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This Document Contains Chapters 24 to 26 Chapter 24: The West and the World: Cultural Crisis and the New Imperialism, 1870–1914 Multiple Choice 1) Who first identified bacteria as the cause of diseases? A) Edward Jenner B) Louis Pasteur C) Robert Koch D) Marie Curie Answer: B 2) Who isolated the tuberculosis and cholera bacilli? A) Louis Pasteur B) Edward Snow C) Robert Koch D) Joseph Lister Answer: C 3) Who developed a study of crowd psychology? A) Max Weber B) Gustave Le Bon C) Sigmund Freud D) Benedetto Croce Answer: B 4) Who first used the phrase “survival of the fittest”? A) Charles Darwin B) Charles Lyell C) Gregor Mendel D) Herbert Spencer Answer: D 5) Who wrote The Interpretation of Dreams? A) Sigmund Freud B) Max Weber C) Gustave Le Bon D) Carl Jung Answer: A 6) The term fin-de-siècle refers to the ________. A) culture of the turn of the century B) economic transformation around 1900 C) social regime of the early 1900s D) modernist art movement Answer: A 7) The dominant artistic movement of the early1900s was ________. A) modernism B) romanticism C) neoclassicism D) post-modernism Answer: A 8) Gustav Klimt worked in what field? A) painting B) drama C) poetry D) sculpture Answer: A 9) Pablo Picasso is best known as a leader in the _______ movement. A) Cubist B) Impressionist C) Expressionist D) Color Field Answer: A 10) Who wrote The Rite of Spring? A) Igor Stravinsky B) Arnold Schoenberg C) Richard Wagner D) Georg Philipp Telemann Answer: A 11) Who was the one of the founders of French sociology? A) Emile Durkheim B) Gustave Le Bon C) Sigmund Frued D) Lajos Kosuth Answer: A 12) The Syllabus of Errors ________. A) was a famous modernist painting B) was a papal decree that expressed the conservative nature of the papacy C) the most famous book by Emile Durkheim D) an attack on Darwin by Bishop Ulster Answer: B 13) By about 1800, Europeans controlled _______ of the globe. A) 85 percent B) 65 percent C) 45 percent D) 25 percent Answer: A 14) David Livingstone illustrates the role of ________ in the new imperialism. A) missionaries B) trade C) industrialization D) racism Answer: A 15) The Fauves were inspired by ________. A) non-Western cultures B) industrialization C) rural landscapes D) Christianity Answer: A 16) J.A. Hobson criticized imperialism because he said it ________. A) benefited the few at the expense of the many B) was racist C) distracted the armed forces from their main task D) was wasteful Answer: A 17) How much of the African continent was under direct European control by 1905? A) 10 percent B) 50 percent C) 75 percent D) 90 percent Answer: D 18) Which African nation successfully resisted European imperialism up to World War II? A) Liberia B) Egypt C) Ethiopia D) Sudan Answer: C 19) What was decided at the Berlin Conference held in 1884? A) the rules for European control of Africa B) limits on the exercise of European power in Africa C) guarantees for human rights in Africa D) terms for the balance of power in Africa Answer: A 20) Which Asian state successfully resisted European imperialism? A) China B) Vietnam C) Indonesia D) Japan Answer: D 21) Both the United States and Australia specifically targeted _______ immigration in the 1880s. A) Chinese B) Italian C) Japanese D) Russian Answer: A 22) By 1914, the Russian Empire covered _______ of the world’s land masses. A) one-seventh B) one-quarter C) one-tenth D) one-twentieth Answer: A 23) The Boxer Rebellion was an uprising against ________. A) Western imperialists B) the communist government C) Japanese imperialism D) the Manchus Answer: A 24) Who were the Boers? A) British settlers in South Africa B) Dutch settlers in South Africa C) German settlers in South Africa D) native Africans in South Africa Answer: B 25) The British used ________ against their Boer opponents. A) concentration camps B) deportation C) germ warfare D) racial hostilities to support African uprisings Answer: A 26) After the discovery of the germ theory of disease in the late nineteenth century, European ________. A) deaths from infectious disease disappeared B) deaths from infectious disease dropped dramatically C) physicians continued to believe that disease was the result of moral deficiency D) physicians continued to use bleeding on a large scale Answer: B 27) Charles Darwin’s main scientific contribution was ________. A) to be the first to come up with the theory of evolution B) Principles of Geology C) to offer an explanation of how evolution might have occurred D) to discover the laws of genetic heredity Answer: C 28) Darwin’s evolutionary theory was rooted in ________. A) Malthus’ ideas on population growth B) the Bible C) Lamarck’s work D) mutation and variation Answer: A 29) For Gustave Le Bon, mass politics largely ran counter to _______. A) reason B) human emotions C) plain economic sense D) democracy Answer: A 30) The predominant outlook associated with the fin-de-siècle is _______. A) apprehension B) optimism C) confidence D) panic Answer: A 31) Which of these movements is most associated with fin-de-siècle culture? A) modernism B) Social Darwinism C) the new imperialism D) Cubism Answer: A 32) Cubists and Expressionists argued that art was ________. A) an absolute