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This Document Contains Chapters 3 to 5 Chapter 3: Greek Civilization Multiple Choice 1) Who is the main hero of the Iliad? A) Odysseus B) Hector C) Achilles D) King Priam Answer: C 2) Who were the hoplites? A) cavalry B) infantry C) sailors D) generals Answer: B 3) Political power in Sparta was ________. A) in the hands of a few elders B) held by the Spartan hoplites C) in the hands of the Spartan helots D) shared equally by Spartan men and women Answer: A 4) When did Spartan males begin their military training? A) at the age of 18 B) after they were married C) at the age of 7 D) only when their parents decided they were ready Answer: C 5) Who restructured Athens’ political and social system in 594 B.C.E.? A) Solon B) Pericles C) Themistocles D) Hesiod Answer: A 6) Who was eligible to serve on the boule of 400? A) male citizens from any four political groups B) any male regardless of wealth or origin C) only male citizens from the two wealthiest political groups D) only male citizens who could afford to own land Answer: A 7) Who was Peisistratus? A) the of Greek democracy. B) the predecessor of Solon C) an Athenian tyrant D) The archon of Athens during the reign of Solon. Answer: C 8) Who is traditionally known as the founder of Greek democracy? A) Solon B) Pericles C) Peisistratus D) Cleisthenes Answer: D 9) The Persian leader who conquered the Medes, Anatolia, and Babylonia was ________. A) Darius the Great B) Xerxes C) Cyrus the Great D) Nebuchadnezzar Answer: C 10) What was Zoroastrianism? A) Persia’s polytheistic religion B) Persia’s monotheistic religion C) a philosophy rather than a religion D) an ancient monotheistic religion that no longer exists Answer: B 11) Zoroastrians believe ________. A) Ahura Mazda is a god that represents the forces of destruction B) Ahura Mazda is a god who represents goodness, wisdom, and justice C) that fire is a negative and destructive force D) that there are many gods Answer: B 12) Satrapies were ________. A) special Persian saddles B) another name for the sacred fire altars in Zoroastrianism C) the administrative provinces of Darius’s empire D) special foods favored by Persian noblemen Answer: C 13) Greek triremes were ________. A) rowed warships B) governing councils C) military leaders D) soldiers Answer: A 14) Which of these Persian rulers launched an attack on Athens in 480 B.C.E.? A) Xerxes B) Darius C) Cyrus D) Cambyses Answer: A 15) Which of these was the final Greek victory against the Persians in 479 B.C.E.? A) Plataea B) Thermopolis C) Salamis D) Marathon Answer: A 16) Athenian democracy was most well-developed ________. A) before the Persian Wars B) during the Age of Pericles C) after the Peloponnesian War D) by the Delian League Answer: B 17) What was the Delian League? A) a Spartan-led alliance of Greek city-states during the Peloponnesian War B) an Athenian-led alliance of Greek city-states after the Persian Wars C) an alliance of Greek city-states created to prevent future wars with Rome D) an alliance of Greek city-states that pooled monies for artistic and cultural projects Answer: B 18) The Peloponnesian War __________________. A) destroyed the Athenian Empire B) destroyed the city-state of Sparta C) led to the Persian takeover of the Greek mainland D) was a great Athenian triumph over Sparta Answer: A 19) Hetairai in classical Greece were ________. A) prostitutes B) priestesses C) slaves D) mercenaries Answer: A 20) About what proportion of Athenian society was enslaved? A) one-third B) one-half C) one-fifth D) one-tenth Answer: A 21) Which of these was the chief Greek god? A) Zeus B) Achilles C) Apollo D) Poseidon Answer: A 22) Greek drama grew out of what earlier tradition? A) religious festivals B) mock battles C) voting D) poetry readings Answer: A 23) Which of these men was a famous writer of Greek tragedies? A) Sophocles B) Aristophanes C) Homer D) Lysippus Answer: A 24) Who wrote the Oresteia? A) Aeschylus B) Aristophanes C) Euripides D) Thales Answer: A 25) Herodotus is best known for his work in what discipline? A) history B) poetry C) drama D) engineering Answer: A 26) The Greek use of coinage ________. A) helped increase trade among the Greek poleis and their colonies B) led to a complicated and unsuccessful banking system in the colonies C) had only a limited impact on commercial activity in the Mediterranean D) increased inflation everywhere in the Greek world Answer: A 27) The panhellenic games ________. A) included athletes from both the Greek and non-Greek world B) helped foster a common culture among the Greeks C) included both male and female athletes D) divided the Greeks more than they unified them Answer: B 28) The hoplite phalanx ________. A) required highly skilled and disciplined warriors B) was the method of fighting preferred by Greek aristocrats C) was resisted by most political leaders in the Greek poleis D) was restricted to men with aristocratic backgrounds Answer: A 29) Which statement best describes tyrants in the poleis? A) Tyrants were usually hoplites who gained their political support from other hoplites and the poor. B) Tyrants were always aristocrats who used their political power to support the