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Chapter 8 Multiple Choice Questions 1. When the field of cognitive psychology first became prominent, it was considered a revolutionary development because it was a radical departure from _____. A. behaviorism B. psychoanalysis C. the study of mental processes D. the study of artificial intelligence Answer: A 2. When cognitive psychologists use the computer as an analogy to explain the relationship between cognition and the brain, the brain is described as the computer’s _____. A. hardware B. firewall C. hard drive D. software Answer: A 3. Which of the following holds true about the statement that computers provide an oversimplified model of human information processing? A. Computers are currently unable to perform any tasks better than humans. B. Computer information is far too complex for such a comparison to be accurate. C. Computer information is too mathematically based for such a comparison to be accurate. D. Computer information input is pre-coded and ambiguities are removed before processing. Answer: D 4. Cognitive psychologists are interested in examining the process of: A. problem solving. B. clinical diagnosis. C. classical conditioning. D. operant conditioning. Answer: A 5. Alice, Natalie’s roommate, argues that computers can perform several complex tasks better and more accurately than humans. However, Natalie counters her argument by stating that humans alone are capable of: A. developing new learning goals. B. performing statistical operations. C. evaluating loan applications. D. compiling new information. Answer: A 6. Kate, a member of the sorority at Quantasia State University, argues that AI machines will become intent on domination of the human race as soon as they realize that they are intellectually superior to humans. As a psychology major, Laura scoffs at this position and argues that AI machines will never come to the realization that they are smarter than humans because they: A. lack the ability to compile information. B. lack the capacity for self-awareness. C. cannot complete tasks that involve evaluation. D. cannot perform numerical operations accurately. Answer: B 7. Approaches that attempt to explain observable behavior by investigating mental processes and structures that cannot be directly observed by individuals fall under _____ psychology. A. psychoanalytic B. behavioral C. cognitive D. biological Answer: C 8. Concepts refer to: A. mental categories that are used to group objects, events, and characteristics. B. appropriate ways to attain a goal when the goal is not readily available. C. unique strategies that guarantee a solution to a problem. D. specific reasons behind linguistic differences between ethnic groups. Answer: A 9. Dan is at an international food fest with his brother Jude. When Dan is served a dish of Mopane worm stew, Jude tells him reassuringly, “That’s food!” and Dan comprehends his statement regarding the concept of food. Which of the following characteristics of concepts has been illustrated in this scenario? A. Concepts facilitate generalization. B. Concepts facilitate association between experiences and objects. C. Concepts aid memory. D. Concepts provide clues about how to react to a particular object. Answer: D 10. On her first visit to Quantasia, Jessica, a traveler, visits a restaurant near a highway that serves traditional cuisine. She learns that such kinds of restaurants are termed as “matam.” According to the characteristics of a concept, which of the following characteristics has been illustrated in this scenario? A. Concepts provide clues about how to react to a particular object. B. Concepts aid memory. C. Concepts facilitate association between experiences and objects. D. Concepts facilitate generalization. Answer: D 11. Charlotte, a three-year-old girl, learns that a doll is an object with which she can play alone or with her friends. Which of the following characteristics of concepts has been illustrated in this scenario? A. Concepts facilitate association between experiences and objects. B. Concepts facilitate generalization. C. Concepts provide clues about how to react to a particular object. D. Concepts aid memory. Answer: A 12. Neil has been riding his bike to work for the last five years. Which of the following characteristics of concepts is being illustrated in this statement? A. Concepts aid memory. B. Concepts facilitate generalization. C. Concepts facilitate association between experiences and objects. D. Concepts provide clues about how to react to a particular object. Answer: A 13. Which of the following methods developed to understand the structure and function of concepts emphasizes that when people evaluate whether a given item reflects a certain concept, they compare the item with the most typical items in that category and look for a “family resemblance” with that item’s properties? A. The prototype model B. Game theory C. The scientific method D. Mathematical induction Answer: A 14. In everyday situations, finding and framing problems can be difficult because most real-life problems: A. are vague and ill defined. B. require employing complex operations. C. cannot be solved by the average person. D. do not require openness to experience. Answer: A 15. Levi Hutchins, a young clockmaker, resolved to rise at 4 A.M. every morning. This resolution motivated Hutchins to invent the alarm clock. Which of the following was most likely Hutchins’s first step in solving the problem of waking up early? A. Rethink and redefine the problem B. Find and frame the problem C. Evaluate the solutions D. Employ good problem-solving strategies Answer: B 16. Sam manages a fast-food restaurant. He is frustrated because employees often call in sick at the last minute before the start of their shift. Given that Sam recognizes this problem, which of the following is the next immediate step that he should take to solve this problem? A. Sam should call a meeting with all his employees and explain the problem to them. B. Sam should threaten to fire anyone who calls in sick just prior to the start of their shift. C. Sam should evaluate his employee policies. D. Sam should define the problem in detail. Answer: D 17. Freisha intends to learn cooking but is confused about the type of cuisine she aims to learn. According to the steps in problem solving, the first step that must be taken by her is to: A. evaluate the solutions. B. develop good problem-solving strategies. C. find and frame the problem. D. rethink and redefine the problem. Answer: C 18. Which of the following statements is true of subgoals? A. Working backward in establishing subgoals should be typically avoided. B. They are initial goals that put the individual in a better position for reaching a final solution. C. They are devised while developing problem-solving strategies. D. They are used to evaluate the solutions. Answer: C 19. Claudia has bought a recipe book that gives her step-by-step procedures to prepare Italian cuisines. This scenario illustrates the use of _____. A. heuristics B. algorithms C. prototypes D. concepts Answer: B 20. Heuristics differ from algorithms in that heuristics: A. are slow. B. guarantee a solution to a problem. C. are complex strategies that suggest a solution to a problem. D. can lead to different answers to a given problem. Answer: D 21. An effective way to strategize the organization of subgoals is to: A. work forward in the planning process. B. limit the number of subgoals to three or