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This Document Contains Chapters 6 to 8 Chapter 6: Enclosing the West:
The Early Roman Empire and Its Neighbors, 31 B.C.E.–235 C.E. Multiple Choice 1) The Pax Romana ________. A) refers to a long period of stability and peace in the Roman Empire B) refers to the Roman decision to impose its political and cultural system on conquered peoples C) was another name for the Roman emperor D) refers to the Roman legal system during the Roman Empire Answer: A 2) Which of these men ruled Rome from 63 B.C.E. to 14 C.E.? A) Augustus B) Julius Caesar C) Trajan D) Nero Answer: A 3) Octavian was given the title Augustus by ________. A) the Roman people B) Julius Caesar C) the Roman Senate D) the first priest of Rom Answer: C 4) The successors of emperors from Nerva through Antoninus Pius ________. A) were chosen on merit B) were chosen because they were related by blood to the emperor C) murdered the emperors to gain the throne D) were elected by the people of Rome Answer: A 5) The period of the Antonine Age was roughly what century? A) the second century C.E. B) the first century C.E. C) the first century B.C.E. D) the third century C.E. Answer: A 6) The Julio-Claudian dynasty refers to the ________. A) five emperors from Nerva to Marcus Aurelius B) group of emperors who were all related to Augustus C) emperors from Vespasian through Domitian D) ten emperors who were related to Marcus Aurelius Answer: B 7) The role of Pontifex Maximus was essentially a ________ position. A) religious B) administrative C) political D) economic Answer: A 8) Roman building techniques included ________. A) concrete vaults B) iron building frames C) flying buttresses D) spires Answer: A 9) What were the main forces of Romanization in the provinces? A) the army and law B) merchants and religious leaders C) the army and administrators D) the law and Roman learning Answer: A 10) Provincial cities were ruled ________. A) by a single mayor whose powers mirrored those of the emperor B) by a city council C) directly by the provincial governor D) directly by the Roman emperor Answer: B 11) Roman cities in the provinces were most closely modeled on ________. A) Rome B) local urban centers C) Athens D) nearby villages Answer: A 12) The Antonine Decree ________. A) gave Roman citizenship to nearly all free men and women in the empire B) restricted Roman citizenship to free men in Italy C) ordered immediate execution of those who revolted against Roman rule D) gave Roman citizenship only to free men in the empire Answer: A 13) The Roman humiliores were the ________. A) poor B) wealthy C) plebeians D) soldiers Answer: A 14) Tacitus was a Roman ________. A) historian B) poet C) consul D) philosopher Answer: A 15) Which of these ruled in the mid-second century and built a wall across northern Britain? A) Hadrian B) Augustus C) Vespasian D) Domitian Answer: A 16) Which of these occupied the region formerly ruled by Persia? A) Parthia B) Visigoths C) Pergamum D) Arab Answer: A 17) In the time of Augustus, the Germanic peoples were organized into ________. A) tribes B) three empires C) kingdoms D) a single confederacy Answer: A 18) Which of these brought Romans and Chinese into contact? A) the silk trade B) conquest C) voyages of exploration D) religious missions Answer: A 19) For the Romans, “Africa” meant ________. A) North Africa B) Egypt C) the continent of Africa D) Carthage Answer: A 20) Which of these men traveled south into Africa, as far as modern Senegal? A) Polybius B) Scipio Africanus C) Pliny the Elder D) Marcus Aurelius Answer: A 21) Which of these was the lowest of the three aristocratic orders in the Roman Empire? A) curiales B) senators C) patricians D) equestrians Answer: A 22) Slaves comprised about what proportion of Roman society? A) one-third B) one-half C) one-fifth D) three-quarters Answer: A 23) Livy ________. A) wrote a famous history of Rome B) wrote a series of love poems C) authored the Aeneid D) wrote critical analyses of Augustus’s reign Answer: A 24) The word Christian derives from ________. A) the Greek word that means messiah B) a Hebrew word that means messiah C) a Latin word that means messiah D) a Hebrew word that means son of God Answer: A 25) The Roman emperors ________. A) never persecuted the Christians B) began to persecute Christians as early as the reign of Nero C) only persecuted Christians in Jerusalem D) welcomed Christianity as soon as it emerged Answer: B 26) The people of Rome generally _______ Octavian. A) welcomed B) rejected C) ignored D) despised Answer: A 27) Why did Augustus call himself Princeps? A) He wanted everyone to know he was really an emperor. B) He wanted everyone to consider him the chief priest of all Roman religion. C) He wanted to pretend that he was not really a monarch. D) He wanted to be considered a prince of Rome. Answer: C 28) The accession of Tiberius was a sign that ________. A) Augustus had put a monarchy in place B) Rome was becoming unstable C) foreign peoples were becoming more influential in the empire D) merit was used to select emperors Answer: A 29) Like Augustus, Vespasian began a ________. A) dynasty B) period of succession based on merit C) period of civil war D) new era of Roman history