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This Document Contains Chapters 21 to 23 Chapter 21: The Industrial Revolution Multiple Choice 1) Which of these was invented by James Hargreaves in 1767? A) the spinning jenny B) to cotton gin C) the water frame D) the spinning wheel Answer: A 2) The most important machines in the early Industrial Revolution were the ________. A) steam engine and textile machinery B) locomotive and the steam engine C) electric light bulb and the battery D) steam engine and the electric light bulb Answer: A 3) The new textile machines led to a dramatic increase in the supply of ________. A) cotton cloth B) woolens C) polyester D) rayon Answer: A 4) In the early Industrial Revolution, manufactured goods were transported mainly on ________. A) the railroads B) new industrially financed roads C) state-owned turnpikes D) waterways and man-made canals Answer: D 5) Where was a division of labor first used? A) large handicraft workshops B) textile factories C) the domestic system D) cottage industry Answer: A 6) In what decade were railroads first in general use in Britain? A) 1820s B) 1800s C) 1840s D) 1860s Answer: A 7) Because of their demand for _______, expanding railroads became major consumers of industrial goods. A) iron B) coal C) wood D) oil Answer: A 8) Between 1680 and 1820, the English population ________. A) doubled B) fell by half C) quadrupled D) increased by 10 percent Answer: A 9) Enclosure ended what system? A) open fields B) crop rotation C) commercial agriculture D) sheep farming Answer: A 10) From a dozen in 1750, the number of banks in England rose to ______ in 1800. A) 300 B) 50 C) 120 D) 650 Answer: A 11) The German Zollverein was established to ________. A) eliminate internal tariffs B) build canals C) subsidized industrialization D) foster capital formation Answer: A 12) Spain and Italy began to industrialize in what period? A) late 1800s B) mid 1800s C) early 1800s D) late 1700s Answer: A 13) Britain completed a system of waterways by ________. A) 1780 B) 1800 C) 1820 D) 1840 Answer: A 14) Where did the Industrial Revolution in the United States begin? A) in the southern coal fields B) in northern textile industries C) in the Ohio iron industry D) in the northern automobile industry Answer: B 15) Who wrote An Essay on the Principle of Population? A) Thomas Malthus B) Adam Smith C) William Blake D) David Hume Answer: A 16) Who wrote The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844? A) Friedrich Engels B) Karl Marx C) Thomas Hobbes D) John Locke Answer: A 17) During the early Industrial Revolution, women and children accounted for as much as what percentage of the labor force in the woolen industry? A) 25 percent B) 50 percent C) 75 percent D) 100 percent Answer: C 18) The British Factory Act of 1833 ________. A) eliminated child labor B) permanently legalized child labor C) limited child labor D) prohibited women in the work force Answer: C 19) Women factory workers were paid ________. A) as much as men B) about three-quarters of a man’s wages C) about one-third to one-half of a man’s wages D) the same wage as children Answer: C 20) The bourgeoisie during the Industrial Revolution were generally the ________. A) landowners B) factory owners C) factory workers D) aristocracy Answer: B 21) Luddites opposed ________. A) industrialization B) child labor laws C) employing women in factories D) industrial capitalism Answer: A 22) The Peterloo Massacre was the result of protests by ________. A) industrial workers B) factory owners C) craftsmen D) urban poor Answer: A 23) By the mid-1800s, the British controlled what percentage of the world’s trade? A) one-quarter B) one-third C) one-half D) three-quarters Answer: B 24) How much of the world’s coal supply did the British produce by 1850? A) one-third B) one-half C) two-thirds D) three-quarters Answer: C 25) The Opium War resulted from ________. A) British attempts to stop the Chinese from selling an illegal drug B) British attempts to shut down the opium trade from India to China C) Chinese attempts to buy more opium from India and Afghanistan D) Chinese attempts to stop the British from selling opium in China Answer: D 26) How did the Industrial Revolution help redefine the West? A) It added the West to all the other nations that had already experienced industrialization. B) The concept of the West became associated with industrialization. C) It expanded the geographical boundaries of the West during the nineteenth century to include North Africa. D) It was now defined only by the railroad systems that crisscrossed western Europe. Answer: B 27) Why was the spinning jenny significant? A) It was a power-driven machine that made a stronger warp. B) It dramatically increased the amount of cotton thread that could be spun. C) It dramatically sped up the weaving of cotton cloth. D) It required textile factories to be located near rivers. Answer: B 28) Why was the steam engine important in the coal mining industry? A) It could generate enough heat to turn coal into charcoal. B) It provided a way to pump water out of coal mines. C) It turned the water wheels along the rivers next to the mines. D) It provided enough heat to smelt coal. Answer: B 29) The early factory system and the domestic system differed in _________. A) where goods were produced B) what goods were produced C) who did the work D) the use of machinery Answer: A 30) Unlike