Preview (12 of 38 pages)

Preview Extract

This Document Contains Chapters 12 to 14 Chapter 12: The Italian Renaissance and Beyond: The Politics of Culture Multiple Choice 1) What does the word Renaissance mean literally? A) rebirth B) renew C) refresh D) reinvent Answer: A 2) Which Italian city-state first established colonies outside of Italy? A) Milan B) Florence C) Siena D) Venice Answer: D 3) Probably the most politically stable Italian city-state was ________. A) Florence B) Venice C) Milan D) Pisa Answer: B 4) Who was the doge? A) the leader of the Florentine republic B) another name for the leader of Milan C) the leader of the Venetian republic D) the Greek name for the pope Answer: C 5) John Bessarion was part of what group? A) refugees from the fall of Constantinople B) Italian poets working in Florence C) intellectuals working at the papal court D) rulers of Italian city-states Answer: A 6) Jacopo Sansovino worked in what field? A) sculpture B) Greek literature C) poetry D) Latin translation Answer: A 7) Which of these men wrote The Book of the Courtier? A) Baldassare Castiglione B) Niccolò Machiavelli C) Cosimo de’ Medici D) Dante Alleghieri Answer: A 8) Which of these was one of the Renaissance popes, known for leading papal troops into battle? A) Julius II B) Boniface VIII C) Urban II D) Gregory VII Answer: A 9) Which of these undertook the rebuilding of St. Peter’s Basilica? A) Leo X B) Alexander VI C) Leo I D) Lorenzo the Magnificent Answer: A 10) Which of these was the focus of the humanists’ studies? A) classical learning B) architecture C) human society D) morality Answer: A 11) Which of these is the study of how the meanings of words have changed over time? A) philology B) rhetoric C) humanism D) dialectic Answer: A 12) Rhetoric is the ________. A) art of persuasive speaking and writing B) study of the past C) study of words in an ancient context D) pursuit of perfection Answer: A 13) The Polish humanist Nicolaus Copernicus ________. A) argued that the earth is at the center of the universe B) proved The Donation of Constantine was a forgery C) invented the telescope D) argued that the sun is at the center of the universe Answer: D 14) The technological innovation of the Renaissance with the broadest impact was probably ________. A) the telescope B) the microscope C) synthetic dyes D) the printing press Answer: D 15) Who designed the bronze relief panels for the door of the Baptistery in Florence? A) Lorenzo Ghiberti B) Filippo Brunelleschi C) Donatello D) Michelangelo Answer: A 16) In what area did Sofonisba Anguissola work? A) painting B) architecture C) philology D) poetry Answer: A 17) Who created the monumental statue, David? A) Michelangelo Buonarroti B) Masaccio C) Leonardo da Vinci D) Lorenzo Ghiberti Answer: A 18) Which of these was a ruler of the early 1500s and the last patron of Leonardo da Vinci? A) Francis I B) Julius II C) Lorenzo the Magnificent D) Henry VIII Answer: A 19) Who wrote The History of Italy? A) Francesco Guicciardini B) Niccolò Machiavelli C) Filippo Brunelleschi D) Baldassare Castiglione Answer: A 20) Who wrote The Prince? A) Francesco Guicciardini B) Francesco Petrarch C) Marsilio Ficino D) Niccolò Machiavelli Answer: D 21) The taille was imposed in France to ________. A) raise money B) replace feudal levies C) strengthen the church D) go to war with England Answer: A 22) The marriage of Isabella and Ferdinand in 1469 united ________. A) Castile and Aragon B) Spain and France C) Spain and Portugal D) Castile and Granada Answer: A 23) The English civil war in the 1400s was known as the ________. A) Hundred Years’ War B) English Civil War C) Thirty Years’ War D) War of the Roses Answer: D 24) The Tudor dynasty began with the reign of ________. A) Eizabeth I B) Edward II C) Henry VII D) Henry VIII Answer: C 25) What family controlled the throne of the Holy Roman Empire in the Renaissance? A) the Tudors B) the Hohenzollerns C) the Romanovs D) the Habsburgs Answer: D 26) Which of these is an example of a republic? A) democracy B) tyranny C) monarchy D) autocracy Answer: A 27) The book The Defender of the Peace is an example of _______. A) the Renaissance fascination with ancient Rome B) the use of philology to uncover an ancient truth C) works supporting monarchy D) Christian writing against the Italian Wars Answer: A 28) The patriciate in Florence and Venice were important to the success of the Renaissance because they ________. A) provided the funds to support artists and writers B) were the artists and writers C) were the family of the prince who controlled the city D) advocated democratic distribution of property Answer: A 29) Cosimo de’ Medici resembled Augustus because both _______. A) held more power than they appeared to hold B) ruled as emperor C) ruled Rome D) rejected innovation in art Answer: A 30) Federico da Montefeltro may be considered an ideal Renaissance prince because he ________. A) studied to be a priest before becoming a ruler B) established a democracy in Urbino C) gained his power without resorting to warfare D) was both a soldier and a man of learning Answer: D 31) Renaissance