less. C. create a minimum of six or seven subgoals. D. work backward in the planning process. Answer: D 22. Diana has to study four chapters of management information systems for her test tomorrow. If she decides to use the problem-solving strategy of adopting subgoals, she must: A. cram the night before the test. B. breakdown the topics to be studied and complete each within the time frame. C. decide to do a group study with her friends. D. study only the larger topics and ignore the smaller topics. Answer: B 23. Veronica has to cook dinner for 30 people this Saturday. Moreover, her apartment is a mess, and she has nothing suitable to wear for the party. Hence, she decides to do her laundry on Thursday night, buy the groceries on Friday, clean the apartment on Saturday morning, and cook dinner by Saturday evening. This process of defining intermediate problems is known as: A. creating subgoals. B. using algorithms. C. using heuristics. D. fixation. Answer: A 24. Who would benefit the most from defining subgoals? A. Andy has to go to the gym. B. Zach has to wash the dishes. C. Todd has to complete a science fair project. D. Pedro has to solve a few algebra sums by evening. Answer: C 25. Who would benefit the most from defining subgoals? A. Jake has to cook pasta for supper. B. Billie has to develop a landscape design for his client. C. Suki has to watch a movie with her friend. D. Chris has to go on a date. Answer: B 26. Jim needs a backyard shed to house his motorcycle, and even though he has never built one, he decides to do it himself. He buys a book of professionally drawn detailed shed plans that provide step-by-step instructions. In this situation, Jim is using: A. algorithms. B. heuristics. C. prototypes. D. shortcut strategies. Answer: A 27. Shane is a sales representative and uses MapQuest to get driving directions to his clients’ offices. Thus, Shane uses _____ to get to his destinations. A. shortcut strategies B. heuristics C. prototypes D. algorithms Answer: D 28. Which of the following is the main disadvantage of using algorithms? A. They only work for large problems. B. They are very similar to the trial-and-error method. C. Correct solutions are not guaranteed. D. Finding solutions may take a long time. Answer: D 29. Ivan has misplaced his room keys. Which of the following would he do if he decides to use an algorithmic approach to find them? A. He will avoid searching and instead get a replacement key made. B. He will break open the door. C. He will call his wife to get the spare keys. D. He will go through each drawer in his house. Answer: D 30. Which of the following is the main difference between algorithms and heuristics? A. Unlike heuristics, algorithms lead to different answers to a given problem. B. Heuristics take more time than algorithms. C. Unlike heuristics, algorithms always guarantee a solution. D. Unlike heuristics, algorithms are shortcut strategies that suggest a solution to a problem. Answer: C 31. Which of the following is true of algorithms and heuristics for solving real-life problems? A. Heuristics are shortcut strategies. B. Algorithms lead to different answers to a given problem. C. Heuristics guarantee a solution to a problem. D. Algorithms are faster than heuristics. Answer: A 32. Jake developed a study plan for his Graduate Record Examination and completed his paper on Tuesday. According to the steps in problem solving, the next immediate step that must be taken by him is to: A. employ good problem-solving strategies. B. find and frame the problem. C. rethink and redefine the problem. D. evaluate his performance. Answer: D 33. Jacob received his score on math paper and realized that he performed poorly in the test. According to the steps in problem solving, the next step that must be taken by him is to: A. ignore all the subgoals created by him during the problem-solving process. B. rethink and redefine his problem. C. employ heuristics rather than algorithms as the problem-solving strategy. D. merely frame the problem in a vague way. Answer: B 34. Which of the following is a characteristic of good problem solvers? A. Self-doubt B. Humility C. Groupthink D. Risk avoidance Answer: B 35. Which of the following is an example of functional fixedness? A. Melissa is unaware of the features of her new iPod. B. Cindy puts her jacket on a coat hanger. C. Roberto uses his baseball glove to play catch. D. Albert cannot find another use for his leftover shingles. Answer: D 36. Monique routinely uses a shredder to shred her paper mail into confetti-sized pieces of paper. When packing her glassware to move into a new apartment, she runs out of protective Styrofoam packing material. Suddenly, Monique remembers about the shredded junk mail confetti which she could use as packing material. From the above scenario, it can be concluded that Monique has: A. overcome functional fixedness. B. used a heuristic to solve her packing problem. C. used an algorithm to solve her packing problem. D. demonstrated object fixation. Answer: A 37. Which of the following would businesses need to avoid for them to be successful over a period of many years? A. Algorithms B. Insight learning C. Functional fixedness D. Heuristics Answer: C 38. Which of the following best explains being cognitively flexible? A. The tendency to report falsely, after the fact, that one has accurately predicted an outcome B. Recognizing that options are available and adapting to the situation C. The tendency to ignore information about general principles in favor of very specific but vivid information D. Fixating on a thing’s usual functions Answer: B 39. Human beings will often reason from the specific to the general. That is, people often form general rules and concepts based on specific experiences and examples. This type of reasoning is termed as: A. deductive reasoning. B. retrospective reasoning. C. inductive reasoning. D. descriptive reasoning. Answer: C 40. Bertha met two students from another school at a convention. She enjoyed their company a great deal and was very impressed with how nice they were. Bertha now believes that all the students from that school are nice and is therefore considering transferring to that school. According to the methods of reasoning, Bertha is using _____ reasoning in this scenario. A. inductive B. functional C. critical D. deductive Answer: A 41. Carlos believes that all of the people from another part of his town are snobs. He is scheduled to perform with some students from that part of the town in an all-county musical presentation. If he assumes that these students are also rich and snobby, he is using _____ reasoning. A. inductive B. functional C. critical D. deductive Answer: D 42. Whenever scientists use theories and intuitions to make specific predictions and then evaluate their predictions by making further observations, _____ is at work. A. inductive reasoning B. reflective disclosure C. deductive reasoning D. functional fixedness Answer: C 43. Which of the following statements is true of inductive reasoning? A. It involves drawing conclusions based on facts. B. It refers to reasoning from a general principle that individuals know to be true to a specific instance. C. It is illustrated when psychologists and other scientists use theories to make predictions and then evaluate their predictions by making further observations. D. It involves bottom-up processing. Answer: D 44. If Professor Wagner were to build a robot that functions using only automatic processes, we