the large handicraft workshop, factories _______. A) were mechanized B) employed a division of labor C) brought many workers together in one location D) required skilled craftsmen Answer: A 31) Which of these modes of transportation became most deeply embedded in industrialization? A) railroads B) canals C) horse-drawn carriages D) steamships Answer: A 32) Looking at the table, “Increase in European Population, 1680–1820,” which of these was true of population growth in European countries? A) In terms of population growth, England was twice that of the next nation. B) Most of the population growth occurred in southern Europe. C) Britain had the largest population in 1820. D) Europe as a whole doubled its population. Answer: A 33) The process of enclosure benefited ________. A) individual ownership B) a communal labor system C) medieval farming methods D) animal husbandry Answer: A 34) Commercial agriculture was good for productivity, but bad for ________. A) farm workers B) sustainability C) industrialization D) capitalists Answer: A 35) The German Zollverein was just one attempt to __________ on the continent. A) lower costs and increase profits B) industrialize C) increase mechanization D) build infrastructure Answer: A 36) Following the British example, it appears that an aristocracy is less conservative when it is more ________. A) open to new members B) class conscious C) wealthy D) closed Answer: A 37) Unlike British industrialization, continental industrialization was fostered by ________. A) government finance B) banks C) private firms D) individual investors Answer: A 38) An Essay on the Principle of Population maintained that ________. A) population grows faster than the food supply B) population grows at the same rate as the food supply C) the food supply would always rise to the level of the population D) the industrial revolution would make agriculture obsolete Answer: A 39) Optimists about the Industrial Revolution gauge the impact of industrialization by ________. A) measuring income B) evaluating mental stress C) considering environmental degradation D) measuring family size Answer: A 40) Optimists maintain that increases in real income during the Industrial Revolution ________. A) allowed workers to buy more food and goods B) allowed workers to invest in the factories C) allowed workers to retire at an early age D) led to the elimination of child labor Answer: A 41) Pessimists about the Industrial Revolution are ________. A) fundamentally supporters of industrial capitalism B) fundamentally opposed to industrial capitalism C) admit that workers’ standards of living did improve by the 1850s D) base their arguments on economics rather than morality Answer: B 42) The use of women and children in factories represented _______. A) a continuation of traditional work patterns B) a shift from the gender division of labor C) was against most social norms of the late 1700s and early 1800s D) brought about profound changes in family life Answer: A 43) The Luddite protests and the Peterloo Massacre were similar in that both _______. A) were caused by the impact of industrialization B) were centered on the complaints of skilled craftsmen C) presented the same demands D) ended peacefully Answer: A 44) The Sadler Committee on Child Labor _____________. A) concluded that child labor had no negative physical consequences. B) demonstrated that children were widely exploited in British factories. C) showed that child labor was important to the success of the British industrial economy. D) led to the elimination of workers under the age of 13. Answer: B 45) Around 1800, Britain’s position in industrialization ________ its position as an imperial power. A) was matched by B) was much greater than C) had no relation to D) was dwarfed Answer: A 46) British imperial policy in Latin America helped British trade because the British were able to ________. A) use force to compel Latin American economic cooperation B) find new markets in Latin America C) find new and cheaper sources of labor in Latin America D) establish formal political control over Bolivia and Peru Answer: B 47) How did British economic policy affect the Latin American industry? A) It slowed the growth of Latin American industry. B) It fueled the development of large factories across Latin America. C) It made Latin America less dependent on the British for manufactured goods. D) It fostered the development of political democracy across Latin America. Answer: A 48) Unlike the large handicraft workshop, the domestic system ________. A) used family labor B) employed skilled craftsmen C) was mechanized by 1800 D) relied primarily on child labor Answer: A 49) On the continent, industrialization spread generally from ________. A) west to east B) south to north C) German to Latin nations D) Catholic to Protestant nations Answer: A 50) Which of these was illustrated in an early form at the Peterloo demonstration of 1819? A) class consciousness B) industrial capitalism C) Luddism D) socialism Answer: A Essay 51) What do you consider the most profound changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution? Why? Answer: The Industrial Revolution brought profound changes such as urbanization, technological advancements, mass production, and shifts in social structures. These changes transformed economies from agrarian to industrial, leading to rapid urban growth, increased productivity, and significant social and cultural shifts, laying the foundation for modern economic systems and global trade networks. 