courtiers were ________. A) people who worked for the Venetian republic B) those who maintained a presence at a court C) slaves of the doge of Venice D) people who served in the army of a prince Answer: B 32) Alexander VI illustrates what aspect of many Renaissance popes? A) their close ties to Italian ruling dynasties B) their impressive learning C) their piety D) their connections to monasticism Answer: A 33) During the Renaissance, the popes were most known for their _______. A) secular power B) spiritual leadership C) support for church reform D) work with the conciliarists Answer: A 34) Which of these practices led to wide age differences between marriage partners in Renaissance Italy? A) using marriage to make family alliances B) the development of women’s educational institutions C) perennial warfare among the Italian states D) having large families Answer: A 35) Philology developed as an essential tool of the Renaissance ________. A) humanists B) political scientists C) courtiers D) clergy Answer: A 36) Civic humanists ________. A) believed in service to the state B) advocated a life of scholarly contemplation C) opposed the use of public funds for artwork D) opposed the republican form of government Answer: A 37) Galileo Galilei and Andreas Vesalius are both examples of Renaissance ________. A) scientists B) humanists C) philologists D) courtiers Answer: A 38) The development of linear perspective had relevance for what two Renaissance pursuits? A) optics and painting B) architecture and painting C) military technology and optics D) printing and architecture Answer: A 39) Considering the Masaccio painting The Tribute Money, which of these medieval traditions was continued in Renaissance painting? A) Christian subjects B) the use of perspective C) subjects from Roman history D) a preference for abstract art Answer: A 40) Linear perspective is an example of an element of Renaissance art that _______. A) owed nothing to the classical past B) was inspired more by Greek than Roman traditions C) owed its origins to the humanists D) was German in origin Answer: A 41) Leonardo da Vinci’s work in Milan and France illustrates the role of ______ in Renaissance artistic production. A) patronage B) innovation C) classical models D) politics Answer: A 42) The early modern European state system generally signaled the emergence of ________. A) powerful monarchies B) republics C) the feudal system D) large empires Answer: A 43) The main argument of The Prince was that a A) prince must always behave in a moral fashion. B) prince’s highest obligation was to god. C) prince’s highest obligation was the preservation of his state. D) prince’s highest duty was the accumulation of personal wealth. Answer: C 44) The Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges strengthened the French monarchy because it ________. A) gave the French monarch extensive power over the French Church B) abolished the French monasteries C) guaranteed the French monarch a say in who would be elected pope D) allowed the French monarch to give up his power over the French Church Answer: A 45) The emergence of resident ambassadors in the 1500s indicated what direction in European politics? A) formal international relations B) increased hostility among states C) a long period of peace D) the spread of Renaissance ideas Answer: A 46) Which of these was a focus of the rule of Ferdinand and Isabella? A) religious uniformity B) patronage of the arts C) European conquests D) a close alliance with merchants Answer: A 47) Under Henry VII, royal power grew at the expense of what group? A) nobles B) merchants C) foreigners D) Puritans Answer: A 48) The political systems of the Italian city-states are best described as ________. A) varied B) republics C) oligarchies D) autocratic Answer: A 49) In which of these disciplines did Renaissance intellectuals and artists owe the most to the ancient past? A) architecture B) anatomy C) printing D) painting Answer: A 50) Louis XI’s taille and Henry VII’s Court of Star Chamber are both examples of ________. A) tools used to increase royal power B) new judicial institutions C) attacks on the clergy D) support for intellectual activity Answer: A Essay 51) Do you think it is better to consider the Renaissance as one movement, or several? Support your answer. Answer: The Renaissance is better understood as several interconnected movements rather than a single unified movement. It spanned across Europe over several centuries, with distinct cultural, artistic, and intellectual developments varying by region and time period. 52) How did a fascination with ancient culture help to shape the Italian Renaissance? Answer: The fascination with ancient culture during the Italian Renaissance sparked a revival of classical art, literature, and philosophy. Scholars rediscovered ancient texts and ideas, inspiring new approaches to art, architecture, and humanism. This cultural revival fueled creativity and innovation, defining the Renaissance as a period of rebirth and enlightenment in Europe. 