Answer: A 30) The cult of the emperor was useful to the empire because it ________. A) provided a target for the anger of the conquered peoples B) provided a unifying force for the empire C) served as the chief religion of the senate D) united the military Answer: B 31) Statues of emperors and Roman coins served the purpose of ________. A) imperial propaganda B) promoting the arts C) focuses of loyalty to the empire D) promoting the imperial economy Answer: A 32) The Pantheon is a prominent example of ________ in Roman building. A) the use of concrete B) borrowing from Greece C) the use of slaves D) a new simple style Answer: A 33) If you wanted to attain Roman citizenship, you would be most likely to become a(n) ________. A) auxiliary B) senator C) equestrian D) plebeian Answer: A 34) Wealth in the Roman provinces was centered in the ________. A) farmers in the countryside B) provincials in the cities C) the Roman military D) the Roman law Answer: B 35) Looking at Map 6.3, “Languages and Agriculture in the Roman Empire,” which of these regions matched Italy in its concentration of cities? A) Spain B) Gaul C) Africa D) Anatolia Answer: A 36) Agriculture during the Roman Empire ________. A) was highly productive B) was never able to keep up with the demands of the imperial population C) was restricted to lands outside of Italy D) relied exclusively on free peasants for labor Answer: A 37) Like the Germanic peoples, the Parthians were ________. A) successful in limiting Roman expansion B) located in what is today central Europe C) Celtic peoples D) noted for their horsemanship Answer: A 38) The Marcomanni were an example of a(n) ________. A) German confederation B) Germanic tribe C) alliance between German and Celtic peoples D) slave uprising Answer: A 39) The trade imbalance between Rome and the Far East was caused by ________. A) the low demand for Roman goods B) a lack of mineral resources in the Roman Empire C) weak Roman coinage D) the high demand in China for Roman raw materials Answer: A 40) Roman knowledge of sub-Saharan Africa was generally ________. A) second-hand B) good C) based on conquest of peoples of the African interior D) through the Silk Road Answer: A 41) The equestrians during the Roman Empire were ________. A) the highest ranking social order B) beneath the city councilors in social order C) just below the senatorial order in status D) the cavalry leaders in the Roman army Answer: C 42) People became slaves in the Roman empire ________. A) mainly as a result of conquest B) by practicing Judaism C) by practicing Christianity D) by refusing to obey Roman law Answer: A 43) The capture of Jerusalem in 70 C.E. led to a greater role for ________. A) rabbis B) Temple priests C) individual worship D) the temple Answer: B 44) The Mishnah is ________. A) a commentary on Jewish law B) Jewish law C) the Jewish Bible from about 200 C.E. D) the history of the Jewish people Answer: A 45) The teachings of Paul had the effect of transforming the followers of Christ into ________. A) a universal religion B) a Jewish community C) Orthodox Jews D) a more exclusive religion Answer: A 46) The association of Sol Invictus with Apollo is an example of ________. A) syncretism B) prophetic movements C) dualism D) monotheism Answer: A 47) Like the followers of Isis, the followers of Christ ________. A) believed in an afterlife B) were initially a Jewish sect C) first emerged in Palestine D) were spurred on by persecution Answer: A 48) Which of these best explains why the Roman people accepted the tyranny of Augustus? A) He followed a period of chaos. B) He promised them wealth. C) He was of humble origins. D) He lived simply. Answer: A 49) The British ruler Boudicca is an example of ________. A) resistance to Roman rule B) popular acceptance of the rule of Augustus C) thorough Romanization D) a leader of a successful independence movement Answer: A 50) Ovid’s career illustrates the ________. A) power of the Roman emperors B) cultural continuity between the Roman Republic and Empire C) achievements of the Pax Romana of the third century D) influence of foreign peoples on Roman literature Answer: A Essay 51) How and why did the policies of Augustus help shape the future of the Roman Empire? Answer: Augustus' policies were pivotal in shaping the Roman Empire's future by establishing stable government, promoting economic prosperity, and fostering cultural renewal. He centralized power, initiated reforms, expanded infrastructure, and promoted moral reform. This stability and infrastructure laid the groundwork for Rome's long-term governance and cultural influence across Europe and beyond. 52) What was the role of cities in the culture of the Roman Empire? Answer: Cities in the Roman Empire served as centers of governance, commerce, culture, and social life. They were hubs of administration, trade, education, and entertainment, showcasing Roman architecture, art, and law. Cities also played crucial roles in spreading Roman culture, integrating diverse populations, and influencing urban planning across the empire. 