Preview (12 of 40 pages)

Preview Extract

This Document Contains Chapters 15 to 17 Chapter 15: The Age of Confessional Division Multiple Choice 1) During the period known as the “long sixteenth century,” the European population ________. A) continued to decline across Europe B) grew in southern Europe but declined in northern Europe C) began to grow consistently across Europe D) grew everywhere in Europe except France Answer: C 2) Which country had the largest population in Europe by 1600? A) France B) England C) Germany D) Spain Answer: A 3) Prices in Europe after the 1550s ________. A) started falling B) rose consistently for a century C) remained stable D) showed periods of deflation and inflation until 1600 Answer: B 4) Goods with inelastic demand are those for which ________. A) demand remains constant B) demand remains low C) no demand exists D) demand remains high Answer: A 5) A confession is a ________. A) group of people that share a religious ideology B) church C) religious doctrine D) group of church leaders Answer: A 6) Families in northwestern Europe tended to be ______ than those in southern Europe. A) smaller B) younger C) more frequent churchgoers D) better educated Answer: A 7) Catholic families in this period tended to be ________ than Protestant families. A) larger B) nuclear C) more devout D) wealthier Answer: A 8) On Disciplining Children: How the Disobedient, Evil, and Corrupted Youth of These Anxious Last Days Can Be Bettered was a ________ treatise. A) Calvinist B) Lutheran C) Catholic D) Quaker Answer: A 9) Maleficia was ________. A) using magic to do harm B) devil-worship C) natural magic D) spiritualism Answer: A 10) About half of the witchcraft trials between 1450 and 1750 were in ________. A) Italy B) France C) England D) the Holy Roman Empire Answer: D 11) About what percent of accused witches were women? A) 80 percent B) 20 percent C) 100 percent D) 40 percent Answer: A 12) Calvinism was particularly popular among the French ________. A) peasantry B) nobility C) urban workers D) seafarers Answer: B 13) The French Wars of Religion ended when ________. A) Henry IV converted to Catholicism B) Catherine de Medici had Henry IV murdered C) the Duke of Guise became the king of France D) the Huguenots moved to the New World Answer: A 14) The Edict of Nantes ________. A) expelled the French Huguenots from France B) allowed the French Huguenots a degree of independence in France C) required the French Huguenots to convert to Catholicism D) allowed the French Huguenots to serve in the royal court Answer: B 15) The European royal family who most supported the Catholic Church during the 1500s was the ________ family. A) Bourbon B) Tudor C) Habsburg D) Hohenzollern Answer: C 16) The Spanish Armada ________. A) was a costly failure for Philip II of Spain B) led to Philip II's marriage to Mary I of England C) led to the reconversion of England to Catholicism D) defeated the Ottomans at Lepanto Answer: A 17) The Dutch Revolt was an uprising against _______ rule. A) Spanish B) British C) German D) French Answer: A 18) Who was the most famous French essayist during the 1500s? A) François Rabelais B) Michel de Montaigne C) Voltaire D) Theodore de Beza Answer: B 19) Who was the greatest Spanish literary figure of the 1500s? A) Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra B) Luís Vaz de Camões C) Philip II D) El Cid Answer: A 20) Who is the most prominent writer of the Elizabethan Renaissance? A) John Dryden B) Edmund Spenser C) Sir Philip Sidney D) William Shakespeare Answer: D 21) What disease did several members of the Habsburg royal family suffer from? A) tuberculosis B) leprosy C) mental illness D) syphilis Answer: C 22) Poland legally merged with which state in 1569? A) Russia B) Prussia C) Lithuania D) Estonia Answer: C 23) Which of these was the state most tolerant of religious diversity? A) Poland-Lithuania B) the Holy Roman Empire C) the Habsburg Empire D) Spain Answer: A 24) The boyars were Russian ________. A) nobles B) peasants C) communes D) pioneers Answer: A 25) Russia’s “Time of Troubles” ended with ________. A) the death of Ivan the Terrible B) Russia’s decision to merge with Poland C) a formal alliance with Sweden in 1613 D) the election of the Tsar Michael Romanov in 1613 Answer: D 26) The assassination of William the Silent in 1584 was significant because ________. A) he was the first leader of the Netherlands ever assassinated B) his killer was motivated by religious rather than political reasons C) his killer was his successor D) his death began the Thirty Years’ War Answer: B 27) Different types of Christianity in the 1500s were called confessions because ________. A) penance was a large part of Christian expression in this period B) each type of Christianity followed its own statement of faith C) the Protestant denominations followed the dictum to “confess your sins to each other.” D) converts from Catholicism to Protestantism had to renounce the sacrament of penance Answer: B 28) Looking at Figure 15.1, “European Population in Millions,” what is marked by the year 1400? A) recovery from famine and the plague B) the beginning of the highest mortality from the plague C) the end of the Wars of Religion D) the beginning of the Protestant Reformation Answer: D 29) Population growth during the 1500s can be explained primarily by ________. A) the end of religious warfare B) the disappearance of epidemic diseases C) improved medical techniques D) the emergence of commercial agriculture in parts of Europe Answer: D 30) Those who were designated the “dishonest” poor were assumed to be _______. A) lazy B) as worthy of support as the “honest” poor C) uneducated D) foreigners Answer: A 31) Most historians agree that the Price Revolution was primarily caused