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This Document Contains Chapters 9 to 11 Chapter 9: Medieval Empires and Borderlands: The Latin West Multiple Choice 1) What was the main religion in the Germanic kingdoms? A) Islam B) Judaism C) Christianity D) Roman polytheism Answer: C 2) Around 750, Britain was organized into ________. A) three kingdoms B) a single kingdom C) seven kingdoms D) many small tribes Answer: A 3) The Visigothic kings practiced ________. A) Arian Christianity B) Catholic Christianity C) traditional polytheistic beliefs D) a Germanic religion based in nature Answer: A 4) The last Visigothic king was defeated by the ________. A) Franks B) Anglo-Saxons C) Muslims D) Romans Answer: C 5) The Lombards controlled parts of ________. A) Spain B) France C) Britain D) Italy Answer: D 6) The Germanic wergild was one’s ________. A) monetary worth B) social status C) slaves D) property Answer: A 7) Gregory the Great was a powerful _______ of around 600. A) pope B) bishop C) abbot D) king Answer: A 8) Which of these dynasties was replaced by the Carolingians? A) Merovingians B) Ottonians C) Saxons D) Capetians Answer: A 9) In the Carolingian Empire, marches were ________. A) border regions B) military leaders C) urbanized areas D) the royal bodyguard Answer: A 10) Einhard ________. A) wrote a famous biography of Charlemagne B) served as the mayor of the palace for Pepin the Short C) was an English poet from York D) developed the Carolingian miniscule Answer: A 11) Alcuin of York ________. A) was the head of Charlemagne’s palace school B) wrote a famous biography of Charlemagne C) succeeded Charlemagne after his death D) developed the Carolingian miniscule Answer: A 12) What was the fate of Charlemagne’s empire following the Treaty of Verdun? A) It was divided into three parts. B) It was passed in whole to Louis the Pious. C) It was fragmented into many small kingdoms. D) It was swallowed up by the German Empire. Answer: A 13) By 900, Europe was subject to invasions from the ________. A) Byzantine Empire and the Lombards B) Lombards and the Visigoths C) Vikings and the Visigoths D) Vikings and the Magyars Answer: D 14) The Árpád dynasty ruled the ________. A) Hungarians B) Germans C) Franks D) Lombards Answer: A 15) The fief was ________. A) an act of loyalty performed by the vassal for the lord B) another name for the serfs who worked the lord's land C) usually a piece of land given to a vassal in exchange for his homage D) always a sum of money given to a vassal in exchange for his homage Answer: C 16) The Ottonian Renaissance took place in ________. A) Germany B) Francia C) Italy D) Britain Answer: A 17) The Holy Roman Empire was essentially a(n) _______ empire. A) German B) Latin C) French D) English Answer: B 18) Hugh Capet ________. A) sponsored a revival of learning in Saxony B) controlled a feudal domain known as France C) was a Saxon king who defeated the Danes D) was crowned Roman emperor by the pope Answer: B 19) William the Conqueror ________. A) was the first king of France B) defeated the Danes in Saxony C) defeated the last Saxon king of England D) launched a cultural renaissance at his palace in Cologne Answer: C 20) Peter the Hermit ________. A) called the First Crusade B) led an unsuccessful army of the poor prior to the First Crusade C) openly opposed the First Crusade D) called for the renunciation of violence against Muslims Answer: B 21) The Crusades were launched by the ________. A) popes B) king of France C) German emperor D) patriarch of Constantinople Answer: A 22) The Crusades were launched following an appeal for help from the ________. A) Byzantine emperor B) king of Jerusalem C) popes D) people of Palestine Answer: A 23) In the mind of Urban II, the crusaders were ________. A) an army of pilgrims B) merchant-warriors C) criminals D) sinners in need of redemption Answer: A 24) Which of these was the most successful? A) the First Crusade B) the People’s Crusade C) the Fourth Crusade D) the Second Crusade Answer: A 25) The Fourth Crusade resulted in ________. A) an attack on Constantinople B) the recapture of Edessa C) the creation of the kingdom of Jerusalem D) victory over Saladin Answer: A 26) Looking at Map 9.1, “Europe, ca. 750,” which of these was most divided around 750? A) Britain B) the Muslim world C) the Frankish kingdom D) Italy Answer: B 27) The Angles are an example of _______. A) the Germanic peoples that invaded western Europe after about 400 B) invading steppe peoples C) Muslim peoples that attacked Spain from the south D) a branch of Christianity adopted by western Europeans around 500 Answer: A 28) Clovis converted to Catholic Christianity primarily because ________. A) his wife had converted to Catholic Christianity B) he hoped to win the support of the subjects of the Visigoth Kingdom C) he wanted to win the recognition of the Byzantine emperor D) he wanted to protect the office of the pope Answer: B 29) The Lombard kingdom was one of many ________ in western Europe around 700. A) Germanic kingdoms B) vestiges of the Roman Empire C) Byzantine strongholds D) new Latin kingdoms that appeared Answer: A 30) After the conversion of Germanic kings to Christianity, Germanic and Latin Roman society and traditions tended to _________. A) merge B) become more hostile C) grow more distinct D) disappear Answer: A 31) The adoption of Roman law in Germanic kingdoms generally had ______ impact on the lives of higher status women. A) a positive B) a minimal C) no D) a devastating Answer: C 32) The legal system in the kingdoms of Latin Christendom ________. A) was based exclusively on Germanic legal traditions B) was rooted primarily in Christian theology C) was a continuation of Roman legal practices