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Chapter 14 Multiple Choice Questions 1. _____ is the field of psychology that applies the science of human behavior to work and the workplace. A. Developmental psychology B. Abnormal psychology C. Cognitive psychology D. Industrial and organizational psychology Answer: D 2. _____ is the managerial philosophy that emphasizes the worker as a well-oiled machine and the determination of the most efficient methods for performing any work-related task. A. Contingency management B. Scientific management C. Strengths-based management D. Human relations approach Answer: B 3. Which of the following is NOT included in the guidelines for scientific management? A. Jobs should be carefully analyzed to identify the best way to perform them. B. Employees should be trained at the job they will perform. C. Employees should be rewarded for productivity to enhance performance. D. Employees should be hired on the basis of their formal education. Answer: D 4. The advent of _____ demonstrates the spirit of scientific management and its emphasis on efficiency. A. operations research B. ergonomics C. assembly line D. supply chain management Answer: C 5. The management at Concar Inc., a manufacturer of automobiles, decides to increase the company’s productivity. The engineers implement a system in which the installations of the different components of a car take place at several stations, in a sequential flow. Which of the following manufacturing processes is Concar Inc. using to manufacture its cars? A. Assembly line B. Batch production C. Prototyping D. Pilot production Answer: A 6. Food & Fun Inc., a hamburger fast food restaurant, systematizes its operations in such a way that one person is in charge of grilling, another person is in charge of dressing the edible items, and the third person delivers the orders to the customers. The unassembled burger ingredients are moved from one worker to another via a small motorized conveyor belt. Food & Fun is probably following a pattern of: A. craft production. B. pilot production. C. prototyping. D. assembly line. Answer: D 7. Meterminx Inc., a clock manufacturer, adds a motorized conveyer belt to its manufacturing plant so that the clock being fabricated automatically moves from one workstation to the next, and the workers stay in the same place. From the information in this scenario, it is evident that Meterminx has employed the process of _____. A. assembly line B. batch production C. collaborative customization D. pilot production Answer: A 8. Understanding and enhancing the safety and efficiency of the human—machine interaction is the central focus of: A. mnemonics. B. behavioral psychology. C. group dynamics. D. ergonomics. Answer: D 9. Which of the following is true of ergonomics? A. Ergonomics is a field that focuses on studying group and intergroup phenomena. B. Ergonomics is a field that focuses on the social environment of the workplace. C. Ergonomics is a field that focuses on combining engineering and psychology. D. All of these Answer: C 10. Today, ergonomics specialists have expertise in: A. perception, attention, and cognition. B. learning theories. C. social and environmental psychology. D. All of these Answer: D 11. Vail Co., a manufacturer of electronic gadgets, has designed a new computer mouse. The engineers at Vail Co. claim that their mouse has been specifically designed to mitigate pain and stress. The mouse has been designed to have a vertical grip that keeps the user's hand and wrist at a neutral angle, thereby reducing discomfort. In designing their new computer mouse, the scientists at Vail Co. have conducted studies in the field of _____. A. ergonomics B. group dynamics C. mnemonics D. abnormal psychology Answer: A 12. Calico Inc. manufactures computer chairs that are designed to prevent muscular strain and provide back rest. These chairs have been specifically engineered for office workers who spend several hours a day in front of their computers. The managers of Calico Inc. claim that their computer chairs are aimed at promoting worker efficiency and safety. Which of the following disciplines have the engineers at Calico used in developing their chairs? A. Mnemonics B. Ergonomics C. Human relations D. Group dynamics Answer: B 13. In his office, Dylan sits in a chair that is too low for his desk. Consequently, he develops neck and shoulder pain. Research in which of the following fields can be used to fix this problem? A. Mnemonics B. Ergonomics C. Group dynamics D. Human relations Answer: B 14. Adam works in a cubicle that barely accommodates his desktop and keyboard. Moreover, the mouse wire doesn’t seem long enough. Adam always has to bend his wrist to click on the mouse. Adam is probably facing a problem related to: A. orientation. B. ergonomics. C. mnemonics. D. job design. Answer: B 15. Which of the following approaches has influenced industrial and organizational psychology? A. Ergonomics B. Scientific management C. Hawthorne studies D. All of these Answer: D 16. The tendency of individuals to perform better simply because of being singled out and made to feel important is called: A. the primacy effect. B. the Hawthorne effect. C. positive reinforcement. D. the halo effect. Answer: B 17. According to the Hawthorne effect, people perform better when they are: A. given negative feedback. B. singled out and made to feel important. C. subjected to a great deal of stress. D. given incentives and rewards on a regular basis. Answer: B 18. When her manager asks Sally to demonstrate how fast she can accomplish her task on the production line, Sally finishes the task in record time. Sally’s performance is best explained by the _____. A. Placebo effect B. anchoring effect C. halo effect D. Hawthorne effect Answer: D 19. Desmond is an account executive at a small accounting firm. Over the years, his performance has dipped gradually. One day, his manager summons him and tells him that his performance is being monitored. The manager further warns Desmond that if he fails to improve his productivity, he may have to lose his job. Surprisingly, after one month, performance reviews indicate a drastic improvement in Desmond’s productivity. Desmond’s performance can be best explained by the _____. A. Placebo effect B. halo effect C. Hawthorne effect D. anchoring effect Answer: C 20. Jackie, Henry's supervisor, informs Henry that she is going to monitor his performance over the course of the next week. The following week, Jackie is surprised to find a great improvement in Henry's productivity. Henry’s performance can be attributed to the _____. A. anchoring effect B. Placebo effect C. halo effect D. Hawthorne effect Answer: D 21. Which of the following statements is true of the Hawthorne studies? A. The studies indicate that management style is a primary factor in increasing employees’ productivity. B. The studies suggest that workers tend to work harder when they are aware that their performance is being studied. C. The studies strongly support management’s obsession with efficiency and its effect on the human side of business. D. The studies focus on the impact of mechanization on labor and productivity. Answer: B 22. Which of the following statements demonstrates how the Hawthorne studies affected industrial and organizational (I/O) research? A. The studies reinforced the principles of scientific management. B. The studies confirmed the idea that what was good for business was good for the employee. C. The studies steered research away from scientific management and toward human relations. D. All of these Answer: C 23. _____ emphasizes the psychological characteristics of workers and managers and stresses the significance of factors such as moral, attitudes, and values. A. Scientific management B. The human relations approach C. Strengths-based management D. Ergonomics Answer: B 24. The human relations approach to management lays emphasis on _____. A. the significance of factors such as morale, attitudes, and values B. the psychological characteristics of workers and managers C. the workplace as an important social system D. All of these Answer: D 25. Which of the following is true of the differences between industrial psychology and organizational psychology? A. Industrial psychology focuses more on efficiency and cost effectiveness in comparison to organizational psychology. B. Organizational psychology is less concerned with feelings of fulfillment when compared to industrial psychology. C. Industrial psychology is more concerned with human relations, while organizational psychology is less concerned with human relations. D. Organizational psychology focuses more on safety issues, while industrial psychology does not divert much attention to such issues. Answer: A 26. _____ focuses on increasing efficiency and productivity