interests of other aristocrats. C) Tyrants were usually aristocrats who were widely supported by hoplites and the poor. D) Tyrants were always aristocratic men from other poleis who gained power in a polis as the result of military conquest. Answer: C 30) Compared to Athens, political power in Sparta ________. A) was in fewer hands B) had a broader base C) gave more power to the lower classes D) was more given to rapid changes Answer: A 31) The Spartan way of life was rooted in the desire to ________. A) trade with Athens B) colonize southern Italy C) control the helots D) conquer the Persians Answer: C 32) Peisistratus was an example of a ________. A) tyrant B) helot C) king D) archon Answer: A 33) How did the Persians treat conquered peoples? A) brutally, as the Persians insisted on total acceptance of their cultural norms B) leniently, as the Persians allowed conquered peoples to return to their homelands and worship their own gods C) indifferently, as the Persians typically ignored the conquered peoples D) harshly, as the Persians adopted a policy of killing one-third of all residents in conquered cities Answer: B 34) Unlike the Hebrew religion, Zoroastrianism ________. A) was dualistic B) was monotheistic C) had a sacred scripture D) arose in the Middle East Answer: A 35) Which of these led to the Persian Wars? A) Persian expansion B) Greek colonization in Italy C) the development of the hoplite phalanx D) Spartan expansion Answer: A 36) The Persian Wars ________. A) led to Spartan domination of the Greek mainland B) had no impact on the development of Athenian power C) led to Persian domination of the Greek mainland D) brought Athens to a new prominence Answer: D 37) Which of these gave Athens an advantage that led to victory over Persia? A) its navy B) hoplite fighting C) its cavalry D) clever strategies Answer: A 38) Satrapies were used by Persian great kings to overcome what problem? A) the enormous size of their empire B) the diverse peoples under Persian rule C) weak central power D) the need for recruits for their army Answer: A 39) Slaves in Greek society ________. A) played a key role in the economic success of the city states B) enjoyed the same political rights as citizens in most city states C) greatly outnumbered the number of free citizens in most city states D) were always non-Greek people captured in war Answer: A 40) Seclusion for elite Athenian women was made possible by ________. A) slaves B) daughters C) traveling at night D) harems Answer: A 41) What best characterizes Greek religious beliefs? A) Church and state were clearly separated. B) The gods affected every aspect of life, including politics. C) The gods were believed to be uninterested in human affairs. D) The Greek city-states did not share a belief in the same gods. Answer: B 42) What was the achievement of Greek science? A) Greek scientists worked to develop general principles to explain natural phenomena. B) Greek scientists were able to find the fundamental substance of the universe. C) Greek scientists were able to prove the role of the gods in natural phenomena. D) Greek scientists demonstrated the inaccuracy of Babylonian scientific data. Answer: A 43) Sophists such as Protagoras ________. A) argued for absolute standards of truth B) stressed the importance of the gods in human life C) argued that truth is relative D) called for the execution of Socrates Answer: C 44) Socrates and his student Plato ________. A) emphasized the relativity of truth B) argued for absolute standards of truth C) were welcomed by the people of Athens D) co-authored many books together Answer: B 45) Which of these was a focus of the work of Plato and Aristotle? A) political science B) botany C) new law codes D) technology Answer: A 46) How did its role in the Delian League feed into Athenian pre-eminence? A) diverting league funds B) using league lands for Athenian farmers C) leading league armies on voyages of exploration D) employing league members to rebuild Athens Answer: A 47) Which of these was a key characteristic of classical Greek sculpture? A) balance B) power C) emotion D) simplicity Answer: A 48) In what period did the fundamental components of Greek culture emerge? A) Archaic Age B) Hellenistic period C) during the Persian Wars D) in the fifth century Answer: A 49) The Persian Royal Road helped to link ________. A) Anatolia and the central Persian lands B) central Persian cities C) its westernmost lands D) its capital to India Answer: A 50) Under Pericles, Athenian women gained more importance in their society through ________. A) childbearing B) public roles C) their wealth D) moral influence Answer: A Essay 51) What was the influence of the Archaic Age on later Greek culture? Answer: The Archaic Age of ancient Greece (circa 800-480 BCE) laid foundational elements for later Greek culture. It saw the development of city-states, establishment of democratic principles, advancements in art and literature (such as epic poetry and the beginnings of Greek drama), and the codification of laws. These cultural, political, and artistic innovations profoundly influenced later Greek societies, including the Classical and Hellenistic periods. 