52) What do you consider the most important differences between continental and British industrialization? How did these differences shape industrialization in these two areas? Answer: The key differences between continental and British industrialization include timing, scale, and economic focus. British industrialization started earlier and on a larger scale, driven by abundant coal and iron resources, entrepreneurial spirit, and supportive institutions like banks and legal frameworks. Continental industrialization, starting later and more gradually, often focused on specific industries like textiles or heavy manufacturing, influenced by local resources, government policies, and cultural factors. These differences shaped distinct industrial paths, with Britain pioneering mass production and global trade, while continental Europe emphasized diverse industrial strategies tailored to regional strengths. 53) How did industrialization change as it spread beyond Britain? What new international networks developed? Answer: As industrialization spread beyond Britain, it adapted to local resources, cultures, and governmental policies, leading to varied industrial paths. New international networks developed through global trade routes, financial systems, and technological exchange, fostering interconnected markets and facilitating the movement of goods, capital, and ideas across continents. This globalization of industry created new economic dependencies and geopolitical dynamics, shaping the modern interconnected world economy. 54) What were the economic, social, and political consequences of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain? Answer: The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain brought economic growth through increased production and trade, leading to urbanization and changes in social structures as people moved to cities for factory jobs. Politically, it spurred reforms to address labor conditions and expand suffrage, shaping modern democratic ideals. 55) How did industrialization reshape empires in the 1800s? Answer: Industrialization reshaped empires in the 1800s by increasing economic competition, technological advancement, and military capabilities. It fueled imperial expansion as industrialized nations sought resources and markets, leading to colonial conquests, economic exploitation, and geopolitical rivalries that defined global power dynamics. Chapter 22: Ideological Conflicts and National Unification, 1815–1871 Multiple Choice 1) Liberalism in the nineteenth century was most popular with ________. A) the working class B) the urban middle class C) the aristocracy D) government officials Answer: B 2) Who developed the concept of an “iron law of wages”? A) John Stuart Mill B) Jeremy Bentham C) David Ricardo D) Friedrich Engels Answer: C 3) Whose ideological point of view is best represented by the phrase: “From each according to his abilities; to each according to his needs”? A) Robert Owen B) Jeremy Bentham C) Edmund Burke D) Louis Blanc Answer: D 4) Which philosopher gave Karl Marx the idea of the dialectic? A) Georg Hegel B) Louis Blanc C) Jeremy Bentham D) Edmund Burke Answer: A 5) Nations are tied together by ________. A) a belief in a common culture B) residence in a single territory C) a common religion D) a common past Answer: A 6) The United Kingdom contained _______ nation(s). A) four B) two C) one D) six Answer: A 7) Who was the main proponent of positivist thought? A) Friedrich Liszt B) Auguste Comte C) Edmund Burke D) Jeremy Bentham Answer: B 8) The main cultural movement of the nineteenth century was ________. A) romanticism B) neoclassicism C) liberalism D) the Enlightenment Answer: A 9) A liberal revolt occurred in Spain in 1820, against the government of ________. A) Ferdinand VII B) Joseph Bonaparte C) Charles V D) Carlos I Answer: A 10) The Concert of Europe was the system produced by ________. A) the Congress of Vienna B) the Austrian Habsburgs C) Napoleon’s conquests D) the Bourbon monarchs Answer: A 11) The Decembrist Revolt involved ________. A) an unsuccessful revolt of Russian army officers against the tsar B) a successful revolt of Russian army officers against the tsar C) Russian assistance of the Greeks against the Ottoman Turks D) a successful revolt of Portuguese army officers against the king Answer: A 12) In 1830, Belgium ________. A) merged with France B) merged with the Netherlands C) achieved independence D) joined the Concert of Europe Answer: C 13) The Great Reform Bill of 1832________. A) introduced universal manhood suffrage in Great Britain B) gave most male property holders the right to vote in Great Britain C) eliminated the House of Lords in Great Britain D) gave all male and female property holders the right to vote in Great Britain Answer: B 14) The Anti-Corn Law League fundamentally supported ________. A) parliamentary reform B) free trade C) protective tariffs D) the end of exports of corn to Ireland Answer: B 15) Who came to power in France in the wake of the 1848 uprising? A) Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte B) Louis Blanc C) Louis XVIII D) Louis Cavaignac Answer: D 16) The revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire led to the ________. A) ouster of Klemens von Metternich B) establishment of