ideal B) a form of personal expression C) most meaningful when it accurately depicted nature D) best expressed in realistic paintings of human beings Answer: B 33) Western European religious beliefs after 1870 ________. A) declined as Darwin’s ideas became commonplace B) declined as Nietzsche’s work became increasingly popular among the working class C) were supported and defended by Emile Durkheim D) remained strong and popular Answer: D 34) Which of these tended to challenge European religiosity? A) new scientific work B) imperialism C) nationalism D) anticlericalism Answer: A 35) In broad terms, the response of the papacy to the challenges of modernism was ________. A) defiance B) reconciliation C) modernization D) moderate reform Answer: A 36) Unlike earlier phases of imperialism, the new imperialism was shaped by _______. A) official expansionist policies B) commercial motives C) the search for raw materials D) racist attitudes Answer: A 37) Industrialization had the effect of _______ imperialism. A) accelerating B) slowing C) halting D) changing the direction of Answer: A 38) The idea of Torschlusspanik was just one manifestation of the importance of _______ in the new imperialism. A) competition B) religious motives C) racism D) the balance of power Answer: A 39) Comparing Maps 24.1 (A) and (B), showing imperialism in Africa, which of these nations gained the most territory in the Scramble for Africa? A) France B) Germany C) Britain D) Portugal Answer: A 40) The technology used by European imperialists in the late 1800s and early 1900s indicates that imperialism in this period was for the purpose of ________. A) establishing European dominance B) developing trading partners C) establishing settler colonies D) the desire to educate Answer: A 41) In Russia, the Russo-Japanese War contributed to ________. A) the outbreak of the Revolution of 1905 B) the execution of the Tsar in 1905 C) Russian colonization of Siberia D) Russian colonization of Japan Answer: A 42) The “open door” policy prevented ________. A) Western economic and political influence in China B) the formal partition of China among the Western powers C) the United States from establishing its influence in China D) the demise of European spheres of influence in China Answer: B 43) The Meiji period was marked by _______. A) Westernization B) rejection of Western culture C) closer ties to China D) isolationism Answer: A 44) Around 1900, Japan’s foreign policy of 1800 ________. A) had been reversed B) continued C) changed course D) was pursued to an extreme Answer: A 45) The Boxer Rebellion ________. A) failed completely B) was a partial success C) was a complete success D) had no results Answer: A 46) As in Japan, foreign intervention in China the late 1800s led to ________ in the following decades. A) violent political turmoil B) westernization C) industrialization D) imperialism Answer: A 47) Unlike other areas of the Scramble for Africa, in southern Africa, European imperialism ________. A) confronted European settlers B) led to violence C) resulted in African deaths D) was successful thanks to firearms Answer: A 48) Applied to foreign policy, Social Darwinism most commonly led Europeans to the conclusion that ________. A) races must compete for world resources B) weaker nations must be protected from those that are stronger C) existing nations must be the strongest because they have survived D) existing races must have superior characteristics Answer: A 49) In general, modernist art represented ________. A) a break with the past B) a continuation of romanticism C) a response to imperialism D) the influence of the Enlightenment Answer: A 50) The idea of the “White Man’s burden” combined ________. A) racism and a paternalistic attitude B) optimism and militancy C) greed and capitalism D) land hunger and a missionary zeal Answer: A Essay 51) What do you consider the most important impact of new scientific ideas in period covered by this chapter outside the realm of science? Support your answer with examples. Answer: The most important impact of new scientific ideas outside of science is their influence on societal beliefs, norms, and policies. For example, Darwin's theory of evolution challenged religious views on human origins, influencing education and social attitudes. Similarly, Einstein's theory of relativity reshaped philosophical and cultural concepts of time and space, impacting literature and the arts. These examples show how scientific ideas can profoundly shape broader cultural and societal perspectives beyond their scientific implications. 52) Who was Charles Darwin? How and why did his views on evolution transform European cultural and social life? Answer: Charles Darwin was a British naturalist who proposed the theory of evolution by natural selection in his book "On the Origin of Species" in 1859. His theory suggested that species evolve over time through a process of natural selection, where individuals with advantageous traits survive and reproduce more successfully. This concept challenged prevailing religious beliefs about the creation of species, sparking debates on the origins of life and humanity's place in the natural world. Darwin's ideas catalyzed significant shifts in European cultural and social life by influencing science education, philosophy, literature, and challenging traditional views of human origins and existence. 