53) How did the Romans treat the peoples they conquered? How did the conquered peoples respond to Roman rule? Answer: The Romans treated conquered peoples with a mix of assimilation and tolerance, offering citizenship, local autonomy, and protection under Roman law. Conquered peoples often responded by adopting Roman customs for economic and social advancement, while others resisted through rebellions or cultural preservation, leading to a complex relationship of integration and resistance. 54) How did the empire shape Roman culture? Give examples. Answer: The Roman Empire shaped Roman culture by integrating diverse traditions, spreading Latin language, and promoting Roman values like law, citizenship, and civic duty. Examples include Roman architecture like aqueducts and amphitheaters, Latin literature such as Virgil's "Aeneid," and the spread of Roman customs and institutions throughout Europe. 55) Why were some religious traditions more successful than others in the Roman Empire? Answer: Some religious traditions were more successful in the Roman Empire due to factors like adaptability to Roman culture, offering appealing moral teachings, providing a sense of community and social support, and gaining imperial patronage or official recognition, which conferred legitimacy and protection. These factors enabled religions like Christianity to thrive and eventually become dominant in the empire. Chapter 7: Late Antiquity: The Age of New Boundaries, 250–600 Multiple Choice 1) Which of these men ruled as emperor around 300, dividing the empire in two? A) Diocletian B) Justinian C) Alexius D) Vespasian Answer: A 2) Which of these was put in place to rule the Roman Empire around 300? A) the tetrarchy B) two consuls C) the Senate D) a republic Answer: A 3) Which of these steps did Diocletian take to help the Roman economy? A) He froze wages and prices. B) He lowered taxes. C) He halted the flow of gold out of the empire. D) He conquered a new province. Answer: A 4) Who was targeted in the Great Persecution that began in 303? A) Christians B) former slaves C) the poor D) Celts Answer: A 5) Constantine adopted ________ in 3012 A) Christianity B) Mithraism C) Zoroastrianism D) Islam Answer: A 6) How did Diocletian end his reign? A) He voluntarily gave up the imperial throne. B) He was assassinated. C) He was killed in a battle with Constantine. D) He joined a Christian monastery. Answer: A 7) Constantine became sole emperor at the battle of ________. A) Constantinople B) the Milvian Bridge C) Nicomedia D) the Rubicon River Answer: B 8) Concerning the tetrarchy, Constantine _______. A) destroyed it B) made sure it continued C) expanded it D) reduced it to two men Answer: A 9) Constantine created a new capital at _______, renaming the city Constantinople. A) Byzantium B) Athens C) Pergamum D) Jerusalem Answer: A 10) Early Christian leaders modeled their administrative structures on ________. A) the Bible B) Roman pagan religious administration C) Roman imperial urban administration D) Persian imperial urban administration Answer: C 11) The current Western dating system begins with ________. A) the birth of Jesus B) Constantine's conversion to Christianity C) the first year of Theodosius' reign D) the first year of Augustus' reign Answer: A 12) The disagreement between the Arians and Athanasians concerned ________. A) the nature of Jesus and the nature of the Trinity B) the Petrine Succession C) the relationship between the pope and the emperor D) the relationship between Christians and non-Christians in the Roman Empire Answer: A 13) The Council of Nicaea ________. A) was a victory for the Athanasians B) was a victory for the Arians C) led to a belief statement that contradicted both the Arians and the Athanasians D) led to the triumph of Constantine over the Athanasians Answer: A 14) Most Christians in late antiquity were ________. A) Arians B) Constantines C) Chalcedonians D) Monophysites Answer: C 15) The Council of Nicaea and the Council of Chalcedon agreed that Jesus ________. A) was entirely human B) was entirely divine C) was both fully human and fully divine D) could not be both fully human and fully divine Answer: C 16) What was the language of the Christian church in the western Roman Empire? A) Greek B) Hebrew C) English D) Latin Answer: D 17) Who was Benedict of Nursia? A) the author of The City of God B) an influential Italian who praised the benefits of pagan learning C) the founder of communal monasticism in the West D) the first pope Answer: C 18) Who wrote The City of God? A) Augustine B) Eusebius C) Benedict of Nursia D) Plotinus Answer: A 19) Who ruled Italy around 500? A) Theodoric B) Augustulus Romulus C) Justinian D) Diocletian Answer: A 20) Which of these emerged in the eastern Empire following the foundation of Constantinople? A) the Byzantine Empire B) the Roman Empire C) Byzantium D) the Parthian Empire Answer: A 21) In the western Roman empire, Justinian ________. A) temporarily reestablished imperial control B) had no success in his attempts to retake the West for the empire C) accepted the rule of the Germanic tribes across the western empire D) outlawed Christianity Answer: A 22) Which of these emperors oversaw the codification of law known as the Corpus Juris Civilis? A) Justinian B) Diocletian C) Valerian D) Augustus Answer: A 23) Belisarius was sent by Justinian to reconquer what portion of the western Roman Empire? A) northern Africa