by ________. A) population growth B) excess money in circulation C) religious wars in Europe D) continued epidemic disease that disrupted supplies of goods Answer: A 32) Southern European marriage practices tended to promote ________. A) patriarchy B) gender equality C) small households D) early marriage Answer: A 33) Protestant middle-class children in the early modern period were ________. A) expected to be raised by their mothers alone B) considered naturally good C) spoiled and rarely disciplined by both of their parents D) subject to strict discipline Answer: D 34) The Calvinist view of children was rooted in the idea that ________. A) children are naturally good and don’t need discipline B) children are naturally evil and must be disciplined C) the mother must discipline her child D) discipline could break a child’s independence and must be used sparingly Answer: B 35) As a form of punishment, the auto-da-fé stood out because it was ________. A) public B) based on shame C) usually applied to women D) so rarely used Answer: A 36) Alchemy is an example of _______. A) natural magic B) diabolism C) maleficia D) demonic magic Answer: A 37) Diabolism is an example of ________. A) demonic magic B) natural magic C) maleficia D) alchemy Answer: A 38) Witchcraft trials in the early modern period ________. A) occurred just as frequently and steadily as trials for other crimes B) were ended when it became clear that accusations were random and unchecked C) were not as common in this period as during the Middle Ages D) were usually directed at unwed men Answer: B 39) In France, religious conflict was exacerbated by ________. A) political divisions B) economic crisis C) invasion D) the Black Death Answer: A 40) The French Wars of Religion ended in 1598 with a _______. A) compromise B) Catholic victory C) Huguenot victory D) decision to expel the Huguenots Answer: B 41) Philip II strengthened the Spanish Inquisition in the Netherlands because he wanted to ________. A) investigate Jews living in the Netherlands B) expel suspected witches from the Netherlands C) find and punish Dutch Protestants D) assist the Prince of Orange, William the Silent Answer: C 42) The Dutch Revolt was a(n) ________. A) independence movement inspired by religious persecution B) religious movement C) secular movement inspired by economic crisis D) commercial revolution Answer: A 43) Which of these trends in European literature reflected the confessional divisions that emerged in the 1500s? A) vernacular literatures B) pilgrimage tales C) essays D) Shakespeare’s dramas Answer: A 44) How was the Holy Roman Empire governed? A) It was a highly centralized empire ruled absolutely by the Holy Roman Emperor. B) It was a loose confederation of many states nominally ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. C) It was presided over by the Imperial Diet with the Emperor serving as a figurehead because the pope really had all the political power. D) It was controlled exclusively by the Imperial Diet. Answer: B 45) Which of these European cities of the 1500s resembled Córdoba under Muslim rule? A) Prague B) Paris C) London D) Rome Answer: A 46) The growth of Catholicism in Poland in the 1500s was primarily a result of ________. A) the Jesuits B) royal intolerance C) opposition to the Holy Roman Emperors D) Habsburg rule Answer: A 47) Which of these helped to elevate the claims of the tsars to prominence in eastern Europe in the fifteenth century? A) the fall of Constantinople B) the boyars C) Mongol rule D) conversion to Orthodoxy Answer: A 48) Looking at Figure 15.2, “European Population, 1500–1600,” which of these patterns is illustrated? A) population growth across Europe B) little population growth in southern Europe C) rapid population growth in Protestant countries D) population decline in western Europe Answer: A 49) Which of these aspects of family life in Europe in the 1500s were generally linked? A) later marriage and smaller households B) small families and Catholicism C) large families and later marriage D) strong patriarchal families and small families Answer: A 50) Unlike France in the same period, Poland-Lithuania in the 1500s experienced ________. A) less religious strife B) population growth C) cultural stagnation D) greater isolation Answer: A Essay 51) What factors led to a population growth in Europe in the sixteenth century, and where did that growth occur? Answer: In the sixteenth century, Europe's population growth was primarily driven by improvements in agricultural productivity, which increased food supply, and a relatively stable political climate that reduced the frequency of wars and conflicts. Additionally, advancements in medicine and hygiene contributed to lower mortality rates. This growth occurred across various regions, notably in Western Europe, including countries like England, France, and the Low Countries (modern-day Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg), as well as parts of Central Europe such as the German states and Poland. 52) How did religious fragmentation in Europe as a consequence of the Protestant Reformation impact European society? Answer: Religious fragmentation due to the Protestant Reformation led to significant societal impacts in Europe, including: 1. Religious Wars: Conflicts like the Thirty Years' War caused widespread devastation and shifts in political power. 2. Cultural Division: Deepened religious divides, fostering distinct Protestant and Catholic regions. 3. Political Changes: Weakened the influence of the Catholic Church and increased the power of secular rulers. 4. Social Change: Encouraged literacy and education, as Protestantism emphasized personal Bible reading. 