53) What is modernism? What characteristics did movements under this umbrella share, and how did these movements differ? Answer: Modernism refers to a cultural and artistic movement that emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, characterized by a deliberate break from traditional forms and conventions. Movements under modernism shared several key characteristics: 1. Rejection of Tradition: Modernists rejected conventional forms and sought to innovate and experiment with new styles and techniques. 2. Emphasis on Individualism: There was a focus on individual experience, perception, and subjectivity, often exploring themes of alienation, urbanization, and the changing social landscape. 3. Experimentation and Innovation: Artists and writers experimented with form, language, and perspective, pushing boundaries in art, literature, architecture, music, and beyond. 4. Fragmentation and Disruption: Modernist works often reflected the fragmented, chaotic, and uncertain nature of modern life, breaking away from linear narratives and coherent structures. Movements under modernism differed in their specific approaches and emphases: • Literary Modernism: Writers like James Joyce and Virginia Woolf experimented with stream-of-consciousness narrative and non-linear storytelling. • Visual Arts: Movements like Cubism (led by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque) and Dadaism (embracing absurdity and anti-art) challenged traditional representations and meanings in art. • Architecture: Modernist architects, such as Le Corbusier and Walter Gropius, emphasized functionality, simplicity, and the use of new materials like steel and glass in building design. • Music: Composers like Igor Stravinsky and Arnold Schoenberg explored atonal and dissonant music, moving away from traditional harmonic structures. In essence, modernism was a diverse movement united by its rejection of established norms and its exploration of new forms, reflecting the complexities and transformations of the modern world. 54) What are the most important differences between the first stages of imperialism and the New Imperialism? Answer: The first stages of imperialism primarily involved exploratory voyages and trading posts established by European powers from the 15th to 18th centuries. This early imperialism focused on trade routes, resources, and territorial expansion with limited direct control over conquered regions. In contrast, New Imperialism (late 19th to early 20th centuries) was characterized by aggressive expansion and colonization, driven by industrialization, technological advances, and economic competition among European powers. It involved direct political control, formal annexation of territories, and exploitation of resources and labor, often justified by ideas of racial superiority and civilizing missions. 55) Compare and contrast European imperialism in Africa and Asia. Answer: European imperialism in Africa and Asia shared some similarities but also had significant differences: Similarities: 1. Motivations: Both regions were targeted for their resources (such as minerals and agricultural products), strategic locations, and potential markets to exploit. 2. Methods: European powers used military force, diplomacy, and treaties to establish control over both Africa and Asia. They often exploited local divisions and alliances to gain dominance. 3. Impact: Imperialism led to significant economic exploitation, social disruption, and cultural change in both regions. Infrastructure development and education systems were often established to benefit the colonizers. Differences: 1. Timing and Duration: European colonization in Asia began earlier and lasted longer than in Africa. For example, European presence in parts of Asia dates back to the 16th century, whereas significant colonization in Africa accelerated in the late 19th century. 2. Forms of Control: In Asia, European powers often employed indirect rule through local elites or puppet governments (as in British India or French Indochina). In contrast, much of Africa experienced direct rule with European administrators governing directly. 3. Resistance and Independence Movements: African resistance to imperialism, such as the Mau uprising in Kenya, was more widespread and sometimes more violent compared to resistance in Asia, which also occurred but often took different forms (such as nationalist movements like in India led by figures like Mahatma Gandhi). In summary, while European imperialism in both Africa and Asia aimed to exploit resources and assert control, the methods, timing, forms of governance, and resistance varied significantly between these two regions. Chapter 25: The First World War Multiple Choice 1) Which Balkan state most threatened the unity of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire? A) the Ottoman Empire B) Albania C) Bulgaria D) Serbia Answer: D 2) The Triple Alliance included ________. A) Great Britain, France, and Italy B) Austria-Hungary, Italy, and Germany C) Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Bulgaria D) Great Britain, France, and