B) Spain C) Gaul D) Egypt Answer: A 24) Which of these was the greatest threat to the empire in Justinian’s time? A) Persia B) Pergamum C) the Umayyad Empire D) the Bulgars Answer: A 25) Chosroes I was king of ________. A) Persia B) Italy C) Babylon D) Armenia Answer: A 26) The most pressing problem facing the Roman Empire the late third century was ________. A) invasions B) civil war C) political strife D) an epidemic Answer: A 27) Diocletian’s most influential reform was the decision to ________. A) build a new capital at Constantinople B) establish the Gothic tribes as the new armies for Rome C) divide the Roman empire into two parts D) allow the Senate to veto all of his decisions Answer: C 28) The creation of the tetrarchy was a solution to what problem? A) succession B) the lack of manpower in the empire C) administering newly conquered territories D) threatened economic collapse Answer: A 29) Diocletian’s treatment of the Christians was based on the Roman tradition of _______. A) state religion B) religious intolerance C) rejection of foreign cults D) ethnic pluralism Answer: A 30) During Diocletian’s reign, peasants in the Roman Empire ________. A) were able to buy more and more land B) gradually lost their land and their right to move from the land C) were no longer considered Roman citizens D) were forced to join the Roman army Answer: B 31) Constantine’s reform of the coinage system led to ________. A) terrible inflation B) the creation of a stable currency C) a reduction in taxes D) the conquest of new territories in the search for more gold Answer: B 32) Constantine converted to Christianity because he ________. A) came to believe that the Christian God had helped him become emperor B) was inspired by Diocletian's conversion to Christianity C) was profoundly influenced by the conversion of his mother to Christianity D) was inspired by Benedict of Nursia Answer: A 33) Following Roman precedent, the Christian administration was _______. A) organized through cities B) headed by a Senate C) organized at the village level D) planned on military lines Answer: A 34) Which of these Roman administrators came to be in charge of cities from the fourth century on? A) bishops B) consuls C) governors D) military leaders Answer: A 35) The doctrine of the Petrine Succession ________. A) was used to justify the special powers of the Roman emperor over the Christian church B) was an argument against the creation of bishops C) called for Christians to accept the legitimate emperor of Rome D) was used to justify the preeminent position of the bishop of Rome over all other bishops Answer: D 36) The celebration of Jesus’s birthday on December 25 is an example of Christian appropriation of celebrations _______. A) that threatened the spread of Christianity B) that had fallen into disuse C) focused on the emperors D) associated with Judaism Answer: A 37) The Arians are an example of ________. A) an early Christian sect B) a messianic Jewish sect C) Germanic invaders D) a monastic order Answer: A 38) Which of these zones of Christianity was most unified around 400? A) the eastern Roman Empire B) northern Africa C) western Europe D) Palestine and Syria Answer: A 39) As Christianity emerged in the Roman Empire, Jews ________. A) enjoyed less persecution B) were allowed to return to Jerusalem and rebuild the Temple C) suffered greater persecution and repression D) continued to enjoy the leadership of the Jewish Patriarch Answer: C 40) Christians went on pilgrimages primarily ________. A) to share in the holiness of sacred sites B) to convert non-Christians C) because they were required to do so by an imperial decree D) because they were required to do so by the pope Answer: A 41) How did Neoplatonism influence Christianity? A) It led to the canonization of Plato. B) It influenced the conception of the immortality of the human soul. C) It led to a belief in the humanity of Jesus. D) It supported the institution of the papacy. Answer: B 42) Augustine’s acceptance of both Christianity and Rome’s intellectual legacy was generally ________ by later Christians. A) continued B) rejected C) ignored D) forgotten Answer: A 43) The collapse of the Roman Empire in the West ________. A) happened in just a few years B) happened gradually over a century or more C) happened because of the emergence of Christianity D) was halted by 476 Answer: B 44) Looking at Map 7.3, “The Byzantine Empire at the Death of Justinian, 565,” which of these roughly corresponded to the Roman Empire at its height? A) Chalcedonian Christianity B) the Byzantine Empire C) the Germanic kingdoms D) Islam Answer: A 45) Justinian's Corpus of civil law ________. A) preserved Roman law for future generations B) was based on Greek and Christian legal traditions C) was a thorough revision of Roman law for a new Christian culture D) was subjected to many new interpretations after it was completed Answer: A 46) Which of these best explains the inability of the Byzantine Empire to repel invaders in the late 500s? A) constant warfare with Persia B) economic decline C) the emergence of Islam D) the spread of Christianity Answer: A 47) The long conflict with the Persian Empire in the 500s resulted in _______. A) stalemate B) a Byzantine victory