would expect it to make decisions using _____. A. algorithms B. functional fixedness C. heuristics D. conscious reflection Answer: C 45. Based on his observation of a group of patients who suffer from a psychological disorder and display immense creativity, Collin develops a theory of creativity among patients with that disorder. According to the types of reasoning, it can be concluded that Collin has employed _____ reasoning. A. deductive B. inductive C. automatic D. controlled Answer: B 46. Jennifer, a senior HR recruiter, perceives students from Edinkyo University to be industrious employees. As a result, she concludes that Carol, a fresher from the same university, will be an asset for the company. According to the types of reasoning, it can be concluded that Jennifer has employed _____ reasoning. A. automatic B. controlled C. deductive D. inductive Answer: C 47. Greta was confused about choosing medicine or law as options for her undergraduate studies. However, she followed her intuition and chose to pursue her undergraduate studies in law. According to the systems of reasoning and decision making, it can be concluded that Greta employed the _____ system of reasoning and decision making. A. controlled B. automatic C. inductive D. deductive Answer: B 48. Akira is attempting to solve Sudoku for the first time. According to the systems of reasoning and decision making, it can be concluded that Akira is employing the _____ system of reasoning and decision making. A. deductive B. inductive C. controlled D. automatic Answer: C 49. Joel and Zeus watch a soccer game between team A and team B on T.V. Team A wins the match and Zeus exclaims, “I knew team A would win this match!” According to the biases and heuristics in decision making, it can be concluded that Zeus is employing _____ in this scenario. A. confirmation bias B. hindsight bias C. the availability heuristic D. the representativeness heuristic Answer: B 50. Bonnie and Clyde have decided to purchase a new entertainment center. As this will be a major financial investment, they spend a lot of time researching their options. Helen, a psychology student, advises them to distract themselves with an alternate activity before they come to any purchase decisions. Is this a good advice? A. No, research has shown that people who approach complex decisions in a consciously deliberate fashion and then act immediately make better choices. B. No, research has shown that people make better decisions when they study their options and act decisively before additional information causes them to change their minds. C. Yes, research has shown that people who approach complex decisions after being distracted are more likely to make better decisions. D. Yes, research has shown that a few hours of sleep is necessary before making a smart decision. Answer: C 51. Cathy has long believed that all her supervisors are cranky and disagreeable individuals. According to the confirmation bias, after being transferred to a new department, which of the following will Cathy most likely do on her first day in the new supervisor’s department? A. She will forget about the things she has thought about her previous supervisors. B. She will look for positive behaviors on the part of her supervisor. C. She will share her feelings with the new supervisor. D. She will look for negative behaviors on the part of the supervisor. Answer: D 52. Maria is extremely active in politics. She has strong conservative beliefs about what is correct and what is not. Each day when she reads the newspaper, she pays close attention to the editorial section in particular. According to the confirmation bias, what will she do when she reads them? A. She will read all of the editorials to get a balanced view of issues. B. She will only read the editorials that she agrees with. C. She will read the editorials that she disagrees with to get another perspective on issues. D. She will only read the editorials that are devoid of political issues. Answer: B 53. Many smokers like to associate themselves to the late George Burns, a famous actor who smoked cigars continuously for many years and lived to be nearly a hundred, as evidence that smoking is relatively harmless. These individuals tend to ignore the thousands of people who die every year from lung cancer. They are illustrating: A. the availability heuristic. B. confirmation bias. C. the representativeness heuristic. D. hindsight bias. Answer: B 54. After the outcome of an election is announced, George states that he knew all along what the outcome would be. This is a form of: A. confirmation bias. B. hindsight bias. C. availability heuristic. D. representativeness heuristic. Answer: B 55. Every week during football season, Fred and his friends have fun following the local high school teams. Before the games, Fred never really talks too much about how the games will turn out. On Monday, however, it is a different scenario altogether. Fred is more than happy to share with his friends that the results of the games turned out exactly as he thought they would. Thus, it can be concluded that Fred is demonstrating: A. overconfidence bias. B. hindsight bias. C. inductive reasoning. D. deductive reasoning. Answer: B 56. Naomi intends to become a pilot. However, her father refuses to comply with her intention. He states that the women in his family have always been in the academic field and persuades her to pursue teaching as her future career. According to the biases and heuristics in decision making, it can be concluded that Naomi’s father has employed _____ in this scenario. A. the representativeness heuristic B. the availability heuristic C. confirmation bias D. hindsight bias Answer: B 57. Alex intends to board a flight this evening to another country for an official visit. However, his wife prevents him from boarding the flight stating that there is a likelihood of danger to his life owing to several plane crashes that occurred this month. According to the biases and heuristics in decision making, it can be concluded that Alex’s wife mirrors the _____ in this scenario. A. base rate neglect B. hemispatial neglect C. representativeness heuristic D. availability heuristic Answer: D 58. Gwyneth views the exceptional ratings of a pair of jeans on an online shopping website and decides to purchase it over the weekend. However, her friend who has a similar pair of jeans complains about the poor quality of the material which prevents Gwyneth from making the online purchase. According to the biases and heuristics in decision making, it can be concluded that Gwyneth mirrors _____ in this scenario. A. confirmation bias B. hindsight bias C. the base rate neglect D. the hemispatial neglect Answer: C 59. The fact that Jordan hears about airplane crashes on the news more often than he hears about automobile crashes may lead him to believe that he is more likely to die in a plane than in a car. This scenario exemplifies: A. confirmation bias. B. hindsight bias. C. availability heuristic. D. representativeness heuristic. Answer: C 60. Harry intends to pursue his career in the armed forces. However, his mother prevents him from applying for a position in the armed forces. She fears that she will lose her son just like she lost her husband who died during his regime in the armed forces. Hence, it can be concluded that Harry’s mother has used _____. A. confirmation bias B. the availability heuristic C. hindsight bias D. the representativeness heuristic Answer: B 