52) How and why did encounters among the Persians and Greeks help shape the Classical Age? Answer: Encounters between Persians and Greeks, notably through conflicts like the Persian Wars (490-479 BCE), influenced the Classical Age of Greece in several ways. These encounters fostered a sense of Greek identity and unity against a common enemy, contributed to the rise of Athens as a dominant naval power and cultural center, promoted democratic ideals and civic pride, and spurred artistic and intellectual achievements known as the Golden Age of Athens. These developments collectively shaped the Classical Age by defining Greek culture, politics, and philosophy for centuries to come. 53) What best explains the growth and success of the Persian Empire? Answer: The growth and success of the Persian Empire can be attributed to several factors: effective administration, tolerant governance allowing diverse cultures to flourish, strategic infrastructure development (like the Royal Road), and skilled military leadership that enabled conquests across vast territories. These factors facilitated economic prosperity, cultural exchange, and political stability, making the Persian Empire one of the ancient world's most enduring and influential civilizations. 54) Compare and contrast the Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta. Answer: Athens and Sparta were prominent Greek city-states with distinct socio-political systems: • Athens: Known for its democratic government, Athens valued education, arts, and philosophy. It emphasized naval power and trade, fostering a cultural and intellectual hub in the Mediterranean. • Sparta: Characterized by a militaristic society, Sparta prioritized military training and discipline. It had a rigid social hierarchy with a dual kingship and an emphasis on collective identity and obedience to the state. Both city-states shared a Greek identity and participated in events like the Persian Wars, but their governance, values, and societal structures differed significantly. 55) How and why did Greek art and architecture reflect classical Greek values? Answer: Greek art and architecture of the Classical period (5th to 4th century BCE) reflected key values such as harmony, balance, proportion, and the celebration of human achievement. Sculpture, such as the idealized human form seen in statues like the Discus Thrower or the Venus de Milo, exemplified the pursuit of perfection and the glorification of the human body. Architecture, notably in temples like the Parthenon, showcased precision, symmetry, and a reverence for gods and civic pride. These artistic expressions aimed to convey the ideals of reason, order, and beauty that were central to Classical Greek culture. Chapter 4: Hellenistic Civilization Multiple Choice 1) The period 336–331 B.C.E. is referred to as the Hellenistic Age because ________. A) it is named after Helen of Troy B) the Greeks were known as Hellenes and Greek culture dominated this period C) it was a period of Persian domination of the Greek or Hellenic world D) Alexander the Great's nickname was Hellenistes Answer: B 2) When did the Hellenistic Age end? A) with the death of Alexander the Great B) after the collapse of the Persian Empire C) with the Roman conquest of Egypt D) at the end of the Trojan War Answer: C 3) Where did the Hellenistic Age really begin? A) Athens B) Sparta C) Macedon D) Troy Answer: C 4) Who was Demosthenes? A) He was an Athenian orator who denounced Philip II and the Macedonians. B) He was an Athenian warrior who joined in an alliance with Macedon. C) He was a Spartan commander who allied with Macedon against Athens. D) He was the tutor of Alexander the Great. Answer: A 5) After Philip II defeated the Greek city-states, he sought to conquer ________. A) Egypt B) Rome C) Persia D) Crete Answer: C 6) How far did the conquests of Alexander the Great extend? A) Persepolis B) Babylon C) modern Pakistan D) China Answer: C 7) How did Alexander the Great die? A) He was killed in battle. B) He was assassinated by his own men. C) He was poisoned by his lover. D) He caught a fever and died in Babylon. Answer: D 8) How did Alexander rule Persia? A) He broke it up into city-states similar to Athens. B) He adopted the Persian method of ruling as a Great King. C) He allowed each area to choose its mode of government through democratic elections. D) He renamed the area New Macedonia and retained his title as King of Macedon. Answer: B 9) Satraps were used by Alexander to ________. A) govern provinces B) conquer C) collect taxes D) spread Greek culture Answer: B 10) Where did the Ptolemaic dynasty rule primarily? A) Mesopotamia B) Macedonia C) Persia D) Egypt Answer: D 11) After Alexander's death ________. A) his eldest son assumed control of his empire B) the Persians regained control of Persepolis C) his generals carved out separate kingdoms from his empire D) the Romans took over his empire Answer: C 12) Which of the following best describes the Hellenistic successor states? A) monarchies dominated by Greeks and Macedonians B) democracies dominated by Greeks and Macedonians C) monarchies dominated by native peoples D) democracies dominated by native peoples Answer: A 13) Who was Pytheas of Marseilles? A) a Hellenistic