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This Document Contains Chapters 27 to 29 Chapter 27: World War II Multiple Choice 1) In 1935, Mussolini ordered the Italian invasion of ________. A) Libya B) Austria C) Ethiopia D) France Answer: C 2) Who was the British Prime Minister at the Munich Conference? A) Winston Churchill B) David Lloyd George C) Stanley Baldwin D) Neville Chamberlain Answer: D 3) What was the Anschluss? A) Germany’s annexation of Austria B) Germany’s annexation of the Sudetenland C) Germany’s annexation of the Rhineland D) Germany’s annexation of Poland Answer: A 4) The blitzkrieg was based on _______. A) a rapid mechanized advance B) naval supremacy C) submarine warfare D) infantry Answer: A 5) Hitler controlled most of Europe by ________. A) June 1940 B) December 1943 C) August 1944 D) December 1945 Answer: A 6) Who was the British prime minister during most of World War II? A) Neville Chamberlain B) Stanley Baldwin C) Herbert Bonar Law D) Winston Churchill Answer: D 7) What country did the Nazis invade in June 1941? A) France B) Poland C) Great Britain D) the Soviet Union Answer: D 8) Which Soviet city first stalled the Nazi advance? A) Moscow B) Stalingrad C) Leningrad D) Kiev Answer: C 9) The United States entered World War II as a result of the ________. A) German attack on the Soviet Union B) Battle of Britain C) Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor D) Nazi invasion of France Answer: C 10) What was the turning point in the Pacific War? A) the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor B) the Battle of Midway C) the firebombing of Tokyo D) the Battle of Iwo Jima Answer: B 11) The Nazis experienced massive casualties under General von Paulus ________. A) as a result of the Battle of Stalingrad B) as a result of the invasion of France C) at the Battle of El Alamein D) in Greece Answer: A 12) The D-Day landings were launched from _______. A) England B) Libya C) Okinawa D) Egypt Answer: A 13) Which of the Allied nations reached Berlin first? A) the Soviet Union B) France C) Great Britain D) the United States Answer: A 14) What was the Manhattan Project? A) It was the British, Canadian, and American project to build the atom bomb. B) It was an American project to crack the Enigma code. C) It was an American project to build the atom bomb. D) It was a British project to build the atom bomb. Answer: A 15) The United States dropped atomic bombs on __________. A) Hiroshima and Kyoto B) Kyoto and Kokura C) Kokura and Nagaski D) Hiroshima and Nagasaki Answer: D 16) The firestorms in Hamburg were caused by ________. A) incendiary bombs B) atomic bombs C) artillery fire D) arsonists Answer: A 17) What is the estimated number of European Jews killed in the Holocaust? A) 10 million B) 6 million C) 3 million D) 1 million Answer: B 18) The Nazi war against the Jews really emerged after the ________. A) Anschluss with Austria B) Munich Conference C) invasion of the Rhineland D) conquest of Poland Answer: D 19) Where did the Nazis develop their plan to exterminate European Jews? A) the Warsaw Conference B) the Munich Conference C) the Riga Conference D) the Wannsee Conference Answer: D 20) Where were the German death camps located? A) Poland B) Germany C) Austria D) Czechoslovakia Answer: A 21) The Nuremberg Trials introduced what category under international law? A) crimes against humanity B) genocide C) weapons of mass destruction D) nonaligned nations Answer: A 22) Following World War II, who came to power in Yugoslavia? A) Josip Broz (Tito) B) Imre Nagy C) Władysław Gomułka D) Nicolae Ceaușescu Answer: A 23) Which country mobilized civilian women most fully during World War II? A) Germany B) Great Britain C) the United States D) the Soviet Union Answer: D 24) Which of these put a quarter-million women in the front lines of battle during World War II? A) the Soviet Union B) Germany C) the United States D) France Answer: A 25) Following World War II, the prevalent form of government across western Europe was ________. A) social democracy B) communism C) socialism D) Christian democracy Answer: A 26) Why was the Munich Conference held? A) to respond to Nazi aggression B) to conclude the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact C) to call for a meeting of the League of Nations D) to support Poland against German aggression Answer: A 27) After the Munich Conference, the leaders of France and Great Britain ________. A) knew that another world war was imminent B) believed that they had prevented the outbreak of another world war C) agreed to a formal military alliance with Germany D) agreed to a formal military alliance with the Soviet Union Answer: B 28) Unlike the early German advance in World War I, the use of blitzkrieg was ________. A) completely successful B) based on a rapid advance C) a failure D) more reliant on infantry Answer: A 29) The