Germany Answer: B 3) The Reinsurance Treaty of 1887 united ________. A) Germany and Russia in a defensive military alliance if either was attacked B) Russia and Germany in a neutrality agreement if either country was attacked C) France and Germany in an alliance against Russia D) Great Britain and France in a friendly agreement Answer: B 4) What countries made up the Triple Entente? A) Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy B) Italy, France, and Germany C) Great Britain, France, and Russia D) Great Britain, France, and Italy Answer: C 5) Who was the German chancellor at the beginning of World War I? A) Otto von Bismarck B) Paul von Hindenburg C) Wilhelm II D) Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg Answer: D 6) Mobilization of an army involves ________. A) making a standing army ready for battle B) creating a standing army C) issuing orders for a draft D) training a standing army Answer: A 7) The Schlieffen Plan depended on which of these? A) quickly defeating Belgium and the Netherlands B) fighting a two-front war C) a fast French mobilization D) a strong navy Answer: A 8) France’s plans for defense concentrated on ________. A) Alsace-Lorraine B) its northern border C) the Atlantic coast D) the Mediterranean coast Answer: A 9) The Western Front was about ______ long. A) 300 miles B) 100 miles C) 10 miles D) 1100 miles Answer: A 10) At the Battle of Tannenberg, the ________. A) Russians defeated the invading German army B) Serbians defeated the invading Austro-Hungarian army C) Italians defeated the invading Austro-Hungarian army D) Germans defeated the advancing Russian army Answer: D 11) Which statement is true about the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk? A) It ended World War I across Europe. B) It gave Germany Russian lands. C) It was Germany’s peace treaty with Serbia. D) It gave Germany all of Serbia and part of Poland. Answer: B 12) Arab nationalists in the Ottoman Empire were led by ________. A) General James Pershing B) Mustafa Kemal C) T. E. Lawrence D) Ali Pasha Answer: C 13) The influenza pandemic of 1918–1919 killed about how many? A) 50 million B) 5 million C) 500 million D) 500,000 Answer: A 14) Who became the British Prime Minister in the course of the war? A) David Lloyd George B) Winston Churchill C) Neville Chamberlain D) Benjamin Disraeli Answer: A 15) During the war more women worked in _______ than in any other sector. A) domestic service B) munitions C) light industry D) agriculture Answer: A 16) The Ottoman Empire implemented a policy of genocide against what people during the war? A) Armenians B) Serbs C) Greeks D) Ukrainians Answer: A 17) Who was the tsar at the start of the Russian Revolution? A) Alexander I B) Alexander II C) Nicholas I D) Nicholas II Answer: D 18) After the Russian Revolution in March 1917, who controlled the country? A) the Bolsheviks and the Petrograd Soviet B) the Provisional Government C) the Duma D) the tsar’s brother Paul Answer: B 19) Who was the leader of the Bolsheviks in 1917? A) Vladimir Lenin B) Nikolai Bukharin C) Joseph Stalin D) Nikita Khrushchev Answer: A 20) The Spartacists tried to ________. A) establish a communist regime in Hungary B) overthrow the Bolsheviks in Russia C) proclaim a socialist state in Italy D) start a communist revolution in Germany Answer: D 21) The Allies signed the Treaty of Versailles with ________. A) Bulgaria B) the Ottoman Empire C) Austria-Hungary D) Germany Answer: D 22) Who represented France at the Paris Peace Conference? A) Aristide Briand B) Raymond Poincaré C) Georges Clemenceau D) Henri Pétain Answer: C 23) Which of these was first created at Versailles in 1814? A) Czechoslovakia B) Belgium C) Poland D) Italy Answer: A 24) After World War I, the Ottoman territories in the Middle East ________. A) were granted independence B) were largely placed under British and French control C) continued as a unified whole under the leadership of the Republic of Turkey D) were made into new states based on Wilson's principle of self-determination of peoples. Answer: B 25) The Balfour Declaration was a response to ________. A) Zionism B) the fall of the Ottoman Empire C) Arab nationalism D) the defeat of Germany Answer: A 26) Unlike warfare prior to 1900, total warfare _______. A) involves an entire nation B) is more deadly C) uses artillery D) features standing armies Answer: C 27) The Schlieffen Plan was devised to avoid _______. A) fighting on two fronts B) antagonizing France C) bringing Britain into the war D) war with Russia Answer: A 28) Great Britain joined the First World War because of ________. A) Austria-Hungary’s attack on Serbia B) Russia’s attack on Austria-Hungary C) Germany’s invasion of France D) Germany’s invasion of Belgium Answer: D 29) Middle-class Europeans greeted the outbreak of World War I ________. A) with tremendous enthusiasm B) with a sense of dread and disbelief C) with strong antiwar protests D) by leading a revolution in Paris Answer: A 30) Considering Map 25.2, showing the German advance in World War I, which of these is true? A) The Germans were stopped well short of their goal. B) The Schlieffen Plan was successful. C) The Germans never made it over the border with Belgium. D) The plan was only partially