the Austro-Hungarian Empire C) breakup of the Austrian Empire into several different states D) promulgation of the Carlsbad Decrees Answer: A 17) The Frankfurt Parliament was a(n) ________. A) attempt to implement a liberal constitution for a united Germany B) popular uprising in Germany C) conservative reaction to German liberal revolts D) part of the Concert of Europe Answer: A 18) Which of these was the leader of the 1848 Italian uprising? A) Giuseppe Mazzini B) Giuseppe Garibaldi C) Count Camillo di Cavour D) Gabriele d’Annunzio Answer: A 19) Which country provided critical military aid in the process of Italian unification? A) Austria B) Great Britain C) Germany D) France Answer: D 20) Which of these men supplied military leadership in the Italian independence movement? A) Giuseppe Garibaldi B) Victor Emmanuel C) Giuseppe Mazzini D) Count Camillo di Cavour Answer: A 21) Who led the process of German unification? A) Friedrich William B) Otto von Bismarck C) Friedrich List D) Johannes Herder Answer: B 22) The Franco-Prussian War led to ________. A) German unification B) the creation of Prussia C) the Ausgleich D) the leadership of Bismarck Answer: A 23) The Ausgleich of 1867________. A) resulted in the creation of the Austro-Hungarian Empire B) led to the breakup of the Austrian Empire C) led to the decision of the Slavs to break away from the newly established Austro-Hungarian Empire D) resulted in the creation of an independent Polish state Answer: A 24) Where was Napoleon III captured? A) the Battle of Paris B) the Battle of Verdun C) the Battle of Waterloo D) the Battle of Sedan Answer: D 25) Who supported the Paris Commune? A) socialists B) nationalists C) liberals D) conservatives Answer: A 26) Edmund Burke maintained that ________. A) revolutions were necessary to bring about change in human society B) social policies should be designed to benefit the greatest number of people C) social and political change must be gradual and linked to the historical past D) capitalism had fostered working-class consciousness Answer: C 27) Socialists believed that the modes of production should be owned by the ________. A) nobility B) bourgeoisie C) aristocracy D) state Answer: D 28) The Utopian socialists ________. A) were supported by Karl Marx B) favored class conflict C) rejected traditional communities D) predicted a proletarian revolution and the overthrow of capitalism Answer: C 29) For Marx and Hegel, the most important process in history was _______. A) conflict B) progress C) renewal D) imperialism Answer: A 30) The United Kingdom is an illustration of the fact that ________. A) strong states do not need to be nation-states B) nation-states were the first to industrialize C) smaller nations are more democratic D) liberalism and nation-states are usually closely linked Answer: A 31) Positivists argued that ________. A) science provided the highest level of human knowledge B) protectionist tariffs were critical to the success of a nation C) metaphysical concepts constituted the highest form of human knowledge D) science was inseparable from religion Answer: A 32) The link between romanticism and the Middle Ages was a reaction to ________. A) Enlightenment and the classical era B) Scientific Revolution and Hellenism C) the Industrial Revolution and the Early Modern era D) the Renaissance and neoclassicism Answer: A 33) The Greek Revolt in 1821 succeeded because of ________. A) the determination of Greek nationalists B) the support of the Concert of Europe C) a general European meeting held in 1821 D) the collapse of the Ottoman Empire Answer: B 34) The government of Louis-Philippe I was a _______. A) liberal monarchy B) conservative republic C) liberal republic D) socialist republic Answer: A 35) The Polish revolution of 1830 failed because of _______. A) fear of a popular uprising B) Russian opposition C) lack of military support D) bourgeois opposition Answer: A 36) The Chartists’ demands centered on _______. A) electoral reform B) economic reform C) nationalism D) labor issues Answer: A 37) The 1848 Paris uprising was a _______. A) failed socialist experiment B) reaction to liberal governments C) communist revolt D) spontaneous workers revolt Answer: A 38) Unlike the German 1848 uprising, the 1848 uprising in the Austrian Empire ________. A) touched off separate nationalist movements B) was inspired by liberal ideology C) led to calls for a new government D) was successful Answer: A 39) A common factor in the failure of the 1848 uprisings across Europe was _______. A) the fear of more broad-based revolts B) the explosion of nationalist conflict C) lack of support among the middle classes D) lack of support among military officers Answer: A 40) Which of these was threatened by both Italian and German unification? A) Austria B) Russia C) France D) Britain Answer: A 41) The main tool used by Cavour to achieve Italian unification was _______. A) negotiation B) war C) nationalism D) the press Answer: A 42) Realpolitik involved ________. A) doing what will work B) only working with the Junker class to achieve a political end C) doing what is necessary to achieve a desired goal D) a spirit of compromise to achieve ethical political ends Answer: A 43) After the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, ________. A) Austria merged with Germany B) Prussia ended its leadership of German unification C) the North German Confederation