scientist who discovered measured the diameter of the sun B) a Hellenistic explorer who reported the midnight sun and polar ice C) a Hellenistic philosopher who argued for the rejection of worldly pleasures D) a Hellenistic artist and sculptor who created the Nike of Samothrace Answer: B 14) The Demotic Chronicle expressed ________. A) resistance to the Ptolemies B) admiration for Alexander C) Zoroastrian beliefs D) acceptance of Greek culture Answer: A 15) The Hallstatt culture was ________. A) Celtic B) Roman C) Etruscan D) Hellenistic Answer: A 16) What was Koine? A) Macedonian money used across the Hellenistic world B) the version of Greek spoken throughout the Hellenistic world C) the center of the Hellenistic city D) the Greek goddess of commerce Answer: B 17) The most famous and most cosmopolitan Hellenistic city was ________. A) Alexandria in Egypt B) Persepolis in Persia C) Babylon in Mesopotamia D) Athens in Greece Answer: A 18) Which of these describes the Septuagint? A) the Greek version of the Hebrew Bible B) the earliest form of the Bible C) the Christian Bible D) the Hebrew Bible written during the Babylonian Exile Answer: A 19) Arsinoë was a(n) ________. A) Egyptian pharaoh B) famous dancer C) Macedonian queen D) dramatis Answer: A 20) Alexandrianism is a style developed in Hellenistic ________. A) poetry B) drama C) architecture D) history Answer: A 21) The Stoics were founded by _______. A) Zeno of Citium B) Aristotle C) Xenocrates D) Anaxagoras Answer: B 22) Who was Diogenes? A) the founder of Stoicism B) one of the most famous Cynics C) a supporter of Epicureanism D) a Hellenistic poet and comic Answer: B 23) The center of scientific inquiry during the Hellenistic era was ________. A) Athens B) Alexandria C) Babylon D) Jerusalem Answer: B 24) Euclid ________. A) wrote a famous geometry textbook B) calculated the earth’s circumference C) wrote a handbook on human anatomy D) calculated the value of pi Answer: A 25) Herophilus and Erasistratus were famous Hellenistic ________. A) mathematicians B) astronomers C) literary figures D) doctors Answer: D 26) During the Hellenistic era ________. A) Greek culture replaced the local cultures across the Hellenistic world B) Greek culture absorbed many non-Greek elements from non-Greek peoples C) non-Greek peoples fiercely rejected any encounter with Greek culture D) the Greeks remained totally uninterested in non-Greek cultures and peoples Answer: B 27) Compared to classical Greek tactics, Philip II relied more on _______. A) cavalry B) infantry C) the navy D) surprise Answer: A 28) Why was Alexander the Great successful? A) His soldiers had sworn an oath of loyalty to his father. B) He was a successful soldier and brilliant military leader. C) He was able to buy peace with the Persian Empire. D) He assassinated his closest rivals. Answer: B 29) Alexander’s conquest of Persepolis was important because it ________. A) meant the collapse of the Persian Empire B) provided a new capital city for the Hellenistic Empire C) signaled the total defeat of Egypt D) signaled the end of Alexander's conquests in the Middle East Answer: A 30) What was the purpose of the many Alexandrias founded by Alexander the Great? A) administration of the empire B) rewarding his soldiers C) creating centers of Greek culture D) tax collection Answer: A 31) Looking at Map 4.1, “The Conquests of Alexander the Great,” which of these portions of Alexander’s empire would probably be hardest to hold? A) Bactria B) Egypt C) Mesopotamia D) Macedonia Answer: A 32) Which of these political traditions did Alexander borrow from the Persians? A) absolutism B) democracy C) republicanism D) oligarchy Answer: A 33) Which of these is an example of a Hellenistic monarch? A) Cleopatra VII B) Philip II C) Pytheas of Marseilles D) Polybius Answer: A 34) The image of Ptolemy VI illustrates what aspect of Hellenistic culture? A) adoption of local ruling customs B) suppression of local cultures C) Greek rule over regional elites D) the spread of Macedonian traditions to the Hellenistic world Answer: A 35) What was the Jewish response to Hellenism? A) The Jews fiercely resisted Hellenistic rule and expressed their displeasure in The Oracle of the Potter. B) Most Jews abandoned their religion and even helped the Hellenistic rulers collect taxes. C) The Jews in Palestine led by the Maccabees launched a war of liberation against the Seleucid kings. D) The Jews absorbed Greek culture and changed their religious beliefs to mirror the beliefs of the Seleucid kings. Answer: C 36) Zoroastrianism provided comfort to Persians in the Hellenistic period because it ________. A) promised a restoration of the Persian great kings B) merged with Macedonian religion C) allowed them to join the ruling classes D) helped them join forces with the Hebrews Answer: A 37) Unlike most of the peoples of the Hellenistic world, the Celts _______. A) were not urbanized B) had not contacts with other peoples C) were restricted to the British Isles D) had trading contacts with Greece Answer: A 38) From about 400 B.C.E., the Celtic peoples were ________. A) expanding south B) moving into North Africa C) emerging for the first time D) in control of most of Italy Answer: A 