successful. Answer: A 31) What kept troops in World War I from abandoning their trenches? A) machine guns B) tanks C) barbed wire D) poison gas Answer: A 32) The Battle of the Somme was typical of offensives on the Western Front because it brought ________. A) massive casualties for little gain B) a rapid advance C) a strategic retreat using tanks D) an advance of many miles but at a high coast Answer: A 33) Unlike the Western Front, the Eastern Front was ________. A) more mobile B) less bloody C) shorter D) marked by trenches Answer: A 34) Russia pulled out of World War I as a result of the ________. A) Bolshevik Revolution B) German conquest of Moscow C) defeat of Russian troops in Serbia D) death of the tsar Answer: A 35) The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk gave Germany its goal of _______. A) fighting on one front B) quickly knocking out Belgium C) defeating France first D) defeating the British navy with submarines Answer: A 36) Looking at Map 25.4, “The World at War,” which of these was true in 1918? A) The Allies and their supporters far outweighed the Central Powers. B) Most of the world remained neutral. C) Most of Africa supported the Central Powers. D) Most of Latin America supported the Allies or the Central Powers. Answer: A 37) Compared to the mobilization of European forces, mobilization of American troops was _______. A) much slower B) reluctant C) much faster D) hampered by lack of volunteers Answer: A 38) War socialism refers to the ________. A) socialist support of the war in Germany B) an alliance between German industry and the government C) British working-class opposition to the war D) Russian economy after the Bolshevik Revolution Answer: B 39) How did the war impact governments of the belligerent nations? A) Their governments expanded dramatically. B) Their governments were divided by partisanship. C) Most of the governments shrank as cost-cutting measures took effect. D) Their governments stayed the same size, but shifted personnel into defense agencies. Answer: A 40) The impact of the war on women’s work can be summarized as _______. A) primarily significant in changing cultural norms B) revolutionary C) creating permanent government positions for women D) negligible outside of some clerical work Answer: A 41) Mobilizing the civilian population for total war required _______. A) a massive propaganda effort B) delivering a program of social welfare C) imposing martial law D) restricting civil rights Answer: A 42) What triggered the Russian Revolution in March 1917? A) Lenin had promised peace, bread, and land. B) Rasputin had taken over the throne from the tsar. C) Women in Petrograd had protested because of inadequate food supplies. D) The Russian government had agreed to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Answer: C 43) Unlike the first Russian Revolution, the Bolshevik Revolution _______. A) was top-down B) was a popular revolution C) rejected communism D) was inspired by fear Answer: A 44) The Spartacists were an example of _______. A) movements inspired by the Bolshevik Revolution B) reactions to the threat of communism C) nationalist uprisings D) responses to the Versailles Treaty Answer: A 45) Which of these was a key reason for the failure of the League of Nations? A) It lacked the power to enforce its decisions. B) Most European powers never signed it. C) It lacked an ideological foundation. D) It was dominated by the United States. Answer: A 46) Who replaced the Ottomans as the major power(s) in the Middle East? A) France and Britain B) Egypt C) Iraq D) the League of Nations Answer: A 47) The chief weakness of the Balfour Declaration was that it ________. A) annexed Arab lands B) had little support in Europe C) was rejected by most European Jews D) lacked League of Nations support Answer: A 48) Which of these probably helped to shape European attitudes towards war in 1914? A) easy victories in the Scramble for Africa B) the painful experience of the Crimean War C) memories of the war of the French Revolution D) the Russo-Japanese War Answer: A 49) Massive offensives were used on the Western Front ________. A) as the only solution to breaking the deadlock B) because they proved successful C) when the range of opposing artillery proved shorter than expected D) in keeping with prewar planning Answer: A 50) The first Russian Revolution was shaped by what political ideology? A) liberalism B) communism C) socialism D) conservatism Answer: A Essay 51) Was World War I inevitable? Discuss prewar alliances, preparations for war, and attitudes towards war in your answer. Answer: World War I was not inevitable but was influenced by a complex interplay of factors. Pre-war alliances, like the Triple Entente and Triple Alliance, created rigid blocs that escalated conflicts. Militarization and arms races intensified tensions, while nationalist sentiments and imperial ambitions fueled aggressive policies. Attitudes towards war varied: some glorified it as necessary for national honor, while others feared its devastation. The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand triggered a chain reaction, highlighting how fragile peace was amidst mounting geopolitical tensions. 