through the appropriate use of a firm’s personnel or employees. A. Comparative psychology B. Cross-cultural psychology C. Industrial psychology D. Organizational psychology Answer: C 27. The process of generating a description of what a job involves, including the knowledge and skills that are necessary to carry out the functions of the job, is called a: A. job evaluation. B. job analysis. C. job orientation. D. performance appraisal. Answer: B 28. Which of the following is NOT one of the three essential elements of a job analysis? A. Following a systematic procedure that is set up in advance B. Stating the current demand for a particular job C. Breaking down a job into small units D. Framing an employee manual that characterizes a job Answer: B 29. Gwen has been working at her current job for seven years and is due for a promotion. Her manager asks her to create a description of what her job entails and asks her to specify the skills required to execute her tasks on a daily basis. Gwen's manager has asked her to write a(n): A. job analysis. B. structured interview. C. job performance review. D. integrity test. Answer: A 30. A _____ outlines what the job entails and what it requires. A. job-oriented analysis B. person-oriented job analysis C. performance appraisal D. job evaluation Answer: A 31. In the context of a person-oriented job analysis, which of the following stands for the acronym KSAOs? A. Knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics B. Kinesis, serenity, attitudes, and organizational capabilities C. Kaizen, salary, advancements, and orientations D. Kindness, serenity, attractiveness, and orientations Answer: A 32. Bella’s employer asks her to generate a description of her job that entails what a job applicant needs to know to perform the job, the desired skills and abilities required for the job, and other favorable characteristics that the job applicant must possess for the job. Bella’s employer has asked her to generate a(n) _____. A. performance appraisal B. job evaluation report C. person-oriented job analysis D. integration test Answer: C 33. In the context of job analysis, _____ refers to a person’s capacity to put the KSAOs into action and apply them effectively in the workplace. A. the halo effect B. situational judgment C. orientation D. competency Answer: D 34. Jonah works as a program analyst for Ruby Inc. James, a human resource manager, is in the process of recruiting new candidates for the company. He asks Jonah to write a description of what his job entails and the necessary skills required for the position. James has asked Jonah to help him prepare a(n) _____. A. job analysis B. integrity test C. job evaluation D. performance appraisal Answer: A 35. In the context of industrial psychology, a job analysis: A. involves evaluating whether a person is doing a good job. B. can focus on the job itself or on the characteristics of the person who is suited for the job. C. accurately describes the essential functions of a job while eliminating the nonessential functions. D. is irrelevant in the legal realm. Answer: B 36. The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990: A. was passed to prevent individuals with disabilities from performing essential functions. B. made it illegal to offer employment or a promotion to a person with a disability. C. supports the use of accommodations that permit qualified individuals with disabilities to perform the essential functions of a job. D. defines a person with a disability as qualified for a position if he is only able to perform nonessential job functions, with or without reasonable accommodations. Answer: C 37. Marilyn has a walking disability. She needs a wheelchair to move around. In accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990, if she is hired for a new job, the company must: A. compensate her for the costs of a functional workplace wheelchair. B. limit her job responsibilities accordingly. C. make accommodations to allow her to do the job. D. hire an assistant to assist with her mobility issues. Answer: C 38. Job analysis provides information that is useful to all of the following EXCEPT: A. job seekers who are looking for jobs to match their skills and interests. B. personnel officers who are making hiring decisions. C. lawyers who are considering fairness in job requirements. D. analysts who determine market wages and pay rates for occupations. Answer: D 39. Joshua is a marketing associate at Sapphire Inc. He has been working in the company for the past five years and is expecting a promotion to the position of assistant marketing manager. Although his performance is consistent, he is an introvert. The management turns down his promotion on the grounds that the position requires an active leadership style. Which of the following might the management have referred to in order to arrive at such a decision? A. Job analysis B. Job evaluation C. Performance appraisal D. Integrity test Answer: A 40. A _____ allows job seekers to evaluate their interest in a particular occupation. A. 360-degree feedback form B. performance evaluation C. competency chart D. job description Answer: D 41. _____ refers to an employee selection method used to identify a potential candidate for an opening through current or former employees’ social networks. A. Referral B. Screening C. Internal hiring D. Orientation Answer: A 42. _____are websites that employers use to advertise openings to recruit new hires. A. Human resource management systems B. Job reference pages C. Job boards D. Wikis Answer: C 43. A(n) _____ is a type of job-screening examination that is designed to assess whether a candidate will be honest on the job. A. integrity test B. situational judgment test C. projective test D. authenticity test Answer: A 44. Bruce is the owner of Orion Inc., a manufacturer of electronic gadgets. He wants to hire the most honest job applicants as marketing executives for the company. In the context of employee selection, it can be inferred that Bruce is likely to employ a(n) _____ to assess the honesty levels of the job applicants. A. situational judgment test B. integrity test C. job analysis D. structured interview Answer: B 45. In the process of being evaluated for a certain job position, Eric was asked to complete a test that questioned his attitude toward lying. After answering the questionnaire, Eric was told that this test was designed to determine how honest he would be on the job if he were selected. Eric was asked to take a(n) _____. A. intelligence test B. projective test C. integrity test D. situational judgment test Answer: C 46. “If you receive an extra cheeseburger when you go through the drive-thru, is it okay to keep it?” In the context of the employee selection process, this could be a question from a(n) _____. A. intelligence test B. ability test C. integrity test D. situational judgment test Answer: C 47. A key drawback with the use of tests to screen individuals for desirable characteristics is that: A. prospective candidates can fake a good impression. B. it is an expensive procedure. C. employers require extensive training to make accurate assessments. D. it is a time-consuming procedure. Answer: A 48. A(n) _____ is a type of job screening examination that presents job candidates with realistic, hypothetical scenarios and asks them to identify the most appropriate response. A. situational judgment test B. IQ test C. projective test D. overt integrity test Answer: A 49. Which of the following tests is used by an employer to assess a job candidate’s adaptability? A. An integrity test B. An intelligence test C. A projective test D. A situational judgment test Answer: D 50. In the context of employee selection, a situational judgment test: A. can measure how efficient a job applicant is in handling unanticipated obstacles. B. can assess whether a job applicant is likely to be honest on the job. C. involves unforced choices and close-ended responses. D. can only assess a job applicant’s knowledge but not his competencies. Answer: A 51. Which of the following is true of an employee selection interview? A. An interview only reveals whether an interviewee is qualified for a job but does not disclose aspects of his cognitive ability. B. During an interview, an interviewee may display a lot of different qualities, not all of which are relevant to the position in question. C. Most interviewers, during interviews, hone their social skills as these skills are mandatory for every job. D. During an interview, an interviewer and an interviewee tend to have the same goal. Answer: B 52. Pablo, Harry’s boss, has just finished interviewing a potential new employee. Pablo tells Harry that it only takes him a few minutes to accurately assess a person's strengths and weaknesses. Pablo is confident that the candidate he just interviewed