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Chapter 15 Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following is NOT one of the three criteria that is used to distinguish normal from abnormal behavior? A. Behavior that is deviant B. Behavior that is maladaptive C. Behavior that is statistically atypical in nature D. Behavior that involves personal distress over a long period of time Answer: C 2. Which of the following statements is true regarding abnormal behavior? A. Abnormal behavior typically involves personal distress over a relatively short period of time. B. Abnormal behavior conforms to what is considered as acceptable in a culture or society. C. Atypical behavior is the only criterion that needs to be present for behavior to be labeled as “abnormal”. D. Abnormal behavior interferes with a person’s ability to function effectively in the world. Answer: D 3. In the context of abnormal behavior, which of the following is true of deviant behavior? A. A person who engages in deviant behavior typically poses a greater threat to himself than others. B. The context of a behavior may determine whether it is deviant or not. C. A person who engages in deviant behavior invariably poses a great threat to society. D. An individual engaging in deviant behavior always finds it personally satisfying. Answer: B 4. Jasmine is an attractive, well-dressed female who appears normal to her colleagues. . However, Jasmine may still be considered abnormal if _____. A. she is statistically deviant B. her behavior is maladaptive C. she suffers from personal distress D. All of these. Answer: D 5. The biological approach to psychological disorders is most likely to focus on _____. A. the influence of factors such as marriage, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, gender, and culture on psychological disorders B. the influence of childhood experiences or personality traits in the development and course of psychological disorders C. the brain, genetic, and neurotransmitter functioning in the development of psychological disorders D. the interactions between political and social factors that affect an individual Answer: C 6. Jenna constantly experiences feelings of hopelessness and worthlessness. Jenna’s doctor, Jacob, advises her to start taking anti-depressant drugs that contain serotonin and dopamine. According to Dr. Jacob’s diagnosis, Jenna’s depression is a result of the imbalance and improper functioning of the neurotransmitters in her brain. In the context of the theoretical approaches to psychological disorders, this diagnosis conforms to the _____. A. sociocultural approach B. biological approach C. psychological approach D. social cognitive approach Answer: B 7. According to Dr. Sullivan, a well-known psychologist in Konesia, the lack of emotions experienced by psychopaths can be attributed to amygdala dysfunction. In the context of the theoretical approaches to psychological disorders, Dr. Sullivan’s view supports the _____. A. social cognitive approach B. psychological approach C. sociocultural approach D. biological approach Answer: D 8. Marilyn is suffering from bipolar disorder. Dr. Henderson tells Marilyn that her condition is typically characterized by a chemical imbalance in the brain. Hence, it can be inferred that Dr. Henderson’s view on the factors affecting Marilyn’s psychological disorder supports the _____ model of psychological disorders. A. medical B. behavioral C. sociocultural D. cognitive Answer: A 9. Which of the following characteristics is NOT used to explain psychological disorders using the psychological approach? A. Genetics B. Thoughts C. Emotions D. Experiences Answer: A 10. Harry, a behavioral psychologist, is in the process of analyzing his patient Maria Valentine’s report. Maria has been diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder (DID). According to Harry, severe physical abuse in childhood could serve as a plausible explanation for Maria’s psychological disorder. Maria is emotionally damaged and forms alternate identities in order to shut out past memories and to cope with the trauma. In the context of theoretical approaches to psychological disorders, it can be inferred that Harry’s explanation of Maria’s condition conforms to the _____ approach to psychological disorders. A. psychological B. biological C. cognitive D. sociocultural Answer: A 11. Penny is a single mother who constantly struggles to make both ends meet. As a result of her stressful circumstances and lack of financial stability, Penny is depressed more often. In the context of the theoretical approaches to psychological disorders, it can be inferred that Penny’s depression has a _____ basis. A. biological B. medical C. sociocultural D. psychological Answer: C 12. Derek has been diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder (APSD). Derek’s counselor, Mary, believes that Derek’s poor relationship with his alcoholic stepfather is a factor that contributed to Derek’s psychological disorder. Which of the following theoretical approaches to psychological disorders conforms to Mary’s beliefs in this scenario? A. The biological approach B. The anthropological approach C. The sociocultural approach D. The cognitive approach Answer: C 13. Tipah lives in a small village in Malaysia. According to the local villagers, Tipah is suffering suffers from a mental illness. He often experiences sudden, uncontrolled outbursts of anger. Tipah has attacked and injured many people during these fits of rage. His family claims that Tipah usually seems emotionally withdrawn before the onset of these attacks. Which of the following culture-related disorders best fits the description of Tipah’s mental illness? A. Taijin kyofusho B. Anorexia nervosa C. Koro D. Amok Answer: D 14. _____ is a culture-related disorder in China and Southeast Asia that involves the terrifying belief that one’s genitalia are retracting into one’s abdomen. A. Anorexia nervosa B. Koro C. Amok D. Taijin kyofusho Answer: B 15. Jackie, a young American, is obsessed about losing weight. She is paranoid about having calories and often starves herself. Despite being dangerously underweight for her age, Jackie refuses to eat as she is terrified of the possibility of gaining weight. Which of the following culture-related disorders best fits the description of Jackie’s condition? A. Anorexia nervosa B. Amok C. Koro D. Taijin kyofusho Answer: A 16. Anorexia nervosa is a culture-related disorder that is common among individuals residing in _____. A. Malaysia B. South East Asia C. China D. The United States Answer: D 17. Koro is a culture-related disorder that is common among individuals residing in _____. A. China B. Malaysia C. Africa D. The United States Answer: A 18. According to the biopsychosocial model of psychological disorders, abnormal behavior can be influenced by _____. A. genes B. childhood experiences C. gender D. All of these Answer: D 19. A professional who believes in the _____ approach to psychological disorders is most likely to consider a person’s ethnicity when diagnosing a disorder. A. sociocultural B. biological C. psychological D. cognitive Answer: A 20. Which of the following disorders is an example of a culture-related disorder? A. Depression B. Anorexia nervosa C. Dementia D. Bipolar disorder Answer: B 21. Amok is a psychological disorder that is associated with the culture of the people living in _____. A. the United States B. the Philippines C. China D. Japan Answer: B 22. Which of the following statements is true of the biopsychosocial model? A. According to the biopsychosocial model, biological, sociocultural, and psychological factors are independent of one another and operate distinctly in producing abnormal behavior. B. The biopsychosocial model states that biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors are all equally significant ingredients in producing both normal and abnormal behavior. C. According to the biopsychosocial perspective, a specific gene or a particular experience will inevitably lead to the development of a psychological disorder. D. The biopsychosocial model gives more importance to biological factors over psychological and sociocultural factors in producing normal and abnormal behavior. Answer: B 23. The _____ is a theory suggesting that preexisting conditions, such as genetic characteristics, personality dispositions, or experiences, may put a person at risk of developing a psychological disorder. A. medical model B. diathesis-stress model C. five-factor model D. elaboration likelihood model Answer: B 24. A classification system for categorizing abnormal behaviors cannot help clinicians predict the _____. A. likelihood of a particular disorder’s occurrence B. susceptibility of individuals to a particular disorder C. most suitable treatment for a disorder D. reaction of the individual being diagnosed with the disorder Answer: D 25. The _____ is the name of the manual that was published in 1952 by the American Psychiatric Association for the major classification of psychological disorders in the United States. A. Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM) B. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) C. International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) D. Latin American Guide for Psychiatric Diagnosis (GLDP) Answer: B 26. Mathew is a critic of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Which of the following statements will be agreed upon by Mathew? A. It treats psychological disorders as if they are medical illnesses. B. It avoids relying on social norms and subjective judgments. C. It reflects the sociocultural approach, emphasizing only on factors such as poverty, unemployment, and trauma. D. It focuses on destigmatizing psychological disorders and fails to highlight the problems associated with them. Answer: A 27. The main criticism of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is that it _____. A. takes an overly sociocultural view of psychological disorders B. has included very few categories of psychological disorders C. does not rely on social norms and subjective judgments D. mainly reflects the medical model Answer: D 28. Pat is a critic of the DSM. Which of the following would be true of his concerns regarding the DSM? A. The DSM will not be able to identify and classify new psychological disorders. B. The DSM will disregard social norms and subjective judgments. C. The DSM will overlook the biological factors involved in psychological disorders. D. The DSM will permit the unnecessary prescription of powerful psychoactive drugs. Answer: D 29. _____ is a psychological disorder, commonly diagnosed in childhood, in which an individual exhibits one or more of the following symptoms: a lack of concentration, excitability, and impulsivity. A. Borderline personality disorder B. Autism Spectrum Disorder C. Depression D. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder Answer: D 30. Robert’s teacher, Martha, has complained about his behavior on several occasions. According to Martha, Robert cannot focus in class and is constantly distracted. She also mentioned that Robert is extremely active and very impulsive by nature. If Robert were to be taken by his teacher to Dr. Miller, a psychiatrist, he is likely to be diagnosed with: A. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. B. borderline personality disorder. C. autism spectrum disorder. D. mild neurocognitive impairment. Answer: A 31. Janet is worried about her son, Patrick. She finds him restless and impulsive. At times, Janet finds it exhausting to handle him because he is high-strung and shows very little concentration during his studies. She has also received several complaints from Patrick’s teachers regarding his poor performance in class and his lack of focus. In the context of psychological disorders, it can be inferred that Patrick is exhibiting the symptoms of _____. A. obsessive-compulsive disorder B. mild neurocognitive impairment C. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder D. schizophrenia Answer: C 32. An individual diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder is most likely to _____. A. experience irrational and overwhelming fear toward a specific object B. exhibit repetitive behavior and have restricted interests C. experience alternating episodes of depression and mania D. be capable of socializing with his peers and have good communication skills Answer: B 33. Which of the following is true of autism spectrum disorder? A. Those suffering from this disorder are a diverse group and their level of disability can be relatively mild to quite severe. B. Autism spectrum disorder can be associated with a single cause. C. Autism spectrum disorder is usually associated with aging and is often observed in adults experiencing cognitive decline. D. The symptoms of autism spectrum disorder include trichotillomania, but not skin picking. Answer: A 34. Andrew finds it difficult to socialize and communicate with his peers in school. He often sits by himself for hours and busies himself in drawing in all his books. Andrew’s teachers and parents have also noticed that he displays no interests in activities other than drawing. Which of the following best describes Andrew’s psychological disorder in this scenario? A. Major depressive disorder B. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder C. Autism spectrum disorder D. Disruptive mood regulation disorder Answer: C 35. _____ involve fears that are uncontrollable, disproportionate to the actual danger the person might be in, and disruptive of ordinary life A. Depressive disorders B. Personality disorders C. Anxiety disorders D. Dissociative disorders Answer: C 36. Which of the following disorders is related to the experience of anxiety, but has NOT been classified by the DSM-5 as an anxiety disorder? A. Panic disorder B. Specific phobia C. Social anxiety disorder D. Obsessive-compulsive disorder Answer: D 37. An individual diagnosed with an anxiety disorder is most likely to experience _____. A. episodes of unrealistic excitement and euphoria B. hallucinations—that is, seeing or hearing things that are not there C. motor tension, apprehensive expectations, and thoughts D. recurrent thoughts of death and suicide Answer: C 38. _____ is an anxiety disorder that is marked by persistent anxiety for at least 6 months and in which the individual is unable to specify the reasons for this state. A. Aerophobia B. Generalized anxiety disorder C. Social anxiety disorder D. Agoraphobia Answer: B 39. Which of the following statements is true of generalized anxiety disorder? A. An individual suffering from generalized anxiety disorder experiences persistent anxiety for a maximum of one month. B. An individual suffering from generalized anxiety disorder cannot specify the reasons for the anxiety he experiences. C. Generalized anxiety disorder does not have any impact on the physical health of an individual. D. Generalized anxiety disorder is often caused due to an elevation in the levels of the neurotransmitter GABA. Answer: B 40. Which of the following biological factors plays a role in the development of generalized anxiety disorder? A. Enlarged fluid-filled spaces in the brain B. Elevated levels of lactate C. Deficient levels of the neurotransmitter GABA D. Elevated levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine Answer: C 41. Karen has been suffering from a disorder that is characterized by exaggerated and irrational worry that tends to interfere with her daily functioning. She can’t sleep properly and often complains of stomach aches. In spite of being constantly nervous and restless, Karen, however, cannot seem to find the specific cause of her worry. These symptoms have lasted for almost six months now. Which of the following disorders is Karen most likely to be diagnosed with? A. Social anxiety disorder B. Generalized anxiety disorder C. Obsessive-compulsive disorder D. Bipolar disorder Answer: B 42. Anxiety disorders involve fears that are _____. A. uncontrollable B. disproportionate to the actual danger C. disruptive of ordinary life D. All of these. Answer: D 43. Brad has been in a state of incessant worry for almost half a year now. He has trouble sleeping and breathing. Dr. Simons, a psychiatrist, asks Brad detailed questions about his symptoms and medical history. Brad tells Dr. Simons that he cannot stop worrying and is constantly nervous. Brad also complains of muscular tension and stomach problems. After conducting a quick examination of Brad’s symptoms, Dr. Simons discovers that Brad’s incessant worry does not have a particular cause, and it has taken a physical toll on Brad’s health. Which of the following disorders is Dr. Simons most likely to diagnose Brad with? A. Generalized anxiety disorder B. Schizophrenia C. Bipolar disorder D. Obsessive-compulsive disorder Answer: A 44. Alex has been diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder. Which of the following, if true, might have played a role in the development of his disorder? A. Alex has very sensitive and mild parents. B. Alex is unambitious and has low self-standards. C. Alex has respiratory system abnormalities. D. Alex suffered head injury as a child. Answer: C 45. A deficiency in which of the following neurotransmitters is linked to generalized anxiety disorder? A. Epinephrine B. Acetylcholine C. Glutamate D. GABA Answer: D 46. _____ is an anxiety disorder in which the individual experiences recurrent, sudden onsets of intense terror, often without warning and with no specific cause. A. Bipolar disorder B. Kleptomania C. Panic disorder D. Paranoid personality disorder Answer: C 47. Dr. Davenport, a psychiatrist, is in the process of diagnosing Kelly’s psychological disorder. He asks Kelly a series of questions regarding her symptoms. Kelly reveals that she often experiences overwhelming fear all of a sudden which is accompanied by pains in the chest and a feeling