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This Document Contains Chapters 18 to 20 Chapter 18: The West and the World: Empire, Trade, and War, 1650–1815 Multiple Choice 1) Which European country was the fastest growing imperial power in the early modern period? A) France B) Spain C) Portugal D) Great Britain Answer: D 2) The use of slave labor in the British colonies was most prominent in ________. A) Canada B) Virginia C) the Caribbean islands D) Massachusetts Answer: C 3) Who founded the Quakers? A) George Fox B) John Winthrop C) Roger Williams D) John Stuart Answer: A 4) Which British naval officer claimed the eastern coast of Australia for Great Britain? A) Duke of Wellington B) Admiral Horatio Nelson C) Captain James Cook D) George Fox Answer: C 5) Which country originally claimed much of Canada, as well as the Ohio and Mississippi River valleys? A) Great Britain B) Spain C) France D) Portugal Answer: C 6) Which country held the largest overseas empire in 1650? A) France B) Portugal C) England D) Spain Answer: D 7) The creoles of the Spanish empire were ________. A) born to Spanish families in the New World B) children of Spanish and Indian descent C) children of black and Indian descent D) marriages between Spanish women and Indian men Answer: A 8) Mercantilism is fundamentally a form of ________. A) free trade B) internal tariffs C) protectionism D) guild regulations Answer: C 9) England fought which two countries in mercantile wars during the 1600s? A) France and Spain B) Spain and the Dutch Republic C) the Dutch Republic and Portugal D) France and the Dutch Republic Answer: B 10) What two countries fought in the War of Jenkins’ Ear? A) Spain and Britain B) Britain and France C) Britain and the Holy Roman Empire D) France and Spain Answer: A 11) The Treaty of Paris (1763) ended what conflict? A) the Seven Years’ War B) the War of the Austrian Succession C) the War of Jenkins’ Ear D) the War of the Spanish Succession Answer: A 12) Which of these commodities dominated the trans-Atlantic trade in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries? A) sugar B) cotton C) tobacco D) coffee Answer: A 13) Colonial consumers created a demand for ________ from Europe in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. A) finished goods B) raw materials C) labor D) settlers Answer: A 14) The Middle Passage was what part of the slave trade? A) the voyage across the Atlantic B) capture C) transportation to slave markets D) purchase in the New World Answer: A 15) In the period from 1500 to 1900, most African slaves were shipped to ________. A) Brazil and the Caribbean B) Canada C) the southern colonies in British North America D) Argentina Answer: A 16) Which of these nations came to dominate the slave trade by 1700? A) Britain B) the Netherlands C) France D) Spain Answer: A 17) Which of these nations was the last to abolish slavery? A) Brazil B) Haiti C) the United States D) Britain Answer: A 18) In the 1700s, _______ gained control of India. A) Britain B) the Netherlands C) France D) Portugal Answer: A 19) The sepoys were ________. A) Indians serving under British leaders B) local Indian rulers C) British soldiers D) Muslim leaders in India Answer: A 20) Which of these were British East India Company entrepreneurs in India? A) nabobs B) nawabs C) Parsees D) creoles Answer: A 21) The British Stamp Act of 1765________. A) imposed taxes on British tea in the North American colonies B) imposed taxes on British tea in all British territories C) required the purchase of stamps for any printed item D) required the use of stamps for any mail in the North American colonies Answer: C 22) Which treaty ended the American Revolutionary War in 1783? A) the Treaty of London B) the Treaty of Utrecht C) the Treaty of Quebec D) the Treaty of Paris Answer: D 23) Which political theorist inspired the Declaration of Independence? A) Voltaire B) Montesquieu C) Locke D) Hume Answer: C 24) Which British possession initiated a revolt inspired by the American Revolution? A) India B) Canada C) Ireland D) Haiti Answer: C 25) Who were the Scots Irish? A) Scottish Catholics who lived in Ireland B) Irish Catholics who settled in Scotland C) Irish Catholics who settled in England D) Scottish Presbyterians who settled in Ireland Answer: D 26) Why did the Puritans move to New England? A) They wanted to plant tobacco in the New World. B) They wanted to convert the native populations to their religion. C) They wanted to implement religious reforms. D) They were forced out of England by the British monarch. Answer: C 27) Which of these was a state around 1750? A) France B) Massachusetts colony C) Haiti D) the Spanish empire Answer: A 28) Which statement best describes the British Empire in the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries? A) All colonists were considered British subjects and sent representatives to the British Parliament. B) The British Empire was well defined and enjoyed tremendous administrative cohesion. C) The British Empire used slaves in all of its possessions. D) The British Empire lacked administrative coherence and is best understood as a patchwork quilt of colonies and territories. Answer: D 29) Factories in the European empires were most closely tied to _______. A) trade B) plantation economies C) manufacturing D) settler colonies Answer: A 30) The Dutch Empire developed in conjunction with ________. A) the decline of British prosperity