53) Was the work of the humanists a revival of ancient learning? Support your answer with examples. Answer: Yes, the work of humanists during the Renaissance was indeed a revival of ancient learning. They focused on studying and translating classical texts, promoting classical ideals such as individualism, rationalism, and humanism. Examples include Petrarch's rediscovery of Cicero's letters, which influenced Renaissance rhetoric, and Pico della Mirandola's "Oration on the Dignity of Man," which celebrated human potential in line with ancient philosophical ideas. These efforts contributed significantly to the intellectual and cultural revival of classical antiquity during the Renaissance. 54) How did study of the past and innovation come together in Renaissance art? Give examples of both threads in the visual arts of the period Answer: In Renaissance art, the study of the past and innovation intersected profoundly. Artists studied classical sculptures and texts to revive techniques such as perspective and anatomy, achieving a new level of realism. Innovations like linear perspective by Brunelleschi and anatomical accuracy in Leonardo da Vinci's "Vitruvian Man" exemplify this. Simultaneously, artists innovated with new forms and subjects, such as Botticelli's mythological themes in "The Birth of Venus," blending classical inspiration with contemporary artistic expression. 55) How did monarchs of the sixteenth century differ from medieval monarchs? Include a discussion of political theory, tools used by rulers, and the relationship of monarchs with nobles in your answer. Answer: Monarchs of the sixteenth century differed from medieval monarchs by embracing more centralized power based on political theories like Machiavelli's realism. They used new tools such as bureaucracies and standing armies to exert control, diminishing reliance on nobles while creating more direct relationships with subjects through governance and patronage. Chapter 13: The West and the World:
The Significance of Global Encounters, 1450–1650 Multiple Choice 1) Columbus called the natives he encountered in the Bahamas Indians because ________. A) he thought he was in India B) he heard them use that word to describe themselves C) one of his men thought they were cannibals D) it was one of the natives’ religious titles Answer: A 2) Europeans were drawn in to sub-Saharan Africa in their quest for ________. A) gold and diamonds B) diamonds and slaves C) gold and slaves D) slaves only Answer: C 3) The Negus was the emperor of ________. A) Ethiopia B) Mali C) Ghana D) Songhai Answer: A 4) The caravel was a ________ used by Portugal from the 1400s. A) ship B) compass C) type of map D) language Answer: A 5) Europeans bought the first African slaves ________. A) for the settlers’ colonies in the Canary Islands B) to work in the Cape Verdes sugar cane fields C) to work as oarsmen on galleys travelling around Africa D) to grow tobacco in Cape Verdes Answer: B 6) What did European explorers to the New World seek? A) gold and sugar B) gold and new routes to the east C) gold and slaves D) gold and tobacco Answer: B 7) Where were the most advanced civilizations in the Americas before the Europeans appeared? A) North America B) Mesoamerica C) the Caribbean D) the sub-Arctic Answer: B 8) How many voyages did Christopher Columbus make across the Atlantic? A) one B) two C) three D) four Answer: D 9) When did Europeans realize that the New World was not anywhere near China? A) after Columbus’ first voyage B) as a consequence of the Treaty of Tordesillas C) after the journeys of Amerigo Vespucci D) after the journeys of Vasco de Gama Answer: C 10) Amerigo Vespucci was the first European to ________. A) name the Americas the New World B) reach the Cape of Good Hope C) sail to India around the Cape of Good Hope D) encounter the Incas Answer: A 11) Which of these men first sailed from Europe to India? A) Vasco da Gama B) Christopher Columbus C) Ferdinand Magellan D) Bartholomew Dias Answer: A 12) The first voyage from Europe west to Asia set out under whose leadership? A) Ferdinand Magellan B) Christopher Columbus C) Bartholomew Dias D) Vasco da Gama Answer: A 13) The requirement to was part of the process of _________ in the Americas. A) conversion to Christianity B) redistribution of native lands C) gold mining D) developing agriculture Answer: A 14) Hernán Cortés was responsible for defeat of the _______ in the New World. A) Aztecs B) Mayans C) Incas D) Taino Answer: A 15) Which of these men conquered the native empire in Peru? A) Francisco Pizarro B) Vasco da Gama C) Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca D) Ponce de Leon Answer: A 16) Which of these was granted to Spaniards in the encomienda system? A) native labor B) mineral rights C) land D) cities Answer: A 17) The most important crop grown in Portuguese Brazil was ________. A) coffee B) sugar cane C) tobacco D) maize Answer: B 18) Which religious order played a critical role in Christian missions in Brazil? A) the Dominicans B) the Benedictines C) the Franciscans D) the Jesuits Answer: D 19) Europe’s main competitors for control of trade in Asia were the ________. A) Chinese B) Indians C) Mongols D) Japanese