52) Why did a stalemate develop along the Western Front? How was it finally broken? Answer: A stalemate developed along the Western Front in World War I due to factors like trench warfare, modern weaponry (machine guns, artillery), and defensive strategies. Neither side could make significant advances. It was broken by technological innovations (tanks, aircraft), new tactics (stormtrooper assaults), and the exhaustion of resources and morale, leading to the Allied breakthrough in 1918. 53) How did governments change to meet the demands of total war? What was the impact of total war on civilian populations? Answer: Governments transformed during total war by centralizing authority, imposing censorship, and mobilizing economies for wartime production through rationing and propaganda. Civilian populations faced disruptions like conscription, shortages, and increased state control. Bombing raids and economic hardships profoundly impacted civilians, leading to social changes and heightened government intervention in daily life. 54) Was the Russian Revolution the revolution predicted by Marx? Explain the different phases of the revolution in your response and the goals of different actors. Answer: The Russian Revolution differed from Marx's prediction in some ways. It began with the February Revolution in 1917, driven by discontent over food shortages and war casualties, leading to the overthrow of the monarchy and establishment of a provisional government aiming for democracy and reforms. The October Revolution, led by the Bolsheviks under Lenin, seized power later that year, aiming for socialist transformation and workers' control. Marx predicted a proletarian revolution in industrialized societies, not agrarian Russia, where peasants played a crucial role. 55) How and why did Woodrow Wilson hope to shape the Paris Peace Conference? Was he successful? Why or why not? Answer: Woodrow Wilson hoped to shape the Paris Peace Conference by advocating for his Fourteen Points, emphasizing principles like self-determination, disarmament, and international cooperation through the League of Nations. He aimed to establish lasting peace and prevent future conflicts by addressing grievances fairly. Wilson faced challenges, including differing national interests and the Treaty of Versailles' harsh terms imposed on Germany. Ultimately, the U.S. Senate's rejection of the Treaty and Wilson's declining health limited his success in fully realizing his vision. Chapter 26: Reconstruction, Reaction, and Continuing Revolution:
The 1920s and 1930s Multiple Choice 1) Who wrote “The Waste Land”? A) T.S. Eliot B) Bernard Shaw C) Henrik Ibsen D) Ezra Pound Answer: A 2) Which of these was a noted existentialist philosopher? A) Jean-Paul Sartre B) Otto Dix C) Karl Barth D) Walter Gropius Answer: A 3) In eastern Europe, between ______ percent of the population were in the agricultural sector. A) 60 and 80 B) 20 and 40 C) 40 and 60 D) 80 and 100 Answer: A 4) The fascist ideology was first developed by ________. A) Benito Mussolini B) Adolf Hitler C) Francisco Franco D) Karl Marx Answer: A 5) When did the Great Depression begin? A) 1929 B) 1924 C) 1907 D) 1931 Answer: A 6) In the 1920s, Poland was divided by ________. A) ethnic conflict B) religious conflict C) League of Nations mandates D) economic collapse Answer: A 7) How did Mussolini become the Italian prime minister? A) He was invited by the monarch. B) Through popular elections. C) In a peaceful coup. D) By a military takeover in Rome. Answer: A 8) The Weimar Republic came to power ________. A) following World War I B) under Adolf Hitler C) through a coup D) as part of the Versailles settlement Answer: A 9) Where was Adolf Hitler born? A) Germany B) France C) Austria D) Hungary Answer: C 10) Mein Kampf ________. A) detailed Hitler’s plans to attack Russia after he gained power B) was imbued with socialist ideology C) revealed Hitler’s racist view of German history D) outlined the future of the Nazi Party Answer: C 11) Hitler began the legal creation of his Nazi dictatorship after ________. A) the fire in the German parliament building B) the death of Paul von Hindenburg C) he was named chancellor in January 1933 D) after the Nazis became the largest party in the Reichstag in July 1932 Answer: A 12) Who presented the New Economic Policy in 1921 in the Soviet Union? A) Vladimir Lenin B) Joseph Stalin C) Nikolai Bukharin D) Leon Trotsky Answer: A 13) Who was the leader of the Soviet Union during the 1930s? A) Leon Trotsky B) Lenin C) Joseph Stalin D) Nikita Khrushchev Answer: C 14) The program of collectivization was implemented to ________. A) boost agricultural production B) eliminate Menshevik opposition C) increase industrial output D) build the Soviet Union’s defenses Answer: A 15) Who was the American president during most of the 1930s? A) Franklin D. Roosevelt B) Harry S Truman C) Calvin Coolidge D) Warren G. Harding Answer: A 16) The economist John Maynard Keynes advocated ________. A) a tight money policy B) a balanced budget C) deficit spending D) the gold standard Answer: C 17) Which country most successfully adopted Keynesian economics in the 1930s? A) Great Britain B) France C) Finland D) Sweden Answer: D 18) The French Popular Front included which political parties? A) the liberals, the