61. Sharon had a major argument with Terence, her fifty-year-old general manager in her previous company, whom she perceives as being arrogant and snobbish. Following the argument, she quit her job and found a job in another company and is currently working under Ian who is about the same age as Terence. She now feels that Ian is also arrogant and snobbish. According to the biases and heuristics in decision making, it can be concluded that Sharon is likely to employ _____ in this scenario. A. availability heuristic B. representativeness heuristic C. base rate neglect D. hindsight bias Answer: B 62. Samantha believes that Gabe is a member of the football team because he is muscular and wears gym shorts. This typically illustrates: A. the availability heuristic. B. confirmation bias. C. the representativeness heuristic. D. hindsight bias. Answer: C 63. Hillary meets her brother’s friend Drake who is a tall and lanky man. She concludes that Drake might be a basketball player for his college team. According to the biases and heuristics in decision making, it can be concluded that Hillary mirrors _____ in this scenario. A. the representativeness heuristic B. the availability heuristic C. confirmation bias D. hindsight bias Answer: A 64. Norah is employing the process of _____ since she intends to oppose the existing views regarding feminism in post-modern era. A. convergent thinking B. divergent thinking C. critical thinking D. automatic thinking Answer: C 65. Sandra is most likely to seek out information that refutes the existing hypothesis regarding the relationship between smoking and dementia when she engages in _____. A. confirmation bias B. critical thinking C. convergent thinking D. hindsight bias Answer: B 66. Which of the following describes the trait of a critical thinker? A. Grasping the deeper meaning of ideas B. Providing a single accurate solution to a problem C. Relying on the opinion of more experienced others D. Practicing groupthink Answer: A 67. The concept of mindfulness refers to: A. the state of being receptive to other ways of looking at things. B. the state of being alert and mentally present for one’s everyday activities. C. thinking that is flexible and open to questioning; it is not dogmatic or categorical. D. suppressing unconscious thoughts and conflicts within the individual’s mind. Answer: B 68. Which of the following individuals is LEAST likely to exhibit mindfulness as part of their regular job responsibilities? A. An administrative assistant B. A detective at a crime scene C. The pilot of a plane D. An usher at a movie theater Answer: D 69. According to Ellen Langer, an individual’s routine of engaging in meditation every morning is an example of _____. A. divergent thinking B. open-minded thinking C. mindful behavior D. automatic behavior Answer: C 70. Henry, the marketing team lead of Shield Corp, always consults his team members prior to making any important decisions. This, in turn, indicates that Henry engages in _____ during the process of decision making. A. convergent thinking B. open-minded thinking C. inductive reasoning D. deductive reasoning Answer: B 71. Adrian is solving mathematical equations in his classroom. Which of the following processes of thinking is he likely to be engaged in at present? A. Convergent thinking B. Automatic thinking C. Divergent thinking D. Passive thinking Answer: A 72. Being receptive to other ways of looking at things is referred to as _____. A. critical thinking B. mindfulness C. convergent thinking D. open-mindedness Answer: D 73. Lisa, a marketing manager, has suggested using crowdsourcing to come up with ideas for advertising. She has found a number of people who are ready to volunteer to answer a questionnaire and be a part of a focus group. Which of the following processes of thinking is being illustrated in this scenario? A. Critical thinking B. Controlled thinking C. Divergent thinking D. Mindful thinking Answer: C 74. Eric, a rock musician, has recently launched his music album. All his songs in the new album are based on suggestions from his fans about the lyrics, genre, and so on. Which of the following processes of thinking did he engage in during the initial stage of his music album? A. Divergent thinking B. Controlled thinking C. Convergent thinking D. Automatic thinking Answer: A 75. Serena, an advertising lead, is holding a meeting with her team mates regarding the development of an advertisement for a new perfume brand. Which of the following processes of thinking do Serena and her team mates most likely employ in this scenario? A. Passive thinking B. Convergent thinking C. Automatic thinking D. Divergent thinking Answer: D 76. _____ thinking occurs during brainstorming. A. Convergent B. Passive C. Automatic D. Divergent Answer: D 77. _____ thinking is best when a problem has only one right answer. A. Convergent B. Passive C. Automatic D. Divergent Answer: A 78. Which of the following statements is true of convergent thinking? A. It works best when a problem has only one right answer. B. It occurs during brainstorming. C. It produces many solutions to the same problem. D. This type of thinking is avoided by creative people. Answer: A 79. What type of thinking is required when trying to determine who should be hired from a stack of fifty resumes? A. Convergent thinking B. Conceptual thinking C. Automatic thinking D. Divergent thinking Answer: A 80. Which of the following is a trait of creative thinkers? A. Dogmatic thinking B. Categorical thinking C. Risk avoidance D. Intrinsic motivation Answer: D 81. Which of the following statements is true of creative thinkers? A. They are usually superficial in their approach. B. They are usually convergent in their approach. C. They are usually engaged in objective evaluation of their work. D. They usually avoid taking risks. Answer: C 82. Walter, a product development lead, encourages his teammates to suggest ideas during a product development process. According to the characteristics of creative thinkers, which of the following characteristics has been demonstrated by Walter in this scenario? A. Inner motivation B. Flexible thinking C. Willingness to face risk D. Objective evaluation of work Answer: B 83. Sasha is a journalist at Plato, Inc. She is extremely creative and enjoys her work mainly because she loves writing. She has recently been promoted to a senior position. According to the characteristics of creative thinkers, which of the following has resulted in her promotion in this scenario? A. Social loafing B. Risk avoidance C. Groupthink D. Inner motivation Answer: D 84. Michelle, a tattoo artist, has invested a huge sum of money in establishing her own tattoo studio in her hometown. According to the characteristics of creative thinkers, which of the following characteristics has been demonstrated by Michelle in this scenario? A. Willingness to face risk B. Inner motivation C. Objective evaluation of work D. Flexible thinking Answer: A 85. Mark is a content writer who works in Zeal, Inc. He strives to work hard on his job and always seeks feedback from his senior content writers. According to the characteristics of creative thinkers, which of the following characteristics has been demonstrated by Mark in this scenario? A. Flexible thinking B. Objective evaluation of work C. Willingness to face risk D. Inner motivation Answer: B 86. The concept of _____ is best defined as the ability to do well on cognitive tasks, to solve problems, and to learn from