Answer: A 20) In the early 1400s, Chinese voyages traveled west, as far as ________. A) the east coast of Africa B) Malaysia C) India D) the Red Sea Answer: A 21) The Middle Passage in the slave trade was the journey ________. A) across the Atlantic B) from ports in the Americas to plantations C) from African villages to African ports D) across the Mediterranean Answer: A 22) Which of these caused the greatest mortality in the Americas resulting from the European conquests? A) smallpox B) malnutrition C) warfare D) displacement Answer: A 23) The Columbian question refers to debate about the ________. A) impact of smallpox in the New World B) origins of syphilis C) origin of the tomato D) institution of slavery in the New World Answer: B 24) As a result of the Spanish conquest, the population of Mexico fell to about _______ of its pre-conquest level. A) one-tenth B) one-half C) one-third D) one percent Answer: A 25) Which of these summarizes the notion of cultural relativism? A) Many values change from culture to culture. B) Some civilizations are better than others. C) A culture only has value in relationship to another culture. D) The value of a culture is relative to its economic strength. Answer: A 26) The economies kingdoms of Mali and Guinea depended on _______. A) commerce B) slavery C) agriculture D) warfare Answer: A 27) The technological innovations in maritime technology achieved by the 1500s were important because they ________. A) made it cheaper to sail B) increased the number of slaves needed to sail the ships C) required literate sailors D) made it possible for Europeans to sail anywhere Answer: D 28) In general, settler colonies were given _______. A) great freedom in organizing their colony B) freedom concerning where, but not how, they settled their colony C) permission to settle wherever they wanted D) control of natives Answer: A 29) Plantation colonies usually needed to import _______. A) labor B) colonists C) food D) building materials Answer: A 30) Europeans sought new routes to the east in the 1400s because ________. A) they wanted to circumvent Ottoman control of the trade routes to Asia B) the Huns had destroyed the traditional caravan routes C) the traditional caravan routes were too costly D) they wanted to spread Christianity Answer: A 31) The Aztec objective of the “flowery war” was to ________. A) decimate the opposition B) prepare for battles against an enemy C) obtain prisoners for human sacrifices D) create a permanent truce with the enemy Answer: C 32) The strength of the Aztecs was based largely on _______. A) empire-building B) mineral resources C) improved farming methods D) overseas exploration Answer: C 33) The Incan Empire was weakened just before the Spanish conquest because they had ________. A) suffered a devastating epidemic disease B) engaged in too much human sacrifice C) just fought a civil war D) just fought the Aztecs Answer: C 34) In 1492, the Incan Empire was in the process of being _________. A) democratic B) decentralized C) anarchic D) centralized Answer: B 35) Christopher Columbus wanted to sail west to China so that ________. A) western Europeans could recapture Jerusalem B) he could become a wealthy man C) he could find slaves for European plantations D) he could find gold for the King of Portugal Answer: A 36) Why did Columbus apparently set out on his voyages based on the shortest calculation of the distance to Asia? A) It was expedient. B) He used the best calculations available. C) This calculation was supported by the monarchs of Spain. D) He had bad advice. Answer: A 37) The Treaty of Tordesillas was of limited validity because ________. A) it was drawn up by the pope B) it involved negotiations between only four countries C) it was made before voyages to the New World D) no Spanish authorities were consulted Answer: A 38) For the conquistadores, taking part in the Spanish conquests was a(n) _______. A) opportunity to get rich B) punishment for criminal offenses C) part of their military service D) training exercise Answer: A 39) The requerimiento revealed the ________. A) Spanish intention to cooperate with the indigenous populations B) Spanish king’s desire to obtain his “royal fifth.” C) dual Spanish objective of conquering and converting the indigenous populations to Christianity D) desires of the conquistadores Answer: C 40) How did the conquest of Peru affect Spain? A) The Spaniards decided to end their conquests in the New World. B) The Spaniards gained vast wealth in gold and silver, emerging as a major European power. C) The Spaniards decided to allow native rulers to control the conquered areas. D) The Spaniards found large silver mines but were unable to mine them efficiently and cheaply. Answer: B 41) The encomienda system was intended to _______. A) convert natives and organize conquered territories B) make the extraction of mineral resources more efficient C) provide for the defense of the Spanish conquests D) help map the New World Answer: A 42) Europeans wanted to establish colonies in Asia mainly ________. A) to convert Asians to Christianity B) to establish European-style