C) Persian victory D) the collapse of both empires Answer: A 48) The long-term success of Diocletian’s reforms was due primarily to his ________. A) administrative genius B) military leadership C) innovative approach to imperial rule D) spiritual leadership Answer: A 49) The celebration of New Year’s Day and Easter illustrate what trend? A) merging of Christian and older Roman traditions B) the replacement of all Roman traditions by new Christian traditions C) syncretism D) a sharp break between the pagan and Christian eras Answer: A 50) The career and writings of Augustine symbolize ________. A) the smooth transition between the ancient and medieval worlds B) rejection of classical learning C) the triumph of Christian doctrine over the classical heritage D) the abrupt end of the ancient world Answer: A Essay 51) What do you consider the greatest challenges to maintaining the Roman Empire in the third century? How were they resolved? Answer: The greatest challenges to maintaining the Roman Empire in the third century included: 1. Military Instability: Constant civil wars and invasions strained resources. 2. Economic Decline: Inflation and taxation weakened the economy. 3. Political Fragmentation: Multiple claimants to the throne led to instability. These challenges were partially resolved through reforms like Diocletian's division of power, economic reforms, and the eventual establishment of the Tetrarchy to stabilize leadership. 52) How and why was Diocletian able to restore order to the Roman Empire? Answer: Diocletian restored order to the Roman Empire by: 1. Political Reforms: Instituting the Tetrarchy to share power and improve governance. 2. Military Strength: Strengthening the army and fortifying borders against external threats. 3. Economic Reforms: Implementing price controls and reforms to stabilize the economy. These measures centralized authority, stabilized leadership, and strengthened the empire against internal divisions and external threats, restoring order and stability. 53) How can we explain the success of Christianity in the Roman Empire after 312? Answer: The success of Christianity in the Roman Empire after 312 can be attributed to: 1. Constantine's Conversion: Emperor Constantine's endorsement of Christianity through the Edict of Milan provided legitimacy and encouraged widespread conversion. 2. Institutional Support: Establishment of churches and clerical hierarchy facilitated organization and growth. 3. Social Appeal: Christian emphasis on community, charity, and moral teachings attracted followers amid social and political instability. 4. Tolerance and Persecution: Shifts in imperial policy towards tolerance under Constantine contrasted with earlier persecutions, fostering growth and acceptance. These factors combined to propel Christianity from a persecuted minority to the dominant religion of the Roman Empire. 54) How did Christianity reshape society in the Roman Empire? Answer: Christianity reshaped society in the Roman Empire by: 1. Ethical Standards: Promoting values such as charity, forgiveness, and humility, influencing societal norms. 2. Community Organization: Establishing churches as centers of community life, providing social support and cohesion. 3. Cultural Influence: Contributing to art, literature, and architecture, blending Roman traditions with Christian themes. 4. Legal and Political Impact: Influencing laws and governance through Christian principles and moral teachings. Overall, Christianity's integration into Roman society transformed cultural, moral, and institutional frameworks, leaving a lasting impact on Western civilization. 55) How and why was the Roman Empire able to survive in the East while it collapsed in the West? Answer: The Roman Empire survived in the East (Byzantine Empire) while collapsing in the West due to: 1. Stronger Economy: The Eastern Empire was wealthier and more economically stable, supporting its infrastructure and military. 2. Geographical Advantage: Better defended by natural barriers and strategic locations, such as Constantinople. 3. Continued Roman Traditions: Preservation of Roman administrative, legal, and cultural heritage. 4. External Threat Management: Ability to negotiate with and manage external threats more effectively. These factors allowed the Byzantine Empire to endure for centuries after the Western Empire fell in the 5th century. Chapter 8: Medieval Empires and Borderlands: Byzantium and Islam Multiple Choice 1) Who invented an alphabet for the Slavic language? A) Krum B) Boris I C) Cyril and Methodius D) Vladimir the Great Answer: C 2) The term Rus applied to the lands ruled by ________. A) the princes of Kiev B) the Bulgarian khan C) the Avar tribes D) Byzantium in the Balkans Answer: A 3) What was the capital of the Byzantine Empire? A) Constantinople B) Athens C) Alexandria D) Rome Answer: A 4) How was the Byzantine army organized? A) under the legion system used by the Romans B) on the Persian military model C) into four themes or military districts commanded by generals D) into multiple provinces commanded by generals Answer: C 5) Who was the religious head of the Orthodox Church? A) the pope B) the patriarch of Constantinople C) the bishop of Jerusalem D) the bishop of Antioch