39) Hellenistic cities were ________. A) small towns mainly used for military forts B) as independent as the classical Greek city-states C) large cosmopolitan centers of Hellenistic life and culture D) places where all classes enjoyed similar wealth and status Answer: C 40) Citizenship in cities during the Hellenistic Age was ________. A) limited to Greeks and Macedonians B) granted only to the relatives of the king C) not as important as it had been during the Greek Classical Age D) limited to men across the Hellenistic world Answer: C 41) The Hellenistic baroque is marked by _______. A) drama B) balance C) restraint D) simplicity Answer: B 42) The plays of Menander of Athens ________. A) criticized the ruling kings in the Hellenistic era B) were light and amusing C) were important works of pastoral poetry D) helped prove the earth orbited the sun Answer: B 43) The works of which of these writers was most likely to appeal to sophisticated tastes? A) Callimachus B) Menander C) Theocritus D) Crates Answer: A 44) The Epicureans believed that happiness was achieved by ________. A) by pursuing a hedonistic life B) living a rational and simple life outside of politics C) participation in public life D) rejecting all pleasure Answer: B 45) Unlike Epicureans, the Stoics _______. A) thought a good life could be engaged with the world B) believed in a simple life C) responded to the challenges of urban life D) were really proto-Christians Answer: A 46) The Cynics ________. A) urged people to give up their material things B) encouraged an unhappy view of the world C) argued against the existence of gods D) called for a return to Egyptian religious beliefs Answer: A 47) Unlike Hipparchus, Aristarchus _______. A) modeled a sun-centered universe B) was an astronomer C) followed Aristotle D) used astronomical observations to prove his theories Answer: A 48) The career of Alexander the Great can be said to be a _______ the career of Philip II. A) continuation B) rejection C) unrelated to D) detour from Answer: A 49) Which of these Hellenistic kingdoms established the most stable and long-lasting rule? A) Ptolemies B) Seleucids C) Pergamum D) Antigonids Answer: A 50) Drama and architecture were two areas where Hellenistic writers and artists _______ classical Greek culture. A) transformed B) abandoned C) copied D) influenced Answer: A Essay 51) What were the most enduring actions taken by Alexander the Great? Justify your response. Answer: Alexander the Great's most enduring actions include: 1. Military Conquests: He created one of the largest empires in history, stretching from Greece to India, spreading Greek culture (Hellenism) across these regions. 2. City Foundations: Alexander founded numerous cities, often named after himself, which served as centers of Greek culture and trade for centuries. 3. Cultural Diffusion: His conquests facilitated the spread of Greek language, art, philosophy, and architecture throughout the known world, influencing cultures for centuries to come. These actions laid the foundation for the Hellenistic period and significantly shaped the course of Western civilization. 52) What shaped the political systems of the successor kingdoms? Use examples, and explain differences among the kingdoms. Answer: The political systems of the successor kingdoms (Diadochi) were shaped by several factors: 1. Division of Territories: After Alexander's death, his generals (Diadochi) divided his empire into several kingdoms. For example, Ptolemy I founded the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt, Seleucus I founded the Seleucid Empire in Asia, and Antigonus I and his son Demetrius founded the Antigonid dynasty in Macedonia. 2. Mixing of Greek and Local Traditions: Each kingdom blended Greek administrative practices with local political structures. For instance, the Ptolemaic Kingdom adopted elements of Egyptian bureaucracy, while the Seleucids integrated Persian and Babylonian administrative techniques. 3. Dynastic Succession: Succession was often contentious, leading to frequent conflicts and shifts in power. This instability contrasted with the centralized rule of the Macedonian Empire under Alexander. 4. Cultural Influence: Despite their political differences, all successor kingdoms continued to spread Greek culture (Hellenism) through education, art, and urban planning. This cultural influence persisted for centuries and left a lasting impact on the regions they governed. 53) How did the Greek encounters with foreign cultures shape the political, economic, and cultural developments of the Hellenistic world? Answer: Greek encounters with foreign cultures during the Hellenistic period shaped: 1. Political Developments: They led to the establishment of diverse kingdoms with hybrid political systems blending Greek and local traditions, fostering regional autonomy and administrative innovation. 2. Economic Growth: Trade networks expanded, connecting the Mediterranean with Asia and Africa, stimulating commerce, urbanization, and the development of banking and mercantile practices. 3. Cultural Exchange: Greek art, philosophy, and science merged with Eastern traditions, creating a vibrant intellectual environment that produced innovations in medicine, astronomy, and literature, influencing both Eastern and Western civilizations. 