of helplessness. During these instances, she finds it difficult to breathe, has severe palpitations, and feels like she’s going to die of cardiac arrest. In the context of psychological disorders, Dr. Davenport is most likely to diagnose Kelly with _____. A. schizophrenia B. social anxiety disorder C. paranoid personality disorder D. panic disorder Answer: D 48. John often experiences unanticipated attacks of intense fear. During these episodes, he feels like fainting and has trouble catching his breath. John cannot identify the source of his feelings and worries that he might die of heart failure. In the context of psychological disorders, John is exhibiting the symptoms of _____. A. disruptive mood regulation disorder B. paranoid personality disorder C. panic disorder D. social anxiety disorder Answer: C 49. Lola often experiences abrupt, brief episodes of overwhelming fear. She does not know what triggers them, but she has these attacks in the grocery store, in busy restaurants, and even while driving. During these attacks, Lola’s heart pounds and she has difficulty breathing. She fears that she may go crazy or have a heart attack. In the context of psychological disorders, it can be inferred that Lola may have _____. A. catatonia B. somatoform disorder C. aerophobia D. panic disorder Answer: D 50. Which of the following statements is true of panic disorder? A. The brain chemical, lactate, is deficient in individuals with panic disorder. B. In terms of biological factors, genetic predisposition is a likely cause of panic disorder. C. In terms of sociocultural factors in the U.S, men are twice as likely as women to have panic attacks. D. Individuals who suffer from panic attacks are less likely to display overgeneralization of fear learning. Answer: B 51. Which neurotransmitters play a role in panic disorders? A. Dopamine and norepinephrine B. Glutamate and acetylcholine C. GABA and serotonin D. Substance P and glutamate Answer: C 52. _____ is an anxiety disorder in which the individual experiences an irrational, overwhelming, persistent fear of a particular object or situation. A. Specific phobia B. Schizophrenia C. Obsessive-compulsive disorder D. Somatoform disorder Answer: A 53. A fear becomes a phobia when _____. A. it does not interfere with the daily functioning of an individual B. an individual will go to any length to avoid the situation that he fears C. an individual is not aware of what triggers his fear D. it is not associated with a specific object or situation Answer: B 54. Alison had sustained severe injuries after being brutally attacked by a mad dog as a child. Following that incident, Alison has been experiencing an overwhelming sense of fear and paralysis every time she sees a dog. The fear is so intense that it keeps Alison from leaving her house. Alison believes that as long as she’s inside her house, the chances of encountering a dog are slim. In the context of psychological disorders, Alison is most likely to be diagnosed with _____. A. social anxiety disorder B. specific phobia C. obsessive-compulsive disorder D. generalized anxiety disorder Answer: B 55. Carla has an extreme and irrational fear of heights. She avoids climbing ladders or visiting Apartments located on high floors of buildings. Every time Carla looks down from a high window or an elevated place, she is gripped by an overwhelming fear and panics. Carla is most likely suffering from which of the following psychological disorders? A. Acrophobia B. Aerophobia C. Amaxophobia D. Algophobia Answer: A 56. Alfred suffers from an extreme and irrational fear of spiders. His fear is exaggerated and disproportionate to the actual danger he might be in if he did encounter a spider. Alfred’s fear of spiders is so intense that he would go to almost any length to avoid coming into contact with them. Alfred is most likely to be diagnosed with which of the following disorders? A. Specific phobia B. Generalized anxiety disorder C. Social anxiety disorder D. Post-traumatic stress disorder Answer: A 57. _____ is an example of a specific phobia that is associated with the fear of water. A. Gamophobia B. Hydrophobia C. Algophobia D. Xenophobia Answer: B 58. An example of a specific phobia that is associated with the fear of strangers is referred to as _____. A. mysophobia B. aerophobia C. xenophobia D. melissophobia Answer: C 59. _____ is an anxiety disorder in which the individual has an intense fear of being humiliated or embarrassed in public. A. Thanatophobia B. Xenophobia C. Social phobia D. Gamophobia Answer: C 60. The etiology of social anxiety disorder includes neural circuitry that involves all of the following except the _____. A. thalamus B. amygdala C. cerebral cortex D. cerebellum Answer: D 61. Eric has an extreme fear of being humiliated in public. As a result, he avoids public gatherings and functions. The thought of speaking in front of the crowd induces panic in him. Which of the following best describes Eric’s disorder? A. Obsessive-compulsive disorder B. Generalized anxiety disorder C. Algophobia D. Social phobia Answer: D 62. _____ refers to a psychological disorder in which an individual has anxiety-provoking thoughts that will not go away and urges him to perform repetitive, ritualistic behaviors to prevent or produce some future situation. A. Dissociative identity disorder B. Bipolar disorder C. Obsessive-compulsive disorder D. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder Answer: C 63. In cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), _____ frequently accompany obsessions and appear to serve the function of reducing the anxiety created by such disturbing thoughts. A. manias B. hallucinations C. compulsions D. delusions Answer: C 64. Alex cannot control his impulse to wash his hands every five minutes. He washes his hands almost 100 times a day because he is terrified of being contaminated by germs. If Alex doesn’t wash his hands, he experiences overwhelming anxiety. In the context of anxiety and anxiety-related disorders, it can be inferred that Alex is most likely to be diagnosed with _____. A. autism spectrum disorder B. obsessive-compulsive disorder C. post-traumatic stress disorder D. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder Answer: B 65. Martha believes that if she doesn’t keep checking the stove in the kitchen, there may be a gas leakage and an explosion. Consequently, Martha keeps checking whether the stove has been turned off over and over again, sometimes over fifty times a day. This practice interferes with her sleep and disturbs her thoughts. In the context of anxiety and anxiety-related disorders, Martha’s recurrent thoughts about the possibility of an explosion are called _____. A. delusions B. compulsions C. hallucinations D. obsessions Answer: D 66. Brenda is constantly in the habit of arranging and rearranging the things in her house. She feels very anxious when things are not arranged symmetrically and engages in this behavior to dismiss her negative feelings. Consequently, Brenda forbids children from entering her house because she is afraid that they will disturb the balance of orderliness. In the context of anxiety and anxiety-related disorders, Brenda is most likely to be diagnosed with _____. A. paranoid personality disorder B. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder C. post-traumatic stress disorder D. obsessive-compulsive disorder Answer: D 67. Evelyn believes that she must touch the door knob seven times before she opens the door so that her mother will not become deathly ill. In the context of obsessive-compulsive disorder, what is Evelyn’s compulsion? A. The belief that her mother will fall sick B. Touching the door knob C. Walking through the door D. Opening the door Answer: B 68. Jillian cannot bear to leave her home without sweeping the floors, vacuuming the carpets, and organizing everything in her cupboards. She knows that her behavior is extreme, but when she tries to go to work without doing all of these things, she is overcome with such overwhelming dread that she never makes it all the way to the office. In the context of anxiety and anxiety-related disorders, it can be inferred that Jillian suffers from _____. A. obsessive-compulsive disorder B. generalized anxiety disorder C. a phobia D. panic disorder Answer: A 69. Which of the following biological factors plays a role in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)? A. Low levels of glutamate in the brain pathways linked with OCD B. High levels of the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine C. High levels of lactate in the brain D. High levels of activity in the frontal cortex of the brain Answer: D 70. Which of the following statements is true of individuals diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)? A. Individuals with OCD are less likely to be bothered by lingering doubts about whether they have avoided an unpleasant or dreaded outcome. B. Individuals with OCD feel extraordinarily