Answer: B 6) Who was the Byzantine emperor that launched iconoclasm in the 700s? A) Leo III B) Constantine Porphyrogenitus C) Justinian D) Basil I Answer: A 7) The Macedonian dynasty ruled the Byzantine Empire from the _______ centuries. A) ninth to eleventh B) fifth to sixth C) seventh to tenth D) eleventh to fifteenth Answer: A 8) The Book of Ceremonies helped to establish the notion of the rule of kings by ________. A) divine authority B) military power C) the use of a bureaucracy D) the rule of law Answer: A 9) Which of these men was a renowned Byzantine scholar ? A) Justinian B) the patriarch Photius C) Emperor Basil II D) Emperor Constantine VII Answer: B 10) When did the Byzantine Empire finally collapse? A) 1071 B) 1211 C) 1325 D) 1453 Answer: D 11) What does the term Hijra refer to? A) Muhammad’s return to Mecca in 622 B) Muhammad’s encounter with the angel Gabriel C) Muhammad’s conquest of Mecca in 630 D) Muhammad’s move to Medina from Mecca in 622 Answer: D 12) When Muhammad died in 632, ________. A) most of the Arabian peninsula had converted to Islam B) Islam had spread to Spain C) Islam had spread throughout the Middle East D) only Arabs in Mecca and Medina had converted to Islam Answer: A 13) The Qur’an is ________. A) Muhammad's trip to Mecca in 630 B) the name of Muhammad's tribe C) the written collection of Muhammad’s revelations D) Muhammad's trip to Medina in 622 Answer: C 14) Muslims believe that Muhammad received his revelations from ________. A) God through Abraham B) God through the angel Gabriel C) God through Jesus D) God through Moses Answer: B 15) The first mosque was in ________. A) Medina B) Mecca C) Jerusalem D) Damascus Answer: B 16) What does Islam mean? A) believe B) submission C) control D) monotheism Answer: B 17) What is Ramadan? A) the pillar of Islam that calls for alms for the poor B) the month of fasting between sunrise and sunset in the Muslim calendar C) the annual pilgrimage to Mecca D) an Arabic word meaning submission Answer: B 18) The five Pillars of Islam concerned ________. A) proper acts of faith that all good Muslims should follow B) the construction of the holy shrine called the Ka’aba C) the five Islamic victories over the five Arabic tribes D) Muhammad's decision to move to Mecca Answer: A 19) The caliphate describes ________. A) Islamic leadership after the death of Muhammad B) the Islamic priesthood C) Muhammad's journey from Medina to Mecca D) the military leadership in Islamic armies Answer: A 20) The first ruling dynasty in Islam after the death of Muhammad was the ________. A) Abbasid B) Safavid C) Seljuk D) Umayyad Answer: D 21) The Umayyads conquered territory as far west as ________. A) Spain B) Egypt C) Italy D) Morocco Answer: A 22) What was the official language of Umayyad rule? A) Arabic B) Persian C) Greek D) Latin Answer: A 23) Which of these Egyptian cities was founded by the Muslim Arabs? A) Cairo B) Alexandria C) Thebes D) Memphis Answer: B 24) Succession during the Umayyad caliphate was based on ________. A) merit B) birth C) wealth D) military prowess Answer: B 25) The Abbasid caliphate established their capital in ________. A) Constantinople B) Alexandria C) Mecca D) Baghdad Answer: D 26) The establishment of the exarchates indicates the desire of the Byzantine emperors to _______. A) hold onto the entire Roman Empire B) convert North Africa to Christianity C) push back Muslim expansion D) find a new source for the military draft Answer: B 27) Byzantine control of eastern Europe was complicated by _______. A) a migration into the region B) the fall of Rus C) the conversion of this region to Islam D) the strength of Catholicism in the region Answer: B 28) Unlike most of the peoples moving into eastern Europe in the fifth century, the Bulgars were _______. A) not Slavic B) Christians C) descendants of the Rus D) Romanized Answer: A 29) The religious and political ties between Rus and Byzantium ________. A) led to the establishment of Latin Christianity across eastern Europe B) limited the spread of Latin Christianity in eastern Europe C) led to the development of a Latin ritual for the eastern Orthodox Church D) helped consolidate the Bulgars control of Constantinople Answer: B 30) Looking at Map 8.1, “The Byzantine Empire, ca. 600,” which of these was true around 600? A) The greatest threat to the Byzantine Empire was the Persian Empire. B) Muslims were in control of most of northern Africa. C) The Byzantine Empire had lost control of everything west of Greece. D) Kievan Rus was confined to a small region around Kiev. Answer: A 31) Which of these played an important role in the everyday lives of the people of the Byzantine Empire? A) monasteries B) the Patriarch of Constantinople C) the emperors D) the themes Answer: A 32) Classical learning in the Byzantine empire ________. A) remained important throughout the empire for its entire history B) was gradually replaced with Christian instruction C) remained the only way educated people could learn to read D) was considered superior to Christian instruction everywhere except Constantinople Answer: B 33) The Byzantine emperor sought to end the use of icons because he ________. A) believed they gave the monks too much power B) was trying to overthrow the