is an honest and hardworking individual. Which of the following tendencies has Pablo exhibited in this instance? A. Normative commitment B. Interviewer illusion C. The Hawthorne effect D. Interviewer bias Answer: B 53. The term interviewer illusion refers to the tendency of interviewers to believe that: A. their first impression of an applicant is always incorrect. B. applicants who give all the right answers make the best employees. C. applicants who are attractive are also highly capable. D. they can discern the truth from job applicant. Answer: D 54. “I don’t need fancy tests or inventories; I can read people like books.” This statement from an interviewer reflects the tendency of: A. normative commitment. B. the Hawthorne effect. C. interviewer bias. D. interviewer illusion. Answer: D 55. The possible concerns about hiring an employee through an interview process include all of the following EXCEPT: A. gender bias. B. ethnic bias. C. failure to assess the skills required to do the job. D. the time involved in hiring the candidate. Answer: D 56. Bruce and Grant apply for work at the same company. Bruce is interviewed using a structured interview format, while Grant is interviewed using an unstructured interview format. Both men are hired. Will the employer be able to predict their future job performance based on how each of them performed in their respective interviews? A. No, interviews are not good predictors of future job performance. B. The employer will be better able to predict Bruce’s future job performance. C. The employer will be better able to predict Grant’s future job performance. D. The employer will be able to predict both Bruce’s and Grant’s future job performance equally well. Answer: B 57. A(n) _____ is a kind of interview in which candidates are asked specific questions that methodically seek to obtain truly useful information for the interviewer. A. structured interview B. unstructured interview C. orientation D. work sample Answer: A 58. Which of the following is true of a structured interview? A. A structured interview facilitates spontaneity and gives priority to competent candidates with job experience. B. A structured interview is less superior to an unstructured interview in terms of predicting eventual job performance. C. A disadvantage of conducting a structured interview is that it can hinder a job candidate’s performance during an interview. D. A structured interview puts all candidates on equal footing and gives them all the same chance to demonstrate their skill. Answer: D 59. Dave, a graphic designer, has applied for a job at Animatrix Co., an animation studio. When he is called for the interview, Dave is asked to carry his portfolio along with him. His portfolio contains copies of the brochures, illustrations, and advertisements that he's designed. In this scenario, Dave’s graphic portfolio is an example of a(n) _____. A. structured interview B. work sample C. exercise D. integrity test Answer: B 60. Ross is an aspiring photographer. He attends a job interview in a photo studio where he is asked to present his photography portfolio. In this scenario, Ross’s portfolio is an example of a(n) _____. A. prototype B. work sample C. orientation D. integrity test Answer: B 61. A(n) _____ is a program by which an organization introduces newly hired employees to the organization’s goals, familiarizes them with its rules and regulations, and lets them know how to get things done. A. performance appraisal B. integrity test C. orientation D. interview Answer: C 62. Cathy and the other new employees of Oblivion Co. were introduced to the company and its managers on their first day of work. After attending a presentation on the company norms, the employees were given a brief tour of the office. Such a program is an example of a(n) _____. A. interview B. orientation C. job evaluation D. exercise Answer: B 63. Teaching a new employee the essential requirements to do the job well is known as _____. A. training B. mentoring C. job crafting D. downsizing Answer: A 64. Which of the following positions requires the most extensive training? A. Software engineer B. Home health aide C. Airline pilot D. Massage therapist Answer: C 65. In the context of training, which of the following is true of computer-based and in-person orientation programs? A. Most organizations avoid using computer-based orientation programs as they are more expensive. B. Studies suggest that in-person orientation programs fall short on social factors. C. Computer-based orientation programs give new employees a good sense of the social culture of their new workplace. D. Both computer-based orientation programs and in-person orientation programs provide new employees with information about the company. Answer: D 66. Kenneth, a software engineer, has been working for Ruby Inc. for nearly two years. He is about to attend a workshop that will outline the features of a new software program that his company is planning on adopting in the future. Which of the following activities is Kenneth engaging in? A. Overlearning B. Mentoring C. Employee development D. Orientation Answer: C 67. _____ is a relationship between an experienced employee and a novice in which the more experienced employee serves as an advisor, a sounding board, and a source of support for the newer employee. A. Mentoring B. Orientation C. Normative commitment D. Continuance commitment Answer: A 68. In the context of employee training, a workplace mentor is a(n): A. new employee. B. trainee. C. inexperienced employee. D. experienced employee. Answer: D 69. Which of the following statements is true regarding the mentoring process in the workplace? A. An assigned mentor is as effective as a natural mentor. B. An incompetent mentor may be worse than having no mentor at all. C. Mentoring can develop naturally for women in fields that are dominated by men. D. A natural mentor is less likely to dedicate himself to new workers than an assigned one. Answer: B 70. The evaluation of a person’s success at meeting his or her organization’s goals is known as _____. A. performance appraisal B. orientation C. job crafting D. job analysis Answer: A 71. Which of the following statements is true with regard to workplace performance appraisals and job termination? A. Within the U.S., firings from private businesses must be based on documentation of poor performance. B. The U.S. is more stringent than Canada about documented proof of poor job performance. C. In Canada, a person cannot be fired from any job without evidence of poor performance. D. Within the U.S. government, an individual can be fired without documented evidence of poor performance. Answer: C 72. Joe and Larry are employed at the same telecommunications company. Their manager has just conducted objective assessments of their sales of complex data products during the first quarter. Larry sold more products than Joe. Subjectively, however, Joe is considered to be easier to work with. Which of the following is an implication for the manager in conducting Joe and Larry’s respective performance appraisals? A. The manager should focus only on the highest number of total sales. B. The manager should include subjective ratings by supervisors or a panel of experts. C. The manager should lay emphasis on the quality of work and ignore the sales numbers. D. The manager should consider only the cancellations and disregard the numbers of sales. Answer: B 73. Hugh is a sales representative at Bellclark Inc., an electronics manufacturer. For the third quarter, he is assigned a challenging territory. Although, he is a consistent performer, his sales figures fall below the average of other representatives, who are assigned to less difficult areas. Which of the following considerations should Hugh’s manager take while evaluating Hugh’s performance for the third quarter? A. The manager should focus only on the objective count of the total sales. B. The manager should include subjective ratings by supervisors or a panel of experts. C. The manager should lay emphasis on the quality of work and ignore the sales numbers. D. The manager should consider only the cancellations and disregard the numbers of sales. Answer: B 74. During the annual performance appraisal, Jill’s supervisor gives her a “9” on a scale of “1” to “10” for all the assessment items. Jill's colleagues, however, are aware that Jill's efficiency was more like a “6” on the “1-to-10” scale even though her work quality was a “9”. Which of the following biases has been exhibited by Jill’s supervisor in this instance? A. The Hawthorne effect B. The halo effect C. Interviewer’s illusion D. Stereotyping Answer: B 75. Susan’s boss is evaluating her performance at work. Susan is known for her ability to complete large volumes of work in short periods of time. She also has excellent time