experience. A. mindfulness B. intelligence C. validity D. reasoning Answer: B 87. When scores on an intelligence test relate to important outcomes such as job performance, then the intelligence test has a high level of: A. reliability. B. criterion validity. C. standardization. D. normal distribution. Answer: B 88. As part of a research study, Dora is administered an intelligence test and obtains a particular score on this test. A few days later, she repeats the same test as a part of the same study and obtains the same score. This in turn leads Dora to conclude that the intelligence test possesses adequate _____. A. norms B. distribution C. validity D. reliability Answer: D 89. Clara develops a test to assess the levels of anxiety among cardiac surgeons and shows it to Betty, a subject matter expert, for feedback on her test. Post the review session, Betty approves her test and states that the test measures what it aims to measure. Thus, from the above scenario this test exemplifies _____. A. validity B. normality C. reliability D. uniformity Answer: A 90. Shizuka administered a self-developed depression scale twice on a group of patients at a hospital. At both times, she observed that different scores were yielded by the same set of patients. From this scenario, it can be concluded that Shizuka’s scale lacks _____. A. convergence B. divergence C. reliability D. validity Answer: C 91. Norman is involved in the process of developing instructions for administering and scoring a personality scale. Thus, it can be concluded that Norman is in the process of establishing _____. A. validity B. standardized norms C. reliability D. normal distribution Answer: B 92. Joanne administered a scale on job satisfaction to a group of participants and observed that their scores were related to the outcome of job satisfaction. As a result, it can be concluded that this scale demonstrates: A. inter-rater reliability. B. criterion validity. C. adequate normality. D. test-retest reliability. Answer: B 93. If Sammy scores nearly the same every time he takes a test, it can be concluded that the test is _____. A. valid B. highly reliable C. standardized D. normally distributed Answer: B 94. Derek, a high school football coach, decides to use the time taken to run up 100 stairs as a test for running endurance. He tests every team member on three consecutive days and finds that the time taken by each person is very much the same on all three trials. His test for endurance appears to have high levels of _____. A. validity B. generalizability C. reliability D. normality Answer: C 95. Although participants routinely scored about the same every time, the new fire fighters aptitude test showed almost no correlation to their actual performance. Hence, it can be inferred that this new test is: A. reliable and valid. B. reliable but not valid. C. not reliable but valid. D. not reliable and not valid. Answer: B 96. If an intelligence test produces the same score over multiple administrations but does not accurately measure intelligence, then the test is _____. A. standardized but not divergent B. convergent but not standardized C. reliable but not valid D. valid but not convergent Answer: C 97. Francis, a psychologist, has developed a new test to measure the verbal ability of third graders. To determine the range of scores (and what is a good and bad score), he gives the test to 10,000 third graders. In future, he will compare the performance of others to this reference group. This process of determining meaningful scores involves establishing _____. A. focus groups B. validity C. reliability D. norms Answer: D 98. _____, a concept developed by Alfred Binet, is an individual’s level of mental development relative to that of others. A. Mental age B. Chronological age C. Intelligence quotient D. Mental chronometry Answer: A 99. If Keira’s mental age is higher than her chronological age, this means that: A. her IQ is higher than average. B. her IQ is average. C. her IQ is lower than average. D. a mistake has occurred since this result is not possible. Answer: A 100. A 10-year-old boy with a mental age of 13 would have an IQ of _____. A. 100 B. 120 C. 150 D. 130 Answer: D 101. A 20-year-old- woman with a mental age of 22 would have an IQ of _____. A. 95 B. 90 C. 110 D. 120 Answer: C 102. A 6-year-old child with a mental age of 6 would have an IQ of _____. A. 90 B. 100 C. 110 D. 120 Answer: B 103. If an outcome measure is normally distributed, this means that: A. all scores are around the average score. B. all scores are below average. C. most scores are around the average with some scores being lower or higher. D. the scores are distributed across all points evenly. Answer: C 104. Andrew, a professor of statistics, states that 70 students in his class have received test scores between 80 and 85 out of 100. Hence, it can be concluded that Andrew has indicated the _____ of scores. A. reliability B. standardization C. normal distribution D. functional fixedness Answer: C 105. Emily has been asked to review a set of test items that are being considered for a standardized intelligence test. The test constructors intend to eliminate all items that contain any possible cultural bias. With this task in mind, which of the following questions should be eliminated by Emily in this scenario? A. What is the difference between a stone and a potato? B. What would you wear if it were very cold outside? C. What is the name of the main character in Macbeth? D. What are the similarities between flowers and trees? Answer: C 106. Which of the following items would most likely appear in a culture-fair test? A. Asking subjects to name the planets B. Asking subjects to put together a puzzle C. Asking subjects to add together two plus two D. Asking subjects to tell a story in their respective language Answer: B 107. The Raven Progressive Matrices is considered to be a culture-fair test. Yet, it has been criticized since it discriminates against: A. groups who are unaware about the concept of time. B. individuals with lower educational levels. C. individuals who lack information on international current affairs. D. groups with low levels of exposure to political science. Answer: B 108. Dr. Ambrose feels that a particular intelligence test is probably culturally biased. Which of the following questions in the test would concern Dr. Ambrose the most? A. Why do we need rain? B. In which month of the year is the Super Bowl played? C. What do we see in the sky at night? D. In what way are balloons and airplanes the same? Answer: B 109. As heritability is a proportion, the highest degree of heritability is________ percent. A. 25 B. 40 C. 150 D. 100 Answer: D 110. Which of the following statements is true of heritability? A. Heritability has no meaning when applied to a single case. B. Heritability is a statistic that provides information about a single individual. C. Heritability estimates remain constant over time and across different groups. D. Even if the heritability of a characteristic is very high, the environment seldom matters. Answer: A 111. George’s parents talked and communicated with him a great deal from the time he was born. Which of the following statements is true with regard to George’s IQ? A. The stimulation provided by George’s parents will positively affect his IQ. B. The stimulation provided by George’s parents will have little effect on his IQ. C. There is no relationship between how much George’s parents talked to him and his IQ score. D. There