5. Economic Impact: Altered economic practices and institutions, with Protestant regions often adopting more capitalistic approaches. These changes reshaped Europe's social, political, and economic landscapes. 53) How may we explain the great witch-hunts of the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries? Answer: The great witch-hunts of the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries can be explained by a combination of factors: 1. Religious Tensions: Heightened by the Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter-Reformation, leading to increased suspicion and persecution of perceived heretics. 2. Social Strain: Economic hardship, wars, and social upheaval created scapegoating of marginalized individuals, especially women. 3. Legal Changes: Development of laws and judicial procedures that facilitated witch trials and executions. 4. Superstition and Fear: Widespread belief in witchcraft and the devil, fueled by religious and cultural narratives. 5. Authority and Control: Authorities used witch-hunts to consolidate power and control over communities by eliminating dissenters. These factors combined to create an environment conducive to widespread witch-hunting and persecution. 54) Choose two countries, and compare the impact of confessional division on these countries’ political and cultural development in the 1500s. Answer: Germany: 1. Political Impact: The Holy Roman Empire, composed of numerous semi-autonomous states, experienced significant political fragmentation. The Peace of Augsburg (1555) allowed princes to choose the religion (Catholicism or Lutheranism) of their territories, leading to a patchwork of religiously distinct regions. 2. Cultural Development: Confessional division fostered cultural diversity but also intense conflict, culminating in the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648), which devastated the population and infrastructure. England: 1. Political Impact: The English Reformation under Henry VIII led to the establishment of the Church of England, separating from the Catholic Church. This shift centralized religious and political authority under the monarchy, reducing papal influence and reinforcing royal power. 2. Cultural Development: Confessional division fueled internal conflict, including the persecution of Catholics and the English Civil War (1642-1651). The Reformation also spurred cultural flourishing in literature and the arts, exemplified by the Elizabethan era. In summary, while Germany's confessional division led to political fragmentation and prolonged conflict, England's division centralized power and spurred both cultural and internal political upheaval. 55) How did eastern and western Europe differ in terms of state development and religious divisions in the 1500s? Answer: Western Europe: 1. State Development: Western Europe saw the rise of strong, centralized nation-states, such as France, England, and Spain. Monarchies consolidated power, reduced the influence of the nobility, and established more uniform legal and administrative systems. 2. Religious Divisions: The Protestant Reformation led to significant religious fragmentation. Countries like Germany and Switzerland became religiously diverse, while England and parts of Scandinavia adopted Protestantism. This resulted in religious wars and political conflicts, such as the Thirty Years' War and the English Civil War. Eastern Europe: 1. State Development: Eastern Europe was characterized by less centralized political structures. Large, multi-ethnic empires like the Ottoman Empire, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and the Tsardom of Russia dominated the region. These states often had decentralized governance with significant local autonomy. 2. Religious Divisions: While Eastern Europe was religiously diverse, with significant Orthodox, Catholic, Protestant, and Muslim populations, religious divisions were often less politically destabilizing than in the West. The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, for example, practiced a degree of religious tolerance, allowing for various confessions to coexist relatively peacefully. In summary, Western Europe developed stronger centralized states and faced more intense religious conflicts, while Eastern Europe had more decentralized political structures and relatively less destabilizing religious diversity. Chapter 16: Absolutism and State Building, 1618–1715 Multiple Choice 1) Jean Bodin was a ________. A) political theorist B) seventeenth-century artist C) leader of the Dutch Revolt D) poet Answer: A 2) According to the divine right theory, rulers received their power from ________. A) God B) the papacy C) their faith D) legislatures Answer: A 3) Where did royal absolutism first emerge? A) England and Spain B) France and Spain C) France and Italy D) England and France Answer: B 4) Which French official played the most important role in centralizing the authority of the French monarch? A) the Duke of Sully B) Marie de Medici C) Cardinal Richelieu D) Cardinal Mazarin Answer: C 5) Who succeeded Cardinal Richelieu as minister to the French King? A) the Duke of Sully B) Cardinal Mazarin C) the Duke of Guise D) Marie de Medici Answer: B 6) What was the Fronde? A) a French uprising in the 1640s and 1650s B) a special royal carriage C) an alliance of the nobility with the Bourbon monarchy D) another name for the Parlement of Paris Answer: A 7) Which of these ruled France in the second half of the 1600s? A) Louis XIV B) Catherine de Médicis C) Louis XVI D) Henry IV Answer: A 8) Versailles was built in what architectural style? A) baroque B) neoclassical C) Romanesque D) Gothic Answer: A 9) Jean Racine was a French ________. A) dramatist B) poet C) statesman D) religious leader Answer: A 10) Under Louis XIV, France expanded _______. A) east and north