B) the tremendous growth of the Dutch economy C) a war with France in Southeast Asia D) an alliance with Portugal Answer: B 31) Like the Stamp Act and similar British measures, the Bourbon reforms proved that ________. A) attempts to increase revenue from overseas empire could lead to independence movements B) increased revenue could bring long-term stability to overseas empires C) slavery could be abolished with little opposition D) economic reforms were necessary Answer: A 32) Mercantilism is protectionism in the context of _______. A) imperialism B) state-building C) religious conflict D) racial conflict Answer: A 33) What was the main issue for conflict among European nations in the mid-seventeenth century? A) commerce B) ideology C) territory D) succession Answer: A 34) Both of the wars of succession in the early1700s ________. A) spread to include conflicts over empires B) were started by France and Spain C) focused on Austrian territory D) began in western Europe Answer: A 35) Looking at Map 18.4, “The Atlantic Economy in the Mid-Eighteenth Century,” in the Atlantic economy, agricultural products flowed ________. A) from the New World to Europe B) in both directions among all three continents C) primarily from North America to the Caribbean D) between Europe and Africa E) the slave trade was critical to the Atlantic economy. Answer: A 36) Europeans acquired slaves ________. A) at Dutch ports in the Dutch Republic B) at ports along the western coast of Africa C) by capturing people in the interior of Africa D) at ports along the eastern coast of Africa Answer: B 37) The abolition of slavery in the British Empire illustrates the close tie between _______. A) slavery and sugar B) abolitionism and the Catholic Church C) imperialism and slavery D) Britain and Brazil Answer: A 38) The movement to end the European slave trade ________. A) was widely resisted throughout Europe B) was led by religious leaders in Great Britain, Spain, and Portugal C) resulted in the abolition of slavery in Brazil by 1800 D) was rooted in ideas of equality among the races Answer: B 39) The Zong case focused on what question? A) Are slaves commodities? B) Should slavery be abolished? C) Is the slave trade humane? D) Is slavery profitable? Answer: A 40) Mestizos in Latin America illustrate which of these trends? A) Intermarriage between racial groups was common in Latin America. B) Slavery had disappeared in Latin America by 1800. C) Most Spanish and Portuguese immigrants to Latin America came with their families. D) Life expectancy was low for European immigrants in Latin America. Answer: A 41) The Europeans in Asia during the 1700s ________. A) outnumbered the indigenous populations everywhere but India B) acquired territories piecemeal C) completely controlled the native populations of China D) found that military conquest was easy in all parts of Asia Answer: B 42) The role of the British East India Company in India in the 1700s indicates that what the British initially wanted in India was ________. A) to trade B) land for settlements C) laborers D) naval bases Answer: A 43) Which of these is illustrated by Map 18.5 “The Sequence of British Territorial Acquisitions in India”? A) British control was exercised haphazardly. B) British control moved from south to north. C) British control moved from the coasts inland D) British control moved from Calicut to the rest of the subcontinent. Answer: A 44) The revolt in Haiti differed from the revolt in America because it ________. A) was a social and economic as well as a political revolution B) was only a political revolution C) was unsuccessful D) solidified the plantation system and the use of slavery in Haiti Answer: A 45) The United Irishmen were stronger than earlier similar groups in Ireland because the United Irishmen _______. A) represented a broader group of Irish B) were better armed C) supported by American revolutionaries D) drew on the Irish Catholic community Answer: A 46) The main grievance that led to Latin American independence movements was _________ in nature. A) political B) economic C) social D) religious Answer: A 47) Spain’s loss of most of its New World empire was triggered by ________. A) European conflicts B) economic decline C) Indian uprisings D) religious conflicts Answer: A 48) Which of these most rivaled Britain for establishing trade around the world? A) the Dutch B) Spain C) France D) Portugal Answer: A 49) The greatest driving force in the slave trade was ________. A) the plantation economy B) colonial demand C) the growth manufacturing D) state-sponsored programs Answer: A 50) Unlike the American and Latin American revolutions, the Haitian independence movement was motivated by ________. A) racial conflict B) creole discontent C) economic disparities D) the desire for political representation Answer: A Essay 51) How and why did European countries establish empires in the years between 1650 and 1815? Answer: During the period from 1650 to 1815, European countries established empires primarily through exploration, trade, and conquest. They sought wealth, resources, strategic advantages, and religious conversion. Technological advancements in navigation and military power enabled them to expand into Asia, Africa, and the Americas, exploiting local populations and economies to enrich themselves and expand their influence globally. 