D) ultimately merged Germanic and Roman legal traditions Answer: D 33) Charlemagne’s coronation as emperor of the Romans ________. A) was forced on him by the pope B) was simply a meaningless title he took to please the pope C) revealed Charlemagne’s desire to recreate the idea of the Roman Empire D) was really a way for him to make his brother pope Answer: C 34) The Byzantine emperors viewed the coronation of Charlemagne as a ________. A) positive step towards civilizing the Germanic West B) threat to their claim to be heirs of the Roman emperors C) hopeful sign that Islam would fail in the West D) threat to their control of the papacy Answer: B 35) What was Charlemagne’s empire ultimately based on? A) the authority of the pope B) Roman legal traditions C) personal loyalty to Charlemagne himself D) the generosity of the Byzantine Empire Answer: C 36) Like later renaissances, the Carolingian Renaissance was founded on ________. A) the classical heritage B) Christian doctrine C) innovation in the visual arts D) a scientific revolution Answer: A 37) After Charlemagne died, ________. A) his empire survived intact for the next 300 years B) the pope assumed control of his empire C) his empire fell apart within two generations D) his grandsons agreed to allow Charles the Bald to serve as emperor Answer: C 38) What finally ended the Magyar raids in western Europe? A) They were fatally weakened by a mysterious epidemic disease. B) They were decisively defeated by a Frankish king. C) They were overwhelmed by Byzantine forces from the east. D) They established their own kingdom in Hungary. Answer: D 39) The primary cause of the Viking raids in western Europe was probably ________. A) disputes with the Saxons over traditional Viking fishing areas B) the Viking desire to convert Catholic Christians to Arian Christianity C) the link between the possession of silver and status in Viking society D) the political ambitions of Leif Ericsson Answer: C 40) An act of homage involved ________. A) forming a personal tie between two men B) the lord bowing before the vassal and agreeing to protect him C) the serfs of the lord agreeing to serve the vassal D) the agreement to capture or kill any enemies of the lord before a fief would be granted. Answer: A 41) Feudalism is best understood as a ________. A) system designed to increase the power of lords rather than vassals B) reciprocal personal economic and political relationship between lord and vassal C) way for vassals to advance economically and politically D) way for kings and lords to develop a standing army Answer: B 42) Tight control of the royal domain was an important step to the consolidation of royal power because such control gave kings ________. A) material independence B) control of the church C) control of their vassals’ armies D) spiritual cache Answer: C 43) The conversion of the Scandinavian peoples around 1000 illustrates what pattern? A) Conversion in western Europe generally spread from Rome outwards. B) The Irish were responsible for converting much of western Europe. C) The Germanic peoples were the last Europeans to convert to Christianity. D) Conversion came last to allies of the Franks. Answer: A 44) What was the primary objective of the First Crusade? A) the capture of Jerusalem for Christianity B) to capture Constantinople for the pope C) the defeat of the Seljuk Turks at Manzikert D) the capture of Mecca from the Arabs Answer: A 45) What was the outcome of the First Crusade? A) It was a disastrous failure for the Christian West. B) It led to the overthrow of the Byzantine emperor. C) It led to the conversion of the Seljuk Turks to Christianity. D) It resulted in the successful Christian conquest of Jerusalem. Answer: D 46) The Fourth Crusade ________. A) marked a complete detour from the original purpose of the Crusades B) was one of the more successful Crusades C) strengthened relations between Constantinople and Rome D) reached Jerusalem but accomplished little Answer: A 47) The most significant result of the Crusades was the ________. A) establishment of long lasting Crusader states in the Middle East B) emergence of a new level of tolerance among Christians and Muslims C) emergence of new contact between the West and the East D) total collapse of the Byzantine Empire Answer: C 48) The context of the epic The Song of Roland is ________. A) conflict between Muslims and Christians B) the Crusades C) the Germanic invasions D) the first Germanic kingdoms Answer: A 49) Which of these was most influential in the transformation of the bishops of Rome into the papacy around 600? A) the absence of strong rulers in Rome B) lack of spiritual leadership in Byzantium C) launching the Crusades D) the link between the bishops of Rome and monasticism Answer: A 50) Both the fate of Charlemagne’s empire and the ritual of homage illustrate what aspect of early medieval political traditions? A) Loyalty was to an individual, not a government. B) Violent overthrows were the norm in this period. C) Only men had control over land. D) Military strength alone held governments together. Answer: A Essay 51) What were the key elements (economic, cultural, and religious) in the transformation of the western Roman Empire to medieval kingdoms? Answer: The transformation of the western Roman Empire to medieval kingdoms was influenced by several key elements: Economic: • Decline in Trade and Urbanization: The collapse of long-distance trade and urban centers led to a more localized, agrarian economy. • Feudalism: The emergence of feudalism redistributed land and power to local lords, creating a decentralized political structure. Cultural: • Barbarian Invasions: Germanic tribes (e.g., Visigoths, Vandals) settled within the empire's borders, blending their cultures with Roman traditions. • Loss of Roman Institutions: The disintegration of Roman administrative and legal systems resulted in localized governance and a decline in literacy and classical learning. Religious: • Christianization: The spread of Christianity provided a unifying cultural and religious framework, influencing laws, education, and daily life. • Church Power: The Church's growing authority filled the power vacuum left by the Roman state, becoming a central institution in medieval society. 