B) across the English Channel C) to the south D) at the expense of Italy Answer: A 11) Which of these was foreshadowed under the Treaty of Ryswick in 1697? A) the notion of the balance of power B) the formation of the United Provinces C) the Wars of Religion D) the Habsburg Empire Answer: A 12) The Spanish minister who helped create a centralized Spanish state in the 1600s was ________. A) Cardinal Richelieu B) the Duke of Sully C) Count-Duke of Olivares D) Diego de Velázquez Answer: C 13) The event that most changed the nature of the Holy Roman Empire was the ________. A) Defenestration of Prague B) War of the Spanish Succession C) Treaty of Ryswick D) Thirty Years’ War Answer: D 14) The Thirty Years’ War was mainly fought in which country? A) France B) Sweden C) Italy D) Germany Answer: D 15) Who were the Junkers? A) foreign mercenaries in the Prussian army B) Prussian peasants who became officers in the Prussian army C) Prussian clergy D) Prussian nobility Answer: D 16) Frederick William I was ruler of ________. A) Prussia B) the Holy Roman Empire C) Russia D) the Dutch Republic Answer: A 17) The Habsburgs ruled ________. A) Austria B) the Holy Roman Empire C) Belgium D) the Netherlands Answer: A 18) Which of these was the Ottoman ruler’s first minister? A) the vizier B) the sultan C) the emir D) the caliph Answer: A 19) Russia began to Westernize during the reign of ________. A) Ivan I B) Peter I C) Catherine II D) Alexander I Answer: B 20) What dynasty was inaugurated under James I? A) Stuart B) Tudor C) Hanoverian D) Orange Answer: A 21) The main opponents of Archbishop Laud were the ________. A) Puritans B) Royalists C) monarchs of England D) Church of England leaders Answer: A 22) The Long Parliament attacked the power of ________. A) the king B) France C) military leaders D) the Puritans Answer: A 23) The government of Oliver Cromwell was the ________. A) protectorate B) republic C) kingdom of England D) Long Parliament Answer: A 24) Who wrote Two Treatises of Government in 1690? A) John Locke B) Jean Bodin C) James I D) Thomas Hobbes Answer: A 25) Hugo Grotius was a scholar in what discipline? A) international law B) Catholic doctrine C) astronomy D) political theory Answer: A 26) Leviathan justified which political theory? A) constitutionalism B) absolutism C) democracy D) republicanism Answer: B 27) Absolutism is best understood as ________. A) a government rooted in the people B) a government by written constitution C) a direct democracy D) the legitimate and total power invested in a single ruler Answer: D 28) Jean Bodin argued that absolutist rulers in the West ________. A) could execute their subjects without due process of law B) could take the property of their subjects whenever they desired C) possessed the power to make law D) were just like the powerful rulers in eastern countries like Russia Answer: C 29) Warfare during the seventeenth century was ________. A) a constant across Europe B) sporadic across Europe C) extensive only during the first half of the century D) commonplace but of little long-term consequence Answer: A 30) Why was the Fronde significant? A) It demonstrated the limits on royal absolutism. B) It demonstrated the ease with which the French monarchs could take over the state. C) It demonstrated the power of the French peasantry. D) It demonstrated the power of the lower middle classes in France. Answer: A 31) The palace of Versailles was an expression of _______. A) royal absolutism B) royal religious authority C) the power of Cardinal Richelieu D) the popularity of the baroque style Answer: A 32) Mercantilism was an economic policy based on ________. A) free trade to encourage industrialization B) high internal tariffs C) a favorable balance of trade D) deficit spending. Answer: C 33) The revocation of the Edict of Nantes was closely related to what other contemporary development in France? A) absolutism B) mercantilism C) republicanism D) religious toleration Answer: A 34) The Académie Française had a great influence through _______. A) control of language B) legislation C) religious uniformity D) patronage of scholars Answer: A 35) In his four wars between the years 1667–1714, Louis XIV fundamentally sought to ________. A) gain territory for France B) convert England to Catholicism C) destroy the Spanish Empire in the New World D) assert French control of the seas Answer: A 36) The status of the Spanish monarchy in the 1600s can be summarized as ________. A) very powerful but losing ground B) weak but growing in power C) weak but gaining territory D) politically powerful but without religious authority Answer: A 37) The Holy Roman Empire before 1648 is best understood as a ________. A) confederation of states controlled by the French monarch B) single unified state in central Europe controlled by the Holy Roman Emperor C) confederation of states in central Europe controlled by the Pope and the Catholic Church D) confederation of states loosely overseen by the Holy Roman Emperor. Answer: D 38) As a consequence of the Treaty of Westphalia, the German states in the Holy Roman Empire ________. A) united to form the German Empire B) divided into sovereign states C) became part of the Austrian Empire D) became part of the Spanish Empire Answer: B 39) The growth of Prussian royal power was dependent on the _______. A) Junkers B) peasants C) Polish and Austrian nobility D) legislature Answer: A 40) Ferdinand II viewed religious diversity as a(n) _______. A) threat to stability B) means of encouraging population growth C) tool to attack the Holy Roman Empire D) inevitable result of ethnic pluralism Answer: A 41) Which European empire did the Ottoman Empire most closely resemble in terms of its international status in the 1600s? A) Austrian Empire B) Holy Roman