52) What do you consider the most important developments in warfare in the 1700s? Use specific examples to support your answer. Answer: In the 1700s, several important developments in warfare significantly impacted military strategies and tactics: 1. Linear Warfare and Infantry Tactics: The evolution of linear tactics, where infantry fought in tight formations, became prevalent. This was exemplified by the development of the infantry line and column formations used extensively by European armies. For example, the Prussian Army under Frederick the Great refined these tactics, emphasizing disciplined volleys and maneuvers to maintain cohesion and firepower. 2. Artillery Advancements: The 1700s saw significant advancements in artillery technology and tactics. Smoothbore cannons became more accurate and were used in coordinated barrages to soften enemy positions before infantry assaults. The Austrian Army, under Prince Eugene of Savoy, demonstrated the effectiveness of combined arms tactics involving infantry, cavalry, and artillery in battles like the Battle of Blenheim (1704). 3. Naval Warfare: The 1700s witnessed the rise of powerful navies and naval warfare tactics. The British Royal Navy, for instance, emphasized ship-of-the-line tactics, where heavily armed ships formed lines of battle to engage enemy fleets. The Battle of Trafalgar (1805), where Admiral Nelson employed innovative tactics such as the "Nelson Touch" to break the enemy line, exemplifies these developments. 4. Military Engineering: Advances in military engineering, particularly in fortifications and siege warfare, were crucial. The French military engineer, Marshal Vauban, revolutionized siege tactics with his polygonal fortifications that enhanced defensive capabilities while facilitating counter-attacks against besieging forces. 5. Professionalization of Armies: The 1700s marked a shift towards more professional standing armies rather than relying on mercenaries. This led to improved discipline, training, and organization, which were evident in the armies of Frederick the Great of Prussia and the reforms of Maurice de Saxe in France. These developments in warfare during the 1700s laid the groundwork for the military strategies and technologies that would shape the subsequent centuries, influencing the conduct of wars and the outcomes of battles across Europe and beyond. 53) What were the most important factors in the growth of the Atlantic slave trade, especially after 1650? Answer: The most important factors in the growth of the Atlantic slave trade after 1650 include: 1. Demand for Labor: The expansion of sugar, tobacco, and cotton plantations in the Americas created a massive demand for labor, which slave traders from Europe supplied. 2. Triangular Trade: The development of the triangular trade route between Europe, Africa, and the Americas facilitated the exchange of goods for slaves, enhancing profitability and efficiency. 3. Colonial Economies: The profitability of slave-based economies in the Americas incentivized European powers to increase their involvement in the slave trade to meet labor demands. 4. Legal and Political Support: European governments and colonial authorities enacted laws and policies that supported and protected the slave trade, ensuring its continuation and profitability. 5. Technological Advancements: Improvements in ship design and navigation, such as the development of the triangular sail and the use of navigational instruments, enabled more efficient transportation of slaves across the Atlantic Ocean. 54) How did Europeans view Asia between 1650 and 1850? Did their view of Asians change in this period? Why? Answer: Between 1650 and 1850, Europeans generally viewed Asia with a mix of fascination, admiration for its wealth and culture, and a sense of superiority. Initially, Europeans admired Asian goods, such as spices, silk, and porcelain, which were highly valued in European markets. However, as European colonial powers gained dominance in parts of Asia through trade and conquest, their views of Asians often shifted towards stereotypes of exoticism, mysticism, and sometimes inferiority, influenced by colonial attitudes and racial hierarchies that emerged during this period. 55) What were the key commonalities and differences between the Atlantic revolutions? How do you explain these similarities and differences? Answer: The key commonalities among the Atlantic revolutions (American, French, Haitian) include a shared desire for liberty, equality, and democracy, driven by Enlightenment ideas challenging monarchical authority and colonial rule. Differences lie in their social and economic contexts: the American Revolution focused on independence from British rule and political rights, the French Revolution sought to overthrow monarchy and achieve broader societal change, while the Haitian Revolution aimed at abolishing slavery and achieving racial equality. These variations reflect unique local conditions, colonial dynamics, and societal structures influencing their goals and outcomes. Chapter 19: Eighteenth-Century Society and Culture Multiple Choice 1) The nobility are distinguished from other social groups because of their ________. A) hereditary titles B) great wealth C) landholdings D) political power Answer: A 2) The nobility of the robe were _______ than older noble families. A) newer B) poorer C) more wealthy D) more likely to be military leaders Answer: A 3) What did the aristocratic nobleman Charles Townshend develop? A) a