empires in Asia C) to learn about Asian culture D) for commercial reasons Answer: D 43) By around 1600, the main competition faced by Europeans trading in Asia came from ________. A) other Europeans B) the Chinese C) Japanese pirates D) Australia Answer: A 44) The slave trade was just one element in the _______. A) Columbian Exchange B) encomienda system C) Middle Passage D) establishment of settler colonies Answer: A 45) The institution of slavery ________. A) was invented by the Europeans B) was unknown in Africa until the European conquests C) existed in Africa well before the European trans-Atlantic slave trade D) was never profitable Answer: C 46) Historians maintain that a small group of Europeans was ultimately able to conquer the vast Aztec and Inca empires because of ________. A) superior weapons B) superior religion C) epidemics D) horses Answer: C 47) The work of Bartolomé de Las Casas was an example of ________. A) theories viewing Native Americans as innocents B) justifications for exploitation of Native Americans C) opposition to the use of missionaries in the New World D) cultural relativism Answer: A 48) Which of these made voyages to sub-Saharan Africa appear necessary to Europeans in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries? A) Muslim control of the African gold trade B) the need for a better source of slaves C) a population boom that led to land hunger D) the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople Answer: A 49) The mestizo population of the Americas was largely a result of which of these factors? A) Most Spanish immigrants were males. B) Few Spaniards wanted to return to Europe. C) The Spaniards were tolerant of different races and religions. D) Indians and African slaves often married. Answer: A 50) In the short term, which of these was the most influential element of the Columbian Exchange? A) microbes B) food crops C) slaves D) land-holding Answer: A Essay 51) What were the primary goals of the voyages of exploration, and how did these goals shape the direction and nature of these voyages? Answer: The primary goals of the voyages of exploration were to find new trade routes, acquire valuable resources, expand territorial claims, and spread Christianity. These goals shaped the direction and nature of the voyages by driving explorers to seek new maritime paths to Asia, explore and claim unknown lands, establish colonies, and engage in missionary activities, significantly impacting global trade, geopolitics, and cultural exchanges. 52) How and why did European encounters in the Americas after 1500 transform economic and social life in both the Americas and Europe? Answer: European encounters in the Americas after 1500 transformed economic and social life by introducing new crops, animals, and resources to both continents, leading to the Columbian Exchange. This exchange boosted European economies through the acquisition of precious metals and new agricultural products, while native populations in the Americas faced significant social disruption due to disease, conquest, and colonization. The labor demands of plantations and mines also spurred the transatlantic slave trade, profoundly altering social structures and economies on both sides of the Atlantic. 53) How did European goals in Asia and the Americas differ, and how did that impact differences in European institutions in both areas? Answer: European goals in Asia focused on establishing trade networks and securing valuable goods like spices, silk, and tea, whereas in the Americas, the goals were more centered on territorial expansion, resource extraction, and colonization. This led to the establishment of trading posts and commercial enterprises in Asia, with relatively limited direct control, while in the Americas, Europeans created more extensive colonial administrations, settler societies, and plantation economies, resulting in deeper and more lasting institutional impacts. 54) What was the Columbian Exchange? How did it help transform political, economic, and social life in Europe and the Americas? Answer: The Columbian Exchange was the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technologies, and diseases between the Americas, Europe, Africa, and Asia following Columbus's voyages. It transformed political, economic, and social life by introducing new staple crops and livestock to both continents, which boosted population growth and agricultural productivity. In Europe, it led to economic expansion and shifts in dietary habits, while in the Americas, it caused significant demographic changes due to disease and the introduction of new agricultural practices and social structures, including the rise of plantation economies and the transatlantic slave trade. 