was established D) the Zollverein was established Answer: C 44) The creation of the German Empire was an example of _______. A) conservative nationalism B) liberal socialism C) imperialism D) reunification Answer: A 45) The American Civil War resulted in _______. A) a stronger union B) deep divisions C) the notion of the confederation of states D) industrialization Answer: A 46) In which region were multiethnic states more common than nation-states? A) eastern Europe B) central Europe C) southern Europe D) western Europe Answer: A 47) The Crimean War and the Franco-Prussian War were both the result of ________. A) aggressive expansion B) Prussian aggression C) nationalist unification D) imperialism Answer: A 48) The works of Richard Wagner illustrate the intersection of ________. A) romanticism and nationalism B) imperialism and neoclassicism C) liberalism and romanticism D) conservatism and imperialism Answer: A 49) Which of these groups was most disappointed by the Great Reform Bill of 1832? A) Chartists B) liberals C) industrialists D) nationalists Answer: A 50) Unlike the process of Italian unification, German unification was brought about by ________. A) offensive wars B) diplomacy C) appeals to romantic nationalism D) liberal politicians Answer: A Essay 51) Compare and contrast liberalism and socialism. How were these ideologies alike? How were they different? Answer: Liberalism and socialism are political ideologies with both similarities and differences: Similarities: • Focus on equality: Both ideologies aim to achieve a more equal society, albeit through different means. • Concern for individual rights: Both emphasize the importance of individual freedoms and rights, though they prioritize them differently. • Critique of inequality: Both criticize economic and social inequalities, though they propose different solutions. Differences: • Role of government: Liberals typically advocate for a limited government that protects individual liberties and regulates markets minimally. Socialists, in contrast, advocate for a more active government role in regulating the economy and redistributing wealth. • Approach to inequality: Liberals focus on equal opportunity and meritocracy, advocating for policies like education reform and anti-discrimination laws. Socialists prioritize economic equality and advocate for policies like progressive taxation and wealth redistribution. • Private property: Liberals generally support private property rights as fundamental to individual freedom and economic efficiency. Socialists are more critical of private property, advocating for collective or state ownership of key industries and resources. In summary, while both liberalism and socialism share concerns about inequality and individual rights, they diverge significantly in their approaches to governance, economic structure, and the role of private property in society. 52) How did scientific rationalism and romanticism influence the development of liberalism, socialism, and nationalism? Answer: Scientific rationalism emphasized reason, empirical observation, and the scientific method, influencing: • Liberalism: Encouraged belief in individual rights, freedom of thought, and the importance of rational governance. • Socialism: Focused on systematic analysis of social and economic structures, advocating for planned economies and social justice. • Nationalism: Provided a rational basis for collective identity and governance, shaping ideas of cultural unity and self-determination. Romanticism emphasized emotion, intuition, and cultural heritage, influencing: • Liberalism: Emphasized individual expression and cultural diversity within societies, fostering ideas of liberty and autonomy. • Socialism: Advocated for social solidarity and the importance of community, challenging industrialization's impact on human values. • Nationalism: Fostered pride in cultural identity and heritage, motivating movements for political sovereignty and national unity. In summary, scientific rationalism and romanticism contributed to the philosophical foundations of liberalism, socialism, and nationalism by shaping their views on individual rights, social justice, cultural identity, and governance. 53) Why did the liberal uprisings of the first half of the nineteenth century fail? Answer: The liberal uprisings of the first half of the nineteenth century failed primarily due to: • Lack of unified goals: Different factions within the liberal movements had varied agendas, leading to fragmented efforts. • Opposition from conservative forces: Monarchies and conservative elites opposed liberal reforms, often using military force to suppress uprisings. • Limited popular support: Liberal ideas appealed primarily to urban middle classes and intellectuals, lacking broad support from rural populations. • Internal divisions: Ideological differences and strategic disagreements weakened the effectiveness of liberal movements. 