patriarch C) wanted the people to convert to Islam D) believed that icon veneration was becoming worship of saints Answer: D 34) Which of these was most supportive of the use of icons? A) monks B) emperors C) patriarchs D) military leaders Answer: B 35) Under the Macedonian dynasty, Constantinople ________. A) enjoyed a prosperous economy B) was conquered by the Bulgarians C) became the new seat of the papacy D) was repeatedly plundered by Kievan Rus Answer: A 36) During the Macedonian dynasty, the emperor ________. A) was supplanted by the exarchs B) replaced the papacy as the leader of the western Christian church C) was emphasized as a primarily secular office D) was increasingly represented as divine Answer: D 37) Arab communities before the emergence of Islam were ________. A) organized around a single emperor B) generally organized into tribes C) united under a monarchy D) formally bound together as a single unified tribe Answer: B 38) Looking at Map 8.2, “The Expansion of Islam: The Umayyad Caliphate,” which of these describes the Byzantine Empire around 750? A) essentially reduced to Anatolia B) in control of the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean C) the western half of the Roman Empire D) restricted to a small region around Constantinople Answer: A 39) Before the emergence of Islam, Mecca was a ________. A) spiritual and commercial center B) Roman outpost C) oasis D) Egyptian fortress Answer: A 40) The Hijra marked a departure in the history of Islam because it marked ________. A) the creation of a separate Muslim community B) the first recording of the Qur’an C) the foundation of Medina D) the death of Muhammad Answer: A 41) The Shi’ites emerged after ________. A) Muhammad's cousin Ali was visited by the angel Gabriel B) a dispute over who should succeed Muhammad after his death C) the first jihad D) the collapse of the Umayyad dynasty Answer: B 42) The choice of a caliph was important because the caliph’s claimed ________. A) to be Muhammad’s successors B) authority over the military C) control of Mecca and other holy sites D) to be members of Muhammad’s tribe Answer: A 43) The “House of War” is so named because it is the region ________. A) to be conquered by Islam B) that has refused to be conquered C) of war with the Byzantine Empire D) of Christianity Answer: A 44) For Muslim rulers, what did Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians share with Islam? A) a sacred book B) religious legitimacy C) political legitimacy D) cultural origins Answer: A 45) The Abbasid capital followed the pattern set by the Umayyads, namely ________. A) an eastward shift of the center of the Muslim world B) adoption of Hellenistic traditions C) reconciliation with Byzantine rulers D) the failure of conversion to Islam in the western Islamic empire Answer: A 46) Compared to other capitals in the Mediterranean world, Córdoba ________. A) was more diverse B) was larger C) had more magnificent buildings D) was more densely populated Answer: C 47) Looking at Map 8.3, “Christian Reconquest of Muslim Spain,” which of these is true? A) It took five centuries for Christians to gain control of Iberia. B) Gibraltar was the first city taken by Christians. C) The Reconquest took place from east to west. D) Cordoba was the most important base for the Reconquest. Answer: A 48) The conversion of the Slavic peoples in eastern Europe brought ________. A) a complicated pattern of religious affiliations B) the triumph of Orthodoxy in that region C) Catholic control of the region D) the conversion of Slavs from Russia south and west Answer: A 49) Muslim rulers resembled Byzantine emperors in ________. A) claiming both political and spiritual authority B) calling themselves the successors of their church’s founder C) their quick expansion of the empires D) ruling from an ancient imperial capital Answer: A 50) The dirhams and the Arabian Nights are both examples of ________. A) Umayyad borrowing from earlier traditions B) Muslim literary developments C) Persian influences on the Muslim world D) products of the first decades of Islam Answer: A Essay 51) In what sense was the Byzantine Empire an heir to the Roman Empire? Answer: The Byzantine Empire was an heir to the Roman Empire in several key ways: 1. Continuation of Roman Law and Governance: The Byzantine Empire preserved Roman legal traditions through the Codex Justinianus, a comprehensive codification of Roman law. 2. Cultural and Intellectual Heritage: It maintained and developed Roman art, architecture, literature, and education, fostering the continuation of Greco-Roman cultural traditions. 3. Political Structure: Byzantine emperors considered themselves Roman emperors, maintaining the administrative and military systems of the late Roman Empire. 4. Christianity: As the state religion, Christianity in Byzantium evolved from the Christian traditions established in the Roman Empire, with the Byzantine Empire playing a crucial role in shaping early Christian theology and church structure. 