55) How and why did Europeans help create a global economic system after 1500? Answer: Europeans helped create a global economic system after 1500 by establishing extensive trade networks, colonizing new territories, and exploiting resources and labor in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. They did this to access valuable commodities, expand their markets, and increase wealth and power. The integration of distant economies through maritime trade, the Columbian Exchange, and the transatlantic slave trade facilitated the flow of goods, capital, and labor on an unprecedented scale, laying the foundation for a connected global economy. Chapter 14: The Reformations of Religion Multiple Choice 1) What two fifteenth-century inventions made books more widely available? A) moveable type and cheap paper B) ink and cheaper parchment C) ink and cheap paper D) moveable type and cheaper parchment Answer: A 2) Most Christian humanists were from ________. A) central Italy B) Spain C) northern Europe D) northern Italy Answer: C 3) ________ was the most prominent Christian humanist. A) Desiderius Erasmus B) Thomas More C) Albrecht Dürer D) Thomas á Kempis Answer: A 4) The Protestant Reformation began with the ________. A) writings of Erasmus B) works of the Renaissance C) protests of Martin Luther D) writings of Thomas More Answer: C 5) Luther’s studies on which sacrament helped shape his Lutheran theology? A) the Eucharist B) penance C) last rites D) marriage Answer: B 6) Luther’s views on the penalties the Church could impose were especially influenced by ________. A) St. Paul’s epistle to the Romans B) St. Paul’s epistle to the Corinthians C) the Gospel of St. Luke D) the epistle of St. James Answer: A 7) Which of these was the trigger for Luther’s protests? A) the sale of indulgences B) the Babylonian Captivity of the church C) the Great Schism D) the Investiture Controversy Answer: A 8) Martin Luther was supported and protected by ________. A) Frederick the Wise B) Henry VIII C) Francis I D) Leo X Answer: A 9) The notion of the priesthood of all believers was a direct challenge to ________. A) the clergy B) Protestant reformers C) Erasmus D) the German emperor Answer: A 10) Who called the Diet of Worms? A) the Holy Roman Emperor B) the pope C) the Elector of Saxony D) the German king Answer: A 11) The Peace of Augsburg ________. A) outlawed Protestant worship in the German states B) established the principle of cuius regio, eius religio. C) established Lutheran consistories across the German states D) ended religious warfare in all parts of Europe Answer: B 12) John Calvin’s reform movement was centered in ________. A) Marburg B) Zürich C) Wittenberg D) Geneva Answer: D 13) What is John Calvin's most famous work? A) Institutes of the Christian Religion B) The Praise of Folly C) the 95 theses D) Freedom of a Christian Answer: A 14) The Acts of Supremacy and Succession created ___________. A) the Church of England B) the English Monarchy C) the Protestant Reformation D) Calvinism Answer: A 15) Which theorist developed the English ideas of royal supremacy and the rejection of papal authority? A) Thomas Cromwell B) Sir Thomas More C) Bishop John Fisher D) Thomas Starkey Answer: D 16) Who were the recusants? A) Protestants who did not support the Church of England. B) Christians who did not attend Church of England services. C) Calvinists who supported the Church of England. D) Lutherans who lived in England. Answer: B 17) Which monarch tried unsuccessfully to bring Catholicism back to England? A) Edward VI B) Mary I C) Elizabeth I D) James I Answer: B 18) Which of these was part of the Magisterial Reformation? A) the Anabaptists B) the Spiritualists C) the Calvinists D) the Unitarians Answer: C 19) The Anabaptists believed baptism should take place ________. A) in infancy B) at the age of 7 C) during adulthood D) along with the last rites Answer: C 20) Quakers are considered ________. A) Anabaptists B) Presbyterians C) Unitarians D) Spiritualists Answer: D 21) Who founded the Society of Jesus? A) Dominic de Guzmán B) Ignatius of Loyola C) Philip II D) Benedict of Nursia Answer: B 22) Which of these was a women’s religious order? A) Carmelites B) Jesuits C) Franciscans D) Dominicans Answer: A 23) Which of these popes launched the Catholic Reformation? A) Paul III B) Julius II C) Leo X D) Boniface VIII Answer: A 24) Teresa of Avila wrote a new rule for the ________. A) Carmelites B) Poor Clares C) Franciscans D) Beguines Answer: A 25) Which of these met from 1545 to 1563 to consider Catholic doctrine? A) the Council of Trent B) the Diet of Worms C) the Council of Clermont D) the Council of Constance Answer: A 26) Literacy in fifteenth-century Europe was ________. A) largely a rural phenomenon B) largely restricted to urban areas C) higher among women than men D) commonplace in both the city and the countryside Answer: B 27) The Christian humanists ________. A) analyzed the Bible using philology B) argued that the Bible was the correct and divine word of God C) tried to counter the impact of secular humanists like Lorenzo Valla D) flourished primarily in central Italy Answer: A 28) In The Praise of Folly, Erasmus ________. A) criticized and mocked both priests and monks B) announced his intention to leave Catholicism C) praised priests but severely criticized monks D) belittled critics of the Church Answer: A 29) Luther argued that humans achieve salvation ________. A) through faith and good works B) by believing in God