relieved if they do not act out their compulsions. C. Individuals with OCD show a cognitive bias associated with overestimating threats, especially when such threats are personally relevant. D. Individuals with OCD have the ability to dismiss negative, intrusive thoughts by ignoring or effectively dismissing them. Answer: C 71. In the context of OCD-related disorders, an individual with hoarding disorder is most likely to _____. A. exhibit a distressing preoccupation with the flaws in his physical appearance B. compulsively pull at his hair from his scalp, eyebrows, and other body parts C. suffer from a compulsion that involves picking at his skin, sometimes to the point of injuring himself D. find it difficult to throw things away, troubled by the feeling that he might need them at a later time Answer: D 72. Diana is afraid to throw things away because she feels that she might need them in the future. Consequently, Diana compulsively collects and stores large quantities of old newspapers, broken crockery, and old clothes. In the context of OCD-related disorders, Diana’s excessive acquisition of objects and her inability to discard them are typical characteristics of _____. A. trichotillomania B. excoriation C. hoarding disorder D. body dysmorphic disorder Answer: C 73. Emily is in the habit of picking at her skin every time she feels nervous or anxious. Emily engages in this kind of compulsive behavior to such an extent that she ends up bruising herself in the process. In the context of OCD-related disorders, Emily is most likely suffering from _____. A. hoarding disorder B. body dysmorphic disorder C. excoriation D. trichotillomania Answer: C 74. Each time Harry feels anxious, he compulsively pulls hair from his scalp or eyebrows. This compulsive urge to pull his hair has made him partially bald. Harry is most likely to be diagnosed with which of the following OCD-related disorders? A. Hoarding disorder B. Trichotillomania C. Excoriation D. Body dysmorphic disorder Answer: B 75. _____ is an OCD-related disorder that involves a distressing preoccupation with imagined or slight flaws in one’s physical appearance. A. Excoriation B. Trichotillomania C. Body dysmorphic disorder D. Hoarding disorder Answer: C 76. Kelly experiences a great deal of anxiety over her physical appearance. She believes that her head is too big and her nose is asymmetrical. This troubling preoccupation with her physical features interferes with Kelly’s occupational and social functioning. She spends hours in front of the mirror and isolates herself from her friends. In the context of OCD-related disorders, Kelly can be most likely diagnosed with _____. A. excoriation B. trichotillomania C. hoarding disorder D. body dysmorphic disorder Answer: D 77. _____ is a psychological disorder that develops through exposure to a direful event, a severely oppressive situation, cruel abuse, or a natural or an unnatural disaster. A. Bipolar disorder B. Obsessive-compulsive disorder C. Post-traumatic stress disorder D. Autism spectrum disorder Answer: C 78. According to the DSM-5, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is likely to occur _____. A. in those individuals who directly experience a trauma B. in those individuals who witness a trauma C. in those individuals who only hear about a trauma D. All of these Answer: D 79. Since the war eight months ago, Henry, a 35-year-old soldier, has been experiencing flashbacks that causes him to relive the grievous experiences that he went through during the war. Henry is terrified of these flashback episodes and tries to avoid all reminders of the war. He refuses to talk about his feelings and avoids looking at his uniform. This anxiety interferes with Henry’s sleep and social functioning. In the context of anxiety and anxiety-related disorders, it can be inferred that Henry is exhibiting the symptoms of _____. A. obsessive-compulsive disorder B. specific phobia C. post-traumatic stress disorder D. antisocial personality disorder Answer: C 80. Seven months ago, Sandra was involved in a serious car accident. Even though she recovered fully from her injuries, she is still troubled by nightmares and flashbacks of the scene of the accident. Now, Sandra refuses to drive and insists only on using public transport. She is in a constant state of anxiety and has trouble sleeping. In the context of anxiety and anxiety-related disorders, it can be inferred that Sandra shows symptoms suggestive of _____. A. social anxiety disorder B. bipolar disorder C. post-traumatic stress disorder D. obsessive-compulsive disorder Answer: C 81. Jerome was held hostage by gunmen along with 30 others in a 5-star hotel. He had witnessed the gunmen shoot other hostages and was denied food and water for two whole days. Since then, Jerome has had trouble sleeping and focusing on his work. Sometimes, Jerome loses track of where he is and feels like he is back at the hotel. These flashback episodes terrify Jerome and disturb his peace of mind. In the context of anxiety and anxiety-related disorders, it can be inferred that Jerome shows symptoms suggestive of _____. A. schizophrenia B. obsessive-compulsive disorder C. post-traumatic stress disorder D. social anxiety disorder Answer: C 82. In movies that focus on war, soldiers who have returned from the frontlines often struggle with overwhelming anxiety, nervousness, depression, and flashbacks. In many cases, these soldiers experience problems related to loss of memory and an inability to experience happiness. In the context of anxiety and anxiety-related disorders, it can be inferred that these movie characters are most likely experiencing the symptoms of _____. A. specific phobias B. post-traumatic stress disorder C. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder D. dissociative identity disorder Answer: B 83. Which of the following statements is true of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)? A. An individual experiences PTSD symptoms only several months or years after a trauma. B. Not every individual exposed to the same event develops PTSD. C. Genetic inheritance does not play a role in the development of PTSD. D. Individuals with PTSD seek attention and are open to expressing their emotions. Answer: B 84. _____ refers to a psychological disorder in which the individual suffers from an unrelenting lack of pleasure in life. A. Bipolar disorder B. Depressive disorder C. Specific phobia D. Obsessive-compulsive disorder Answer: B 85. Cathy is worried about her mental health. She visits Dr. Henderson, a psychiatrist, to seek treatment for her condition. When Dr. Henderson asks her questions about herself, Cathy reveals that she is unhappy and feels worthless most of the time. She doesn’t eat or sleep well and has even contemplated suicide. Dr. Henderson also learns that Cathy has been experiencing these distressing symptoms for almost 3 weeks. In the context of disorders involving emotion and mood, it can be inferred that Dr. Henderson is likely to diagnose Cathy with _____. A. dissociative identity disorder B. bipolar disorder C. major depressive disorder D. social anxiety disorder Answer: C 86. For a person to be diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD), he or she must have experienced a significant depressive episode and depressed characteristics, such as lethargy and hopelessness, for at least _____. A. a week B. two days C. two months D. two weeks Answer: D 87. Individuals with depressive disorder appear to have too few receptors for the neurotransmitters _____. A. glutamate and histamine B. GABA and acetylcholine C. serotonin and norepinephrine D. dopamine and glutamate Answer: C 88. Which of the following statements is true of the biological factors implicated in the development of depressive disorders? A. Depressed individuals show higher levels of brain activity in a section of the prefrontal cortex that is involved in generating actions. B. Depressed individuals show higher levels of brain activity in regions of the brain associated with the perception of rewards in the environment. C. Individuals who possess genes linked with depression are at a decreased risk for depression even if their social environment is stressful. D. Individuals with depressive disorders appear to have too few receptors for the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine. Answer: D 89. A possible behavioral explanation for depression focuses on _____. A. operant conditioning B. learned optimism C. classical conditioning D. learned helplessness Answer: D 90. Candice routinely blows every little setback out of proportion. For example, when she forgot to turn in her algebra homework, she was convinced that she would fail the class. Candice is also in the habit of blaming herself for negative events. She believes that she is solely responsible for all her failures and that she can never improve. In the context of disorders involving emotion and mood, Candice is at a greater risk of