Vichy regime ________. A) was a French resistance government created after the Nazi invasion of France B) was a Nazi puppet government set up in southern France C) joined the British against the Nazis in 1942 D) was led by the World War I hero, Pierre Laval Answer: B 30) The Battle of Britain ________. A) included a large British amphibious assault in Normandy B) led to the destruction of the Royal Air Force C) led to the German invasion of the British coast D) prevented a German invasion of Great Britain Answer: D 31) Hitler postponed the invasion of the Soviet Union because ________. A) he decided to invade Britain instead B) he had to put down a revolt in Vichy France C) the Allies had invaded Italy D) he needed to send military aid to Mussolini in Greece and North Africa Answer: D 32) Which of these ultimately was the most important factor in the failed Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union? A) delay B) civil war C) the D-Day invasion D) the American entry into the war Answer: A 33) Lend-Lease was a means of ________. A) maintaining neutrality and yet supporting the Allies B) staying out of World War II C) pacifying Senate opposition to neutrality D) gradually mobilizing Answer: A 34) The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor gave Japan a new enemy and a new ally: ________. A) the United States and Germany B) China and the Soviet Union C) Britain and China D) France and Germany Answer: A 35) Attacks on carriers in the Pacific theatre were aimed at weakening the opponents ________. A) air force B) navy C) submarines D) transport ships Answer: A 36) Until 1943, most of the fighting against Germany in Europe was carried on by ________. A) the Soviet Union B) Britain C) the United States D) France Answer: A 37) Which of these is illustrated by Map 27.4, “Allied Victory in Europe, 1942–1945”? A) The European war was won in eastern Europe. B) Hitler made little headway in the Soviet Union. C) The D-Day invasion was a major turning point in the war. D) Soviet troops advanced only about half the distance as the rest of the Allies. Answer: A 38) Like World War I, World War II ended with ________. A) a German surrender B) the death of the German premier C) a Soviet victory D) the Allies meeting in Berlin Answer: A 39) Hitler’s plans for the Holocaust ________. A) were detailed in his autobiography Mein Kampf B) evolved after he came into power C) were implemented in 1933 D) had nothing to do with the German performance during World War II Answer: B 40) The catalyst for the Final Solution was probably the ________. A) German conquest of Poland B) German invasion of the Soviet Union C) Anschluss with Austria D) German invasion of the Rhineland Answer: B 41) Unlike death camps, concentration camps were _______. A) used as sources of forced labor B) were primarily in eastern Europe C) primarily filled with Jews D) not generally fatal for their occupants Answer: A 42) The Allies ________. A) were completely unaware of the Holocaust until 1945 B) knew about the Holocaust as early as 1941 C) used special commando units in an attempt to stop the Holocaust after 1941 D) mobilized Christian and Jewish civilians in their countries to prepare a relief program for eastern European Jews. Answer: B 43) The German policy of collective retribution _______. A) made the cost of resistance too high for most Europeans B) was ultimately unsuccessful C) was used mostly in western Europe D) is the same as the Holocaust Answer: A 44) Which of these regions arguably was most hard hit by more than one wave of advancing armies? A) eastern Europe B) the Balkans C) southern Europe D) western Europe Answer: A 45) Along with Jews, what other people were targeted for special Nazi extermination programs? A) Slavs B) Latins C) Celtic peoples D) Magyars Answer: A 46) The Germans treated western Europeans under occupation better than eastern Europeans because the ________. A) western Europeans outnumbered the German soldiers B) Germans considered many western European peoples to be of Germanic stock. C) eastern Europeans were poor laborers D) western Europeans collaborated more readily with the Germans Answer: B 47) The women’s experience of which country presented the strongest contrast to women’s experience in the Soviet Union during World War II? A) the United States B) Germany C) France D) Great Britain Answer: A 48) Which of these was the biggest factor in leading to the policy of appeasement? A) World War I B) the Great Depression C) ignorance about fascism D) British and French support for Hitler Answer: A 49) Unlike World War I, the Germans ________ in World War II. A) were defeated by the Soviet Union B) used a policy of rapid advance C) first pushed west to defeat France D) failed to conquer Britain Answer: A 50) What convinced the Nazi’s to bring women into the workforce? A) necessity B) women’s petitions C) the outbreak of World War II D) the interwar period Answer: A Essay 51) What were the most important similarities and differences in the decisions to go to war in World War I and World War II? Answer: The decisions to go to war in World War I and World War II had some similarities and differences: Similarities: 1. Alliances and Alliances: Both wars involved complex alliances that drew multiple countries into conflict. 