new crop rotation B) the seed drill C) the steel plough D) the steam engine Answer: A 4) What was the style of art and architecture favored by the European aristocracy in the 1700s? A) romantic B) neoclassical C) baroque D) Mannerist Answer: B 5) Where did the largest peasant rebellion in eastern Europe occur prior to 1789? A) Russia B) Poland C) Transylvania D) Hungary Answer: A 6) The bourgeoisie were always ________. A) urban B) peasants C) professionals D) craftsmen Answer: A 7) Which of these was the dominant intellectual movement of the eighteenth century? A) the Enlightenment B) romanticism C) deism D) the Scientific Revolution Answer: A 8) The philosophes are defined as _______. A) Enlightenment philosophers and writers B) political philosophers C) radical Enlightenment intellectuals D) atheists of the Enlightenment period Answer: A 9) Who wrote The Wealth of Nations? A) Adam Smith B) David Hume C) John Locke D) Thomas Hobbes Answer: A 10) David Hume’s An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding introduced new ideas about ________. A) the reliability of our senses B) the nature of God C) the role of the Church D) democratic institutions Answer: A 11) Cesare Beccaria worked in what field? A) criminal justice B) astronomy C) urban development D) law Answer: A 12) Voltaire’s Philosophical Dictionary was targeted at what European institution? A) established religion B) slavery C) nobility D) monarchy Answer: A 13) The author of Candide was ________. A) Voltaire B) John Locke C) René Descartes D) Jean Racine Answer: A 14) Who was the most influential political writer during the Enlightenment? A) Baron d’Holbach B) Immanuel Kant C) Baron de Montesquieu D) Voltaire Answer: C 15) Who wrote Spirit of the Laws? A) Montesquieu B) Voltaire C) Jean-Jacques Rousseau D) David Hume Answer: A 16) The author of The Social Contract was ________. A) Jean-Jacques Rousseau B) Voltaire C) Blaise Pascal D) John Locke Answer: A 17) In Common Sense, Thomas Paine argued for ________. A) American independence B) protest against the Stamp Act C) a tea boycott D) a democratic government Answer: A 18) Who wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Woman? A) Mary Wollstonecraft B) the Marquis de Condorcet C) Jean-Jacques Rousseau D) Madame du Châtelet Answer: A 19) The writings of the Marquis de Sade are an example of eighteenth-century ________. A) erotic literature B) drama C) poetry D) political writing Answer: A 20) The most famous work of Denis Diderot was _______. A) the Encyclopedia B) The Rights of Man C) Progress of the Human Mind D) Discourse on the Origin of Inequality Among Men Answer: A 21) What was the one area where women were the equal of men during the Enlightenment? A) the salon B) the library C) Church D) literacy Answer: A 22) Mesmerism was a popular ________ of the eighteenth century. A) pseudoscience B) religious movement C) political club D) spiritualist movement Answer: A 23) The political order of the Old Regime was based on ________. A) monarchies B) republics C) tyranny D) the popular will Answer: A 24) Which of these was an important Austrian ruler and proponent of the Enlightenment? A) Maria Theresa B) Frederick William C) Louis XIV D) Catherine II Answer: A 25) Which of these rulers was the greatest Russian Enlightenment ruler? A) Catherine II B) Peter the Great C) Elizabeth D) Frederick William Answer: A 26) Unlike the nobility, the aristocracy _______. A) included those without titles B) inherited their wealth and position C) were leaders of their society D) were generally wealthy Answer: A 27) The French nobility of the robe illustrates what characteristic of European nobility? A) The European nobility was not a closed caste. B) The only way to become a noble was by birth. C) Nobility was not always aristocracy. D) Most nobles were among the wealthiest members of their society. Answer: A 28) Compared to the rest of Europe, the nobility of Poland was ________. A) disproportionately large B) very small C) much poorer D) better educated Answer: A 29) The wealth of the aristocracy was rooted in ________. A) the land B) foreign investments C) their titles D) the Church Answer: A 30) Looking at the table “Size of the Aristocracy in European States in the Eighteenth Century,” which of these was true? A) Austria had a relatively small noble population. B) Sweden had the fewest nobles of any state. C) Russia had the largest proportion of nobles to the general population. D) The proportion of nobles to commoners was about the same in Spain and France. Answer: A 31) During the 1700s, the relationship between the aristocracy and the peasantry ________. A) improved as more and more peasants were able to buy their own land B) declined as more and more peasants lost their land C) narrowed as more and more peasants married into the aristocracy D) improved as the cultural ties between the two groups narrowed Answer: B 32) Generally, outbreaks of rural violence in western Europe before 1789________. A) were small but commonplace and widespread B) were isolated and local C) would generally spread into the cities D) included numerous large-scale rebellions Answer: B 33) The main criteria distinguishing the bourgeoisie from nobles and peasants lay in _______. A) where they lived B) who their employer was C) what they did D) what they believed Answer: A 34) Looking at Map 19.1, “The European Enlightenment,” it is clear that _______. A) no one