developing _____. A. depression B. obsessive-compulsive disorder C. schizophrenia D. social anxiety disorder Answer: A 91. It has been over two years since the death of her husband and Jenna still cannot cope with her loss. She is constantly preoccupied with thoughts of death and cannot seem to find much pleasure in life. In the context of disorders involving emotion and mood, it can be inferred that Jenna is most likely suffering from _____. A. major depressive disorder B. bipolar disorder C. a social phobia D. disruptive mood disorder Answer: A 92. Ever since Kerry lost her job, she has been feeling worthless. It’s been more than two weeks now since she slept well. She has lost a lot of weight and keeps thinking about committing suicide. In the context of disorders involving emotion and mood, it can be inferred that Kerry may suffer from_____. A. obsessive-compulsive disorder B. major depressive disorder C. social anxiety disorder D. antisocial personality disorder Answer: B 93. Which of the following statements is true of the role of psychological factors in depression? A. According to researchers, depression is related to an optimistic attributional style rather than a pessimistic attributional style. B. The course of depression can be influenced only by what people think but not how they think. C. Individuals with depression have a brain that is wired for attention to positive information. D. The tendency to ruminate negative thoughts is associated with the development of depression. Answer: D 94. Which psychological approach would attribute a person’s depression to escalating negative and self-defeating thoughts? A. The behavioral approach B. The biological approach C. The sociocultural approach D. The cognitive approach Answer: D 95. Which of the following statements is true of the sociocultural factors involved in depression? A. Men are nearly twice as likely as women to be diagnosed with depression. B. Studies have found very low rates of depression in Native American groups. C. Depression increases as standards of living and employment circumstances worsen. D. Individuals with a low socioeconomic status (SES) are less likely to develop depression than their higher-SES counterparts. Answer: C 96. _____ is a psychological disorder that is characterized by extreme mood swings that include one or more episodes of mania, an overexcited, unrealistically optimistic state. A. Disruptive mood disorder B. Persistent depressive disorder C. Bipolar disorder D. Obsessive-compulsive disorder Answer: C 97. Which of the following statements is true of bipolar disorder? A. Individuals with bipolar II disorder have extreme manic episodes during which they may experience hallucinations. B. Individuals with bipolar disorder can have manic and depressive episodes four or more times a year, but they usually are separated by 6 months to a year. C. Bipolar I disorder refers to the milder version of bipolar disorder in which the individual may experience a less extreme level of euphoria. D. Bipolar disorder is more common in men than in women. Answer: B 98. In the context of bipolar disorder, a person experiencing a manic episode may _____. A. sleep very little B. feel energetic C. feel euphoric D. All of these. Answer: D 99. _____ refers to a psychological state in which an individual feels overexcited and unrealistically optimistic. A. Psychosis B. Catatonia C. Mania D. Depression Answer: C 100. Aria has been awake for two nights in a row and still feels highly energetic, and euphoric. The previous day, she quit her job on an impulse and decided to become an actress. In the context of bipolar disorder, Aria is experiencing an episode of _____. A. mania B. catatonia C. depression D. psychosis Answer: A 101. Dr. Wren is in the process of diagnosing Lily’s psychological disorder. After asking Lily a few questions about her symptoms, Lily reveals that she experiences alternating episodes of euphoria and distress. On some days, Lily claims that she feels like she is cAPAble of doing anything in the world. During this phase, she can’t sleep; feels restless, and is extremely excitable. On the other days, Lily feels utterly worthless and miserable. During this phase, Lily lies in bed all day and is troubled by morbid thoughts. In the context of disorders involving emotion and mood, it can be inferred that Dr. Wren is likely to diagnose Lily with _____. A. major depressive disorder B. obsessive-compulsive disorder C. bipolar disorder D. schizophrenia Answer: C 102. Abigail has noticed that Rose, her roommate, experiences extreme shifts in her moods and behavior. Although Rose doesn’t sleep much, she is unusually energetic and optimistic. She is highly distractible and delusional. This period of euphoria has lasted more than a week and is in sharp contrast to the depression and fatigue Rose exhibited in the previous semester. Rose is most likely to be diagnosed with _____. A. bipolar disorder B. hypomania C. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder D. persistent depressive disorder Answer: A 103. Which of the following statements is true of the biological factors involved in bipolar disorder? A. Studies link low levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate to bipolar disorder. B. High levels of norepinephrine and low levels of serotonin are associated with bipolar disorder. C. The brain’s energy consumption rises in depression and falls in mania. D. Genetic influences are weaker predictors of bipolar disorder than of depressive disorder. Answer: B 104. In the context of treating children who suffer from bipolar disorder, _____, included by the DSM-5 as a new diagnosis, is considered a depressive disorder in children who show persistent irritability and recurrent episodes of out-of-control behavior. A. disruptive mood dysregulation disorder B. depression C. autism spectrum disorder D. generalized anxiety disorder Answer: A 105. Dissociative disorders are _____. A. psychological disorders in which an individual suffers from depression—an unrelenting lack of pleasure in life B. psychological disorders that involve a sudden loss of memory or change in identity due to the separation of an individual’s conscious awareness from previous memories C. uncontrollable and disruptive psychological disorders that feature motor tension, hyperactivity, and apprehensive expectations and thoughts D. chronic, maladaptive cognitive-behavioral patterns that are completely integrated into an individual’s personality Answer: B 106. _____ refer to psychological disorders that involve a sudden loss of memory or change in identity due to the separation of the individual’s conscious awareness from previous memories and thoughts. A. Anxiety disorders B. Dissociative disorders C. Personality disorders D. Depressive disorders Answer: B 107. Dissociation refers to a psychological state in which the person feels _____. A. persistently anxious and nervous B. overexcited and unrealistically optimistic C. miserable and worthless D. disconnected from immediate experience Answer: D 108. Individuals with dissociative disorders have _____. A. a less voluminous hippocampus and amygdala B. excessive levels of the neurotransmitter glutamate C. a very small cerebral cortex D. very few receptors for the neurotransmitter serotonin Answer: A 109. _____ is a psychological disorder that is characterized by extreme memory loss that is caused by extensive psychological stress. A. Borderline personality disorder B. Bipolar disorder C. Dissociative identity disorder D. Dissociative amnesia Answer: D 110. Caleb, a mercenary, was tortured for days in an underground cell. When he was rescued by Special Forces, a month later, Caleb could not remember the events of the previous month. To Caleb, it felt like he had just gone to war and, minutes later, was being pulled out of an underground cell. The doctors attributed Caleb’s memory loss to the extensive psychological trauma that he experienced during his imprisonment. In the context of dissociative disorders, which of the following best describes Caleb’s psychological disorder in this scenario? A. Antisocial personality disorder B. Borderline personality disorder C. Dissociative identity disorder D. Dissociative amnesia Answer: D 111. Alison was found wandering near her neighborhood three weeks after she went missing. On being questioned by the police, Alison revealed that she couldn’t remember anything that had happened to her over the past fortnight. The last thing she remembered was walking by the lake. She had no idea as to what happened to her after that, or how she survived all these days. In the context of dissociative disorders, it can be inferred that Alison is showing symptoms of _____. A. dissociative identity disorder B. depression C. dissociative amnesia D. schizophrenia Answer: C 112. _____ refers to a disorder in which the individual has two or more distinct personalities or selves, each with its own memories, behaviors, and