2. Nationalism: Nationalistic sentiments and aspirations for power and dominance played significant roles in both conflicts. 3. Trigger Events: Each war was sparked by a triggering event (assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in WWI, invasion of Poland in WWII) that escalated tensions rapidly. Differences: 1. Causes: WWI was primarily triggered by alliances and imperialism, whereas WWII was a response to aggression, expansionism, and militarism by Axis powers. 2. Duration and Scope: WWI lasted from 1914 to 1918 and primarily involved Europe, while WWII lasted from 1939 to 1945 and was a global conflict involving multiple continents. 3. Technology and Tactics: WWII saw advancements in technology and tactics (e.g., blitzkrieg, air power) that were more advanced compared to WWI's trench warfare and earlier technology. 52) Why was the German advance so successful in western Europe, but a failure in the Soviet Union? Answer: The German advance was successful in western Europe primarily due to surprise tactics like blitzkrieg, exploiting weaknesses in defenses, and rapid troop movements. In the Soviet Union, factors such as harsh terrain, severe weather conditions, logistical challenges, and determined Soviet resistance contributed to the failure of the German advance. 53) What was the American role in World War II? Answer: In World War II, the American role was pivotal. Initially neutral, the U.S. entered the war after the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941. It became a major Allied power, contributing substantial military, industrial, and economic resources that significantly aided in the defeat of the Axis powers. 54) How and why did the Germans initiate and implement the Holocaust after 1942? Answer: After 1942, the Germans initiated and implemented the Holocaust through the systematic deportation and extermination of Jews and other targeted groups in concentration camps. This escalation was driven by Nazi ideology of racial purity and the "Final Solution," aiming to eradicate perceived threats to their envisioned Aryan race. 55) What role did the home front play in the success of the Allied war effort during World War II? Answer: The home front played a crucial role in the Allied war effort during World War II by supporting military production, conserving resources, and maintaining morale. Civilian contributions included working in factories, rationing goods, and participating in war bond drives, all of which sustained the Allies' ability to supply troops and equipment, ultimately contributing to victory. Chapter 28: Redefining the West After World War II Multiple Choice 1) The International Monetary Fund and World Bank were established ________. A) at the Tehran Conference B) at the Yalta Conference C) by the Bretton Woods Agreement D) by the United Nations Answer: C 2) What leaders replaced Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill in 1945? A) Harry Truman and Clement Attlee B) Dwight D. Eisenhower and Ernest Bevin C) Harry Truman and Harold MacMillan D) Dwight D. Eisenhower and Harold MacMillan Answer: A 3) The Truman Doctrine called for ________. A) money to rebuild France B) support for resistance to communism C) money to rebuild Great Britain D) funds to rebuild eastern Europe Answer: B 4) By 1949, Germany ________. A) had regained its lost territory in Poland B) had regained Alsace and Lorraine from France C) had returned to its 1933 borders D) was divided into East and West Germany Answer: D 5) The North Atlantic Treaty Organization included ________ when it was founded. A) the Soviet Union B) eleven nations C) just the United States and Britain D) all eastern European nations plus the Soviet Union Answer: B 6) What was the communist response to NATO? A) Eastern Germany B) the Warsaw Pact C) the European Union D) the United Nations Answer: B 7) Which of these nations won their independence from the Dutch in 1949? A) Indonesia B) Vietnam C) Thailand D) Guiana Answer: A 8) The Mau rebellion led to independence in ________. A) Kenya B) South Africa C) the Philippines D) Laos Answer: A 9) Decolonization began in earnest ________. A) following World War II B) during World War I C) in the interwar years D) after 1970 Answer: A 10) Which country began the Korean War? A) North Korea B) South Korea C) the Soviet Union D) China Answer: A 11) Brinkmanship came into popular use in the context of ________. A) the Cold War B) decolonization