Empire C) Russian Empire D) Spanish Empire Answer: D 42) Like Versailles, St. Petersburg was built to signal ________. A) a new direction in royal rule B) the accession of a new dynasty C) a new economic policy D) the start of a period of territorial growth Answer: A 43) The English Civil Wars led to the establishment of a(n) ________. A) absolute monarchy B) democracy C) republic D) theocracy Answer: C 44) Which of these emerged most powerful in the struggle that culminated in the Glorious Revolution? A) Parliament B) the English monarchy C) the Stuarts D) Oliver Cromwell Answer: A 45) The great strength of the Dutch Republic in the 1600s was its ________. A) commercial role B) army C) religious leadership D) size Answer: A 46) The religious policy of the Dutch Republic in the seventeenth century ________. A) called for the suppression of Catholicism B) called for the suppression of French Protestantism C) promoted toleration of a wide variety of religious groups, including Jews D) promoted toleration of a wide variety of Christian religious groups, but not Jews Answer: C 47) The painting Syndics of the Clothmakers of Amsterdam reflects the prominence of __________ in the Dutch Republic in the seventeenth century. A) the middle classes B) merchants C) nobles D) lower classes Answer: A 48) Revoking the Edict of Nantes and establishing the Académie Française indicated that Louis XIV wanted to ________. A) impose cultural uniformity on France B) be king of France C) eliminate the Huguenots from France D) establish power over border regions. Answer: A 49) The Holy Roman Emperors emerged from the Thirty Years’ War ________. A) greatly weakened B) strengthened C) with an enormous loss of territory D) without any political authority Answer: A 50) The English Civil Wars were a _________ crisis. A) constitutional and religious B) economic and legal C) religious and nationalist D) economic and constitutional Answer: A Essay 51) What is absolutism? How and why did European monarchs attempt to create absolutist states in the 1600s? Answer: Absolutism is a political doctrine and practice where a monarch holds supreme, centralized power, often justified by the notion of divine right, meaning their authority comes directly from God. In the 1600s, European monarchs attempted to create absolutist states to consolidate power, reduce the influence of nobility and parliaments, and establish strong, centralized administrations. This was driven by the need for more efficient governance, control over military and financial resources, and the desire to maintain order and stability during periods of war and internal strife. Key examples include Louis XIV of France, who famously declared "L'état, c'est moi" ("I am the state"), and Peter the Great of Russia, who modernized the Russian state and reduced the power of traditional elites. 52) What were the tools and methods used by Louis XIV to establish absolutism in France? Answer: Louis XIV used several tools and methods to establish absolutism in France: 1. Centralization of Power: He concentrated political power in his own hands and diminished the power of the nobility by requiring their presence at the Palace of Versailles, where he could monitor and control them. 2. Administrative Reforms: He restructured the government by appointing loyal, professional bureaucrats, often from the bourgeoisie, to key positions, bypassing traditional noble families. 3. Military Control: Louis XIV built a powerful, professional standing army loyal to the crown, reducing the dependence on feudal levies and private armies of the nobility. 4. Economic Policies: His finance minister, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, implemented mercantilist policies to strengthen the economy and increase royal revenues. 5. Religious Uniformity: Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes with the Edict of Fontainebleau, promoting Catholicism and persecuting Protestants to enforce religious unity. 6. Propaganda and Culture: He used art, architecture (such as the construction of Versailles), and ceremonies to glorify the monarchy and promote the image of the king as the absolute ruler. 53) Compare and contrast the absolutist states in France and Spain during the 1600s. What different factors influenced the expansion of royal power in these countries? Answer: In the 1600s, France and Spain both pursued absolutism, but their methods and outcomes differed due to various factors: France: 1. Centralization: Under Louis XIV, France saw strong centralization of power with the king exerting direct control over the government, military, and economy. 2. Economic Strength: Economic policies under Jean-Baptiste Colbert improved France's finances, supporting military expansion and state-building. 3. Nobility: Louis XIV curtailed the power of the nobility by requiring their presence at Versailles and involving them in court life, reducing their political influence. 4. Religious Policies: Religious uniformity was enforced by revoking the Edict of Nantes, which eliminated the rights of Protestants. Spain: 1. Economic Decline: Spain suffered from economic difficulties, including inflation from New World silver and costly wars, weakening royal power. 2. Decentralization: The Spanish monarchy struggled to centralize power due to the strong independence of regional nobility and local institutions. 3. Military Overstretch: Constant warfare, including conflicts with the Dutch and the Thirty Years' War, drained resources and weakened the state. 