52) Use the Carolingian Empire as an example of an early medieval Germanic kingdom. In what way was Charlemagne’s empire typical and atypical? Answer: Typical Aspects of Charlemagne’s Empire: • Feudal System: Like other early medieval kingdoms, Charlemagne's empire operated on a feudal system, with land granted to nobles in exchange for military service and loyalty. • Christian Influence: The Church played a significant role in governance, education, and culture, reflecting the typical integration of religion in medieval society. • Germanic Traditions: The empire retained Germanic customs, including legal traditions and warrior culture. Atypical Aspects of Charlemagne’s Empire: • Size and Centralization: Charlemagne's empire was unusually large and centralized for the period, encompassing much of Western Europe and featuring a more structured administration. • Revival of Learning: Charlemagne initiated the Carolingian Renaissance, promoting education, arts, and classical learning, which was atypical compared to other kingdoms with lower emphasis on such pursuits. • Imperial Title: Charlemagne was crowned Emperor by the Pope in 800 AD, reviving the concept of a Western Roman Empire and establishing a precedent for future Holy Roman Emperors. 53) Assess the impact of the Viking and Magyar invasions, compared to the Germanic invasions of the 400s and 500s. How did these two periods of invasion differ? Answer: Impact of Viking and Magyar Invasions: • Economic Disruption: The Viking and Magyar invasions caused significant economic turmoil, including the destruction of trade routes and settlements, and led to increased fortification of towns and monasteries. • Feudalism Strengthening: These invasions accelerated the development and entrenchment of feudalism as local lords built fortified structures and demanded loyalty from vassals in exchange for protection. Impact of Germanic Invasions of the 400s and 500s: • Fall of the Western Roman Empire: The Germanic invasions directly contributed to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, leading to the fragmentation of Roman territories into various Germanic kingdoms. • Cultural Integration: The Germanic tribes settled within former Roman territories, leading to a blending of Roman and Germanic cultures and laying the foundation for medieval European culture. Differences Between the Two Periods: • Timing and Context: The Germanic invasions occurred during the decline of the Roman Empire, while the Viking and Magyar invasions took place during the early medieval period when new kingdoms were already established. • Nature of Invasions: Germanic invasions involved large-scale migrations and settlement, leading to the creation of new kingdoms. In contrast, Viking and Magyar invasions were characterized by raids, plundering, and occasional settlement, causing ongoing disruption rather than immediate political fragmentation. • Response and Adaptation: The response to the Viking and Magyar invasions involved the strengthening of feudal structures and local defenses, whereas the Germanic invasions led to the collapse of central Roman authority and the formation of new political entities. 54) What was the nature of monarchy in Europe after Charlemagne? Answer: After Charlemagne, European monarchy became more fragmented and localized, characterized by the following features: • Feudal Monarchy: Kings had limited centralized power, relying on a network of nobles who controlled local territories in exchange for loyalty and military support. • Hereditary Rule: Monarchical power became increasingly hereditary, with dynastic succession becoming the norm. • Decentralization: The Carolingian Empire eventually fragmented into smaller, competing kingdoms, each ruled by a monarch with varying degrees of authority. • Increased Church Influence: The Church played a significant role in legitimizing rulers and influencing political affairs. • Local Governance: Day-to-day governance was often carried out by local lords, with the king's influence varying across different regions. 55) What were the origins and significance of the Crusades? Answer: Origins of the Crusades: • Religious Motivation: Initiated by Pope Urban II in 1095, the Crusades aimed to reclaim Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslim control. • Byzantine Appeal: The Byzantine Emperor Alexios I appealed for Western aid against Turkish advances, prompting papal support. • Pilgrimage and Piety: The Crusades were seen as a form of armed pilgrimage, offering spiritual benefits and penance for sins. • Socio-Political Factors: European nobles sought new lands, wealth, and adventure, while resolving internal conflicts by redirecting military efforts outward. Significance of the Crusades: • Cultural Exchange: They facilitated the exchange of knowledge, technology, and culture between Europe and the Middle East. • Economic Impact: The Crusades stimulated trade and commerce, leading to the growth of cities and the rise of a merchant class. • Religious and Political Consequences: They strengthened the papacy's influence, intensified Christian-Muslim relations, and impacted European political dynamics. • Legacy: The Crusades left a