52) What was the iconoclastic controversy and how did it affect the religious and political policies of the Byzantine Empire? Answer: The iconoclastic controversy was a conflict within the Byzantine Empire during the 8th and 9th centuries over the use of religious images, or icons, in worship. Iconoclasts, who opposed icons, believed their use constituted idolatry, while iconodules supported the veneration of icons. Religious Effects: • Division within the Church: The controversy created deep religious divisions, leading to persecution of iconodules and the destruction of religious images. • Council Decisions: The conflict resulted in two significant councils: the Iconoclast Council of 754, which banned icons, and the Second Council of Nicaea in 787, which restored their veneration. Political Effects: • Imperial Authority: Emperors used the controversy to assert greater control over the church, attempting to unify the empire under their religious policies. • Internal Strife: The controversy weakened internal stability, contributing to political and social unrest within the empire. The resolution of the controversy in favor of icon veneration helped restore stability and reaffirmed the cultural and religious identity of the Byzantine Empire. 53) What was the context for the emergence of Islam? What relationship developed between Islam and neighboring religions? Answer: Context for the Emergence of Islam: • Geopolitical: Islam emerged in the 7th century in the Arabian Peninsula, a region characterized by tribal societies and situated between the Byzantine and Sassanian Empires. • Religious: Pre-Islamic Arabia was religiously diverse, with polytheism, Christianity, Judaism, and Zoroastrianism present. • Economic and Social: Trade routes passing through Arabia facilitated cultural and religious exchanges, setting the stage for a new unifying faith. Relationship with Neighboring Religions: • Judaism and Christianity: Islam viewed itself as a continuation and correction of these Abrahamic faiths, recognizing prophets from both religions but asserting Muhammad as the final prophet. • Conversions and Conquests: Early Islamic expansion often resulted in the incorporation of Christian, Jewish, and Zoroastrian communities, who were granted dhimmi status, allowing them religious freedom in exchange for a tax. • Cultural Exchange: Interaction with neighboring religions influenced Islamic theology, philosophy, and science, fostering a period of significant intellectual and cultural development in the Islamic world. 54) How was the Muslim world shaped and transformed by the rapid expansion under the Umayyads and Abbasids? Answer: Under the Umayyads (661-750): • Territorial Expansion: The Umayyads expanded the Muslim empire across North Africa, into Spain, and eastward to India, creating a vast and diverse empire. • Administration: They established a centralized administration with Arabic as the official language, standardizing currency and consolidating governance. • Cultural Integration: The Umayyads promoted the assimilation of different cultures, blending Arab traditions with those of conquered peoples, leading to a rich, multicultural society. Under the Abbasids (750-1258): • Golden Age: The Abbasids presided over a cultural and scientific golden age, fostering advancements in mathematics, astronomy, medicine, and literature. • Baghdad: The capital, Baghdad, became a major center of learning and culture, attracting scholars and intellectuals from across the world. • Administrative Reforms: The Abbasids implemented bureaucratic reforms, enhancing efficiency and governance across the empire. • Fragmentation: Despite initial strength, the Abbasid Caliphate eventually fragmented into smaller states due to internal strife and external pressures, leading to regional autonomy and the decline of centralized control. These expansions under the Umayyads and Abbasids significantly shaped the political, cultural, and intellectual landscape of the Muslim world, leaving a lasting legacy. 55) How did the caliphate of Córdoba develop differently from neighboring lands? Answer: The Caliphate of Córdoba (929-1031) developed differently from neighboring lands in several key ways: 1. Political Stability: Established by Abd al-Rahman III, the Caliphate of Córdoba achieved significant political stability and autonomy, unlike many neighboring regions experiencing fragmentation and internal strife. 2. Economic Prosperity: Córdoba became an economic hub, benefiting from agriculture, trade, and industry, which led to wealth and urban development. 3. Cultural Flourishing: It became a center of cultural and intellectual activity, with advancements in science, medicine, philosophy, and the arts, fostering a unique cultural synthesis of Islamic, Christian, and Jewish traditions. 4. Religious Tolerance: The caliphate practiced relative religious tolerance, allowing Christians and Jews to thrive as dhimmis, contributing to a vibrant, multicultural society. 5. Architectural Achievements: It was known for remarkable architectural feats, including the Great Mosque of Córdoba, which symbolized its cultural and religious significance. These differences highlighted Córdoba's distinctive path of development, setting it apart from other contemporary Muslim and Christian territories. Test Bank for West: Encounters and Transformations Brian Levack, Edward Muir, Meredith Veldman 9780205968374, 9780134229270

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