4. Religious Policies: Spain maintained Catholic uniformity through the Inquisition, but this did not translate into stronger centralized power. Factors Influencing Expansion of Royal Power: • Economic Conditions: France's economic policies under Colbert provided more stable resources compared to Spain's reliance on fluctuating New World wealth. • Administrative Reforms: France successfully implemented administrative reforms that reduced noble power, while Spain's regional nobility retained significant influence. • Military: France maintained a professional standing army loyal to the king, whereas Spain's military overextension strained its finances and weakened the monarchy. • Political Stability: France experienced relative internal stability under Louis XIV, while Spain faced continuous external and internal conflicts. 54) How did the power of nobles in eastern Europe influence the expansion of royal power? Give examples. Answer: In Eastern Europe, the power of nobles significantly influenced the expansion of royal power, often limiting it. Key examples include: 1. Poland-Lithuania: The nobility (szlachta) held substantial power through the Sejm (parliament), which could veto royal decisions (liberum veto), preventing strong centralization and weakening royal authority. 2. Hungary: Hungarian nobles retained considerable autonomy and resisted Habsburg attempts to centralize power. The Golden Bull of 1222 guaranteed noble rights, limiting royal control. 3. Russia: In contrast, Tsar Peter the Great reduced the power of the boyars (nobility) by reorganizing the government, creating a merit-based service nobility, and imposing strict state control over them, thereby strengthening royal power. 4. Prussia: Frederick William, the Great Elector, co-opted the Junkers (Prussian nobles) by granting them control over serfs and military positions in exchange for loyalty and support, allowing for a strong centralized state. Overall, where nobles retained significant autonomy, royal power was limited, whereas efforts to subdue or co-opt the nobility facilitated stronger centralization. 55) Can the establishment of republics by the English and the Dutch be explained by common factors? Explain. Answer: Yes, the establishment of republics by the English and the Dutch can be explained by common factors: 1. Religious and Political Conflict: Both nations experienced intense religious and political conflicts that undermined monarchical power. In England, the Civil War and tensions between Parliament and the monarchy led to the establishment of the Commonwealth. In the Dutch Republic, the revolt against Spanish Catholic rule fostered a republican government. 2. Economic Factors: Both England and the Dutch Republic had thriving commercial economies that empowered a wealthy merchant class, which favored republicanism over monarchical rule to protect their economic interests. 3. Military Struggles: Both countries faced significant military challenges. England's Civil War and the Dutch War of Independence (Eighty Years' War) required new forms of governance that could mobilize resources and manage wartime economies effectively. 4. Cultural and Intellectual Movements: The rise of Enlightenment ideas and political theories advocating for greater civic participation and limitations on monarchical power influenced both nations toward republican forms of government. These shared factors contributed to the development of republics in both England and the Dutch Republic, reflecting broader trends of economic, political, and intellectual change. Chapter 17: The Scientific Revolution Multiple Choice 1) Which of these men first argued that the sun is at the center of the solar system? A) Galileo Galilei B) Nicolaus Copernicus C) Tycho Brahe D) Ptolemy Answer: B 2) The geocentric conception of the cosmos was rooted in the works of ________. A) Plato and Aristotle B) Aristotle and Ptolemy C) Aristotle and Copernicus D) Socrates and Ptolemy Answer: B 3) Johannes Kepler ________. A) maintained that the planets followed circular orbits B) developed the concept of epicycles C) proved that the planets followed elliptical orbits D) rejected the Copernican view of the cosmos Answer: C 4) Galileo’s scientific work helped lay the foundations for which modern discipline? A) calculus B) physics C) biology D) astronomy Answer: B 5) Robert Boyle helped transform ________. A) alchemy to chemistry B) astrology to astronomy C) astronomy to physics D) witchcraft to medicine Answer: A 6) Who showed that blood circulates throughout the body? A) Robert Boyle B) Paracelsus C) William Harvey D) Galen Answer: C 7) Empiricism is based on ________. A) observation B) reasoning C) theorizing D) faith Answer: A 8) Who was the main advocate of deductive reasoning? A) Francis Bacon B) Isaac Newton C) Galileo D) René Descartes Answer: D 9) Who wrote Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy? A) Isaac Newton B) René Descartes C) Robert Boyle D) Thomas Hobbes Answer: A 10) The rediscovery of the work of Archimedes in the Renaissance helped in the field of ________. A) mechanics B) astronomy C) medicine D) mathematics Answer: A 11) The roots of the Scientific Revolution lay in the ________ century. A) fourteenth B) fifteenth C) sixteenth D) seventeenth Answer: A 12) Copernicus used ideas developed by ______ in creating a sun-centered model of the universe. A) Aristarchus B) Ptolemy C) Aristotle D) Galen Answer: A 13) Plotinus was a major proponent of what philosophy? A) Neoplatonism B) deism C) Stoicism D) Epicureanism Answer: A 14) In the Neoplatonist philosophy, the natural and spiritual worlds are ________. A) united B) separated by the mind C) distinct but connected D) the same thing Answer: A 15) Who were the patrons of Galileo? A) the Medici family B) Pope Urban VIII C) the king of France D) the Holy Roman Emperor Answer: A 16) The Royal Society in England was founded to support ________. A) scientific research B) the arts C) humanism D) English literature Answer: A 17) What was the