypothesis testing, replicated research strengthens the credibility of findings by demonstrating consistency across different settings and samples. Meta-analysis enhances theory building by synthesizing findings across studies, providing a more comprehensive understanding of relationships and identifying patterns that might not be apparent from individual studies alone. Together, these methods contribute to robust scientific conclusions and the advancement of theories in psychology. 270. Occasionally, psychology has been described as the science of the behavior of college sophomores. Discuss some of the specific criticisms of psychology implied by this charge. How might these shortcomings be rectified? Answer: The answers should mention that college students are often used as participants in psychological research. The answer should indicate that college students are not representative of the population as a whole—they are younger, whiter, and better educated than the population at large. The answer should describe some way in which the diversity of participants in psychological research may be increased. Criticisms of psychology as the "science of the behavior of college sophomores" include limited generalizability, as findings from studies using primarily college students may not apply to the broader population. This demographic often lacks diversity in age, socioeconomic status, and cultural background. To rectify these shortcomings, researchers should include more diverse and representative samples in their studies, utilize longitudinal research designs, and replicate findings across different populations and settings. The criticism that psychology focuses excessively on college sophomores suggests limited generalizability of research findings beyond this demographic. This narrow focus may overlook diversity in age, culture, and socioeconomic status, affecting the applicability of psychological theories and interventions. To rectify these shortcomings, psychologists can diversify study samples, incorporate more representative populations, and conduct research across diverse contexts to enhance the breadth and relevance of psychological findings. 271. A pharmaceutical company has developed a new ADHD medication and wishes to test its effectiveness. Identify the threats that validity researchers might face in an experimental test of the medication's efficacy and suggest how these threats may be overcome. Answer: The threats that validity researchers might face are: a. Participant expectations—participants should not know whether they receive the medication or not, so that apparent effects of the drug do not reflect participants' belief in its efficacy. A placebo should be given in the no-medication group. b. Experimenter expectations—the experimenter should not know which participants receive the medication so that apparent effects of the drug do not reflect the experimenter's belief in its efficacy. A double-blind procedure should be used. 272. Imagine that you must read several research articles for a term paper assignment in a psychology course. Identify the critical-thinking questions you should keep in mind as you read each article. Answer: The answer should mention most of the following questions: Purpose of the research. Is the theoretical background clearly specified? Are specific hypotheses mentioned? Methods of the research. Who were the participants? How many participants were used? What were the specific methods that the researchers used? Presentation of the results. Are the results presented fairly, without distortion? As you read each research article, consider the following critical-thinking questions: 1. Purpose and Hypotheses: What are the research questions or hypotheses being investigated? 2. Methodology: How was the study conducted? Are the methods appropriate for addressing the research questions? 3. Results: What are the key findings? Are they statistically significant and meaningful? 4. Conclusions and Implications: How do the findings contribute to the field? What are the potential limitations or biases? Test Bank for Essentials of Understanding Psychology Robert S. Feldman 9780077861889, 9781259255786, 9781260829013

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