is no relationship between any parental influences and George’s IQ. Answer: A 112. The batting averages of major league baseball players have shown a steady increase over the last thirty years. This mirrors the observation of the _____ made from the field of intelligence testing. A. recency effect B. primacy effect C. Flynn effect D. Whorf effect Answer: C 113. Which of the following scenarios indicates giftedness? A. Lisa has an IQ score of 100 on an intelligence test. B. Maurice has an IQ score of 110 on an intelligence test. C. Anna has an IQ score of 90 on an intelligence test. D. Katie has an IQ score of 130 on an intelligence test. Answer: D 114. Which of the following statements is true of people who are gifted? A. They are functionally fixed. B. They have an IQ of less than 120. C. They have superior talent in a particular area. D. They have below average intelligence. Answer: C 115. The “Termites” in Lewis Terman’s study of gifted individuals were a group of: A. creative thinkers. B. below average students. C. above average students. D. critical thinkers. Answer: C 116. By definition, people who are gifted have ____. A. an IQ of 130 or higher B. an IQ of 90 or higher C. always become major creators or innovators D. superior intrapersonal skills Answer: A 117. Which of the following terms refers to a limited mental capacity that affects functioning in conceptual skills, social skills, and practical skills? A. Intellectual disability B. Intellectual difference C. Intellectual exceptionality D. Intellectual digression Answer: A 118. Edward is a 70-year-old man who is unable to manage his finances any longer. Which of the following adaptive skills is impaired in Edward? A. Psychomotor skill B. Practical skill C. Social skill D. Conceptual skill Answer: B 119. Which of the following scenarios illustrates the use of a conceptual skill? A. Andrea is organizing a debate competition in her school. B. Lionel is imparting soft skills training to new employees. C. Ryan is studying for his graduate record examination on a weekday. D. Julie is watching the latest movie in town with her friends. Answer: C 120. Which of the following represents a practical skill? A. Reading a book B. Talking to a neighbor C. Obeying the law D. Brushing one’s teeth Answer: D 121. Sophia is in the fifth grade and lives in one of the most impoverished areas in the state. She has a history of academic failure although she is very sensitive to her teacher’s expectations. Her teachers have noticed that she responds best when candy is offered as an incentive. Sophia’s IQ is 65. She is most likely a victim of: A. organic intellectual disability. B. cultural-familial intellectual disability. C. vitamin deficiency intellectual disability. D. lead poisoning. Answer: B 122. Greg was diagnosed with Down syndrome at age two. Hence, it can be inferred that he _____. A. will excel in creative abilities B. may not be able to read but he will learn to understand advanced math C. will most likely be able to live on his own as an adult D. may come to excel in interpersonal sensitivity Answer: D 123. Dhiraj excels at his work as a designer for the established fashion brand, “Vivacious.” According to Sternberg’s theory of intelligence, it can be concluded that Dhiraj has a high level of _____ intelligence. A. application B. analytical C. creative D. practical Answer: C 124. According to Gardner’s multiple intelligences, which of the following frames of mind describes the ability to think three-dimensionally? A. Existentialist B. Naturalist C. Intrapersonal D. Spatial Answer: D 125. According to Gardner’s multiple intelligences, which of the following intelligences would be LEAST important for a car salesperson? A. Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence B. Verbal intelligence C. Interpersonal intelligence D. Mathematical intelligence Answer: A 126. Infinite generativity refers to the ability to: A. learn more than one language. B. make multiple decisions. C. produce an unlimited number of rules. D. create an unlimited number of meaningful sentences. Answer: D 127. _____ refers to a language’s rules for word formation. A. Phonology B. Morphology C. Syntax D. Semantics Answer: B 128. If the sound sequences “walk” and “ing” were combined to make “ingwalk,” this would violate English _____. A. phonology B. morphology C. syntax D. semantics Answer: B 129. Jane tells her roommate, “I misplaced my wallet.” Her roommate exclaims, “Oh my goodness, you lost your wallet?” Jane responds, “No, I didn’t lose my wallet, I misplaced it.” This exchange best demonstrates the _____ aspect of language. A. morphological B. semantic C. pragmatic D. grammatical Answer: B 130. The sentence, “The bicycle talked the boy into buying a candy bar,” is: A. pragmatically correct but syntactically incorrect. B. semantically correct but syntactically incorrect. C. syntactically correct but semantically incorrect. D. syntactically and pragmatically incorrect. Answer: C 131. If one were to translate “white house” to Spanish from English, it would be “casa blanca,” or “house white.” This demonstrates a difference in _____ between the two languages. A. phonology B. cherology C. syntax D. prosody Answer: C 132. Evidence of the role of language in cognitive activities includes the fact that: A. memory is stored only in the form of images. B. memory is stored only in the form of sounds. C. without language, people have no memories. D. memory is stored in the form of words. Answer: D 133. According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, language determines _____. A. emotion B. cognition C. motivation D. intuition Answer: B 134. Critics of the work of Benjamin Whorf maintain that: A. linguistic predispositions are universal. B. all cultures essentially share the same linguistic experiences. C. language determines how people think about their world. D. words merely reflect, rather than cause, the way individuals think. Answer: D 135. According to Noam Chomsky, the fact that children all over the world acquire language at the same time indicates that: A. human beings are prewired to learn language at a certain time. B. language is learned through reinforcement at certain times. C. language is learned through imitation. D. language is influenced by the parents’ vocabulary. Answer: A 136. Ruth is an eight-month-old infant. According to milestones of language development, which of the following language milestones is attained by Ruth at this age? A. She understands more than fifty words. B. She understands two-word combinations. C. She produces babbling sounds of spoken language. D. She demonstrates an increased awareness of pragmatics. Answer: C 137. Gregory is a 13-month-old toddler. According to milestones of language development, which of the following language milestones is attained by Gregory at this age? A. He uses a few prepositions. B. He uses plurals. C. He understands more than fifty words. D. He understands the meaning of past tense. Answer: C 138. Abigail is a 20-month-old child. According to milestones of language development, which of the following language milestones is attained by Abigail at this age? A. She uses a few prepositions. B. She asks yes and no questions. C. She understands metaphor and satire. D. She uses an average of 200 words. Answer: D 139. Olivia is a two-year-old toddler. According to milestones of language development, which of the following language milestones is attained by Olivia at this age? A. She has an