socialists, and the communists B) the conservatives, the radicals, and the socialists C) the radicals and the socialists D) the conservatives and the radicals Answer: A 19) Who was the leader of the Spanish rebels in the Spanish Civil War? A) Léon Blum B) Eamon De Valera C) General Francisco Franco D) King Juan Carlos I Answer: C 20) The “New Woman” was associated with what decade? A) 1920s B) 1930s C) 1940s D) 1910s Answer: A 21) Eugenics promoted which of these? A) selective breeding among humans B) genocide C) genetic screening D) race warfare Answer: A 22) What percent of new workers in the late 1930s were women in the Soviet Union? A) 82 percent B) 21 percent C) 34 percent D) 62 percent Answer: A 23) The Anglo-Irish War of 1919–1921 occurred in the context of _______. A) World War I B) the rise of fascism C) World War II D) the Crimean War Answer: A 24) The Wafd was an Egyptian _______ party. A) nationalist B) communist C) Islamist D) socialist Answer: A 25) In the 1930s, Mohandas Gandhi ________. A) called for the adoption of Western institutions across India B) demanded full and immediate national independence for India C) worked with the British government to develop a parallel Indian government D) was widely supported in Britain as a liberator of oppressed peoples Answer: B 26) Existentialist philosophers ________. A) called for a recommitment to Christian values B) believed reason should guide all human decisions C) called for an optimistic reaffirmation of Western values D) argue that existence has no built-in meaning Answer: D 27) The Bauhaus style _________ industrialization. A) embraced B) ignored C) rejected D) feared Answer: A 28) Most eastern European states created by the Versailles Treaty were divided by _______ in the interwar period. A) ethnic factions B) violent nationalist uprisings C) fascist and communist parties D) economic collapse Answer: A 29) Fascism can best be understood as ________. A) a rejection of other contemporary ideologies B) a blend of socialism and socialist revisionism C) Italian communism D) Marxist socialism Answer: A 30) Which of these was key to Mussolini’s success in the interwar period? A) disappointment over World War I B) the Great Depression C) the loss of the Italian empire D) the rise of communism Answer: A 31) Which of these was the main rallying point for Italian fascism? A) Mussolini B) the papacy C) the Roman past D) hatred of the Versailles Treaty Answer: A 32) The Great Depression tended to ________. A) greatly add to the popularity of fascism B) push Europeans to the political left C) draw support away from fascism D) lead to political apathy Answer: A 33) The Great Depression hit Germany hard because ________. A) Germany experienced terrible inflation after 1929 B) Germany’s economy relied heavily on American loans that disappeared once the Depression hit C) the German mark lost all of its value and had to be replaced with the American dollar D) the German government adopted a policy of deficit spending Answer: B 34) What was the main consequence of the Beer Hall Putsch? A) It led Hitler to develop his political ideology. B) It led to the overthrow of the Weimar Republic. C) It destroyed the Nazi movement. D) It led to the death of Erich von Ludendorff. Answer: A 35) The Nazis were able to gain power because of the ________. A) hyperinflation after World War I B) Beer Hall Putsch C) death of Paul von Hindenburg D) Great Depression Answer: D 36) The Enabling Act ________. A) was the legal foundation of the Nazi dictatorship B) required a parliamentary majority for the passage of laws C) outlawed all political parties in Nazi Germany except the Nazis D) defined who was a Jew in Nazi Germany Answer: A 37) In the 1930s, Hitler was successful in _______. A) reducing unemployment B) increasing workers’ real wages C) industrializing Germany D) slashing the budget Answer: A 38) The New Economic Policy represented a(n) _______. A) step towards a commercial economy B) communist defeat C) implementation of classic Marxism D) triumph Answer: A 39) Collectivization resulted in the ________. A) deaths of millions of peasants as a result of famine B) creation of privately owned farms C) return to the New Economic Policy D) purge of the Communist Party Answer: A 40) The “Great Purge” was motivated primarily by _______. A) Stalin’s personal animosity B) communist ideology C) religious conflict D) racism Answer: A 41) The social democracies of the interwar period borrowed what element of classic socialism? A) public welfare programs B) state ownership of factories C) communal living arrangements D) workers’ soviets Answer: A 42) The French Popular Front was an example of ________. A) interwar coalition governments B) socialist governments of the 1920s C) experiments with communism D) short-lived fascist governments Answer: A 43) In which of these countries would women have been most encouraged to be full-time mothers? A) Nazi Germany B) the Soviet Union C) France under the Popular Front D) Britain under Lloyd George Answer: A 44) The Easter Rising of 1916________. A) culminated in complete Irish independence from Great Britain in 1921 B) led to the death of IRA chief Michael Collins C) strengthened the Irish commitment to