C) World War II D) the creation of NATO Answer: A 12) Which of these men came to power in the Soviet Union in 1955? A) Nikita Khrushchev B) Boris Yeltsin C) Joseph Stalin D) Vladimir Lenin Answer: A 13) Dien Bien Phu ________. A) was a famous French military defeat in Vietnam B) was a famous French military victory in Vietnam C) led to the French acceptance of an independent Vietnam D) was a famous French military victory in Thailand Answer: A 14) The American presence in Vietnam expanded most dramatically during the presidency of ________. A) Dwight D. Eisenhower B) John F. Kennedy C) Lyndon B. Johnson D) Richard M. Nixon Answer: C 15) Alexander Solzhenitsyn ________. A) authored a famous series of books about the Soviet labor camps B) served as Khrushchev’s cultural Kommissar C) opposed the de-Stalinization program D) wrote Doctor Zhivago Answer: A 16) Who was the dominant leader of the Soviet Union in the 1970s? A) Nikita Khrushchev B) Alexei Kosygin C) Mikhail Gorbachev D) Leonid Brezhnev Answer: D 17) Who was the leader of the Hungarian “New Course”? A) Imre Nagy B) János Kádár C) Nicolae Ceausescu D) Wladisaw Gomulka Answer: A 18) Which political parties dominated western European politics on the continent during the 1950s? A) Socialist parties B) Communist parties C) Neo-Fascist parties D) Christian Democratic parties Answer: D 19) In 1957, the Common Market had _____ members, mostly in western Europe. A) six B) fifteen C) twenty D) three Answer: A 20) Samuel Beckett is best known as a ________. A) playwright B) sculptor C) poet D) novelist Answer: A 21) Jackson Pollock is a painter in what style? A) Abstract Expressionism B) romantic C) Cubist D) Futurist Answer: A 22) Who was the most influential structuralist? A) Jean-Paul Sartre B) Michel Foucault C) Jacques Derrida D) Claude Lévi-Strauss Answer: D 23) Pop art was inspired by ________. A) mass-produced goods B) nuclear war C) the Cold War D) television Answer: A 24) Which European leader successfully challenged American cultural hegemony in Europe? A) Konrad Adenauer B) Alcide De Gasperi C) Harold MacMillan D) Charles De Gaulle Answer: D 25) Who wrote The Second Sex? A) Jean-Paul Sartre B) Simone de Beauvoir C) Betty Friedan D) Gloria Steinem Answer: B 26) Looking at Map 28.1, “After World War II,” which of these explains Russian movements in this map? A) troops returning home and Soviet expansion into eastern Europe B) Russian minorities returning from eastern Europe C) Russian aggression in the Balkans D) Russian occupation of East Germany Answer: A 27) Concessions to Stalin at the Tehran Conference were made because ________. A) the war could not be won without the Soviet Union B) the war was nearly over C) the United States was in a weak position D) Japan had just defeated the Allies Answer: A 28) The conferences held by the Big Three during World War II concerned winning the war and _______. A) the post-war settlement B) creating the International Monetary Fund C) the United Nations D) forming NATO Answer: A 29) The Marshall Plan ________ the Truman Doctrine. A) had the same objective as B) worked counter to C) used the same methods as D) reversed the policies of Answer: A 30) For Eisenhower, containment ________. A) did not do enough B) was a waste of money C) was unnecessary D) had failed Answer: A 31) The Franco-Algerian War ________. A) resulted in Algerian independence by 1962 B) was a short-lived war C) led to the ouster of Charles De Gaulle D) led to a bloody civil war on the French mainland Answer: A 32) The Korean War was a ________. A) civil war exacerbated by Cold War rivalries B) continuation of World War II C) result of Japanese aggression D) purely local conflict complicated by Japanese involvement Answer: A 33) Brinkmanship during the Cold War involved ________. A) a willingness to wage nuclear war B) avoiding nuclear war at all costs C) a policy of détente among the Cold War nations D) continuing the policy of containment Answer: A 34) Which of these lent credence to Soviet claims that they had advanced intercontinental ballistic missiles? A) Sputnik B) the Berlin Wall C) the Warsaw Pact D) de-Stalinization Answer: A 35) As a consequence of the Cuban Missile Crisis, the ________. A) United States and the Soviet Union withdrew from brinkmanship B) United States abandoned its policy of containment C) Soviet Union invaded Czechoslovakia D) United States took over Vietnam Answer: A 36) Which of the following statements about the Nuclear Test Ban treaty in 1963 is true? A) It led to the destruction of existing nuclear weapons in the United States and the Soviet Union. B) It led to an end of above-ground nuclear testing. C) It prohibited all nuclear testing. D) It was a hollow agreement that in no way actually limited nuclear testing. Answer: B 37) Like the Korean War, the Suez Canal Crisis ________. A) placed former allies in opposition