complex legacy of religious zeal, conflict, and enduring historical narratives in both Europe and the Islamic world. Chapter 10: Medieval Civilization: The Rise of Western Europe Multiple Choice 1) Serfs ________. A) were essentially slaves B) had more legal rights than slaves C) owned their land D) were equal in every way to free peasants Answer: B 2) A medieval manor was a _________. A) rural estate B) village C) field D) castle Answer: A 3) The three-field system included three stages: ________. A) fallow, legumes, grains B) green vegetables, grains, legumes C) fallow, oats, wheat D) fallow, grains, fallow Answer: A 4) Which of these were townsmen that joined together to govern urban life? A) communes B) manors C) serfs D) guilds Answer: A 5) Which of these regions of Europe led the way in both commerce and urbanization in the central Middle Ages? A) Italy B) Spain C) Britain D) France Answer: A 6) The Hanseatic League was a ________. A) commercial coalition B) defensive alliance C) transportation network D) intellectual movement Answer: A 7) Cluny was a ________. A) monastery B) cathedral C) commercial center D) Capetian castle Answer: A 8) Who initiated the reform of the Christian church in the Middle Ages? A) the pope B) priests C) monks D) secular rulers Answer: C 9) Who were the two key players in the Investiture Controversy? A) Innocent III and Frederick II B) Gregory I and Charlemagne C) Gregory VII and Henry IV D) Urban I and William I Answer: C 10) The Investiture Controversy was finally resolved ________. A) by the Concordat of Worms B) at Canossa C) by the Fourth Lateran Council D) at Clermont Answer: A 11) What is canon law? A) the law of the Roman emperors B) the law of the manor courts C) military law in medieval Europe D) church law Answer: D 12) Dispensations were ________. A) exceptions to canon law B) privileges given for good behavior C) laws that applied only to bishops D) administered to heretics Answer: A 13) The pope could coerce secular leaders to obey his decisions by using ________. A) the curia and canon law B) the Swiss guard C) excommunication and interdict D) creating bishops Answer: C 14) The Cistercians were established when ________. A) a group of Franciscan monks visited the cathedral of Cîteaux B) a group of Dominican monks left the monastery at Cluny C) a group of Benedictine monks moved to an isolated area D) Archbishop Suger built their monastery Answer: C 15) The Dominicans and the Franciscans were ________ friars. A) regular B) secular C) cloistered D) mendicant Answer: D 16) The French baillis were ________. A) royal agents B) tax collectors C) urban residents D) church officials Answer: A 17) William I became king of England ________. A) by conquest B) through the help of the church C) by birth D) through a treaty Answer: A 18) The English Parliament was established during the reign of ________. A) John B) William I C) Edward I D) Henry II Answer: C 19) Frederick I was ruler of ________. A) the Holy Roman Empire B) France C) Sweden D) Britain Answer: A 20) About what percent of Europeans were literate in 1050? A) 0 to 1 percent B) 10 to 20 percent C) 30 to 40 percent D) 50 to 60 percent Answer: A 21) The quadrivium included ________. A) arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music B) music, grammar, rhetoric, logic C) theology, philosophy, grammar, logic D) arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, physics Answer: A 22) Where was the center of European medieval intellectual life? A) London B) Paris C) Rome D) Aachen Answer: B 23) The first universities grew out of the ________. A) monasteries B) cathedral schools C) papacy D) College of Cardinals Answer: B 24) Probably the most important Jewish philosopher during the Middle Ages was ________. A) Avicenna B) Averroës C) Maimonides D) Thomas Aquinas Answer: C 25) The most influential scholastic thinker during the Middle Ages was probably ________. A) Peter Abelard B) Anselm C) Maimonides D) Albertus Magnus Answer: A 26) The European population began to grow after the tenth century primarily because ________. A) kingdoms emerged B) infant mortality declined C) the food supply increased D) epidemics disappeared Answer: C 27) Why was the heavy plow important in medieval Europe? A) It allowed for the effective cultivation of the heavier soils in northern Europe. B) It helped the lord consolidate his control over the peasants. C) It was made of metal rather than wood. D) It allowed peasants to farm their land without assistance from others. Answer: A 28) The most important impact of European migration of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries was ________. A) greater agricultural productivity B) the Crusades C) the development of serfdom D) the agricultural revolution Answer: A 29) Which of these was represented by the emergence of the communes? A) independent town governments B) urbanization C) a population boom D) the decline of commerce Answer: A 30) The Hanseatic League and the Champagne fairs were both part of what development? A) the revival of long-distance trade B) the earliest reemergence of urban centers C) the agricultural revolution D) the growth of royal power Answer: A 31) The broad influence of Cluny was felt through _______. A) a network of monasteries and influential Cluniac monks B) the military and economic force of Cluny’s monasteries C) the spiritual and military leadership of Cluniac priors D) the missionary activities of Cluny’s monks Answer: D 32) Who ultimately won the Investiture Controversy? A) Neither the pope nor the emperor because it was never resolved. B) The emperor because he retained all of his rights to name and invest bishops. C) The pope because he won all of the rights to name