54) Discuss and describe the social, political, and economic life of a typical Hellenistic city. Use specific examples. Answer: In a typical Hellenistic city: 1. Social Life: The population was diverse, including Greeks, locals, and immigrants. Social classes were pronounced, with elites enjoying cultural activities in theaters and gymnasiums, while artisans and laborers formed the backbone of urban productivity. 2. Political Life: Cities often had a mix of democratic and oligarchic elements. Local councils and assemblies allowed citizen participation, while rulers appointed by Hellenistic kings governed some cities. For example, the city of Alexandria in Egypt had a mixed Greek-Egyptian administration under Ptolemaic rule. 3. Economic Life: Trade and commerce flourished, supported by ports and marketplaces. Cities like Rhodes and Alexandria were hubs for maritime trade, facilitating the exchange of goods from across the Mediterranean and beyond. The Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt, with its agricultural wealth and strategic location, was a key economic center. Overall, Hellenistic cities were vibrant centers of culture, politics, and commerce, blending Greek and local traditions to create a cosmopolitan society that influenced the wider Mediterranean world. 55) What were the main contributions of Hellenistic scientists? Answer: The main contributions of Hellenistic scientists include: 1. Mathematics and Geometry: Euclid's "Elements" laid the foundation for geometry, while Archimedes made significant advances in calculus, geometry, and mechanics. 2. Astronomy: Aristarchus proposed a heliocentric model of the solar system, and Hipparchus developed the first known trigonometric tables and made precise calculations of the Moon's orbit. 3. Medicine: The works of Hippocrates and Galen advanced medical knowledge, focusing on diagnosis, anatomy, and the importance of observation and clinical practice. 4. Engineering: Archimedes made pioneering contributions to hydrostatics, mechanics, and invented devices like the screw pump and compound pulleys. These contributions laid the groundwork for scientific inquiry and discovery in subsequent centuries, influencing fields from mathematics and astronomy to medicine and engineering. Chapter 5: The Roman Republic Multiple Choice 1) Early Rome developed ________. A) on the hills around the Tiber River B) on the flat plain of the Po River C) by the bay of Naples D) on the hills around the Arno River Answer: A 2) During the early years after Rome’s founding, the Roman political system was a(n) ________. A) democracy B) monarchy C) republic D) oligarchy Answer: B 3) The Forum was ________. A) the seat of Roman political life B) a marketplace C) the religious center of Rome D) primarily residential Answer: A 4) The patricians ________. A) were a group of elite families in the Roman Republic B) were the Roman commoners C) had no political power during the Roman Republic D) willingly surrendered all of their political rights to the plebeians Answer: A 5) What people dominated central Italy from about 800 B.C.E.? A) Etruscans B) Latins C) Celts D) Greeks Answer: A 6) Which of these was established in Rome around 500 B.C.E? A) a republic B) a monarchy C) an empire D) a democracy Answer: A 7) The Law of the Twelve Tables was published about ________. A) 450 B.C.E. B) 350 B.C.E. C) 250 B.C.E. D) 550 B.C.E. Answer: A 8) What did Rome expect from its conquered peoples? A) money and land B) money and troops C) loyalty and troops D) loyalty and land Answer: C 9) Which of these powers was preeminent in the western Mediterranean by 300 B.C.E.? A) Carthage B) Rome C) Athens D) Persia Answer: A 10) The First Punic War ________. A) pitted Rome and Carthage in a struggle for Spain B) led to the complete destruction of Carthage C) led to the complete destruction of Rome D) pitted Rome and Carthage in a struggle over Sicily Answer: D 11) The Second Punic War ________. A) led to the complete destruction of Carthage B) concerned Rome's desire to control Sicily C) included Hannibal’s famous march across the Alps with war elephants D) led to the complete destruction of Rome Answer: C 12) At the Battle of Zama in 202 B.C.E., ________. A) Scipio decisively defeated Hannibal B) Hannibal decisively defeated Scipio C) Carthage was destroyed D) Rome was destroyed Answer: A 13) How many wars did Rome fight against Macedon between 215 and 167 B.C.E.? A) one B) two C) three D) four Answer: C 14) Which of these was a Roman playwright? A) Plautus B) Scipio C) Livy D) Horace Answer: A 15) How did Roman patricians view Hellenism in the Roman Republic during the second century B.C.E.? A) They embraced it with enthusiasm and willingly replaced Roman traditions with Greek customs. B) They reacted in a paradoxical fashion in that they wanted the continuation of Roman traditions even as they adopted many Greek ideas and customs. C) They completely rejected the influx of Greek traditions and ideas and even outlawed Greek poets, philosophers, and artists from Rome. D) They were disinterested in Greek ideas and customs and did little to prevent