relationships. A. Borderline personality disorder B. Dissociative identity disorder C. Antisocial personality disorder D. Bipolar disorder Answer: B 113. Which of the following statements is true of dissociative identity disorder (DID)? A. In DID, one identity dominates at one time; another takes over at another time. B. Individuals with DID have two or more ambiguous personalities with overlapping memories and behaviors. C. The majority of individuals who have been sexually abused develop DID. D. The vast majority of individuals with DID are men. Answer: A 114. _____ refers to a psychological state in which a person’s perceptions and thoughts are fundamentally removed from reality. A. Dissociation B. Mania C. Psychosis D. Catatonia Answer: C 115. _____ is a severe psychological disorder characterized by highly disordered thought processes; individuals suffering from this disorder may be referred to as psychotic because they are so far removed from reality. A. Obsessive-compulsive disorder B. Dissociative identity disorder C. Depression D. Schizophrenia Answer: D 116. Derek is suffering from a severe mental illness that is characterized by distorted thought and perception. He hears voices in his head and is convinced that aliens are trying to communicate with him. Derek’s belief is so strong that he sits on the roof for hours having conversations with no one in particular. Derek is also in the habit of writing words that make no sense and refrains from interacting with other people. In the context of dissociative disorders, it can be inferred that Derek is most likely suffering from _____ in this scenario. A. borderline personality disorder B. generalized anxiety C. schizophrenia D. kleptomania Answer: C 117. Hallucinations are _____. A. sensory experiences that occur in the absence of real stimuli B. false, unusual, and sometimes magical beliefs that are not part of an individual’s culture C. recurrent thoughts that persist despite efforts to suppress them D. repetitive, purposeful acts that are performed in a ritualistic manner Answer: A 118. Jeremy, a schizophrenic patient, hears multiple voices inside his head; talking to him at the same time and forcing him to do things. Hence, it can be inferred that he is experiencing the symptom of _____. A. delusions B. illusions C. hallucinations D. catatonia Answer: C 119. Which of the following statements is true of schizophrenia? A. Schizophrenia is usually diagnosed in late adulthood. B. Individuals with schizophrenia are at a lower risk of suicide. C. Individuals with schizophrenia may be lacking in the ability to read the emotions of others. D. The negative symptoms of schizophrenia involve a distortion or an excess of normal function. Answer: C 120. Which of the following best describes catatonia? A. It is a state in which a person’s perceptions and thoughts are fundamentally removed from reality. B. It is a state of immobility and unresponsiveness lasting for long periods of time. C. It is a state in which the person feels disconnected from immediate experience. D. It is a psychological state that is marked by overexcitement and euphoria. Answer: B 121. Dr. Grey notices that his schizophrenic patient, Alicia, sometimes lapses into a phase during which she becomes unresponsive and stiff. In this state, Alicia’s body becomes rigid, and she sits for hours by herself in a sort of stupor. In the context of schizophrenia, which of the following best describes Alicia’s condition in this scenario? A. Mania B. Catatonia C. Dissociative amnesia D. Psychosis Answer: B 122. Each time Darren listens to the radio, he believes that he is receiving a secret message from the government. He spends most of his days trying to warn others about an impending invasion that the voice on his radio has been telling him about. Hence, it can be inferred that Darren is most likely suffering from _____. A. major depressive disorder B. specific phobia C. antisocial personality disorder D. schizophrenia Answer: D 123. Positive symptoms of schizophrenia include all of the following EXCEPT: A. hallucinations. B. delusions. C. flat affect. D. catatonia. Answer: C 124. Frank believes that he is the reincarnation of a famous preacher. According to this information, which of the following symptoms is likely being experienced by Frank? A. Delusion B. Hallucination C. Misattribution D. flat affect Answer: A 125. What kind of thinking involves ascribing personal meaning to completely random events? A. Splitting B. Convergent thinking C. Referential thinking D. Deductive reasoning Answer: C 126. Tyra believes that her Math professor is actually a secret agent who is working undercover to assassinate the President of the U.S. In the context of schizophrenia, it can be inferred that Tyra is engaging in _____. A. splitting B. referential thinking C. divergent thinking D. deductive reasoning Answer: B 127. Which of the following is a common negative symptom of schizophrenia? A. Movement disorder B. Hallucinations C. Thought disorder D. Flat affect Answer: D 128. Amy often offends other people because she does not seem to be able to read their emotions accurately. She shows little or no emotions herself and avoids social contact. Amy is also convinced that her neighbors are scheming to murder her. According to this scenario, it can be inferred that Amy is _____. A. suffering from schizophrenia B. suffering from dissociative identity disorder C. severely depressed D. suffering from bipolar disorder Answer: A 129. Which of the following statements is true of the biological factors involved in schizophrenia? A. The brains of individuals with schizophrenia have compressed ventricles. B. Individuals with schizophrenia have a larger prefrontal cortex and higher activity in this area of the brain than healthy individuals. C. Problems in prenatal development may predispose a brain to developing schizophrenic symptoms later in life. D. Deficient levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine play a significant role in the development of schizophrenia. Answer: C 130. Which of the following statements is true of the psychological and sociocultural factors involved in schizophrenia? A. Contemporary theorists strongly believe that stress is unrelated to the development of schizophrenia. B. Marriage and warm supportive friends are related to better outcomes for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. C. Sociocultural background is considered a definite cause of schizophrenia. D. Individuals with schizophrenia in developing, non-industrialized nations tend to have worse outcomes than those in developed, industrialized nations. Answer: B 131. Which of the following is true of people suffering from histrionic personality disorder? A. People with this disorder are always on the lookout for danger and the slightest social mistreatment. B. People with this disorder are emotionally cold and APAthetic, and they are generally detached from interpersonal life. C. People with this disorder are egocentric, manipulative, and lack empathy for others. D. People with this disorder are inappropriately seductive in their interactions with others. Answer: D 132. Which of the following is true of people suffering from obsessive-compulsive personality disorder? A. People with this disorder view themselves as privileged and better than others. B. People with this disorder are inappropriately seductive in their interactions with others. C. People with this disorder show an excessive attachment to moral codes and are excessively orderly in daily life. D. People with this disorder are prone to mood swings, excessive self-criticism, and extreme judgments of others. Answer: C 133. _____ is a psychological disorder that is characterized by guiltlessness, law-breaking, exploitation of others, irresponsibility, and deceit. A. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder B. Antisocial personality disorder C. Borderline personality disorder D. Histrionic personality disorder Answer: B 134. Harry has been diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. Which of the following statements is applicable to him? A. He shows an excessive attachment to moral codes and is excessively orderly in daily life. B. He is prone to mood swings, excessive self-criticism and extreme judgment of others. C. He lacks empathy for others, is egocentric, and is willing to use others for his own personal gain. D. He perceives himself as helpless and depends on others for emotional and physical needs. Answer: C 135. Which of the following statements is true of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD)? A. ASPD is far more common in women than in men. B. All individuals with ASPD engage in crime. C. Individuals with ASPD show lower levels of autonomic nervous system arousal. D. Individuals with ASPD are more stressed than others by aversive circumstances. Answer: C 136. David is a successful, but immoral businessman. He feels no remorse in exploiting other people for his own personal gain. He would do whatever it takes to get to the top even if it involves cheating, lying, and hurting others. In the context of personality disorders, it can be inferred that David exhibits the symptoms of _____. A. histrionic personality disorder B. antisocial personality disorder C. borderline personality disorder D. avoidant personality disorder Answer: B 137. When Jack’s ex-wife informs him that his son has been killed in a car accident, Jack responds by saying “Good, now I don’t have to pay child support!” In the context of personality disorders, it can be inferred that Jack is most likely suffering from: A. major depressive disorder. B. a specific phobia. C. antisocial personality disorder. D. schizophrenia. Answer: C 138. Kevin enjoys taking risks and finds it stifling to conform to social norms. He can keep his cool while engaging in amoral activities and feels no guilt or shame for these heinous acts. In the context of personality disorders, it can be inferred that Kevin is likely to be diagnosed with _____. A. histrionic personality disorder B. avoidant personality disorder C. borderline personality disorder D. antisocial personality disorder Answer: D 139. _____ is a psychological disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotions, and of marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. A. Autism Spectrum Disorder B. Schizotypal personality disorder C. Borderline personality disorder D. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder Answer: C 140. Individuals with borderline personality disorder are _____. A. impulsive, insecure, and emotional B. manipulative, deceitful, and amoral C. attention-seeking, dramatic, and lively D. emotionally cold and APAthetic Answer: A 141. Rose and Martha were classmates. Rose idolized Martha and believed that she was the best friend a person could have. However, when Martha refused Rose’s offer to study together on the night before a test, Rose felt intensely hurt and dejected. The next day, she lashed out at Martha and accused her of being a terrible friend. In the context of personality disorders, it can be inferred that Rose is exhibiting the symptoms of _____. A. histrionic personality disorder B. obsessive-compulsive personality disorder C. schizotypal personality disorder D. borderline personality disorder Answer: D 142. When Sarah’s boyfriend broke up with her, she became extremely distressed and angry. She began to drink heavily and use illicit substances in order to cope with her emotions. On several occasions, Sarah even threatened to kill herself if her boyfriend didn’t answer her calls. Sarah is most likely to be diagnosed with which of the following disorders? A. Borderline personality disorder B. Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder C. Schizotypal personality disorder D. Antisocial personality disorder Answer: A 143. Which of the following statements is true of borderline personality disorder (BPD)? A. Studies have revealed that BPD is more common in men than women. B. Individuals with BPD tend to be unrealistically optimistic and self-confident. C. Individuals with BPD are insensitive to how others treat them. D. BPD is more common among those younger than 30. Answer: D 144. Individuals with borderline personality disorder exhibit _____. A. psychosis B. catatonia C. mania D. hypervigilance Answer: D 145. Suicide has been linked with low levels of the neurotransmitter _____. A. glutamate B. norepinephrine C. acetylcholine D. serotonin Answer: D 146. Which of the following statements is true of the psychological factors involved in suicide? A. Most individuals who commit suicide do not have a diagnosable mental disorder. B. The most common disorders among individuals who commit suicide are depression and anxiety. C. Individuals who are chronically lonely are less likely to experience a desire to die. D. Individuals who have developed a high tolerance for pain are less likely to complete a suicide attempt. Answer: B 147. Which of the following statements is true of the sociocultural factors involved in suicide? A. The highest suicide rates occur in countries with cultural norms against ending one’s own life. B. Suicide rates are found to be higher in states with a culture of honor. C. Men are three times more likely to attempt suicide than women. D. Women are four times more likely than men to complete a suicide attempt. Answer: B 148. Which of the following groups has the highest suicide rate among all the other demographic groups in the United States? A. Latinos B. Non-Latino white males C. African Americans D. Native Americans Answer: D 149. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), which of the following nations has the highest suicide rates? A. JAPAn B. Haiti C. Antigua D. Barbuda Answer: A 150. In 1973, Rosenhan performed a study in which eight healthy adults were admitted to a psychiatric hospital. What did this study demonstrate? A. College students are highly susceptible to psychological disorders. B. People only get worse in a psychiatric hospital. C. Once a person has been labeled with a psychological disorder, that label colors how others perceive everything else he or she does. D. If a person is treated for a mental illness during early adulthood, he or she is likely to recover fully. Answer: C Short Answer Questions 151. Discuss the three defining elements of abnormal behavior. Answer: Abnormal behavior is behavior that is deviant, maladaptive, or personally distressful over a relatively long period of time. Deviant behavior refers to behavior that does not conform to accepted social standards. When atypical behavior deviates from what is acceptable in a culture, it often is considered abnormal. Maladaptive behavior interferes with a person’s ability to function effectively in the world. Behavior that presents a danger to the person or to those around him or her would be considered maladaptive. Finally, abnormal behavior also involves personal distress over a long period of time. The person engaging in such behavior finds it troubling. 152. Discuss the biological approach to psychological disorders. Answer: The biological approach attributes psychological disorders to organic, internal causes. This approach primarily focuses on the brain, genetic factors, and neurotransmitter functioning as the sources of abnormality. The biological approach is part of the medical model, which describes psychological disorders as medical diseases with a biological origin. 153. What are the major criticisms associated with the DSM-5? Answer: DSM-5 was criticized on a number of bases. A central criticism that applies to all versions of the DSM is that it treats psychological disorders as if they are medical illnesses, taking an overly biological view of conditions that may have their roots in social experience. Even as research has shed light on the complex interaction of genetic, neurobiological, cognitive, social, and environmental factors in psychological disorders, DSM-5 continues to reflect the medical model, neglecting factors such as poverty, unemployment, and trauma. Another general criticism of the DSM is that it focuses strictly on problems. Critics argue that emphasizing strengths as well as weaknesses might help to destigmatize psychological disorders. Other criticisms of DSM-5 include: • It relies too much on social norms and subjective judgments. • Too many new categories of disorders have been added, some of which do not yet have consistent research support and would lead to a significant increase in the number of people being labeled as having a mental disorder. • Loosening the standards for some existing diagnoses will add to the already very high rates of these. 154. Differentiate a person who experiences panic from the one who has a panic disorder. Answer: A person who experiences panic knows why he or she feels the alarm (e.g., he or she sees a snake in the woods). This would be considered a normal reaction and does not interfere with the person’s day to day life. A person suffering from a panic disorder experiences panic with no perceptible source. As a result, the individual may stop engaging in certain activities in an attempt to avoid experiencing a panic attack. 155. Dorothy has, on several occasions, experienced recurrent periods of intense fear that are of sudden onset. During these episodes, Dorothy trembles, sweats and experiences chest pain. She doesn’t know what triggers these attacks, but she fears that she may have a heart attack if she doesn’t seek treatment. Identify Dorothy’s psychological disorder. Answer: Dorothy is most likely to be diagnosed with panic disorder. Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder in which the individual experiences recurrent, sudden onsets of intense terror, often without warning and with no specific cause. 