increased awareness of pragmatics. B. She uses a lot of yes and no questions. C. She understands metaphor and satire. D. She uses certain prepositions. Answer: D 140. Roger is a four-year-old boy. According to milestones of language development, which of the following language milestones is attained by Roger at this age? A. He understands complex grammar forms. B. He shows more skilled use of syntactical rules. C. He understands metaphor and satire. D. He uses negatives and imperatives. Answer: D 141. Haya is a six-year-old girl. According to milestones of language development, which of the following language milestones is attained by Haya at this age? A. She understands adult literary works. B. She coordinates simple sentences. C. She understands metaphor and satire. D. She develops an understanding of complex grammar forms. Answer: B 142. Jacques is a seven-year-old boy. According to milestones of language development, which of the following language milestones is attained by Jacques at this age? A. He shows more skilled use of syntactical rules. B. He understands metaphor and satire. C. He develops an understanding of complex grammar forms. D. He understands adult literary works. Answer: A 143. Nigel is a ten-year-old boy. According to milestones of language development, which of the following language milestones is attained by Nigel at this age? A. He understands metaphor and satire. B. He uses synonyms in word definitions. C. He understands adult literary works. D. He develops an understanding of complex grammar forms. Answer: B 144. Morgan is a thirteen-year-old boy. According to milestones of language development, which of the following language milestones is attained by Morgan between the age of 11 and14? A. The mean length of utterances increases to 3–4 morphemes in a sentence. B. His vocabulary increases to an average of 200 words. C. He understands metaphors and satires. D. He uses yes and no questions. Answer: C 145. Nina is an eighteen-year-old girl. According to milestones of language development, which of the following language milestones is attained by Nina between the age of 15 and 20? A. She understands adult literary works. B. She understands the function of a word in a sentence. C. The mean length of utterances increases to 3–4 morphemes in a sentence. D. She coordinates simple sentences. Answer: A 146. The term “universal linguists” refers to the idea that: A. children must be exposed to language before the age of six in order to learn it. B. the size of the parent’s vocabulary affects the size of the child’s vocabulary. C. children from all over the world acquire language in the same order. D. children can distinguish each of the sounds that make up human languages. Answer: D 147. Cognitive appraisal refers to the way an individual: A. forms concepts. B. interprets a situation. C. uses pragmatics when communicating. D. uses availability heuristics. Answer: B 148. Keisha failed in her Math paper this semester in college. However, she vows to perform better in the next semester. According to Richard Lazarus, Keisha has assessed this situation through: A. secondary appraisal. B. primary appraisal. C. automatic reasoning D. controlled reasoning. Answer: B 149. Solomon is defeated by his rival team in a basketball match. He vows to win the next match against them by asking his coach to give feedback during the practice sessions. According to Lazarus, Solomon has assessed this situation through: A. deductive reasoning. B. secondary appraisal. C. inductive reasoning. D. primary appraisal. Answer: B 150. Just over a week ago, Amanda lost her job at a manufacturing plant. At first, she was extremely worried about not being able to pay her bills. After thinking it through, she is now less stressed because she realizes that this may be the perfect opportunity to find that challenging career she always wanted. Thus, Amanda’s consideration of the situation in this scenario is best described as _____. A. a cognitive appraisal B. confirmation of bias C. a cognitive reappraisal D. functional fixedness Answer: C Short Answer Questions 151. Compare and contrast between the human brain and a computer. Answer: Computers provide a logical and concrete, but oversimplified, model of human information processing. Inanimate computers and human brains function quite differently in some respects. For example, most computers receive information from a human who has already coded the information and removed much of its ambiguity. In contrast, each brain cell, or neuron, can respond to ambiguous information transmitted through sensory receptors such as the eyes and ears. Computers can do some things better than humans. For instance, computers can perform complex numerical calculations much faster and more accurately than humans could ever hope to. Computers can also apply and follow rules more consistently and with fewer errors than humans and can represent complex mathematical patterns better than humans. Still, the brain’s extraordinary capabilities will probably not be mimicked completely by computers any time in the near future. Attempts to use computers to process visual information or spoken language have achieved only limited success in specific situations. The human brain also has an incredible ability to learn new rules, relationships, concepts, and patterns that it can generalize to novel situations. In comparison, computers are quite limited in their ability to learn and generalize. Although a computer can improve its ability to recognize patterns or use rules of thumb to make decisions, it does not have the means to develop new learning goals. Furthermore, the human mind is aware of itself; the computer is not. Indeed, no computer is likely to approach the richness of human consciousness. 152. Define a concept. List the characteristics of a concept. Answer: A concept is defined as a mental category that is used to group objects, events, and characteristics. There are four characteristics of a concept. First, concepts facilitate generalization. Second, concepts allow individuals to associate experiences and objects. Third, concepts aid memory by making it more efficient. Fourth, concepts provide clues about how to react to a particular object or experience. 153. Discuss the prototype model. Answer: The prototype model emphasizes that when people evaluate whether a given item reflects a certain concept, they compare that item with the most typical item in that category and look for a “family resemblance” with that item’s properties. The prototype model maintains that people use characteristic properties to create a representation of the average or ideal member—the prototype—for each concept. 154. Olga has to prepare for her term paper on marketing next week. According to the steps in problem solving, list the steps that need to be taken in this situation. Answer: First, Olga needs to define her problem which is to prepare for her term paper in this situation. The next step is to develop strategies such as framing subgoals of finishing certain chapters in marketing. The third step is to evaluate the solution. Hence, once Olga finishes writing her paper, she should evaluate the effectiveness of her preparation based on her judgment regarding her performance on the paper. The final step is to redefine and re-evaluate her performance on this paper in the future examinations. 