B) was a result of Cold War tensions C) was a product of Wahhabism D) was ignored by the United States Answer: A 38) As a consequence of the de-Stalinization program, the Soviet economy ________. A) enjoyed unprecedented growth B) grew only in the area of consumer goods C) eliminated the collectivization of agriculture D) continued to lag behind the West Answer: D 39) Under the leadership of Wladyslaw Gomulka, Poland ________. A) left the Warsaw Pact B) ended the collectivization of agriculture C) embarked on a Stalinist-style purge D) embraced communism Answer: B 40) The Brezhnev Doctrine committed the Soviet Union to ________. A) socialism in one country B) a “New Course” for eastern Europe C) suppression of political change in eastern Europe D) international revolution Answer: C 41) Anticommunism in western Europe during the 1950s ________. A) led to the marginalization of communist parties in Italy and France B) resulted in making communist parties illegal in Italy, France, and West Germany C) did not have any impact on the political success of communist parties there D) led to the election of a communist-led coalition government in Italy Answer: A 42) The dominance of Christian Democracy marked a _______ trend in European politics. A) moderate B) radical C) reactionary D) communist Answer: A 43) Western European encounters with American culture after World War II led to the ________. A) Americanization of Europe B) rejection of all things American by most Europeans C) transformation of both European and American culture D) rejection of all things European by most Americans Answer: C 44) Structuralists argued that s ________. A) life has no clear meaning B) all cultures share common structures C) there are no discernable common structures across cultures D) all authority is meaningless Answer: B 45) Vatican II represented what trend in Catholic leadership? A) reconciliation with modern developments B) reaction to modernism C) condemnation of modern culture and modern morality D) a reaffirmation of the Council of Trent Answer: A 46) Which of these sum up Gaullism best? A) an affirmation of French exceptionalism B) isolationism C) rejection of international cooperation D) a strong response to World War II Answer: A 47) Looking at Table 28.1, “Annual Per Capita Gross National Product,” which of these nations had the highest gross national product in the 1960s? A) France B) Spain C) Britain D) Italy Answer: A 48) Which of these was true of the conferences held by the Big Three? A) Cold War divisions emerged in the course of the conferences. B) The conferences were marked by a complete consensus. C) Divisions between the United States and Britain marred the meetings. D) No consensus was possible. Answer: A 49) The formation of NATO and the Warsaw Pact signaled ________. A) increasing Cold War divisions B) détente C) the end of World War II D) de-Stalinization Answer: A 50) Pop art expressed ________ towards mid-century material culture. A) ambivalence B) hostility C) acceptance D) distrust Answer: A Essay 51) How did the Cold War define European and global politics in the 1950s and 1960s? Answer: During the 1950s and 1960s, the Cold War significantly shaped European and global politics by dividing the world into two ideological blocs led by the United States and the Soviet Union. Europe became a battleground for influence and alliances, leading to the establishment of NATO and the Warsaw Pact. Globally, it fueled proxy wars, nuclear arms race, and ideological competition, influencing international relations and security policies worldwide. 52) How and why did European states abandon or redefine their empires in the 1950s and 1960s? Answer: In the 1950s and 1960s, European states abandoned or redefined their empires primarily due to decolonization pressures fueled by nationalist movements, international pressure for self-determination, and economic strains post-World War II. The process was influenced by changing global attitudes towards colonialism and the desire for independence among colonized peoples, leading to the dismantling of imperial systems across Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean. 53) Compare the policies of Nikita Khrushchev and Leonid Brezhnev. Why did they follow different courses? Answer: Nikita Khrushchev and Leonid Brezhnev differed in their policies despite both leading the Soviet Union. Khrushchev pursued de-Stalinization, a thaw in relations with the West, and a focus on agricultural reform (e.g., Virgin Lands Campaign). In contrast, Brezhnev emphasized stability, maintaining strict party control, and expanding Soviet influence abroad through military buildup (e.g., invasion of Czechoslovakia). These differences stemmed from varying assessments of Soviet priorities, international circumstances, and personal leadership styles. 