country monopolized the Enlightenment B) the Enlightenment was essentially a French phenomenon C) the Enlightenment was strongest in eastern Europe D) Protestant countries dominated in Enlightenment thought Answer: A 35) In The Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith argued that ________. A) capitalism was inferior to socialism B) natural laws controlled the economy C) capitalism was an economic system unique to western Europe D) the human mind began as a blank slate Answer: B 36) David Hume argued that human beings ________. A) did possess innate truths about God B) are born without instinctive ideas C) confirmed their innate understanding about God by reading the scriptures D) possessed both innate and learned truths about God Answer: B 37) For Montesquieu, the way to avoid tyranny was to ________. A) balance government institutions B) implement democracy C) eliminate monarchies D) empower the bourgeoisie Answer: A 38) For Montesquieu, what was the main characteristic of good government? A) moderation B) noble purpose C) equity D) justice Answer: A 39) In The Social Contract, Rousseau ________. A) called for a balance of powers in government B) advocated the idea of the General Will C) maintained that humans agree to live in civil society D) argued that each person should “cultivate his or her garden” Answer: B 40) Unlike his contemporaries, Voltaire and Diderot, Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a(n) ________. A) forerunner of the romantic movement B) philosophe C) Enlightenment thinker D) French intellectual Answer: A 41) Rousseau’s writings strongly reflected which of these? A) the bourgeois critique of the aristocracy B) the influence of the Scientific Revolution C) neoclassicism D) the Enlightenment faith in human progress Answer: A 42) Which of these men was influential in applying the ideas of the philosophes to the American independence movement? A) Thomas Paine B) Samuel Adams C) George Washington D) the Marquis de Condorcet Answer: A 43) The notion of separate spheres could be a step backwards in ________. A) the scope of women’s public roles B) women’s legal rights C) women’s spiritual lives D) the role of women in the domestic arena Answer: A 44) Enlightenment philosophes most commonly argued that women ________. A) were equal to men B) and men were different and operated in separate spheres C) should be allowed to vote D) were biologically different from men but were political equals to men Answer: B 45) The Encyclopedia can be considered both ________ the Enlightenment. A) a product of and pinnacle of B) the beginning and end of C) a critique and vindication of D) the greatest and most influential work of Answer: A 46) The freemasons ________. A) opposed the ideas of the Enlightenment B) supported the absolute monarchs of Europe C) could be considered Enlightenment radicals D) first developed in Russia and Poland Answer: C 47) What was Joseph II’s most notable Enlightened reform? A) the abolition of judicial torture B) a new law code C) toleration of other religions, including the Jews D) toleration of all other religions except Judaism Answer: C 48) The Spanish hidalgos illustrate which of these characteristics of the European nobility? A) Not all nobles were wealthy. B) They were a large and prosperous group. C) Nobles and aristocrats were the same people. D) All aristocrats joined the group by birth. Answer: A 49) Most of the philosophes were ________. A) deists B) Catholics C) Protestants D) atheists Answer: A 50) The greatest challenge to Catherine the Great’s reforms came from the Russian ________. A) nobles B) peasants C) clergy D) bourgeoisie Answer: A Essay 51) Who were the aristocrats of Europe in the 1700s, and how did they exercise influence? Answer: In the 1700s, the aristocrats of Europe were typically nobles who held hereditary titles and land. They exercised influence through political power, control of resources (such as land and wealth), social prestige, and often held positions in government, the military, or the clergy. They formed the elite class, shaping laws, policies, and societal norms through their control of institutions and patronage networks. 52) Compare developments among the peasantry and bourgeoisie in the eighteenth century. How did developments in the aristocracy impact these two groups? Answer: In the 18th century, the peasantry experienced increasing land consolidation and taxation burdens, leading to social unrest and occasional revolts. The bourgeoisie, or middle class, saw economic growth through trade, industry, and professions, gaining wealth and influence. Developments in the aristocracy, such as land reforms and patronage, affected both groups: peasants faced stricter control and economic hardship, while the bourgeoisie gained opportunities but often faced restrictions on political power and social mobility imposed by the aristocracy. 53) What was the relationship between the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment? How did these two movements differ? Answer: The Scientific Revolution (16th-17th centuries) focused on empirical inquiry and discovery, challenging traditional beliefs with experimentation and observation. The Enlightenment (18th century) built upon this by emphasizing reason, individualism, and skepticism of authority, aiming to reform society and government through rational thought and secularism. While the Scientific Revolution advanced scientific knowledge, the Enlightenment sought broader social and political change, advocating for liberty, equality, and progress through reason and education. 