their influence in Rome. Answer: B 16) Which Hellenistic philosophy most appealed to the Romans during the Republic? A) Epicureanism B) Stoicism C) Cynicism D) Alexandrianism Answer: B 17) Which of these Roman gods was largely modeled on the Greek Zeus? A) Jupiter B) Pluto C) Hephaestus D) Ares Answer: A 18) Which of these Roman deities was imported from Pergamum? A) Cybele B) Isis C) Juno D) Hera Answer: A 19) What was the approximate proportion of slaves in the Roman Republic by the first century B.C.E.? A) one-eighth of the population B) one-fourth of the population C) one-third of the population D) one-half of the population Answer: C 20) Who led the most famous slave revolt in the Roman Republic? A) Marcus B) Spartacus C) Juvenal D) Atticus Answer: B 21) The Roman familia was essentially the ________. A) household B) family C) parents and immediate offspring D) children of a marriage Answer: A 22) In general, Roman women left their fathers’ control when they ________. A) married B) left home C) had children D) turned 20 Answer: A 23) Tiberius Gracchus attempted to implement reforms through what institution? A) the Plebeian Assembly B) the consuls C) the Centuriate Assembly D) the Senate Answer: A 24) What was the main tool used by Gaius Marius to gain power? A) the army B) the Senate C) Roman law D) popular support Answer: A 25) At the Battle of Actium in 31 B.C.E., ________. A) Antony and Cleopatra defeated Octavian B) Julius Caesar defeated Pompey C) Octavian defeated Antony and Cleopatra D) Lepidus crushed Octavian and Mark Antony Answer: C 26) The Roman Senate ________. A) made all administrative and judicial decisions B) was a very powerful advisory body to the consuls C) was a legislative body D) was the Roman executive Answer: B 27) The Struggle of the Orders led to ________. A) the defeat of the plebeians B) women earning the right to vote C) greater political power for the plebeians D) the emergence of a monarchy in Rome Answer: C 28) According to Polybius, the two consuls in the Roman Republic represented ________. A) the aristocracy B) the monarchy C) democracy D) oligarchy Answer: B 29) Which social group dominated the Roman Republic? A) the plebeians B) the patricians C) the monarchy D) foreigners Answer: B 30) The Law of the Twelve Tables was important because it ________. A) provided for legal remedies B) outlawed the death penalty C) replaced the previous written law code of the Etruscans D) outlawed slavery Answer: A 31) Rome’s most significant achievement during the Republic was probably the ________. A) conquest of territory in Italy and across the Mediterranean B) formation of a permanent alliance system with the powerful Carthaginian Empire C) decision to limit territorial conquest to the Italian peninsula D) decision to outlaw slavery in all Roman territory Answer: A 32) When Rome defeated its enemies in Italy, it ________. A) enslaved all conquered peoples B) killed off many people to inspire fear C) allowed the defeated peoples to become citizens D) forced the defeated peoples to adopt all Roman religious and cultural practices Answer: C 33) Rome’s early conquest had what effect on later conquests? A) Later conquests were made possible by an army drawn from the earliest conquered territories B) Expansion was halted for centuries when the first conquered peoples rebelled. C) Rome’s first conquests were so unsuccessful that further expansion was abandoned. D) The first conquered peoples were deported to territories conquered later. Answer: A 34) The Roman policy concerning conquered territories was generally ________. A) lenient B) harsh C) based on fear D) democratic Answer: A 35) Which of these led to the Punic Wars? A) Roman expansion B) Carthaginian aggression C) commercial conflicts D) Greek colonization Answer: A 36) Which of these best describes the Roman decision to go to war with Carthage? A) Romans were divided on the issue. B) The decision was unanimous. C) Most Romans were against war. D) The decision was based on the wishes of the Senate. Answer: A 37) Resistance to Greek culture in Rome was generally motivated by fears concerning the influence of Greek traditions on Roman ________. A) morals B) laws C) military organization D) urban life Answer: D 38) What does the cult of Cybele illustrate about Roman religious beliefs and practices? A) a willingness to adopt foreign gods B) a demand that conquered peoples accept Roman gods C) admiration of Greek gods and religious practices D) intolerance of popular private religious ceremonies Answer: A 39) Roman artists ________. A) rejected Greek artistic traditions B) developed a realistic portrait sculpture C) found their inspiration primarily from the Etruscans D) copied all aspects of Greek art Answer: B 40) Reflecting Greek influence, Roman gods were ________. A) reshaped by Greek traditions B) borrowed from the Greeks C) a clear rejection of Greek religious traditions D) Athenian deities Answer: A 41) Roman rhetoric is an illustration of ________. A) borrowing from Greece B) Etruscan influence C) Roman creativity D) the influence of territorial expansion Answer: A 42) Plebeian small farmers in the late Roman Republic ________. A) enjoyed undisputed land rights