C) by good works only D) as a result of indulgences purchased from the Church Answer: B 30) Luther intended for his 95 Theses to ________. A) lead to a break with the Roman Catholic Church B) initiate a debate on the buying and selling of indulgences C) undermine the authority of the papacy D) justify the buying and selling of indulgences Answer: B 31) Indulgences appealed to those who ________. A) wanted release from Purgatory for themselves or their loved ones B) hoped to achieve reform of the Catholic Church C) believed in justification by faith alone D) wanted to rebuild St. Peter’s Church Answer: A 32) At the Diet of Worms in 1521, Martin Luther ________. A) acknowledged his heresy against the Roman Catholic Church B) offered public penance for his erroneous claims about papal authority C) refused to retract his criticisms of the Roman Catholic Church D) was burned at the stake for heresy Answer: C 33) Luther’s reforms appealed to women ________. A) less as the Reformation advanced B) only of the elite classes C) who had been considering life as a nun D) married to priests Answer: A 34) How did Martin Luther view the German Peasants’ Revolt? A) He supported it because they threatened the social order. B) He opposed it because he saw the Reformation as a spiritual phenomenon. C) He actually led the peasant revolt in Thuringia. D) He opposed it but urged that the peasants be treated fairly. Answer: B 35) The Religious Peace of Augsburg is best considered a(n) ________. A) inconclusive response to the Protestant Reformation B) Catholic triumph C) Protestant triumph D) opening for war Answer: A 36) Unlike Luther’s style of reform, Zwingli ________. A) combined secular and religious governance B) rejected Catholic doctrine C) believed in a priesthood of all believers D) was inspired by John Calvin Answer: A 37) The Zwinglian Reformation ________. A) was greatly influenced by Martin Luther B) never denied the authority of the pope C) was not initially influenced by the Lutheran Reformation D) retained the traditional Catholic liturgy Answer: C 38) Religious freedom in Switzerland was primarily a result of ________. A) political independence B) the role of Swiss mercenaries C) Switzerland’s economic power D) German imperial policy Answer: A 39) In Calvinism, _________ largely filled the role played by priests in Catholicism. A) parents B) congregations C) bishops D) monks Answer: A 40) Henry VIII was faced in the 1520s with a(n) _______ crisis. A) succession B) religious C) economic D) political Answer: A 41) The Elizabethan Settlement ________._______. A) was a compromise between Catholicism and Protestantism B) rejected Catholicism in favor of Calvinism C) confirmed the loyalty of the British rulers to the pope D) put the Council of Trent’s doctrines into practice Answer: A 42) The Scots Confession of 1560 did for Scotland what the _________ did for England. A) Elizabethan Settlement B) divorce of Henry VIII C) teachings of Calvin D) Puritan movement Answer: A 43) Which of these were most willing to give women an equal spiritual role in their churches? A) Quakers B) Lutherans C) Calvinists D) the Church of England Answer: A 44) Religious orders such as the Jesuits were inspired by ________. A) individual experiences B) resistance to the Protestant Reformation C) the Council of Trent D) Benedictine monasticism Answer: A 45) Which of these can be considered a product of the Catholic Reformation? A) the Index of Forbidden Books B) the Carmelites C) the Jesuits D) the Roman Inquisition Answer: A 46) Which of these elements of Luther’s theology was adopted by the Council of Trent? A) None of these elements were adopted. B) the priesthood of all believers C) justification by faith alone D) keeping just two sacraments Answer: A 47) Why was the Council of Trent important? A) It provided for a new system to elect the pope. B) It called for acceptance of Lutheran principles. C) It adopted an ecumenical approach to religious conflict. D) It reaffirmed the traditional doctrines of the Church. Answer: D 48) The role of John Tetzel in the Protestant Reformation was ________. A) a focus of Martin Luther’s call for reform B) Luther’s colleague in proposing changes C) an early proponent of reform D) the political supporter of Luther’s reforms Answer: A 49) Considering Map 14.1, “The Division of Western Christianity by 1555,” which of these remained Catholic in 1555? A) southern Europe B) the Germanic nations C) eastern Europe D) central Europe Answer: A 50) Which of these best summarizes the results of the Council of Trent? A) It embraced reforms, but none of those proposed by Luther. B) It rejected any king of reform. C) It reformed Catholic doctrine, but not Catholic institutions. D) It embraced most of Luther’s reforms, but in its own manner. Answer: A Essay 51) How did Christianity develop in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries? To what extent were these changes grassroots or official movements? Answer: Christianity in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries experienced significant developments both through grassroots