155. Define reasoning. Discuss the two types of reasoning. Answer: Reasoning is defined as the mental activity of transforming information to reach a conclusion. The two types of reasoning include inductive and deductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning involves reasoning from specific observations to make generalizations. Deductive reasoning involves reasoning from a general case that is known to be true to a specific instance. 156. Distinguish between confirmation bias and hindsight bias. Answer: Confirmation bias is the tendency to search for and use information that supports rather than refutes one’s ideas. Hindsight bias, on the other hand, is the tendency to report falsely, after the fact, that individuals accurately predicted an outcome. 157. Distinguish between availability heuristic and representativeness heuristic. Answer: The availability heuristic refers to a prediction about the probability of an event based on the ease of recalling or imagining similar events, while the representativeness heuristic refers to one’s tendency to make judgments about group membership based on physical appearances or the match between a person and one’s stereotype of a group rather than on available base rate information. 158. Discuss the process of critical thinking. Answer: Critical thinking means thinking reflectively and productively and evaluating the evidence. Critical thinkers grasp the deeper meaning of ideas, question assumptions, and decide for themselves what to believe or do. The process of critical thinking requires maintaining a sense of humility about what individuals know and do not know. In addition, critical thinking is vital to effective problem solving. 159. Define the two essential components of critical thinking. Answer: The two essential components of critical thinking are mindfulness and open-mindedness. Mindfulness is defined as the state of being alert and mentally present for one’s everyday activities. Open-mindedness is defined as the state of being receptive to other ways of looking at things. 160. Discuss the type of thinking involved in creativity. List the characteristics of creative people. Answer: Creativity involves divergent and convergent thinking. Divergent thinking produces many answers to the same problem. Convergent thinking produces the single best solution to a problem. The characteristics of creative people are as follows: flexibility and playful thinking, inner motivation, willingness to face risk, and objective evaluation of work. 161. Describe how an individual might involve his employees in solving a company problem using divergent and convergent thinking. Answer: First, the individual could have his employees brainstorm ideas or solutions to the problem which is a form of divergent thinking. Once all ideas have been generated, he should encourage his employees to narrow down the ideas until they agree on the single best solution, which is an example of convergent thinking. 162. Explain reliability and validity in the field of psychological assessment. Answer: Reliability is achieving approximately the same score or outcome each time one is assessed, while validity refers to the issue of whether or not a test measures what it is supposed to measure. 163. Distinguish organic intellectual disability from cultural-familial intellectual disability. Answer: Organic intellectual disability is caused by a genetic disorder or brain damage. Most people who suffer from organic retardation have an IQ between 0 and 50. Cultural-familial intellectual disability, on the other hand, is a mental deficit with no evidence of organic brain damage. Individuals with this type of disability usually have an IQ between 55 and 70. Psychologists suspect that such mental deficits result at least in part from growing up in a below-average intellectual environment. 164. Discuss links between cognition and language. Answer: Although thought influences language and language influences thought, there is increasing evidence that language and thought are not part of a single system. Instead, they seem to have evolved as separate but related components of the mind. Links between language and cognition include the idea that memories are stored in the form of words, and the language people speak may filter the amount and nature of information that is processed by cognition. 165. Jenna believes that language has a biological basis. What support would she find for her views in the research literature? Answer: Linguist Noam Chomsky argued that language acquisition is universal and biological in its basis. In support of this theory, Chomsky and others cite evidence that children all over the world acquire language at a certain time and in a certain way, despite great variability in their cultural contexts and thus in the input they receive. One example of this is that in some cultures, adults never speak to infants under one year of age, yet those infants acquire language regardless. True/False Questions 166. Artificial intelligence (AI) is a scientific field that focuses on creating machines capable of performing activities that require intelligence when they are done by people. Answer: True 167. The prototype model emphasizes that when people evaluate whether a given item reflects a certain concept, they compare the item with the most typical items in that category and look for a “family resemblance” with that item’s properties. Answer: True 168. Following the instructions of a recipe in a cookery book is an example of a heuristic. Answer: False 169. Fixation involves using a prior strategy and failing to look at a problem from a fresh new perspective. Answer: True 170. Nicole’s theory that children with autism are creative, based on her observation of a specific group of children with autism, is an example of deductive reasoning. Answer: False 171. According to deductive reasoning, if a theory is true, then the hypothesis will be true as well. Answer: True 172. The automatic system involves processing that is heuristic and intuitive. Answer: True 173. Base rate neglect refers to the tendency to ignore information about general principles in favor of very specific but vivid information. Answer: True 174. Actively open-minded thinking refers to thinking that is flexible and open to questioning. Answer: True 175. Convergent thinking occurs during brainstorming. Answer: False 176. Intelligence refers to the ability to solve problems rapidly. Answer: True 177. Reliability is the extent to which a test measures what it is intended to measure. Answer: False 178. When developing Binet’s intelligence scale, it was assumed that children with an intellectual disability would perform like normal children of a younger age. Answer: True 179. The current Stanford-Binet intelligence test is used to assess individuals who are 8 years of age or younger. Answer: False 180. Different cultures define intelligence in different ways. Answer: True 181. Because heritability is a proportion, the highest degree of heritability is 100 percent Answer: True 182. Heritability is a statistic that provides information about a group, not a single individual. Answer: True 183. Giftedness is indicated by an IQ score of 130 or higher. Answer: True 184. Because humans are prewired to acquire language, it can be learned in a social vacuum. Answer: False 185. Coping with stressful situations is a form of problem solving. Answer: True Test Bank for The Science of Psychology: An Appreciative View Laura A. King 9780078035401, 9781260500523, 9780073532066, 9781259255533

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