B) increasingly lost their lands to bankruptcy C) shared their land with slaves D) were always tenants on land owned by wealthy patricians Answer: B 43) Wealthy businessmen in the Roman Republic were usually members of which social class? A) patrician B) equestrian C) plebeian D) allied Answer: B 44) In most Roman marriages, which of these was true of a wife’s position? A) She remained a legal member of her birth family. B) Divorce was impossible. C) She had no protection against abuse. D) Her husband controlled her property. Answer: A 45) The Roman Republic collapsed primarily because of ________. A) slavery B) a gap between the most powerful and the lower classes C) Julius Caesar’s greed D) Christianity Answer: B 46) Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus ________. A) sought unsuccessfully to initiate land reform in the late Roman Republic B) tried to overthrow the Roman Republic C) conquered Gaul D) called for the reform of the Twelve Tables Answer: A 47) Julius Caesar first came to prominence primarily because of ________. A) a political deal B) his great wealth C) his family connections D) his military leadership Answer: A 48) Rome took control of the Italian peninsula ________. A) through a combination of conquest and diplomacy B) through commercial alliances C) by making peace with the Etruscans D) after defeating Carthage Answer: A 49) The Greek influence on Roman culture came primarily through which of these? A) Hellenistic culture B) Etruscan culture C) commercial contacts D) conquest Answer: A 50) The career of which of these men is most associated with the transition from Republic to Empire? A) Octavian (Augustus) B) Tarquin C) Plautus D) Scipio Africanus Answer: A Essay 51) Who were the Etruscans? How and why did they help shape the Roman Republic? Answer: The Etruscans were an ancient civilization in Italy known for their advanced culture, art, and commerce. They influenced the Romans by introducing urban planning, religious practices, and the use of the arch in architecture. The Romans adopted and adapted many aspects of Etruscan culture, laying foundations for their political organization, military techniques, and early statecraft, which significantly shaped the development of the Roman Republic. 52) How did Rome’s encounter with other peoples in the Mediterranean shape the political, economic, and cultural life of the Roman Republic? Answer: Rome's encounters with other peoples in the Mediterranean, such as the Greeks, Carthaginians, and various Hellenistic kingdoms, enriched its political, economic, and cultural life. Politically, Rome gained territory, established alliances, and adapted foreign governance practices. Economically, trade networks expanded, fostering wealth and urban development. Culturally, Greek art, philosophy, and religion influenced Roman society, while Roman law and administration spread throughout the Mediterranean, shaping future civilizations. 53) The Romans are often accused of being copiers, not creators in terms of culture. Do you agree? Give examples to support your opinion. Answer: While the Romans did adopt and adapt many cultural elements from other civilizations, they also made significant contributions of their own. For instance, Roman law, architecture (such as the development of concrete and the arch), and engineering (aqueducts, roads) were original and influential innovations. Additionally, Roman literature, like the works of Virgil and Cicero, created lasting impacts on Western thought and culture. Therefore, while they were influenced by others, the Romans were not merely copiers but also creators in their own right. 54) How did the Roman view of the family influence the lives of Roman women? Answer: The Roman view of the family centered on patriarchy and the concept of paterfamilias, where the father held authority over all family members. This influenced Roman women by restricting their legal and social rights, often limiting their roles to domestic duties and child-rearing within the household. Women's freedoms were largely dependent on the authority and decisions of male family members, shaping their lives in accordance with traditional Roman values and societal norms. 55) Identify the single event that you think was most important in bringing about the end of the Roman Republic. Defend your choice by discussing what underlying problems led to the end of the Republic. Answer: The most important event in bringing about the end of the Roman Republic was the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BCE. This event symbolized the breakdown of traditional Republican institutions and the rise of personal ambition and military power. Underlying problems included political corruption, economic inequality, factionalism among the elite (optimates vs. populares), and the erosion of constitutional norms. Caesar's assassination marked the beginning of a series of civil wars that ultimately led to the establishment of the Roman Empire under Augustus, ending the Republican system of government. Test Bank for West: Encounters and Transformations Brian Levack, Edward Muir, Meredith Veldman 9780205968374, 9780134229270

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