and invest bishops. D) Both the pope and the emperor retained a role in investiture, but the pope won because he had the final say in who became a bishop. Answer: D 33) Innocent III was most successful in strengthening the _______ power of the medieval church. A) political B) spiritual C) military D) international Answer: B 34) Boniface VIII went farther than earlier popes in attempting to make the pope _______. A) an effective emperor of Europe B) the spiritual head of the church C) a worldly power in Italy D) the head of the Catholic Church Answer: A 35) The Waldensians challenged the Catholic Church because they _______. A) were laypeople that preached B) preached a dualist message C) read the Bible D) lived a life that imitated the life of Christ Answer: C 36) In the Middle Ages, the cult of the Virgin Mary ________. A) provided a model that balanced the model of Eve B) centered on her wisdom C) became less popular around 1000 D) was discouraged by the church Answer: A 37) The Cistercians can be seen as a(n) ________ of Benedictine monasticism. A) new direction B) rejection C) assault on D) exaggerated form Answer: A 38) The doctrine of transubstantiation was an outgrowth of what broader development? A) the search for new spiritual experiences B) the Crusades C) Cluniac monasticism D) the Cathar movement Answer: B 39) Jews in the High Middle Ages were ________. A) widely tolerated B) responsible for much of the translation into Latin of classical works C) allowed to hold public office and serve in the army D) encouraged to intermarry with Christians Answer: B 40) Philip IV________. A) was canonized because of his pious behavior B) granted legal toleration to the Jews C) gained control of the Ile-de-France D) attempted to control the French clergy Answer: D 41) Henry II’s dispute with Thomas Becket concerned the A) clergy’s special legal rights B) jury system C) introduction of the circuit courts D) Domesday Book Answer: A 42) The Magna Carta embodied protection for ________. A) the rights of the common people in England B) universal human rights C) traditional privileges in England D) royal privileges Answer: C 43) Scholasticism can be considered a reconciliation of ________. A) classical and Christian teachings B) Germanic and pagan customs C) intellectual and economic thought D) urban and rural cultures Answer: A 44) Which of these was the most important trigger for the Twelfth-Century Renaissance? A) the rediscovery of classical texts B) the universities C) Scholasticism D) the Waldensians and Cathars Answer: A 45) Averroës was important for Christian intellectuals because he _______. A) attempted to reconcile faith and reason B) translated the Bible into English C) worked in Córdoba D) reconciled Judaism and Christianity Answer: B 46) Thomas Aquinas was most important for his ________. A) comprehensive examination of Christian thinking B) innovative approach to human knowledge C) rejection of classical approaches to knowledge D) spiritual leadership Answer: A 47) Unlike Romanesque churches, Gothic churches were ________. A) larger and lighter B) more imposing C) earlier and associated with monasteries D) generally rural Answer: D 48) The growth of cities was related to the agricultural revolution because ________. A) cities grew larger as a result of increased agricultural productivity B) overcrowded cities fed into larger rural populations C) agricultural innovation led to the first European cities D) growing cities created a demand that led to agricultural innovation Answer: A 49) Henry IV and Philip IV were both examples of what conflict? A) the struggle between kings and popes for control of regional churches B) the conflict between Islam and Christianity C) the battle for dominance in Italy D) ethnic division arising from the Magyar invasions Answer: A 50) Thomism was an answer to what question? A) What is the relationship between faith and reason? B) Who rules Europe? C) What is the role of the pope? D) Should classical learning be rejected? Answer: A Essay 51) How did changes in the countryside impact urban developments? Answer: Changes in the countryside, such as agricultural advancements and population growth, spurred urban developments in several ways: • Agricultural Surpluses: Improved farming techniques led to surplus production, allowing for specialization and trade in urban centers. • Population Shifts: Rural population growth and land consolidation drove migration to cities, increasing urban populations. • Trade and Commerce: Urban centers became hubs for trade, benefiting from their strategic locations and the exchange of goods. • Social and Cultural Centers: Cities attracted artisans, merchants, and scholars, fostering cultural and intellectual exchanges. • Political and Administrative Roles: Urban centers often served as seats of governance, centralizing power and administration. 52) How did the reforms that began at Cluny transform the relationship between the secular and religious worlds of medieval Europe? Answer: The reforms at Cluny transformed the relationship between the secular and religious worlds of medieval Europe by: • Spiritual Autonomy: Emphasizing independence from secular control, Cluniac monasteries answered directly to the Pope, reducing influence from local lords and nobles. • Cultural and Intellectual Influence: Promoting scholarship and artistic endeavors, Cluniac reforms elevated the role of religion in shaping medieval European culture. • Political Influence: Cluny's spiritual authority grew, influencing political decisions and alliances across Europe, often mediating conflicts between secular rulers and the Church. • Social Reform: Encouraging moral and ethical standards, Cluniac reforms aimed to purify religious practices and inspire societal change, impacting the lives of both clergy and laity. 