54) Compare and contrast the unification of Italy and Germany. What ideologies and methods were used to achieve each? Answer: Unification of Italy: • Ideologies: Italian unification was driven by liberal and nationalist ideals, emphasizing the creation of a unified Italian state under a constitutional monarchy. • Methods: Led by figures like Giuseppe Garibaldi and Count Cavour, Italy used diplomatic maneuvering, alliances with external powers (such as France and Piedmont-Sardinia), and military campaigns (like Garibaldi's Redshirts) to unify various Italian states and regions under the Kingdom of Italy in 1861. Unification of Germany: • Ideologies: German unification was influenced by nationalism and conservatism, seeking to unite German-speaking regions under Prussian leadership. • Methods: Chancellor Otto von Bismarck orchestrated German unification through a series of wars and diplomatic maneuvers. Key events included the Austro-Prussian War (1866) and the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71), which led to the formation of the German Empire in 1871, with Prussia as its dominant state. Comparison: • Both movements were driven by nationalist aspirations but differed in their ideological underpinnings and methods. • Italy's unification was characterized by a blend of liberal constitutionalism and nationalism, using alliances and military campaigns. • Germany's unification was more conservative and pragmatic, led by Prussia through wars and diplomacy under Bismarck's Realpolitik approach. 55) How did the Crimean and Franco-Prussian wars influence liberalism in Europe? Answer: The Crimean War (1853-1856) and the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) influenced liberalism in Europe by: • Highlighting inefficiencies: Both wars exposed inefficiencies and weaknesses in traditional monarchies and outdated military systems, leading to calls for modernization and reform. • Fostering nationalism: These conflicts fueled nationalist sentiments, advocating for unified states based on ethnic and cultural identities. • Promoting reforms: Liberal movements gained momentum as governments sought to address public discontent and modernize institutions to compete effectively. • Spurring democratic ideals: The wars contributed to the spread of democratic principles and demands for representative governance across Europe. Chapter 23: The Coming of Mass Politics, 1870–1914 Multiple Choice 1) The Second Industrial Revolution began in what decade? A) 1870s B) 1830s C) 1850s D) 1890s Answer: A 2) The Eiffel Tower was built ________. A) by Napoleon III B) for the working classes of Paris C) for the Paris World’s Fair D) to commemorate the centennial of the French Revolution Answer: C 3) Who designed the first electromagnetic generator? A) Michael Faraday B) Thomas Edison C) Guglielmo Marconi D) Benjamin Franklin Answer: A 4) Most European emigrants in the period between 1860 and 1914 went to ________. A) North America B) Africa C) South America D) Australia Answer: A 5) A common trend in education during the late nineteenth century was ________. A) the admission of women to professional schools B) free compulsory elementary education C) a decline in the number of high school graduates D) the admission of over 25% of the European population to universities Answer: B 6) The Franco-Prussian War led to the creation of the ________. A) Second Republic B) Third Republic C) reestablishment of the Bourbon monarchy D) Fourth Republic Answer: B 7) Which political party dominated French politics by 1914? A) Radical Party B) Socialist Party C) Republican Party D) Catholic Party Answer: A 8) Support for Alfred Dreyfus in the Dreyfus Affair was associated with ________. A) republicanism B) loyalty to the monarchy C) Catholicism D) socialism Answer: A 9) Emancipation of the Russian serfs took place in what decade? A) 1860s B) 1840s C) 1880s D) 1820s Answer: A 10) The policy of Russification ________. A) imposed Russian culture on peoples of the Russian Empire B) was the Polish policy of adopting Russian culture C) tied Russian culture to the spread of communism D) promoted Russian secular culture at the expense of the Orthodox Church Answer: A 11) Most Irish nationalists worked for ________. A) Home Rule B) religious toleration C) complete independence D) merger with Scotland Answer: A 12) In the 1912 German elections, which party gained the most votes? A) socialist B) communist C) Christian Democrat D) liberal Answer: A 13) Who was Georges Sorel? A) the leader of the French Socialist Party in the 1890s B) a French syndicalist who believed in the idea of the general strike C) the French prime minister during the Dreyfus Affair D) a French journalist who wrote a famous editorial defending Dreyfus Answer: B 14) Who is the political theorist most commonly associated with socialist revisionism? A) Karl Marx B) August Bebel C) Eduard Bernstein D) Antonio Gramsci Answer: C 15) Syndicalism was a _______. A) radical workers’ movement B) moderate labor movement C) form of anarchism D) socialist movement Answer: A 16) The policy of Magyarization was supported by _________ in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. A) Hungarians B) Serbs C) Czechs D) Germans Answer: D 17) In what region was Ottoman rule most challenged in the late 1800s and early 1900s? A) the Balkans B) Antolia C) Syria D) Arabia Answer: A 18) The Russian May Laws targeted ________. A) Jews B) socialists C) Poles D) peasants Answer: A 19) Who was the leader of the Zionist movement in the late nineteenth century? A) Karl Lueger B) Theodor Herzl C) Alfred Dreyfus D) Baron von Rothschild Answer: B 20) Which social class dominated the feminist movement in the late nineteenth century? A) aristocracy B) working class C) middle class D) peasants Answer: C 21) Generally speaking, the size of middle-class families in the late nineteenth century was ________. A) larger because motherhood was celebrated as the perfect ideal of womanhood B) smaller because of the use of birth control C) the same size at the end of the century as at the beginning D) larger because of the lack of any effective means of birth control Answer: B 22) The Napoleonic Code _________ traditional gender roles. A) reinforced B) overturned C) modified D) ignored Answer: A 23) Which of these popular reform movements became associated with women’s rights in the late 1800s? A) temperance B) abolition C) the peace movement D) prison reform Answer: A 24) Who was the most famous leader of the British suffragette movement? A) Emmeline Pankhurst B) Emily Davidson C) Queen Victoria D) Dorothea Beale Answer: A 25) Where had women gained the right to vote before 1914? A) France B) Great Britain C) Italy D) Finland Answer: D 26) Europe experienced an economic depression in the 1870s because A) the discovery of gold in Africa weakened European currency. B) Europeans had overinvested in the textile industry. C) European population declined. D) Europeans produced too many goods that could not be sold. Answer: D 27) Europe became linked economically, primarily because of ________. A) the growth of the international working-class movement B) warfare C) the growth of the European railway system D) the introduction of free trade Answer: C 28) Which of these replaced steam in the Second Industrial Revolution? A) electricity B) coal C) oil D) gasoline Answer: A 29) Most of those emigrating from Europe between 1860 and 1914 came from _______. A) no industrialized nations B) German countries C) advanced industrial countries D) western Europe Answer: A 30) Expanding the franchise in Britain served the purpose of _______. A) nation-making B) expanding the tax base C) enlarging the pool of draftees D) encouraging socialism Answer: A 31) Nation-making in the late nineteenth century involved ________. A) accepting regional diversity. B) forging a single national identity at the expense of regional loyalties. C) transferring political power from the political elites to the masses. D) eliminating expensive social programs in favor of defense spending. Answer: B 32) Why did Otto von Bismarck introduce social welfare measures? A) He hoped to placate workers. B) He wanted to strengthen the German Social Democratic Party. C) He was continuing his liberal policies. D) He feared a popular uprising. Answer: A 33) The British Jubilees and the German Sedan Day were both ________. A) nation-building tools B) aimed at the French C) the dates of popular revolts D) secularized religious holidays Answer: A 34) The Dreyfus Affair ultimately revealed deep divisions in France over what issue? A) the role of the Catholic Church in French life B) extension of the franchise C) control of public education D) the survival of the Bonaparte dynasty Answer: A 35) Russification can be described as ________. A) aggressive nationalism B) cultural imperialism C) romantic nationalism D) nation-building Answer: A 36) Socialist revisionists advocated ________. A) immediate proletarian revolution B) gradual movement towards socialism through legitimate political institutions C) merging with the new Communist Party D) revising socialism to be more in tune with working-class needs Answer: B 37) Syndicalism resembled socialist revisionism in _______. A) being focused on workers’ needs B) advocating violent revolution C) supporting change through the political system D) being strongest in France Answer: A 38) Both the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian empires were ________ by growing nationalist sentiments around 1800. A) threatened B) toppled C) more united D) made more aggressive Answer: A 39) The process of Magyarization illustrated which of these problems with nation building? A) Nation-building inevitably marginalized some groups. B) Nation-building could feed into political stability. C) Nation-building never worked in eastern Europe. D) Nation-building often coincided with religious repression. Answer: A 40) Which of these led directly to Zionism? A) pogroms B) assimilation C) emancipation D) Arab nationalism Answer: A 41) Which of these best explains the ability of middle-class women to become activists? A) They had smaller families. B) They had more educational opportunities. C) They were able to garner greater support for feminist activism. D) The was a link between nationalism and feminism in the middle class. Answer: A 42) How did most European law codes view women in the late nineteenth century? A) equal to men B) inferior to men C) superior to men D) equal to men in property rights but inferior in the family organization Answer: B 43) Changes in educational opportunities for women between 1880 and 1914 indicate ________. A) a great variation among nations B) more opportunity in central Europe C) more opportunity in Protestant nations D) most nations provided women with higher education Answer: A 44) Feminists argued that the Contagious Diseases Act ________. A) was based on a double standard B) should have punished prostitutes C) did not go far enough D) was justified on economic grounds Answer: A 45) When Maria Deraismes said “I decline the honor of being an angel,” she was expressing what sentiment? A) Women will have more freedom if they shed imposed moral constraints. B) She was not willing to die for the sake of women’s suffrage. C) She would