movements and official reforms. The period saw the rise of popular religious movements such as the Lollards in England and the Hussites in Bohemia, which emphasized personal piety and criticism of church corruption. These movements were largely grassroots and reflected widespread dissatisfaction with the church. Simultaneously, the church itself underwent official reforms, particularly during the Council of Constance (1414-1418), which addressed issues of papal schism and heresy, and the Council of Basel (1431-1449), which attempted further church reform. The Renaissance also influenced the church, leading to a revival of classical learning and a focus on humanism, which began to permeate church thought and practices. Overall, changes in Christianity during this period were driven by a combination of grassroots movements advocating for reform and official efforts to address and incorporate these demands within the church structure. 52) What were the short-term and long-term causes of the Reformation? Answer: The Reformation had both short-term and long-term causes: Short-term causes: 1. Indulgence Controversy: The sale of indulgences by the Catholic Church, particularly by Johann Tetzel, provoked Martin Luther's Ninety-Five Theses in 1517. 2. Corruption in the Church: Widespread corruption and the lavish lifestyles of church leaders, including the papacy, fueled immediate discontent. 3. Political Factors: The rise of powerful monarchies and local rulers who opposed the influence of the Church and saw an opportunity to gain more autonomy. Long-term causes: 1. Renaissance Humanism: The intellectual movement emphasized individualism and questioned traditional authority, laying the groundwork for religious reform. 2. Printing Press: The invention of the printing press allowed for the rapid dissemination of reformist ideas and texts, making information more accessible. 3. Church Criticism: Long-standing criticisms of the Church's practices, including its wealth and the moral decay of the clergy, had built up over centuries. The Reformation was thus the result of both immediate grievances and deep-seated issues within the Church and society. 53) As the Reformation spread, what were the most important factors shaping different Protestant sects? Answer: The most important factors shaping different Protestant sects during the Reformation included: 1. Theological Differences: Divergent beliefs about key doctrines such as salvation, the sacraments, and the authority of scripture led to the formation of distinct sects like Lutherans, Calvinists, and Anabaptists. 2. Political Contexts: The support or opposition of local rulers and states significantly influenced the adoption and development of various Protestant movements. 3. Cultural and Social Factors: Regional traditions, social structures, and the desires of the laity for religious reforms or practices that resonated with their local context played a crucial role. 4. Leadership: Charismatic and influential leaders, such as Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Huldrych Zwingli, shaped the doctrines and organizational structures of their respective movements. 5. Responses to Catholicism: The specific grievances against the Catholic Church and the nature of the reforms sought varied, leading to different emphases and practices among the sects. 54) Why did Henry VIII break with the Catholic Church? Do you consider this part of the Reformation? Answer: Henry VIII broke with the Catholic Church primarily because the Pope refused to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon, preventing him from marrying Anne Boleyn. This led him to establish the Church of England with himself as the Supreme Head. Yes, this is considered part of the Reformation because it contributed to the broader movement of religious change and the decline of Papal authority in Europe, even though it was motivated by personal and political reasons rather than theological disputes. 55) Was the Catholic Reformation a response to the Protestant Reformation? Support your answer. Answer: Yes, the Catholic Reformation, also known as the Counter-Reformation, was a direct response to the Protestant Reformation. It aimed to address criticisms within the Catholic Church, reaffirm Catholic doctrines and practices, and regain lost ground to Protestantism. Key responses included the Council of Trent, reforms within religious orders like the Jesuits, and renewed emphasis on education and missionary work. These efforts sought to counter Protestant challenges and strengthen Catholic unity and influence. Test Bank for West: Encounters and Transformations Brian Levack, Edward Muir, Meredith Veldman 9780205968374, 9780134229270

Document Details

Related Documents

person
Harper Mitchell View profile
Close

Send listing report

highlight_off

You already reported this listing

The report is private and won't be shared with the owner

rotate_right
Close
rotate_right
Close

Send Message

image
Close

My favorites

image
Close

Application Form

image
Notifications visibility rotate_right Clear all Close close
image
image
arrow_left
arrow_right