53) How did changes in Christian spirituality influence the power of the papacy? Answer: Changes in Christian spirituality, particularly during the medieval period, influenced the power of the papacy by: • Centralizing Authority: Emphasizing the Pope's role as the spiritual leader of Christendom, which enhanced papal authority over religious matters. • Justification of Authority: Claiming divine authority to interpret scripture and guide Christian morals, which bolstered papal influence over political and social affairs. • Conflict Resolution: Positioning the Pope as a mediator in disputes among secular rulers and within the Church, thereby consolidating political power. • Cultural Influence: Promoting religious fervor and pilgrimage, which strengthened the papacy's cultural and religious influence throughout Europe. 54) How and why were the kings of France and England able to assert their authority after 1000? Answer: After 1000, the kings of France and England were able to assert their authority through: • Feudal Consolidation: They gained control over vassals and territories, reducing the power of local lords and increasing royal authority. • Legal Reforms: Implementing centralized legal systems that standardized justice and taxation, enhancing royal control. • Military Strength: Building professional armies and fortifying royal domains, which allowed for enforcement of royal decrees. • Economic Growth: Benefiting from increased agricultural productivity and trade, providing resources to support centralized rule. Reasons: • Weakness of Feudal Lords: Internal disputes among feudal lords weakened their ability to resist royal authority. • Church Support: Gaining support from the Church, which sought stability and protection from external threats. • Urban Growth: Urban centers became centers of royal administration and support, further bolstering royal authority. 55) Were universities and scholasticism part of the same intellectual currents, or did they represent different developments? Explain your answer. Answer: Universities and scholasticism were interconnected but represented different intellectual developments: • Universities: Emerged as institutions of higher learning, focusing on teaching and learning across various disciplines, including theology, law, medicine, and philosophy. They provided structured education and degrees, fostering intellectual inquiry and debate. • Scholasticism: A philosophical and theological method within universities, scholasticism sought to reconcile faith with reason through rigorous analysis of texts, particularly Aristotelian philosophy. It aimed to systematize and clarify theological doctrines using logical arguments. While universities provided the organizational framework and resources for scholasticism to flourish, scholasticism itself represented a specific intellectual approach that influenced teaching and learning within universities, particularly in theology and philosophy. Chapter 11: The Medieval West in Crisis Multiple Choice 1) During the fourteenth century, the European population ________. A) increased steadily B) dropped dramatically C) remained stable D) had periods of decline but increased overall Answer: B 2) What proportion of the European population probably died as a result of the Black Death? A) three-fourths B) one-half C) one-third D) one-fourth Answer: C 3) Where the Black Death first hit Europe? A) Turkey B) Egypt C) Italy D) Central Asia Answer: C 4) The “Little Ice Age” hit Europe in what century? A) fourteenth B) fifteenth C) thirteenth D) twelfth Answer: A 5) The Black Death last appeared in Europe in what century? A) seventeenth B) sixteenth C) fifteenth D) fourteenth Answer: A 6) The Mongols originated in ________. A) central Asia B) China C) the Near East D) India Answer: A 7) Which of these peoples were part of the same eastward movement as the Mongols? A) Turks B) Hungarians C) Avars D) Arabs Answer: A 8) Genghis Khan was the ruler of the ________. A) Mongols B) Turks C) Huns D) Chinese Answer: A 9) Which of these defeated the Mongols in 1260? A) Mamluk Egyptian rulers B) the Ottoman Turks C) the Byzantine Empire D) the rule of Baghdad Answer: A 10) Which of these brought about the end of the Ottoman Empire? A) Mehmed II B) Osman I C) Michael Palaeologus D) Genghis Khan Answer: A 11) Guilds were urban associations of citizens grouped by _______. A) occupation B) religious affiliation C) origin D) status Answer: A 12) The Ciompi were ________. A) Florentine wool workers B) French peasants C) Italian bankers D) guild masters in Florence Answer: A 13) Who were the main opponents in the Hundred Years War? A) England and Spain B) England and Italy C) France and Germany D) England and France Answer: D 14) The death of Charles IV caused a problem because ________. A) his heir was the king of England B) he had no heir C) he had designated two heirs D) the church claimed Charles’ lands Answer: A 15) At Agincourt in 1415________. A) French troops under King Philip defeated Henry V B) English forces led by Henry V won a great victory C) French troops under King John were destroyed by English archers D) Joan of Arc led the French armies into battle Answer: B 16) Who led the French to victory at Orleans in 1429? A) Joan of Arc B) Charles VII C) the Duke of Burgundy D) Henry V Answer: A 17) Which of these were key to the English victory at Agincourt? A) longbowmen B) cavalry C) siege weapons D) artillery Answer: A 18) Gunpowder first made an impact in European warfare in ________. A) sieges B) naval battles C) field battles D) castle defense Answer: A 19) The Great Schism refers to ________. A) the