management skills, is good at prioritizing, and is good at delegating tasks. In addition to these strengths, Susan also has certain weaknesses. For instance, she fails to pay attention to detail and tends to make a lot of errors. Susan’s boss, however, gives her very similar scores for productivity, efficiency, and accuracy. Which of the following phenomena has been exemplified in this scenario? A. The placebo effect B. Organizational citizenship behavior C. The halo effect D. The Hawthorne effect Answer: C 76. Leanne recently had a performance appraisal at her job. The reviews for her performance were submitted by her supervisor as well as her coworkers. Leanne also had to submit a review of her own work. Which of the following types of performance appraisals has been illustrated in this scenario? A. Unbiased evaluation B. 360-degree feedback C. 180-degree feedback D. Reflexive feedback Answer: B 77. At the end of each month, Tonya’s performance is evaluated by several of her co-workers, her manager, and even herself. This is known as _____. A. 180-degree feedback B. unbiased feedback C. 360-degree feedback D. job evaluation Answer: C 78. The _____ refers to a bias, common in performance appraisals, that occurs when a rater gives an employee the same rating on all of the items being evaluated, even though the individual varies across the dimensions being assessed. A. primacy effect B. placebo effect C. Hawthorne effect D. halo effect Answer: D 79. _____ refers to discretionary actions on the part of an employee that promote institutional effectiveness but are not included in the person’s formal responsibilities. A. Continuance commitment B. Job crafting C. Mentoring D. Organizational citizenship behavior Answer: D 80. Ryan works as a software engineer at Sysinfo Inc., a software firm. He usually comes in early for work and stays late, beyond the normal working hours. He also assists his colleagues with assignments when they approach him for help. In this scenario, Ryan’s conduct exemplifies _____. A. organizational citizenship behavior B. the Hawthorne effect C. the halo effect D. continuance commitment Answer: A 81. Nicholas is a systems engineer at Databell Corp., a manufacturer of electronic gadgets. He reports to work on time and stays in the office, well beyond his working hours, to help other colleagues with their projects. He is also willing to work on weekends. Nicholas's attitude exemplifies _____ in this scenario. A. organizational citizenship behavior B. the Hawthorne effect C. the halo effect D. continuance commitment Answer: A 82. Which of the following is a drawback of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)? A. OCB can lead to the stagnation of organizational innovation and creativity. B. OCB tends to make fellow employees feel more negative about their jobs. C. If OCB interferes with completing one’s actual job duties; it can take a toll on performance and organizational success. D. OCB does not comply with an employee’s formal job responsibilities and tends to have a negative impact on employee morale. Answer: C 83. Organizational psychology focuses on: A. ergonomics and human resources. B. job performance and wages. C. employee selection and training. D. the psychological experience of a worker. Answer: D 84. The psychological experience of a worker is emphasized in _____. A. industrial psychology B. comparative psychology C. cross-cultural psychology D. organizational psychology Answer: D 85. The Japanese management style: A. emphasizes efficiency and “the bottom line”. B. emphasizes innovation and decision-making based on quality. C. is narrowly focused on economic results. D. is an extension of Frederick Taylor’s approach to scientific management. Answer: B 86. Maria, a manager at Sapphire Inc., believes that her subordinates are not interested in working and that they have to be constantly goaded to perform their duties. Maria is most likely to agree with which of the following approaches to management? A. Japanese-style management B. Theory Y management C. Theory X management D. Strengths-based management Answer: C 87. Mike works as an accounting clerk at Cell data Finance Corp. His performance is below average and his supervisor constantly rebukes him for his low productivity, even to the extent of threatening to fire him. In this scenario, Mike’s supervisor exhibits the traits of a: A. middle manager. B. transformational leader. C. theory X manager. D. theory Y manager. Answer: C 88. “I have to keep a constant check on my employees throughout the day otherwise they will not get any work done.” is a statement that would most likely be made by a manager who believes in: A. chaotic management. B. strengths-based management. C. theory Y management. D. theory X management. Answer: D 89. A theory X manager will: A. challenge employees with responsibilities. B. encourage employees to apply their talents, insights, and abilities. C. control employees, enforce rules, and make sure that everyone is working hard. D. identify employee strengths and match employees with jobs that will maximize these strengths. Answer: C 90. Stan believes that his employees dislike responsibility. Stan exhibits the characteristics of a _____. A. middle manager B. transformational leader C. theory X manager D. theory Y manager Answer: C 91. Caleb, a manager at River's Ink Co., claims that his employees are lazy and have to be constantly ordered to perform their duties. In the context of the different approaches to management, Caleb is most likely to agree with the _____. A. Japanese-style of management B. strengths-based management C. theory Y approach to management D. theory X approach to management Answer: D 92. Kate, a manager at Fijiko Inc., believes that her employees have the potential to develop ideas that could propel the company's business forward. She often motivates them to take up challenges and apply their skills. In the context of the different approaches to management, Kate exhibits the characteristics of a _____. A. transformational leader B. theory Y manager C. theory X manager D. middle manager Answer: B 93. David runs a company that desperately needs to cut costs in order to stay in business. David has asked all of his employees to think of ways to cuts costs and report their ideas directly to him. In the context of the different approaches to management, David exhibits the characteristics of a _____. A. theory Y manager B. transformational leader C. theory X manager D. top manager Answer: A 94. Kevin is a project lead at Prizm Corp. He entrusts his subordinates with important projects and seeks their advice on major product decisions. In the context of the different approaches to management, Kevin exhibits the characteristics of a _____ in this scenario. A. middle manager B. transformational leader C. theory X manager D. theory Y manager Answer: D 95. A theory Y manager tends to: A. control employees, enforce rules, and make sure that everyone is working hard. B. encourage his employees to apply their talents, insights, and abilities. C. restrict employees from making decisions independently. D. identify employee strengths and match employees with jobs that will maximize these strengths. Answer: B 96. Donald Clifton’s strengths-based management approach emphasizes: A. challenging employees in novel situations. B. maximizing and building on employees’ existing strengths. C. treating all employees as if they have the same potential to achieve. D. matching the strengths of managers to those of employees. Answer: B 97. Joel is a marketing executive at DigiData Corp. Although he is very good at analyzing the market trends, he is not very efficient in project planning. His manager, Darren, decides to augment Joel’s analytical skills instead of trying to develop his planning skills. Which of the following approaches to management has been exemplified in this scenario? A. Strengths-based management B. Theory X management C. Open management D. Theory Y management Answer: A 98. _____ refers to the extent to which a person is content in his or her job. A. Job enrichment B. Job crafting C. Job satisfaction D. Job orientation Answer: C 99. Which of the following is the most accurate statement regarding job satisfaction and pay? A. High salaries are a primary factor in facilitating high levels of job satisfaction. B. Job satisfaction is directly proportional to the amount of money earned. C. Job satisfaction is not correlated with the perception that pay is fair. D. The most common way to measure job satisfaction is with employee rating scales. Answer: D 100. In terms of salary, an important predictor of job satisfaction is the: A. rate of increase in pay. B. starting salary. C. perception that others in the workplace make less money. D. perception that the pay is fair. Answer: D 101. Which of the