independence D) was dominated by the IRA’s use of guerilla warfare Answer: C 45) Which of these would Ataturk have been most likely to support? A) the League of Nations B) Wahhabism C) pan-Arabism D) the Wafd Answer: D 46) Unlike Wahhabism, pan-Arabism was primarily a(n) _______ movement. A) secular B) religious C) Arab D) Middle Eastern Answer: A 47) What was the greatest challenge faced by India in the wake of independence? A) religious conflict B) the Great Depression C) British imperialism D) remaining neutral Answer: A 48) Mussolini’s corporatism was successful because it ________. A) gave Italians a sense of purpose B) reorganized the Italian economy C) strengthened labor unions D) increased industrial productivity Answer: A 49) Which of these best describes Hitler’s access to power? A) Hitler came to power legitimately but then exceeded his legal powers. B) Hitler came to power by a coup that made him an autocrat. C) Hitler came to power and remained in power through careful manipulation of legal institutions. D) Hitler created a quasi-government that replaced the legitimate government. Answer: A 50) In the Middle East, pan-Arabism was largely a response to _______. A) Western imperialism B) Wahhabism C) Turkish nationalism D) Christianity Answer: A Essay 51) How and why did European culture during the interwar years express both despair and desire? Answer: During the interwar years, European culture reflected both despair and desire due to the aftermath of World War I and the uncertainties leading up to World War II. Despair was evident in the disillusionment with traditional values, economic hardships, and the trauma of war. This despair found expression in existentialist literature, Dadaist art rejecting societal norms, and political extremism. On the other hand, there was a strong desire for change and progress, seen in movements like Surrealism and Bauhaus, which aimed to redefine art and architecture. This desire was also political, with movements seeking social justice and economic reform. Overall, European culture of the interwar period was a complex interplay of confronting despair and seeking new directions in art, politics, and society. 52) How much did Mussolini owe to the context in which he came to power? What helped him gain and then keep power as a dictator? Answer: Mussolini owed his rise to power largely to Italy's post-World War I turmoil, including economic instability, social unrest, and dissatisfaction with the government's handling of these issues. He gained power through a combination of charismatic leadership, promises of stability, and exploiting nationalist sentiments. Once in power, Mussolini maintained control through propaganda, repression of political opposition, and the establishment of a totalitarian regime that centralized authority under his leadership, known as Fascism. 53) How did Germany’s experience in the interwar period differ from the rest of Europe, and how did this lead to Nazism? Answer: Germany's experience in the interwar period differed significantly from the rest of Europe due to the Treaty of Versailles imposing harsh reparations and territorial losses after World War I. This led to economic hardship, social unrest, and a sense of national humiliation. These conditions contributed to the rise of Nazism under Hitler, who exploited nationalist grievances, promoted scapegoating of minorities, and promised to restore Germany's greatness through militarism and expansionism. The failure of the Weimar Republic to address these challenges effectively further destabilized Germany, paving the way for Hitler's authoritarian rule. 54) Evaluate the success of democratic governments in the interwar period. Answer: Democratic governments in the interwar period faced significant challenges and varied in their success. Some, like in France and the UK, stabilized and maintained democratic institutions despite economic hardships and social unrest. However, others, particularly in Central and Eastern Europe, struggled with political instability, economic crises, and the rise of authoritarian movements. Overall, the success of democratic governments during this period was mixed, influenced by factors such as economic conditions, political leadership, and the legacy of World War I. 55) What was the impact of the Versailles settlement on the Middle East? What were its long-term and short-term consequences? Answer: The Versailles settlement had a significant impact on the Middle East. In the short term, it led to the dismantling of the Ottoman Empire and the redrawing of borders, creating new nation-states under British and French mandates. This contributed to instability, ethnic tensions, and territorial disputes. In the long term, the settlement's legacy included resentment towards Western powers, which fueled nationalist movements and anti-colonial sentiments. The arbitrary borders set by the settlement also contributed to ongoing conflicts and geopolitical instability in the region, shaping Middle Eastern politics and society well into the 20th century and beyond. Test Bank for West: Encounters and Transformations Brian Levack, Edward Muir, Meredith Veldman 9780205968374, 9780134229270

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