54) How did World War II reshape western European politics? Answer: World War II reshaped Western European politics by weakening colonial empires, accelerating decolonization movements, fostering European integration through institutions like the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), and promoting social welfare policies to rebuild economies and societies devastated by the war. 55) How did European encounters with American culture transform European politics, society, and culture during the 1950s and 1960s? Answer: European encounters with American culture during the 1950s and 1960s transformed European politics, society, and culture by influencing youth culture, consumerism, and social attitudes. American music, film, and fashion became popular, contributing to cultural shifts and challenging traditional norms. Politically, it led to debates over cultural imperialism and national identity, while economically, it boosted industries like entertainment and tourism. Chapter 29: The West in the Contemporary Era:
New Encounters and Transformations Multiple Choice 1) Détente was a period of ________. A) better relations between the Soviet Union and the United States B) increased Cold War tensions C) greater cooperation among European nations D) conflict among eastern bloc nations Answer: A 2) The New Conservatism British Prime Minister during the 1980s was ________. A) Tony Blair B) John Major C) Margaret Thatcher D) Harold Wilson Answer: C 3) The Green Party was most successful in which European country in the 1980s? A) Great Britain B) France C) Italy D) West Germany Answer: D 4) Which of these are considered the high point of détente? A) the Helsinki Accords B) the Bretton Woods Agreement C) the creation of the Warsaw Pact D) the building of the Berlin Wall Answer: A 5) The Solidarity movement began with a ________. A) strike in the Gdansk shipyard B) revolt in a Warsaw prison C) strike in a Cracow automobile plant D) revolt by peasants outside of Warsaw Answer: A 6) The Velvet Revolution refers to the ________. A) collapse of the Communist Party in Czechoslovakia B) reunification of East and West Germany C) collapse of the Soviet Union D) overthrow of Nikolai Ceausescu Answer: A 7) The policy of perestroika called for ________. A) economic restructuring B) greater transparency in the Soviet government C) the end of the gulags D) a multiparty system Answer: A 8) The Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty was signed by ________. A) the United States and the Soviet Union B) the NATO countries C) most Western nations D) the members of the Common Market Answer: A 9) The first eastern European countries to abandon communist rule were ________. A) Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia B) Hungary and Poland C) Poland and Yugoslavia D) Hungary and Czechoslovakia Answer: B 10) Nikolae Ceauşescu was the ruler of what country? A) Romania B) Czechoslovakia C) Poland D) Yugoslavia Answer: A 11) Which of these men came to dominate Soviet politics after 1991? A) Boris Yeltsin B) Mikhail Gorbachev C) Vladimir Putin D) Andrei Gromyko Answer: A 12) Where did new Russia face the greatest challenge to its authority? A) Tajikstan B) Chechnya C) Ukraine D) Moldova Answer: B 13) The program of ethnic cleansing in the 1990s occurred in the context of ________. A) the collapse of Yugoslavia B) perestroika C) the disintegration of the Soviet Union D) the Cold War Answer: A 14) Slobodan Milošević ________. A) led the Croatian forces against Serbia B) was a popular spokesperson for Serbian nationalism C) encouraged a peaceful resolution to Serbian and Croatian differences D) opposed the use of ethnic cleansing in Bosnia Answer: B 15) Which of these was created in 1991? A) the European Union B) the Common Market C) NATO D) the United Nations Answer: A 16) Which of these refused to accept the euro? A) Britain B) France C) Italy D) Germany Answer: A 17) Which of these triggered a debt crisis in Europe after 2008? A) the U.S. mortgage crisis B) the end of the Cold War C) the collapse of the British economy D) inflation Answer: A 18) Islamism is largely a rejection of ________. A) the West B) traditional Islam C) Arab nationalism D) Wahhabism Answer: A 19) Bombings in Europe in Spain and London in 2004 and 2005 were linked to A) Al Qaeda B) Irish terrorists C) Iraq D) Palestine Answer: A 20) The dominant cultural trend of the late 1900s and early 2000s is _______. A) postmodernism B) realism C) modernism D) romanticism Answer: A 21) The post-industrial economy is based on what sector? A) service B) manufacturing C) agriculture D) defense Answer: A 22) In what decade was the first test-tube baby born? A) 1970s B) 1960s C) 1980s D) 1990s Answer: A 23) Which of these was the fastest growing religion in western Europe in the late 1900s? A) Islam B) Methodism C) Mormonism D) Buddhism Answer: A 24) Most European countries legalized