54) Who were the enlightened despots? How and why did they try to enact enlightened policies in their states? Answer: Enlightened despots were absolute monarchs in the 18th century who adopted Enlightenment ideas to reform their states. Examples include Frederick the Great of Prussia, Catherine the Great of Russia, and Joseph II of Austria. They aimed to modernize administration, promote education, and improve the lives of their subjects through legal and social reforms. These rulers believed enlightened policies would strengthen their states economically and politically while enhancing their own legitimacy and power. 55) What was the relationship between Enlightenment thought and the Old Regime? Were Enlightenment ideas and monarchy compatible? Answer: Enlightenment thought challenged the Old Regime's traditional authority and hierarchical social structure by advocating for reason, individual rights, and the separation of church and state. While Enlightenment ideas promoted ideals like liberty and equality, they often clashed with absolute monarchy's centralized power and aristocratic privilege. Some monarchs, like the enlightened despots, attempted to integrate Enlightenment principles into governance to maintain control and legitimacy, but the compatibility varied widely depending on the ruler's willingness to reform and the extent of societal resistance to change. Chapter 20: The Age of the French Revolution, 1789–1815 Multiple Choice 1) What were the three divisions of the Estates General? A) the king, the nobility, and the commoners B) the king, the nobility, and the Church C) the nobility, the bourgeoisie, and the peasants D) the clergy, the nobility, and the commoners Answer: D 2) The Third Estate represented about what percentage of the French population? A) 96 percent B) 23 percent C) 78 percent D) 53 percent Answer: A 3) The sans-culottes were ________ in the French Revolution. A) militant Parisians B) moderate republicans C) followers of the Jacobins D) royalists Answer: A 4) In 1792, the French Legislative Assembly declared war on what nation? A) Austria B) Britain C) the Holy Roman Empire D) Spain Answer: A 5) Under the National Convention, the suffrage was extended in France to ________. A) all adult males B) all adults C) property-owning adult males D) all French citizens Answer: A 6) The Girondins were members of the _______. A) Jacobins B) First Estate C) Mountain D) sans-culottes Answer: A 7) Who was the most prominent leader of the Montagnards? A) Maximilien Robespierre B) Jacques Brissot C) Marquis de Lafayette D) Abbé Sieyès Answer: A 8) Napoleon Bonaparte made his military reputation during ________. A) the Battle of Valmy B) in his defense of the Tuilieries Palace in 1792 C) during the campaigns in Italy in 1796-1797 D) at the Battle of Austerlitz in 1805 Answer: C 9) Who was the most prominent leader of the Reign of Terror? A) Maximilien Robespierre B) the Marquis of Condorcet C) Georges-Jacques Danton D) Jacques-Pierre Brissot Answer: A 10) The White Terror was a reaction to the ________. A) Reign of Terror B) emergence of the Jacobins C) outbreak of the French Revolution D) defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo Answer: A 11) The Directory was a government headed by ________. A) five men B) a consul C) an emperor D) the Legislative Assembly Answer: A 12) Who was the most famous painter of the French Revolution? A) Jacques-Louis David B) Jean-Honoré Fragonard C) François Boucher D) George-Jacques Danton Answer: A 13) The Louvre, created in 1793, was formerly a _________. A) royal palace B) prison C) church D) military depot Answer: A 14) Which of these items of clothing became popular in France in the course of the revolution? A) long trousers B) breeches C) powdered wigs D) ruffled coats Answer: A 15) Which of these events became the center of national celebrations after 1789? A) the fall of the Bastille B) the end of the Reign of Terror C) the execution of Louis XVI D) the death of Marat Answer: A 16) In the new revolutionary calendar, what were the names of the months based on? A) Republican military victories B) the leaders of the Committee of Public Safety C) the seasons D) classical gods and goddesses Answer: C 17) The Cult of the Supreme Being was inaugurated by ________. A) Maximilien Robespierre B) Napoleon Bonaparte C) Louis XVIII D) Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès Answer: A 18) Why was the Popular and Republican Society of the Arts given its new name? A) to erase traces of royal patronage B) to underline the importance of neoclassicism C) to placate the Girondins D) in response to the beginning of the revolutionary wars Answer: A 19) What was the Concordat? A) Napoleon’s agreement with the Catholic Church B) Napoleon’s civil law code C) Napoleon’s agreement to end his war with England D) a special economic system designed to destroy the British economy Answer: A 20) The Peninsular War involved ________. A) Napoleon’s attempts to invade England B) Napoleon’s war in Italy C) Napoleon’s conquest of Spain D) Prussian attempts to conquer Italy Answer: C 21) Napoleon was forced to offer his first abdication ________. A) after allied forces took Paris in 1814 B) when the Russians defeated him at Moscow C) after his defeat at