Battle of the Books? A) a battle between rival printing presses in Germany during the 1600s B) a battle over whether classical authors or contemporary scientists contributed the most to intellectual developments during the 1600s C) a disagreement over the superiority of Galileo or Newton D) a disagreement over the author of the heliocentric view of the cosmos Answer: B 18) Who wrote A Treatise on Religion and Political Philosophy? A) Baruch Spinoza B) John Locke C) René Descartes D) Bernard de Fontenelle Answer: A 19) Deism is the belief that ________. A) God exists but is not active in the world B) God does not exist C) all gods are the same D) it is impossible to understand God Answer: A 20) As a result of his trial for heresy, Galileo _____________. A) lived out his life under house arrest B) was executed C) was exonerated D) paid a heavy fine Answer: A 21) Which of these was a French philosopher that argued that faith was superior to reason? A) Blaise Pascal B) René Descartes C) Cardinal Richelieu D) Jean Bodin Answer: A 22) Johannes Kepler’s Lunar Astronomy can be described as ________. A) part science fiction B) the deist Bible C) the first publication of the heliocentric theory D) the forerunner of Galileo’s work Answer: A 23) Elisabetha Hevelius worked with her husband in what field? A) astronomy B) medicine C) chemistry D) mathematics Answer: A 24) Who was Margaret Cavendish? A) an Irish woman accused of witchcraft in 1650 B) an English noblewoman who wrote scientific and philosophical treatises C) the wife of Isaac Newton who helped author his most famous work D) the first English woman admitted to the English Royal Academy Answer: B 25) Which of these ideas was overturned by 1700? A) Only men produce life. B) Women have inferior minds. C) Learned societies should not admit women. D) Women’s sexual organs are not mistakes. Answer: A 26) Part of the reason the Ptolemaic model dominated for so many centuries is that it _______. A) matches ordinary observation B) is accurate C) accounts for elliptical orbits D) was not challenged until the 1500s Answer: A 27) Compared to earlier models, the model of the heavens proposed by Copernicus had the advantage of being ________. A) less complicated B) far more complex C) aligned with observable phenomena, such as the rising and setting sun D) based on mathematics Answer: A 28) The main contribution of Tycho Brahe to the evolution of a new model of the universe was _______. A) to collect data B) reconciling the Copernican and Ptolemaic systems C) originating the idea of elliptical planetary orbits D) careful observation of the phases of the moon Answer: A 29) Galileo’s publication of the Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems resulted in ________. A) the Church’s acceptance of the Copernican system B) absolute proof of elliptical orbits C) the Church’s condemnation of Galileo for heresy D) Galileo's proof of the Ptolemaic system Answer: C 30) Galileo can be considered the _________ of the Copernican model. A) popularizer B) first proponent C) first creator D) main opponent Answer: A 31) Newton’s Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy was important because in it Newton _______. A) attempted to account for the entire observable world B) was primarily based on empiricism C) rejected the Copernican model of the universe D) built on Kepler’s work Answer: A 32) Alchemists of the early modern period can be said to have _______. A) stood on the dividing line between magic and chemistry B) rejected magic for the modern science of chemistry C) been the same as modern chemists D) been no different from those who practiced maleficia Answer: A 33) Mechanical philosophy refers to ________. A) the structure of machines B) the idea that nature ran like a human-made machine C) the mathematical theories behind machinery D) deductive reasoning Answer: B 34) Philosophers like Descartes believed the mind was ________. A) a measurable machine like the rest of the human body B) a blank slate that changed as people experienced life C) not like a machine that could be measured mathematically D) an immaterial substance that could be measured mathematically Answer: C 35) Which of these questions did Neoplatonism answer? A) What is the connection between the physical and spiritual worlds? B) How is it possible for us to observe distant objects? C) Can Christianity and science be reconciled? D) What is the role of God in the world? Answer: A 36) Which of these is a paradigm that collapsed in the course of the Scientific Revolution? A) the Ptolemaic solar system B) the circulatory system C) the theory of gravity D) Newtonian physics Answer: A 37) When Kepler wrote that he was “as a priest of God to the book of nature,” he meant that ________. A) nature is an expression of divinity, which scientists can interpret B) priest were replaced by scientists as theological scholars C) Catholics were best placed to become scientists D) the main duty of priests was to interpret nature as a form of the Bible Answer: A 38) Institutions such as the Royal Society came to fill the role of what earlier systems? A) private patronage B) missionary activity C) international scholarly cooperation D) university scholarship Answer: A 39) The Scientific Revolution challenged Christianity because it ________. A) undermined the literal interpretation of the Bible B) proved Jesus was not divine C) undermined the authority of the pope D) proved the resurrection never took place Answer: A 40) Isaac Newton maintained that God ________. A) did not exist B) exercised only a small role in the mechanical function of the universe C) was a pervasive and powerful force in the natural world D) was only present in certain natural phenomena Answer: C 41) John Locke maintained that