same-sex civil unions by what decade? A) 2000s B) 1980s C) 1990s D) 2010s Answer: A 25) Which European nation had the lowest birth rate by the 1980s? A) Germany B) Italy C) Spain D) Great Britain Answer: B 26) Stagflation was challenging because it was A) a new phenomenon B) accompanied by low unemployment C) followed a period of prosperity D) was intractable Answer: A 27) American and Soviet relations deteriorated during the presidency of Jimmy Carter because ________. A) Carter stressed the importance of human rights in shaping foreign policy B) the United States continued to support Israel C) the Soviet Union invaded Iraq D) the Soviet Union refused to attend the 1980 Olympic games Answer: A 28) Second Wave feminism focused more on ________ than earlier feminist movements. A) gender equality B) legal rights C) political rights D) reproductive rights Answer: A 29) Which of these was a special concern of new feminists? A) party politics B) control of the female body C) environmentalism D) unemployment Answer: B 30) Helmut Kohl illustrates what twentieth-century political ideology? A) New Conservatism B) the Greens C) social democracy D) coalition government Answer: A 31) Which of these played an especially strong role in the Polish Solidarity movement? A) the Catholic Church B) rural laborers C) the Communist Party D) foreign supporters Answer: A 32) Gorbachev’s glasnost attacked _______. A) the culture of the Soviet political system B) communism C) collectivization D) the suppression of eastern European nations by the Soviet Union Answer: A 33) Gorbachev abandoned the arms race ________. A) for financial reasons B) in support of perestroika C) to push for détente D) to remain in power Answer: A 34) Unlike the typical pattern in eastern Europe, in Romania the end of communism ________. A) was accompanied by violence B) was peaceful C) came in the 1970s D) followed the implementation of glasnost Answer: A 35) How did Mikhail Gorbachev lose power in the Soviet Union? A) as the result of an economic depression B) because of a coup by communist hardliners C) because of the force of nationalism D) because of the emergence of a capitalist economy Answer: C 36) Boris Yeltsin’s economic policy was a ________ of Gorbachev’s perestroika. A) radical version B) more moderate version C) rejection D) continuation Answer: A 37) After the collapse of communism in eastern Europe, women in East Germany ________. A) lost political power B) gained political parity with men for the first time C) dominated the parliaments in Hungary and Poland D) were guaranteed at least 30 percent of seats in the new parliaments Answer: A 38) The policy of lustration in eastern Europe had the goal of ________. A) wiping out the communist past B) healing old divisions C) continuing the dominance of the Communist Party D) ending communist rule in eastern Europe Answer: A 39) The end of the Cold War changed the meaning of the West because ________. A) territories shifted hands in Eastern Europe B) the main enemy of the West disappeared C) an economic decline followed the collapse of the Soviet Union D) the West no longer included the United States Answer: B 40) The last few decades have shown that the European Union has ________. A) adapted to the end of the Cold War B) defined itself as a western European union C) been reluctant to include former Soviet bloc nations D) grown beyond merely being a European union Answer: A 41) Adopting the euro met with _______ than the creation of the Common Market. A) more opposition B) less opposition C) much greater enthusiasm D) more indifference Answer: A 42) Looking at Map 29.3, “Contemporary Europe,” which of these is true? A) The biggest jump in European Union membership occurred in 2004. B) The European Union has spread outside of Europe. C) Most of the Balkans joined the European Union before northern European nations. D) All of the former Soviet bloc countries have joined the European Union. Answer: A 43) The most recent indicators show that Europeans are _________ the European Union. A) in favor of B) unanimously in favor of C) overwhelmingly opposed to D) unsure about remaining in Answer: A 44) Fundamentally, postmodernism may be understood as ________. A) a celebration of Western culture B) a rejection of Western cultural supremacy C) an emphasis on rationality and science D) an emphasis on Christianity Answer: B 45) What is the dominant pattern of postmodern religious life? A) an increasing turn to Christianity as a unifying cultural bond B) the replacement of Christianity with Islam across Europe C) the weakening but persistence of Christian churches D) the disappearance of many mainline Protestant faiths in Western Europe Answer: C 46) The gap between the North and South refers to the ________. A) gulf between the Have and Have-not nations of the world B) gap between Islam and Christianity C) gulf