following factors is related to job satisfaction? A. Absenteeism B. Organizational citizenship C. Performance D. All of these Answer: D 102. Which of the following is true of affective commitment in organizations? A. Individuals with strong affective commitment remain loyal to the organization because they intend to do so. B. Individuals with strong affective commitment might remain with an organization because of the feeling that they “have to.” C. Affective commitment has been shown to be negatively related to job performance and organizational citizenship behavior. D. Individuals high in affective commitment are less likely to work hard and perform well. Answer: A 103. Edward is an employee of Alpha Co., a software firm. He is dedicated to his work and is passionate about the organization’s goals. He intends to be a part of the organization for the rest of his life. Hence, Edward actively participates in all major company events. In the context of organizational psychology, Edward seems to have a strong sense of _____ in this scenario. A. affective commitment B. continuance commitment C. normative commitment D. personal commitment Answer: A 104. Charles works as a program analyst for Devon Co., an IT company. He feels a strong sense of belonging toward the company and works with both dedication and enthusiasm. At times, he even boasts to his friends that his company is one of the best in the industry. In the context of organizational psychology, Charles seems to have a strong sense of _____. A. affective commitment B. continuance commitment C. normative commitment D. individual commitment Answer: A 105. In the context of organizational psychology, _____ refers to the person’s emotional attachment to the workplace. A. continuance commitment B. normative commitment C. affective commitment D. personal commitment Answer: C 106. Eva works as a software developer for Kudos Inc., an IT company. Even though Eva dislikes her job, she doesn't want to leave the company because she earns a good salary and needs the money to support her family. Eva also finds the idea of hunting for a new job hassling and does not wish to relocate. Which of the following best describes Eva’s commitment in this scenario? A. Affective commitment B. Continuance commitment C. Normative commitment D. Personal commitment Answer: B 107. Taylor, an employee of Datacell Corp., is dissatisfied with his job as a software engineer. He finds the work monotonous and tiresome. However, he is determined to stay with organization because he fears that other organizations might not pay him a salary as high as his current salary. Moreover, DataCell also offers healthcare and retirement benefits to its employees. In the context of organizational psychology, Taylor is most likely displaying _____ in this scenario. A. affective commitment B. continuance commitment C. normative commitment D. personal commitment Answer: B 108. Alisha works as a marketing assistant for FincCon Inc. She finds her work strenuous and distasteful. She often complains about the workload and the other employees. Algo Co., another firm, offers Alisha a job as a creative writer. Although Alisha has always desired a career in writing, she rejects the offer and decides to continue working for FincCon. This is because FincCon offers her several monetary and non-monetary benefits which she will not receive at the other firm. In the context of organizational psychology, Alisha is displaying a sense of _____ in this scenario. A. affective commitment B. personal commitment C. normative commitment D. continuance commitment Answer: D 109. Evan's company, Orion Inc., is going through a financial crisis. Several employees have left the company in the hopes of finding more lucrative jobs elsewhere. Evan, however, is determined to stay because he feels a sense of obligation toward his company. Orion Inc. has invested a great deal of its resources in helping Evan develop his professional skills, and Evan feels that he "ought to" remain loyal to the company for this reason. In the context of organizational psychology, which type of employee commitment has been exemplified in this scenario? A. Affective commitment B. Continuance commitment C. Normative commitment D. Personal commitment Answer: C 110. Jacob works as a marketing executive for Oceanic View Inc. He is offered a job with a lucrative salary at Nebulla Inc., Oceanic View’s rival in the industry. However, Jacob rejects Nebulla’s offer and decides to continue serving his current company because he believes that Oceanic View has invested a great deal of time and money in shaping his professional skills. In the context of organizational psychology, Jacob is most likely demonstrating _____ in this scenario. A. affective commitment B. continuance commitment C. normative commitment D. personal commitment Answer: C 111. Lynn’s company supported her both personally and financially when she went back to school to pursue her Master’s degree. Consequently, Lynn feels indebted toward her company and is hesitant to search for more lucrative jobs. In the context of organizational psychology, Lynn’s commitment would be best described as _____ in this scenario. A. affective commitment B. continuance commitment C. normative commitment D. personal commitment Answer: C 112. _____ refers to a kind of job commitment deriving from the employee’s sense of obligation to the organization for the investment it has made in the individual’s personal and professional development. A. Personal commitment B. Continuance commitment C. Affective commitment D. Normative commitment Answer: D 113. Which of the following is true of the meaning of work? A. Companies’ use of cheaper labor in other countries is one of the reasons behind the disappearance of many long-term careers in the US. B. Individuals who view their occupation as a calling are less likely to experience work as meaningful and fulfilling. C. The feeling that one is engaged in something meaningful or significant plays no role in determining job satisfaction. D. Individuals who describe their occupation as a "job" do not view work as a means to financial ends. Answer: A 114. When asked about his perspective on his current occupation, Joy said, “its work. It’s not hard to learn. I don’t get to call the shots or do what I want. I just work here.” With regard to the study conducted by Wrzesniewski on the meaning of work, Joy views his occupation as a: A. job. B. career. C. calling. D. craft. Answer: A 115. When asked about his perspective on his current occupation, Carl said, “This is my first step in this company. This is a good place to work, and there are lots of chances to get promoted here. I want to work my way up in this field.” In accordance with the study conducted by Wrzesniewski on the meaning of work, Carl views his occupation as a: A. job. B. career. C. calling. D. craft. Answer: B 116. When asked about his perspective on his current occupation, Cal said “It might seem easy, but to do this job right, you really have to learn a lot of things. I take pride in what I do, and I can do it the way I want, the best way I can. It’s up to me; you make it what it is. I feel like I was meant to do this work.” In accordance with the study conducted by Wrzesniewski on the meaning of work, Cal views his occupation as a: A. job. B. career. C. calling. D. craft. Answer: C 117. In accordance with the study conducted by Wrzesniewski on the meaning of work, an employee who thinks of his or her work as a _____ is most likely to find work to be fulfilling and meaningful. A. job B. means to support his or her family C. calling D. career Answer: C 118. In accordance with the study conducted by Wrzesniewski on the meaning of work, which of the following employees is most likely to experience the strongest preexisting sense of psychological well-being? A. An employee who thinks of his or her work as a means to support his or her family B. An employee who thinks of his or her work as a career C. An employee who thinks of his or her work as a calling D. An employee who thinks of his or her work as a job Answer: C 119. In accordance with the study conducted by Wrzesniewski on the meaning of work, which of the following is a characteristic of individuals who consider their work a “calling”? A. They see their occupation as a steppingstone to greater advancement. B. They are denied personal control and exercise little freedom. C. They are more likely to engage in organizational citizenship behaviors. D. They tend to focus on the material benefits of work. Answer: C 120. In accordance with the study conducted by Wrzesniewski on the meaning of work, people with a “calling” work orientation tend to do all of the following EXCEPT: A. devote more time to their work than others. B. have lower rates of absenteeism from work than others. C. view their