rather fight prostitution than push for new marriage laws. D) It was more important to fight for suffrage than have a positive reputation. Answer: A 46) Women’s suffrage came latest to ________European countries. A) Catholic B) northern C) socialist D) German Answer: A 47) Which of these was successful in gaining women’s suffrage in Britain? A) direct action B) letter-writing campaigns C) educational reforms D) negotiating with labor unions Answer: A 48) Which of these elements of the First Industrial Revolution continued in the Second Industrial Revolution? A) urbanization B) mass emigration C) electrification D) mechanization Answer: A 49) Unlike socialist revisionism, Marxism ________. A) was based on the notion of revolution B) advocated legislative change C) focused on the needs of workers D) was a form of syndicalism Answer: A 50) In the late 1800s, middle-class women gained power as ________. A) consumers B) workers C) voters D) mothers Answer: A Essay 51) What was the Second Industrial Revolution? Compare its nature and effects with the First Industrial Revolution. Answer: The Second Industrial Revolution, occurring roughly from the late 19th to early 20th century, marked a period of rapid industrialization characterized by advancements in technology, communication, and production methods. Unlike the First Industrial Revolution, which focused on mechanization and steam power, the Second Industrial Revolution saw the rise of electricity, assembly lines, and mass production techniques. It led to increased urbanization, globalization of markets, and the rise of large corporations. Innovations like the telephone, internal combustion engine, and steel production processes were pivotal. 52) How and why did western European states create national identities between the years 1870 and 1914? Answer: Between 1870 and 1914, Western European states created national identities through processes such as: 1. Political Unification: Countries like Germany and Italy achieved political unity, consolidating diverse regions into cohesive nation-states. 2. Cultural and Educational Policies: Governments promoted standardized languages, histories, and educational curricula to foster a sense of national belonging. 3. Symbolism and Rituals: Emphasis on national symbols, anthems, and public rituals reinforced collective identity. 4. Imperialism: Expansion overseas bolstered national pride and identity, casting nations as global powers. These efforts aimed to unify diverse populations under common identities, fostering loyalty and stability amid rapid industrialization and urbanization. 53) What was the Dreyfus Affair? What did it reveal about European national attitudes and anti-Semitism in the late nineteenth century? Answer: The Dreyfus Affair was a scandal in late 19th-century France involving falsely accused Jewish army officer Alfred Dreyfus, accused of treason. It revealed deep-seated anti-Semitism and highlighted divisions in French society over issues of nationalism, military loyalty, and justice. The affair exposed prejudice within European nations, with many viewing Jews as outsiders despite their citizenship, reflecting broader discriminatory attitudes prevalent at the time. 54) How did the need to appeal to a broad band of voters reshape European politics in the period between 1860 and 1914? Answer: The need to appeal to a broad band of voters reshaped European politics between 1860 and 1914 by: 1. Expansion of Suffrage: Many countries expanded voting rights, allowing more citizens, especially urban workers and middle-class professionals, to participate in elections. 2. Political Parties: Parties adapted by creating platforms that appealed to diverse social groups, including workers' rights, social welfare, and nationalism. 3. Mass Media: Newspapers and later radio played pivotal roles in shaping public opinion and mobilizing voters, influencing political strategies and messaging. 4. Nationalism: Issues like national identity and foreign policy became central, appealing to patriotic sentiments among voters. These changes democratized politics, making it more responsive to a wider range of societal interests and ideologies. 55) What were the main concerns of feminists between 1860 and 1914? How did women’s political concerns fit into the broader movements of the period? Answer: Between 1860 and 1914, feminists focused on: 1. Suffrage: Demanding voting rights for women to achieve political representation. 2. Legal and Social Equality: Seeking equal rights in education, employment, and marriage laws. 3. Social Reform: Addressing issues like women's health, working conditions, and access to higher education. Women's political concerns were integral to broader movements of the period, including: • Social Reform Movements: Feminists collaborated with labor and social reformers to improve working conditions and social welfare. • Nationalism: Some feminists linked women's rights to national identity and the struggle for independence. • International Peace Movements: Women played roles in peace movements, advocating against war and for global cooperation. These efforts contributed to shifts in societal norms and paved the way for future advancements in women's rights globally. Test Bank for West: Encounters and Transformations Brian Levack, Edward Muir, Meredith Veldman 9780205968374, 9780134229270

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