between capitalism and communism D) environmental crisis worldwide Answer: A 47) Euro-Islam represents which of these? A) a blending of European and Muslim traditions B) the rejection of Western values by European Muslims C) the assimilation of Muslims into Christian culture D) the blending of Christian and Muslim traditions Answer: A 48) Basque separatists and the Irish Republican Army were alike in their ________. A) methods B) nationalist goals C) political ideology D) common enemy Answer: A 49) Angela Merkel’s election in 2005 symbolized ________. A) true unification of East and West Germany B) the end of the Cold War C) the end of the dominance of social democracy D) the economic power of eastern Europe Answer: A 50) Euro-Islam is best considered a _______ Islamism. A) rejection of B) reconciliation with C) form of D) radical version of Answer: A Essay 51) How did the economic crisis in the 1970s affect Western politics and society? Answer: The economic crisis in the 1970s led to significant changes in Western politics and society. It fueled inflation, unemployment, and energy shortages, prompting shifts towards conservative economic policies and deregulation. Socially, it undermined confidence in government and fostered skepticism towards traditional institutions, contributing to a broader conservative political resurgence in the 1980s. 52) Who is Mikhail Gorbachev? How and why did he transform the Soviet Union in the 1980s? Answer: Mikhail Gorbachev was the leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. He implemented reforms known as perestroika (restructuring) and glasnost (openness), aimed at revitalizing the Soviet economy and society. Gorbachev's reforms sought to modernize the USSR by introducing elements of market economy and political openness, ultimately leading to the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War. 53) What do you consider the most important changes that took place in eastern Europe after the fall of the Soviet Union? Support your answer. Answer: After the fall of the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe experienced significant changes: 1. Political Transition: Countries transitioned from communist regimes to democratic governments, holding free elections. For example, Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia embraced multiparty systems. 2. Economic Reforms: Shifts from centrally planned economies to market economies occurred, leading to privatization and integration into global markets. This change boosted economic growth in countries like Poland and Hungary. 3. European Integration: Many Eastern European countries joined the European Union, enhancing political stability, economic development, and access to EU funds and markets. For instance, Poland and Hungary became EU members in 2004. These changes marked a profound shift towards democracy, market economy, and European integration in Eastern Europe after the Soviet Union's collapse. 54) Have European Muslims challenged traditional European culture? Support your answer. Answer: Yes, European Muslims have challenged traditional European culture in various ways: 1. Religious Practices: Muslim communities have introduced visible symbols of Islam, such as mosques and hijabs, challenging secularism and prompting debates on religious freedom. 2. Cultural Integration: Differences in values regarding gender roles, family structure, and dietary practices have sparked discussions on multiculturalism and assimilation. 3. Political Influence: Muslim populations have influenced political agendas, advocating for policies that accommodate religious practices and address discrimination. These challenges have prompted European societies to reconsider their cultural norms and policies regarding diversity and integration. 55) What do you think are the key elements of a new definition of the West? What do you think are some of the most enduring characteristics of Western culture? Answer: Key elements of a new definition of the West could include: 1. Democratic Values: Emphasis on democracy, rule of law, and human rights. 2. Cultural Diversity: Recognition and integration of diverse cultures and religions. 3. Technological Advancement: Innovation and technological progress. 4. Global Engagement: Involvement in global governance and cooperation. Enduring characteristics of Western culture include: 1. Individualism: Focus on individual rights, freedoms, and achievements. 2. Secularism: Separation of religion and state, promoting tolerance and diversity. 3. Rule of Law: Legal systems based on fairness, justice, and accountability. 4. Intellectual Inquiry: Tradition of scientific inquiry, education, and critical thinking. Test Bank for West: Encounters and Transformations Brian Levack, Edward Muir, Meredith Veldman 9780205968374, 9780134229270

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