period when the papacy exiled itself to Avignon B) the theological challenge to the church from John Wycliffe C) the period when there were rival popes in France and Italy D) Martin Luther's break with the Church Answer: C 20) What happened to Jan Hus? A) He was burned at the stake as a heretic. B) He initiated successful reforms in the church and was canonized. C) He was killed by the Ottomans. D) He moved to a monastery. Answer: A 21) Who wrote The Divine Comedy? A) Giovanni Boccaccio B) Dante Alighieri C) Francesco Petrarch D) Niccoló Machiavelli Answer: B 22) Who guided Dante through hell in The Divine Comedy? A) Virgil B) Beatrice C) the Devil D) Brutus Answer: A 23) Who wrote The Canterbury Tales? A) Miguel de Cervantes B) John Wycliffe C) John Hus D) Geoffrey Chaucer Answer: D 24) The last Muslim stronghold in Spain was ________. A) Madrid B) Aragon C) Granada D) Castile Answer: C 25) Jews in Spain ________. A) suffered violent persecution after 1378 B) were tolerated in the Christian kingdoms of Aragon and Castile C) were only persecuted by the Muslims there D) were prohibited from holding public office, but otherwise suffered no persecution Answer: A 26) What caused the famines in the fourteenth century? A) blocked trading routes from the east B) wars in Italy and Germany C) natural causes D) inadequate distribution of surplus grain Answer: C 27) Looking at Map 11.1, “The Spread of the Black Death,” which of these is true? A) Trade regions connected with the Ottoman Empire were hit first. B) The plague hit Europe from west to east. C) Eastern Europe was hit before western Europe. D) Most of the Muslim world was spared. Answer: A 28) The impact of the Black Death was generally more rapid and severe in ________. A) southern Europe B) northern Europe C) the British Isles D) Scandinavia Answer: A 29) The famines of the early to mid-1300s were worst where ________. A) population growth was highest B) in urban areas C) in Italy D) the Black Death hit later Answer: A 30) Unlike the Mongols, Tamerlane’s attacks _______. A) destroyed the Silk Road B) established a long-lasting peace C) were rarely successful D) concentrated on east Asia Answer: A 31) Genghis Khan ________. A) was a Mongol warrior whose conquests helped reestablish East-West trade routes B) was a Mongol warrior who destroyed the successful East-West caravan routes C) opposed the establishment of the Mongol peace D) defeated his arch-rival Tamerlane Answer: A 32) The Mongols, Ottomans, and the forces of Tamerlane were all ________. A) multiethnic B) Mongols C) Turks D) Muslims Answer: A 33) The Ottomans were able to conquer Constantinople because ________. A) they received help from Genghis Khan B) they were supported by the pope C) they used gunpowder artillery to destroy the city walls D) the people of Constantinople converted to Islam Answer: C 34) The impact of the Ottoman conquests on western Europe was ________. A) to create a powerful new neighbor B) the destruction of several kingdoms C) indirect, through the destruction of trade routes D) insignificant compared to the Mongol attacks Answer: A 35) The craft and merchant guilds represented the interests of _______. A) masters B) workers C) the towns D) consumers Answer: A 36) Like the revolt of the Ciompi, the Jacquerie _______. A) was inspired by lower-class resentment B) was a violent peasants’ revolt C) took place in an Italian city D) was moderately successful Answer: B 37) Considering the cause that triggered it, the Hundred Years’ War can be considered _______. A) a French victory B) an English victory C) draw D) inconclusive Answer: A 38) The Hundred Years War is best understood as ________. A) one long continuous battle that never stopped B) occasional periods of war followed by long truces C) a relentless series of raids launched by both sides D) a series of battles that resolved nothing Answer: B 39) After the appearance of Joan of Arc, ________. A) French forces began to win the war against the English B) the English seized Aquitaine C) the French triumphed at the Battle of Agincourt D) Charles VII was executed Answer: A 40) In the Hundred Years’ War, which of these lost their status as the key element in warfare? A) the cavalry B) siege engines C) the infantry D) bowmen Answer: A 41) The military revolution of the Later Middle Ages accompanied the development of ________. A) centralized states B) reliance on mounted troops C) feudal militias D) siege warfare Answer: A 42) The conciliarists represented _______. A) a restriction on papal power B) the height of the papacy’s worldly power C) legal reform in the Church D) the end of papal power Answer: A 43) John Wycliffe’s critics were aimed at _______. A) the institutions of the Church B) Christian doctrine C) lay reading of the vernacular Bible D) foreign clergy Answer: A 44) Both The Divine Comedy and The Canterbury Tales reflect what medieval tradition? A) pilgrimage B) penitence C) communion D) marriage Answer: A 45) Which of these converged to destroy Jewish life in Spain in the 1300s? A) the Black Death and the Reconquest B) the Hundred Years’ War and the famines C) the Crusades and the Black Death D) the Reconquest and peasant uprisings Answer: A 46) Violence against religious minority groups A) declined after 1348. B) increased after 1348. C) was opposed by state and religious organizations throughout Europe. D) only occurred against the Jews in Spain. Answer: B 47) The Statutes of Kilkenny are a sign of the ________. A) growing sense of national identity B) loss of Irish independence C) strength of Irish resistance to English D) end of the Black Death Answer: A 48) The impact of the Ottoman conquests was to ________. A) bring the Muslim and Catholic worlds