occupation primarily as a means to an end. D. get more satisfaction from work than from leisure. Answer: C 121. Wrzesniewski describes the quality of the “calling” work orientation as: A. being highly dependent upon the context in which an individual works. B. a “portable” resource that an individual can take from one job to another. C. an orientation which leads an individual to find himself the best job match. D. predictive of lower pay since pay is not the primary motivation here. Answer: B 122. In which of the following ways does Wrzesniewski define the term “job crafting”? A. The physical and cognitive changes one can make within the parameters of a task to make the work their own B. Taking advantage of the freedom one has to bring fulfillment to an occupation C. Finding new ways to create meaning in work by reshaping the task and the relational boundaries of a job D. All of these Answer: D 123. _____ refers to the physical and cognitive changes individuals can make within the constraints of a task to make the work “their own.” A. Mentoring B. Job analysis C. Job crafting D. Role conflict Answer: C 124. Harry works as a maintenance technician for Orion Inc. In his free time, Harry enjoys explaining the features of the various machines used by the company to the other employees on the floor. In this way, Harry is satisfying both his urge to teach, and his desire to be able to interact with people from different backgrounds. Which of the following concepts has been exemplified in this scenario? A. Job crafting B. Displacement C. Orientation D. Role conflict Answer: A 125. Jenna, a hospital maintenance worker, takes the initiative to decorate and water the potted plants in the balconies of the hospital rooms. She desires to make long stays more comfortable and enlivening for the patients and wants to fulfill her role as a hospital worker. Though engaging in these tasks is not part of Jenna’s job description, it gives her great pleasure and fills her with a sense of purpose. Jenna’s actions exemplify _____ in this scenario. A. elaboration B. role conflict C. job evaluation D. job crafting Answer: D 126. Sarah, a manager at Exoro Corp., believes in exercising absolute control over her subordinates. She believes that a worker’s performance is driven by incentives and that punishing a worker for low productivity will help keep him or her on track. According to her colleagues, Sarah is a very effective manager and strictly adheres to rules and regulations. In the context of leadership, it can be inferred that Sarah exhibits the characteristics of a(n) _____. A. transactional leader B. transformational leader C. theory Y leader D. idealized leader Answer: A 127. Brendan, the manager of a department store, believes that his workers are only motivated to work when they’re offered rewards or punished. Therefore, in order to increase employee productivity, Brendon announces that the first employee to reach the monthly sales target will be awarded a bonus of ten percent. In this instance, Brendan is exhibiting the characteristics of a(n) _____. A. transactional leader B. transformational leader C. theory Y leader D. idealized leader Answer: A 128. Sheldon is the head coach of Arizona Riders, a baseball team. He is not very conscientious and strictly abides by the rules. He punishes his players if they don't perform well and rewards them when they do. In the context of leadership, Sheldon has the makings of a(n) _____. A. idealized leader B. transactional leader C. theory Y leader D. transformational leader Answer: B 129. Which of the following statements is true of transactional leadership? A. Transactional leaders work within the goals of an existing organizational system and step in only when a problem arises. B. Transactional leaders, with regard to personality traits, tend to be characterized by high conscientiousness and low extraversion. C. Transactional leaders believe that people are influenced by their perspectives toward their work and not by rewards. D. Transactional leaders do what they believe is right and serve as a role model for employees. Answer: A 130. Robert is one of the several board members who are in charge of hiring a new CEO to run a company that has been showing signs of decline for several years. Which of the following types of leaders should the board be seeking? A. A transactional leader B. A transformational leader C. An autocratic leader D. A theory X leader Answer: B 131. Mark is a manager who spends a great deal of his time thinking of new ways to improve his organization. His subordinates describe him as being charismatic and visionary. He often encourages his employees to expand their skills and motivates them to reach their full potential. In the context of organizational psychology, Mark exhibits the characteristics of a(n) _____. A. autocratic leader B. transformational leader C. Theory X leader D. transactional leader Answer: B 132. Blake, the CEO of Imperial Inc., ordered for the complete demolition of unproductive manufacturing facilities in the company in an attempt to cut down unnecessary expenses. He emphasized on product innovation that enhanced efficiency and was solely responsible for making Imperial Inc. the market leader in home-appliance products in the US. His subordinates view him as a good role model and describe him as being charismatic, innovative, and motivating. In the context of organizational psychology, which of the following types of management has been exemplified in this scenario? A. Management by exception B. Transformational leadership C. Theory X leadership D. Transactional leadership Answer: B 133. Brian, an American philanthropist, has opened several schools, colleges, and hospitals in the rural areas of Ghana. He works in alliance with the Ghana government to increase the well-being of the local residents and encourages them to give their own opinions and suggestions for the developmental process. In the context of organizational psychology, in this instance, Brian is exhibiting the characteristics of a(n) _____. A. autocratic leader B. transformational leader C. theory X leader D. transactional leader Answer: B 134. Which of the following statements is true of the corporate strategy of downsizing? A. Downsizing refers to the process of dramatically cutting the wages of those employees who show low levels of productivity and standards of performance. B. Studies show that most companies that engage in downsizing report improvements in product quality, innovation, and organizational climate. C. Companies that practice downsizing exhibit an organizational culture that lacks compassion. D. The Theory Y approach of management strictly incorporates the strategy of downsizing. Answer: C 135. Which of the following statements is true of sexual harassment in the workplace? A. A case of sexual harassment can be filed by a victim only if the perpetrator is of the opposite gender. B. Only the person who has been sexually harassed is considered a victim. C. Sexual conduct is unlawful only when it is unwelcome. D. Although considered offensive, sexual harassment cases do not incur any monetary expenses. Answer: C 136. Betty works for a small advertising agency. Recently, Derek, the manager, passed obscene sexual remarks at Rebecca, Betty’s coworker. Can Betty file a suit of sexual harassment against Derek? A. No, since Derek’s sexual comments were not directed at Betty. B. No, since the harasser is the manager and not a coworker. C. Yes, if Betty is offended by the sexual comments passed at Rebecca. D. Yes, if Rebecca expresses her emotional anguish at the lurid comments. Answer: C 137. In the late 1990s, a woman who had been a graduate student at Emory University filed a sexual harassment suit against her former advisor, who was also female. Her grounds for suing her advisor were her allegations that she (the student) had rejected sexual advances made by her advisor, and that the advisor retaliated by not hiring her for a job. In the context of organizational culture, this case would be a typical example of _____. A. quid pro quo sexual harassment B. hostile work environment sexual harassment C. gender discrimination D. role conflict Answer: A 138. During a job interview, the interviewer asks Samantha sexually explicit questions. When Samantha expresses discomfort in answering such questions, the interviewer tells her that she would be hired only if she answers the questions. This scenario exemplifies: A. gender discrimination. B. hostile work environment sexual harassment. C. interviewer illusion. D. quid pro quo sexual harassment. Answer: D 139. Unwelcome sexual behavior that creates an intimidating workplace for a victim and has the purpose or effect of interfering with the victim’s work performance is referred to as: A. role conflict. B. hostile work environment