the Battle of Ulm D) after his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo Answer: A 22) Who headed the new French government after Napoleon’s abdication in 1814? A) Napoleon’s brother, Joseph B) Napoleon’s son, the King of Rome C) Louis XVIII D) Count Talleyrand Answer: C 23) Which general defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo? A) the Duke of Wellington B) the Duc d'Enghien C) Horatio Nelson D) General Kutuzov Answer: A 24) Which two principles guided the delegates at the Congress of Vienna? A) dynastic legitimacy and the balance of power B) the balance of power and equality before the law C) equality before the law and rational administration D) the balance of power and de-Christianization Answer: A 25) About how many French soldiers died between 1792 and 1802? A) 150,000 B) 1.5 million C) 15,000 D) 1,500 Answer: B 26) France went into debt before 1789 partially because the ________. A) king supported the American War of Independence B) king supported the British in Europe C) king renovated the Bastille D) queen built an expensive new palace at Versailles Answer: A 27) Why was the king forced to call the Estates General in 1789? A) France was bankrupt. B) He wanted to enact Enlightenment reforms. C) The sans-culottes had stormed the Bastille. D) The peasants had initiated the Great Fear. Answer: A 28) Why did the Third Estate declare itself a National Assembly? A) The king had agreed to serve as a constitutional monarch. B) The question over voting at the Estates General was resolved in favor of the nobility and clergy. C) They were joined by the other two estates. D) They were responding to the Tennis Court Oath. Answer: B 29) Why did Parisian workers storm the Bastille in July 1789? A) They wanted to free the hundreds of prisoners in the building. B) They wanted to find food. C) They were afraid of government reprisals. D) They wanted to seize all of the gold and jewels held there. Answer: C 30) After the fall of the Bastille, the peasants in the countryside A) joined the nobility in an attempt to end the rebellion in Paris. B) were convinced that the nobility were plotting to starve them. C) rushed to Paris to support the sans-culottes. D) did nothing. Answer: B 31) Compared to their role later in the Revolution, the march of women to Versailles in 1789 was _______. A) unusual B) typical C) unique D) just the beginning Answer: A 32) The Jacobins were political ________. A) moderates who supported a constitutional monarchy B) conservatives who wanted to return the king to absolute power C) radicals who helped establish the French Republic D) extremists who advocated an early form of communism Answer: C 33) The Austrian and Prussian declaration of war on the French Republic had the effect of ________ the revolution. A) increasing support in France for B) slowing down the pace of C) adding international support to D) launching Answer: A 34) The Reign of Terror emerged in the context of _______. A) the broadening European war B) the outbreak of the French Revolution C) the declaration of the National Assembly D) Napoleon’s rise to power Answer: A 35) The Directory ________. A) simply reestablished the constitutional monarchy in France B) retained the Committee of Public Safety C) was controlled by a single legislative assembly D) restricted the power of most French citizens Answer: D 36) What were the main dilemmas that confronted the leaders of the Directory? A) ongoing war and economic instability B) internal Jacobin revolts and the attacks of the Church C) cultural and social conservatism D) the use of assignats and the revolt of the Jacobins Answer: A 37) The Consulate established in 1799________. A) signaled the return of constitutional monarchy in France B) was simply a renaming of the Directory C) signaled an end to the Republic in France D) marked the continuation of the Republic in France Answer: C 38) The Louvre Museum was opened as a ________. A) mausoleum of the Old Regime B) museum to feature contemporary artists C) tribute to the French Revolution D) temple of reason Answer: A 39) The temples of reason were examples of what development of the French Revolution? A) de-Christianization B) the creation of the Directory C) the White Terror D) the outbreak of the Revolution Answer: A 40) Napoleon came to power through his _________. A) military leadership B) political career C) leadership of the sans-culottes D) family background Answer: A 41) The career of Napoleon most resembles the career of ________. A) Augustus B) Louis XVI C) Charlemagne D) Peter the Great Answer: A 42) The prefects ________. A) had power just like the power of the old intendants B) enjoyed the authority to maintain public order and collect taxes C) simply served as mayors of the various communes D) did not have any power over conscription Answer: B 43) Looking at Map 20.1, “French Departments during the Revolution,” it appears that the main consideration in redrawing the French map was ________. A) a rational division of power B) medieval political divisions C) to create strong border regions D) a concern for aristocratic privilege Answer: A 44) Napoleon’s meritocracy was a continuation of what revolutionary principle? A) critique of aristocratic privilege B) secularization C) opposition to elite culture D) support for violence Answer: A 45) How did the Russian military react to Napoleon's invasion of Russia? A) They immediately stood and defended