reason ________. A) was always inferior to faith B) was superior to faith C) could be used to determine the proof of God D) was a politically dangerous force Answer: B 42) By the eighteenth century, Christianity ________. A) was irrelevant in the life of the average person B) remained an important force in the life of the average person C) had evolved into a secular belief system based on reason D) enjoyed a continuous growth in popular enthusiasm and energy Answer: B 43) In approaching spiritual matters, Blaise Pascal ________. A) rejected faith in favor of reason B) rejected Locke’s reliance on reason C) argued against the divinity of Christ D) was a deist rather than a Christian Answer: B 44) The heliocentric view of the universe appeared to ________. A) make humans the center of the universe B) prove humans were created in the image of God C) reduce the relative importance of humans in the cosmos D) prove that there were other intelligent beings in the cosmos Answer: C 45) Francis Bacon argued that ________. A) humans were controlled by nature B) humans simply coexisted with nature C) humans could control and master nature D) God was the true force that controlled nature Answer: C 46) The Scientific Revolution ________. A) proved that women were physically inferior to men B) challenged the idea that women were inferior to men C) supported the idea that men were more important than women in the reproductive process D) proved that women were mentally inferior to men. Answer: B 47) The works of Descartes ________. A) supported the idea of the mental inferiority of women B) supported the idea that men and women were intellectual equals C) maintained that a women's brain was smaller than a man's D) maintained that women played no role in reproduction Answer: B 48) The ideas that had dominated in physics, until they were overturned by the Scientific Revolution, originated predominantly in ________. A) ancient Greece B) ancient Rome C) the Middle Ages D) the Renaissance Answer: A 49) In general, which of these most tended to support scientific work? A) Protestant monarchies B) Catholic monarchies C) Protestant churches D) the Catholic Church Answer: A 50) Which of these was a paradigm about the sexes that was overturned in the seventeenth century? A) Women are imperfect men. B) Women are weaker than men. C) Women should have the same public roles as men. D) Margaret Cavendish was a leading scientist. Answer: A Essay 51) What was the role of astronomy in the Scientific Revolution? Answer: Astronomy played a pivotal role in the Scientific Revolution by challenging traditional beliefs about the cosmos. Observations of celestial bodies and mathematical discoveries, such as Kepler's laws and Galileo's telescopic observations, undermined the geocentric model, paving the way for the acceptance of heliocentrism and fostering a new era of empirical science. 52) What was the role of the mechanical philosophy in religious thought of the seventeenth century? Answer: The mechanical philosophy of the seventeenth century posited that the universe operates like a machine, governed by natural laws and devoid of divine intervention. This view challenged traditional religious interpretations that emphasized God's direct involvement in natural phenomena, leading to debates about the nature of God's role in creation and the compatibility of science with religious belief. 53) How and why did the Scientific Revolution develop in Europe after the 1500s? What factors tended to support or hinder scientific work in the seventeenth century? Answer: The Scientific Revolution in Europe after the 1500s developed due to several factors: increased exploration and trade, the Renaissance emphasis on empirical observation, technological advancements like the printing press, and the challenge to traditional authorities. Supportive factors included patronage from wealthy individuals and institutions, while hindrances included religious and political opposition, as well as the limits of available technology for precise measurement and experimentation. 54) Choose two areas of European life—for example religion or politics—and consider the intellectual impact of new scientific thinking in the seventeenth century. Answer: In religion, new scientific thinking in the seventeenth century challenged traditional views of the cosmos as depicted in religious texts, leading to conflicts over interpretations of scripture and the authority of religious institutions. In politics, the rise of scientific methods encouraged the development of new ideas about governance based on reason and observation, influencing debates about the role of monarchy and the rights of individuals within society. 55) How and why did the Scientific Revolution affect the European view of nature? Answer: The Scientific Revolution reshaped the European view of nature by promoting empirical observation, experimentation, and the application of mathematical principles to understand natural phenomena. This shift from relying on ancient authorities to direct observation led to a more systematic and empirical understanding of the natural world, emphasizing the importance of natural laws and fostering a secular approach to scientific inquiry. Test Bank for West: Encounters and Transformations Brian Levack, Edward Muir, Meredith Veldman 9780205968374, 9780134229270

Document Details

Related Documents

person
Harper Mitchell View profile
Close

Send listing report

highlight_off

You already reported this listing

The report is private and won't be shared with the owner

rotate_right
Close
rotate_right
Close

Send Message

image
Close

My favorites

image
Close

Application Form

image
Notifications visibility rotate_right Clear all Close close
image
image
arrow_left
arrow_right