sexual harassment. C. gender discrimination. D. quid pro quo sexual harassment. Answer: B 140. Nancy’s coworker, Nathan, always makes sexual jokes about women in her presence. He often stares at her, which makes Nancy very uncomfortable and hinders her work performance. This is an example of: A. racism. B. hostile work environment sexual harassment. C. gender discrimination. D. quid pro quo sexual harassment. Answer: B 141. Every time Jonathan passes by Bianca’s cubicle, he brushes up against her. Bianca believes that his behavior is deliberate. Jonathan’s advances trouble Bianca and have had a negative impact on her productivity. Which of the following cases of sexual harassment can Bianca file against Jonathan? A. Controlled sexual harassment B. Hostile work environment sexual harassment C. Gender discrimination D. Quid pro quo sexual harassment Answer: B 142. Brenda is constantly bullied by her coworkers—Monica and Sharon. She is often picked on for being short and for her conservative style of dressing. In the context of organizational culture, Brenda is most likely a victim of: A. workplace aggression. B. hostile work environment sexual harassment. C. gender discrimination. D. quid pro quo sexual harassment. Answer: A 143. Which of the following statements accurately describes workplace violence? A. Violence perpetrated by outsiders is not considered to be a form of workplace violence. B. Workplace violence does not include physical assault and homicide. C. Workplace violence is a form of sex-based discrimination. D. Workplace violence falls within the realm of workplace safety. Answer: D 144. Ashley works as a financial consultant for Cumulus Corp. She has a client meeting scheduled for the 14th; the same day as her son’s fifth birthday. She promised her son that she would spend the entire day with him on his birthday, but her job demands her to meet the client at the specified time. Which of the following best describes Ashley’s dilemma in this scenario? A. Role conflict B. Role strain C. Burnout D. Job stress Answer: A 145. Aaron works as a marketing associate for Media Cloud Inc. He is currently working on an important project with a tight deadline. He receives a call informing him that his father has been hospitalized after a mild heart attack. Aaron is perplexed whether to leave for the hospital immediately or meet his father after the day’s work. Which of the following best describes Aaron’s dilemma in this scenario? A. Role conflict B. Role strain C. Burnout D. Job stress Answer: A 146. Peter likes his job and looks forward to going to work each day. He recently became a father and wants to spend time with his new-born daughter, Eva. With reference to the information provided in this scenario, which of the following psychological states of stress is Peter most likely to experience in the future? A. Burnout B. Role strain C. Role conflict D. Job stress Answer: C 147. Matthew has been working as an associate accountant for Dollar Power Inc. for the past five years. Initially, he was quite enthusiastic about his job; but over time, his motivation toward working began to diminish. These days, Matthew feels stressed and under-appreciated. He has also been experiencing exhaustion and chronic insomnia. Matthew is most likely a victim of: A. downsizing. B. burnout. C. role conflict. D. social alienation. Answer: B 148. Andrew’s job as a call center executive requires him to work on night shifts. He has even had to work on weekends, which has adversely affected his health. Although he initially took pride in being a teetotaler, he started drinking heavily to overcome the job stress. His habits have made him both irritable and antisocial. Andrew is most likely a victim of: A. compassion fatigue. B. burnout. C. role conflict. D. social alienation. Answer: B 149. Three employees work in a profession that is highly stressful. To cope with the job stress, they have different strategies: Alex plays on a softball team and takes a ballroom dancing class with his wife; Frank takes a rejuvenating vacation every year; and, Marshall eats healthy foods, exercises regularly, and gets enough sleep every night. Who among the three employees is using an effective strategy to cope with work stress? A. Alex B. Frank C. Marshall D. All of these Answer: D 150. When a person finds a job where his or her skills and the challenge of the work are perfectly matched, he or she is most likely to experience: A. flow. B. role conflict. C. continuance commitment. D. the halo effect. Answer: A Short Answer Questions 151. Rodney is the manager of a small automobile company. He wishes to follow Frederick Winslow Taylor’s guidelines on scientific management. Describe the steps that he should put into practice. Answer: First, Rodney’s team should carefully analyze the jobs and identify the best way to perform them. Next, his team should hire workers by matching their qualities to those of people who are successful at the given job. These workers should be trained for the jobs they are to perform. Finally, Rodney should reward the workers for productivity in order to encourage high levels of performance. 152. Explain the human relations approach to management. Answer: The human relations approach to management emphasizes the psychological characteristics of workers and managers and stresses the significance of factors such as morale, attitudes, values, and the humane treatment of workers. It focuses on the workplace as an important social system, emphasizing positive interpersonal relations among coworkers, teamwork, leadership, job attitudes, and the social skills of managers. Human relations methods stress that fulfilling work meets other important human needs beyond purely economic ones. 153. Describe the four areas of emphasis of industrial psychology. Answer: The first area of emphasis of industrial psychology is job analysis. Job analysis involves organizing and describing the tasks involved in a job. The second area of emphasis is employee selection. Employee selection involves matching the best person to the job. The third area of emphasis is training. Training involves bringing new employees up to speed on the details of the position. The final area of emphasis is performance appraisal. Performance appraisal involves evaluating whether or not an employee is doing a good job. 154. Discuss the three steps of an effective job analysis. Answer: An effective job analysis includes three essential elements. First, the analysis must follow a systematic procedure that is set up in advance. Second, it must break down the job into small units so that each aspect can be easily understood. Third, the analysis should lead to an employee manual that accurately characterizes the job. 155. How do computer-based orientation programs differ from in-person orientation programs? Answer: Some organizations use computer-based orientation programs in order to cut expenses. Although both methods provide new employees with information, the computer-based orientation falls short on social factors. Employees who receive a computer-based orientation might have learned how to work the copy machine or get a computer repaired, but they probably do not come away with a list of acquaintances from their orientation or a good sense of the social culture of their new workplace. 156. Give a brief account of performance appraisal. Discuss its importance in an organization. Answer: Performance appraisal refers to the evaluation of a person’s success at meeting his or her organization’s goals. Performance appraisal is important for a variety of reasons. It allows employees to get feedback and make appropriate changes in their work habits. It also helps guide decisions about promotions and raises, as well as terminations or firings. 157. Describe the contributions of W. Edwards Deming toward the “Japanese” management style. Where was his influence the greatest? Answer: W. Edwards Deming was an American engineer and statistician who believed that industry should focus on the future, plan for it, and engage in innovation. He also emphasized building strong relationships with suppliers, customers, and employees. He believed that industry should focus more on quality. Deming’s influence was greatest in Japan. Indeed, the principles he proposed came to be known as the “Japanese” style of management. Evidence of Deming’s impact on Japanese manufacturing is also found in the fact that Japan now dominates the U.S. automobile market. 