Russia. B) They retreated and practiced a scorched-earth policy. C) They surrendered after Napoleon conquered Moscow. D) They agreed to a long-term policy of alliance. Answer: B 46) The French Constitutional Charter ________. A) reestablished an absolute monarchy in France B) retained many of the political and social gains of the French Revolution C) ended religious toleration D) called for Napoleon's execution Answer: B 47) Arguably, the most enduring legacy of the French Revolution was in the sphere of _______. A) human rights B) religion C) international law D) military strategy Answer: A 48) The beginning phase of the French Revolution was led by the ________. A) bourgeoisie B) aristocracy C) church D) sans-culottes Answer: A 49) The Directory and Consulate continued a trend of ________ during the French Revolution. A) concentrating power in fewer and fewer hands B) expanding the franchise C) radicalization D) secularization Answer: A 50) Looking at David’s Emperor Napoleon Crowning His Wife, Josephine, which of these is illustrated? A) Napoleon rejected many of the fundamental principles of the revolution. B) The coronations were a culmination of the French Revolution. C) The coronations embodied many of the revolution’s principles. D) Napoleon continued the revolution’s stance towards established religion. Answer: A Essay 51) Distinguish between the long-term and short-term causes of the French Revolution. How did they come together under the leadership of Louis XVI? Answer: The French Revolution had both long-term and short-term causes. Long-term causes included social inequality, financial instability due to debt, and Enlightenment ideas challenging the monarchy. Short-term causes involved economic crises, food shortages, and Louis XVI's weak leadership. Louis XVI's indecisiveness and failure to address these issues exacerbated tensions, leading to the Revolution's outbreak in 1789 as grievances boiled over into widespread unrest and demands for change. 52) Identify the most important causes or actors that influenced the shifts in the direction of the French Revolution from 1792 to 1799. Did these influences reinforce or work against each other? Answer: The most important influences on the direction of the French Revolution from 1792 to 1799 were: 1. Radicalization: Influence of radical political factions like the Jacobins pushing for more extensive reforms and the overthrow of the monarchy. 2. War: External conflicts intensified revolutionary fervor and provided opportunities for radical leaders like Robespierre to consolidate power. 3. Economic Instability: Continued economic challenges fueled social unrest and demands for change. These influences often reinforced each other, as war and economic instability bolstered radical political factions seeking transformative change. However, they also worked against each other at times, particularly during periods of internal conflict and power struggles among revolutionary leaders. 53) What was the Reign of Terror? How may we explain its success in France in 1793–1794? Answer: The Reign of Terror (1793-1794) was a period during the French Revolution characterized by mass executions and suppression of dissent under the leadership of the Committee of Public Safety, particularly Maximilien Robespierre. It aimed to eliminate perceived enemies of the revolution and consolidate power. Its success can be explained by: 1. Internal Threats: Fear of counter-revolutionary movements and foreign invasion led to support for drastic measures to maintain order. 2. Robespierre's Leadership: Robespierre's influence and rhetoric convinced many that harsh measures were necessary to protect the revolution. 3. Political Climate: Revolutionary fervor and the desire for radical change created a receptive environment for extreme measures. These factors combined to justify and sustain the Reign of Terror despite its brutality and eventual backlash. 54) What were the key cultural changes in France during the revolutionary period? Answer: Key cultural changes in France during the revolutionary period included: 1. Secularization: Promotion of reason over religious authority, leading to the de-Christianization movement and adoption of a new Revolutionary Calendar. 2. Nationalism: Emphasis on the nation-state and French identity, promoted through symbols like the tri-color flag and revolutionary anthems. 3. Cultural Revolution: Efforts to create a new republican culture, including festivals celebrating revolutionary ideals and the arts promoting patriotism. 4. Language: Simplification of language and promotion of a more accessible and inclusive French language. These changes aimed to break with the past and establish a new cultural and national identity aligned with revolutionary principles. 55) Do you think Napoleon is best understood as a military dictator? Why or why not? Answer: Napoleon is not solely best understood as a military dictator. While his military conquests and centralized rule reflect dictatorial tendencies, his reforms in law, education, and infrastructure aimed to modernize France and its conquered territories. His legacy blends military prowess with administrative and legal reforms, shaping both military strategy and governance in Europe. Test Bank for West: Encounters and Transformations Brian Levack, Edward Muir, Meredith Veldman 9780205968374, 9780134229270

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