into direct contact B) end Christianity in what is today the Middle East C) close the Silk Road D) greatly expand the world of Islam Answer: A 49) As a result of the Hundred Years’ War ________. A) the English and French monarchies gained a greater monopoly on power in their respective countries B) the nobility of France and England reasserted their control over military and political power C) the peasants of Europe found themselves in a much worse position D) there was greater cooperation between European nations Answer: A 50) The Modern Devotion can be said to have turned the walls of medieval monasteries “inside out” because this movement ________. A) saw laypeople taking over some of the monks’ roles B) was a threat to monasticism C) effectively ended Western Benedictine monasticism D) challenging the piety that was associated with monks Answer: A Essay 51) What do you consider the most important short-term and long-term consequences of the crises of the fourteenth century? Justify your answers. Answer: The crises of the fourteenth century, including the Black Death and social upheavals, had significant short-term and long-term consequences. Short-term consequences: 1. Immediate Population Decline: The Black Death led to a rapid decline in population, causing labor shortages and economic disruptions. 2. Social Upheaval: Peasant revolts and social unrest occurred due to economic disparities and dissatisfaction with feudal systems. 3. Cultural Change: Increased mortality rates reshaped religious and cultural practices, fostering new religious movements and artistic expressions. Long-term consequences: 1. Economic Restructuring: Labor scarcity empowered surviving workers, leading to wage increases and the decline of feudalism. 2. Political Transformation: Centralized states gained power as feudal lords weakened, shaping modern nation-states. 3. Cultural Renaissance: The crisis spurred innovations in art, literature, and science, laying the foundation for the Renaissance in the following centuries. These consequences reshaped Europe's socio-economic and cultural landscape, marking a pivotal period in history. 52) Compare the impact of the Mongol and Ottoman conquests, particularly in terms of the impact of both on western Europe. Answer: Impact of Mongol Conquests: • Trade and Communication: Facilitated the exchange of goods and ideas across Eurasia, contributing to the revival of trade routes like the Silk Road. • Cultural Exchange: Spread technologies, sciences, and cultural practices across regions, influencing Europe's Renaissance. • Military Influence: Heightened military technologies and strategies impacted Europe's warfare tactics. Impact of Ottoman Conquests: • Political Fragmentation: Challenged European political structures, triggering geopolitical shifts and alliances. • Cultural Influence: Transferred Islamic art, architecture, and knowledge to Europe, influencing Renaissance aesthetics. • Economic Impact: Controlled key trade routes, affecting European commerce and driving exploration for new routes. Both conquests influenced Europe through trade, cultural exchange, and military tactics, laying foundations for future developments. 53) What were the most important consequences of the Hundred Years’ War, both in the long term and in the short term? Answer: Short-term Consequences: • Economic Disruption: War caused widespread devastation, disrupting trade and agriculture. • Political Instability: Increased centralization efforts in France and power struggles in England. • Technological Advancements: Military innovations, like longbows, influenced European warfare. Long-term Consequences: • National Identity: Fostered national identities in France and England, shaping modern nationalism. • Military Evolution: Led to professional armies and changes in warfare tactics. • End of Feudalism: Weakened feudal structures and increased monarchial power in both countries. The Hundred Years' War reshaped Europe politically, socially, and militarily, setting the stage for future developments. 54) How did the Babylonian Captivity and Great Schism affect the Christian church? Answer: Babylonian Captivity (1309-1377): • Papal Authority: Weakened papal authority as the papacy moved to Avignon under French influence. • Church Unity: Divided Western Christendom and intensified calls for reform. Great Schism (1378-1417): • Division: Split the church into rival papal factions, causing confusion and undermining papal authority. • Reform Movements: Stimulated reform movements like Conciliarism to address church governance issues. Both events weakened the church's unity and authority, fostering demands for reform and contributing to the Protestant Reformation. 55) How and why did the “culture of loss” shape literature and art during the fourteenth century? Answer: The "culture of loss" during the fourteenth century, marked by events like the Black Death and social upheavals, deeply influenced literature and art: • Themes of Mortality: Art and literature focused on themes of death, suffering, and the fragility of life. • Religious Reflection: Works often contemplated divine judgment and salvation, reflecting societal fears and spiritual questioning. • Realism and Grief: Artistic expressions depicted the harsh realities of loss and grief, capturing the emotional and psychological impact of widespread death. • Cultural Transformation: Encouraged a shift towards more humanistic and introspective perspectives, laying groundwork for the Renaissance's emphasis on individualism and human experience. Test Bank for West: Encounters and Transformations Brian Levack, Edward Muir, Meredith Veldman 9780205968374, 9780134229270

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