156. Give a brief account of the symptoms of panic disorder. Answer: In panic disorder, a person experiences recurrent, sudden onsets of intense terror, often without warning, and with no specific cause. Panic attacks can produce severe palpitations, extreme shortness of breath, chest pains, trembling, sweating, dizziness, and a feeling of helplessness. People with panic disorder may also feel that they are having a heart attack. 157. Jarrett, a university student, was hit by a car while crossing the street. He sustained serious injuries and required surgery. His rehabilitation has been painstakingly slow to progress. Recently, Jarrett was diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder. State the five symptoms that Jarrett will experience as a result of having this disorder. Answer: As a consequence of attaining the post-traumatic stress disorder, Jared is likely to experience flashbacks in which he relives the event as if it is happening all over again. In addition to this symptom, he will also avoid talking about his emotions, will experience anxiety, have difficulty sleeping, and will have problems with memory and concentration. 158. Julia has been diagnosed with major depressive disorder. What are the symptoms that she is likely to exhibit as a result of having this disorder? Answer: Julia will have a depressed mood most of the day and will not take pleasure in activities that were once enjoyable. She will feel extremely worthless or guilty and will have trouble concentrating. In addition to this, Julia will also lose her appetite, have trouble sleeping, experience fatigue, and be preoccupied with recurrent thoughts of death. 159. What is bipolar disorder? Differentiate bipolar I disorder from bipolar II disorder. Answer: Bipolar disorder is a psychological disorder that is characterized by extreme mood swings that include one or more episodes of mania, an overexcited, unrealistically optimistic state. Bipolar I disorder refers to individuals who have extreme manic episodes during which they may experience hallucinations—that is, seeing or hearing things that are not there. Bipolar II disorder refers to the milder version in which the individual may experience a less extreme level of euphoria. 160. How does dissociative amnesia differ from dissociative identity disorder? Answer: Dissociative amnesia is a dissociative disorder characterized by extreme memory loss that is caused by extensive psychological stress. Dissociative identity disorder (DID), on the other hand, is a dissociative disorder in which the individual has two or more distinct personalities or selves, each with its own memories, behaviors, and relationships. 161. Describe both the positive and negative symptoms associated with schizophrenia. Answer: The positive symptoms of schizophrenia involve a distortion or an excess of normal function. They are “positive” because they reflect something added above and beyond normal behavior. The positive symptoms include hallucinations or sensory experiences in the absence of stimuli, delusions or false magical beliefs, thought disorders or bizarre thought processes, and movement disorders. Schizophrenia’s negative symptoms reflect social withdrawal, behavioral deficits, and the loss or decrease of normal functions. One negative symptom is flat affect, which means the display of little or no emotion. Individuals with schizophrenia also may be lacking in the ability to read the emotions of others. They may show a deficient ability to plan, initiate, and engage in goal-directed behavior. 162. Give a brief account of the biological factors involved in the development of schizophrenia. Answer: Research supports the notion that schizophrenia is at least partially explained by genetic factors. There is good evidence that problems regulating the neurotransmitter dopamine play a role in schizophrenia. Individuals with schizophrenia also have enlarged brain ventricles and a smaller prefrontal cortex. The brain activity in this area of the brain is much lower than that of a normal person. 163. Define antisocial personality disorder. List the four criteria to confirm the diagnosis of this disorder. Answer: Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is a psychological disorder characterized by guiltlessness, law-breaking, exploitation of others, irresponsibility, and deceit. The four defining criteria to confirm the diagnosis of this disorder include failure to conform to social norms or obey the law, deceitfulness, impulsivity, and irritability. 164. How do individuals with antisocial personality disorder differ from individuals with borderline personality disorder? Answer: Individuals with ASPD are manipulative, deceitful, and amoral. People with this disorder lack empathy for others, are egocentric, and are willing to use others for their own personal gain. On the other hand, individuals with borderline personality disorder are emotionally volatile and have an unstable sense of self. These individuals are prone to mood swings, excessive self-criticism, extreme judgments of others, and are preoccupied with being abandoned. 165. Give a brief account of the sociocultural factors involved in suicide. Answer: Suicide rates vary worldwide; the lowest rates occur in countries with cultural and religious norms against ending one’s own life. Within cultures, economic conditions and ethnic contexts may contribute to suicide risk. Chronic economic hardship can be a factor in suicide. Research has also linked suicide to the culture of honor. There are gender differences in suicide as well. Women are three times more likely to attempt suicide than men, but men are four times more likely to complete suicide than women. Men are also more likely to use a firearm in a suicide attempt. True/False Questions 166. In the context of the theoretical approaches to psychological disorders, social cognitive psychologists focus on observational learning, cognitions, and beliefs as factors that foster or maintain abnormal behavior. Answer: True 167. The gender differences in panic disorder may be due to the presence of certain hormones. Answer: True 168. Aerophobia is an example of a specific phobia which is associated with the fear of high places. Answer: False 169. Obsessions differ from compulsions since obsessions are recurrent behaviors, while compulsions are recurrent thoughts. Answer: False 170. The learning process of avoidance learning is associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Answer: True 171. Individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder show a cognitive bias associated with overestimating threats, particularly when those threats are personally relevant. Answer: True 172. Individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder have the ability to turn off negative, intrusive thoughts by ignoring or effectively dismissing them. Answer: False 173. Excoriation or skin picking is more common among men than women. Answer: False 174. According to the psychological factors associated with depressive disorders, an optimistic attributional style has been related to higher levels of depression and increased suicide risk. Answer: False 175. Bipolar disorder is only observed in adults. Answer: False 176. Robert, a patient suffering from schizophrenia, notices a strange bruise on his left hand. He immediately believes that he has been marked by God and has been endowed with special powers. Hence, it can be inferred that Robert is engaging in referential thinking as per the scenario. Answer: True 177. Across cultures, individuals with schizophrenia in developing, non-industrialized nations tend to have worse outcomes than those in developed, industrialized nations. Answer: False 178. Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is related to criminal behavior, but not all individuals with ASPD engage in crime, and not all criminals suffer from ASPD. Answer: True 179. Research has linked antisocial personality disorder to high levels of activation in the prefrontal cortex of the brain. Answer: False 180. Women are more likely than men to be diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder. Answer: False 181. Individuals with borderline personality disorder tend to engage in a thinking style called splitting. Answer: True 182. The most common psychological disorders among individuals who commit suicide are depression and anxiety. Answer: True 183. Being labeled with a mental disorder can affect the way mental health professionals perceive an individual. Answer: True 184. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 forbids employers from refusing employment or a promotion to someone with a psychological disorder when the person’s condition does not prevent performance of the job’s essential functions. Answer: True 185. Research has shown that health-promotion programs do not work well with individuals who have psychological disorders. Answer: False Test Bank for The Science of Psychology: An Appreciative View Laura A. King 9780078035401, 9781260500523, 9780073532066, 9781259255533

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