158. Discuss the predictors of job satisfaction. How they vary across different jobs and cultures? Give appropriate examples. Answer: Some predictors of job satisfaction include the local leadership of the organization; the existence of development opportunities; social support; feedback from supervisors; pay; amount of control; amount of structure; the individual worker’s emotional disposition; and the fit of the worker to the job. Cross-cultural research has found that the job satisfaction of doctors depends more on opportunities for professional development, while the job satisfaction of nurses depends more on social support at work and feedback from supervisors. Also, when stressors, which detract from job satisfaction, were compared for Indian and American clerical workers, they had different responses. In India, the worst stressor was identified as lack of structure, while in America lack of control was identified as the worst stressor. 159. Explain how job satisfaction is related to pay. Answer: Research has revealed that pay is not as influential to job satisfaction as one might expect. Some minimum wage workers have high job satisfaction, while some people earning a six-figure salary have low job satisfaction. One study found that the worker’s perception that his or her pay was fair was more related to job satisfaction than the actual amount of pay. 160. List and briefly explain the three types of employee commitment. Answer: The three types of employee commitment are affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment. Affective commitment refers to a person’s emotional commitment to the workplace. Continuance commitment derives from an employee’s perception that leaving the organization would be too costly, both economically and socially. Normative commitment is the sense of obligation an employee feels toward the organization because of the investment the organization has made in the person’s personal and professional development. 161. Jared works as a manager for a large corporation. Describe how his management strategies would differ if he used a transactional leadership style versus a transformational leadership style. Answer: If Jared were a transactional leader, he would focus on the relationship of exchange between himself and his employees. He would use rewards for good work and punishment for inadequate work to motivate his employees. He would clarify objectives, tasks, and methods. He would also give structure to help workers be organized and stay on task. He would manage by exception, only intervening when needed. He would work within the goals of the existing organizational system. On the other hand, if Jared were a transformational leader, he would focus on changing rules more than enforcing them. He would demonstrate to his employees his commitment to ethical behavior and inspire them to follow his example. He would encourage his employees to do their best. In addition to stimulating them intellectually, he would also make it clear that their contribution is necessary and valuable. He would express individualized concern for each employee’s well-being. 162. Explain the four elements of transformational leadership. Answer: There are four elements of transformational leadership. Firstly, transformational leaders exert idealized influence. They do what they believe is right and serve as a role model for employees. Secondly, transformational leaders motivate by inspiring others to do their very best. Thirdly, transformational leaders are devoted to intellectually stimulating their employees. They make it clear that they need input from employees because they themselves do not have all the answers. Lastly, transformational leaders provide individualized consideration to their employees, showing a sincere concern for each person’s well-being. 163. What is organizational culture and what are the elements of a positive organizational culture? Answer: Organizational culture refers to an organization’s shared values, beliefs, norms, and customs. A positive organizational culture includes active leadership, explicit policies, and the “feel” of the organization. 164. Differentiate between quid pro quo sexual harassment and hostile work environment sexual harassment. Answer: Quid pro quo involves unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature in which submission is made either explicitly or implicitly a condition of the victim’s employment. That is, the harassed individual is expected to tolerate the behavior or submit to sexual demands in order to be hired or to keep his or her job. Quid pro quo sexual harassment can also occur if rejection of the inappropriate conduct becomes the basis for employment decisions affecting the victim. On the other hand, hostile work environment sexual harassment refers to unwelcome sexual behavior when this conduct has the purpose or effect of interfering with an individual’s work performance or creating an intimidating or offensive work environment. Behaviors that might produce a hostile environment include sexually graphic humor, suggestive remarks, ridiculing someone’s body, and touching individuals inappropriately. 165. List the four characteristics of work settings that are linked with employee stress and health problems. Answer: The four characteristics of work settings that are linked with employee stress and health problems are as follows: 1) high job demands such as having a heavy workload and time pressure; 2) inadequate opportunities to participate in decision making; 3) a high level of supervisory control; and 4) a lack of clarity about the criteria for competent performance. True/False Questions 166. The advent of the assembly line demonstrates the spirit of scientific management and its emphasis on efficiency. Answer: True 167. A company whose management hoped to increase productivity selected two groups of employees to participate in a workplace study. One group was subjected to background music while it worked and the other was not subjected to any music. The results showed that productivity increased equally in both groups, but did not increase in other workers who were not included in the study. This result is most likely an example of the Hawthorne effect. Answer: True 168. When a potential candidate for a job opening is identified through current or former employees’ social networks, the referring employee receives a bonus whether or not the candidate is hired. Answer: False 169. Employers are not permitted to administer integrity tests during the hiring process of job candidates. Answer: False 170. Employee development programs are not beneficial to individuals who have a great deal of expertise. Answer: False 171. Halo effect refers to a bias, common in performance appraisals, that occurs when a rater gives an employee different ratings on all of the items being evaluated, even though the individual shows consistency across the dimensions being assessed. Answer: False 172. The 360-degree feedback method of performance appraisal reflects a general impression about the employee being rated. Answer: False 173. Although organizational citizenship behavior may appear to be altruistic, it might be engaged in as a way to compete with others or to get ahead in an organization. Answer: True 174. While Mayo focused on human relations in the workplace and Deming on quality control, both had very similar opinions regarding the emphasis on efficiency and scientific management in the American workplace. Answer: True 175. A Theory X manager recognizes that people seek out responsibility and that motivation can come from allowing employees to suggest creative and meaningful solutions. Answer: False 176. A Theory Y manager tends to assume that work is innately unpleasant and that people have a strong desire to avoid it. Answer: False 177. An executive who earns a six-figure salary is likely to be more satisfied at work than a janitor who earns minimum wage. Answer: False 178. Affective commitment is either unrelated or negatively related to job performance and citizenship behaviors. Answer: False 179. Individuals with strong continuance commitment feel loyalty to the organization because they want to. Answer: False 180. The dramatic rise in technology is one of the reasons behind disappearance of many long term jobs in the US. Answer: True 181. Transformational leaders work within the context of a workplace culture, whereas transactional leaders seek to define and redefine it. Answer: False 182. Studies have revealed that downsizing leads to improvements in product quality. Answer: False 183. Behavior such as the use of sexually graphic humor in the workplace that is aimed at a coworker of the opposite gender is an example of quid pro quo sexual harassment. Answer: False 184. According to the Occupational Safety and Health Act, workplace safety includes providing a work environment that is free of workplace violence. Answer: True 185. Symptoms of job burnout are emotional rather than physical. Answer: False Test Bank for The Science of Psychology: An Appreciative View Laura A. King 9780078035401, 9781260500523, 9780073532066, 9781259255533

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