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CHAPTER 8: Sexually Transmitted Infections/Diseases
1. ________ are a group of viral, bacterial, and other infections that are spread primarily by
sexual behaviors.
a. Sexually transmitted infections
b. Paraphilias
c. Sexual dysfunctions
d. Communicable diseases
Answer: A
Rationale:
Sexually transmitted infections can be viral, bacterial, or other infections.
2. The participants of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study were ________.
a. 400 women not infected with syphilis
b. 400 African American men who tested positive for syphilis
c. 200 men who were not infected with syphilis
d. a combination of 400 men and women infected with syphilis
Answer: B
Rationale:
The participants of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study were African American men.
3. If Dr. Johnson was a researcher with the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, more than likely he
________.
a. provided treatment for all participants
b. told all participants that they were infected with syphilis
c. did not tell the participants that they were infected with syphilis
d. encouraged participants to get treatment when the study ended
Answer: C
Rationale:
The participants in the Tuskegee Syphilis Study were not told that they were infected.
4. How many new cases of STIs are diagnosed in the United States each year?
a. 2 million
b. 8 million
c. 19 million

d. 65 million
Answer: C
Rationale:
Millions of new cases of STIs are diagnosed each year.
5. How many people are infected with HIV worldwide?
a. 1 million
b. 10 million
c. 20 million
d. 33 million
Answer: D
Rationale:
Millions of people worldwide are infected with HIV, which is why it is considered a
pandemic.
6. Particularly with women, many STIs are ________.
a. not serious
b. asymptomatic
c. not transmissible
d. less transmissible
Answer: B
Rationale:
Most STIs have no symptoms.
7. Programs that teach teens only abstinence have been found to create an environment that
________.
a. has no impact on the spread of STIs in teens
b. actually decreases the spread of STIs in teens
c. actually increases the spread of STIs in teens
d. helps teens feel positive about safer sex issues
Answer: C
Rationale:
Research has shown that abstinence-only education is ineffective.
8. Which of the following is a common myth about STIs?

a. A person can get STIs when in a monogamous relationship.
b. People cannot get an STI the first time they have sex.
c. STIs are common in all socioeconomic groups.
d. Hormonal forms of contraception offer no protection from STIs.
Answer: B
Rationale:
STIs can be transmitted the first time one has sex.
9. This theory suggests that while under the influence of alcohol, people are more likely to
focus on immediate, "feel-good" behaviors and discount the more distant, long-term
consequences of the activity.
a. beer goggles theory
b. alcohol induction theory
c. unsafe prediction theory
d. alcohol myopia theory
Answer: D
Rationale:
Alcohol induction theory suggests that alcohol has a negative impact on safer sex behavior.
10. In her health class, Joyce learns that kissing poses a risk for which of the following
infections?
a. herpes
b. chlamydia
c. gonorrhea
d. syphilis
Answer: A
Rationale:
Herpes can be transmitted via kissing.
11. The risk level associated with contracting herpes, genital warts, and pubic lice while
having vaginal intercourse with a condom is ________.
a. none
b. very low
c. moderate to high
d. high

Answer: C
Rationale:
There may still be a risk of becoming infected with herpes, genital warts, and pubic lice even
if using a condom.
12. Viral STIs are ________.
a. curable
b. incurable
c. not preventable
d. treatable with antibiotics
Answer: B
Rationale:
Viral STIs are incurable.
13. Herpes simplex virus type 1 is most often the cause of ________.
a. genital herpes
b. hepatitis
c. genital warts
d. cold sores
Answer: D
Rationale:
HSV-1 is the virus that typically causes cold sores.
14. Abby is diagnosed with an STI. Her symptoms consist of painful sores and blisters in her
anal and vaginal area. Abby most likely has ________.
a. genital herpes
b. shingles
c. genital warts
d. chlamydia
Answer: A
Rationale:
Symptoms of genital herpes consist of blisters in the anal and vaginal area.
15. Approximately 1in ________ people between the ages of 16 and 49 is currently infected
with genital herpes in the United States.

a. 3
b. 6
c. 9
d. 12
Answer: B
Rationale:
Genital herpes is found in 1in 6 people between the ages 16 to 49.
16. An estimated ________ of those currently infected with HSV-2 have never noticed any
signs of the virus and are unaware they are infected.
a. 25%
b. 40%
c. 65%
d. 90%
Answer: D
Rationale:
Genital herpes does not always have obvious signs.
17. The primary symptom of the genital herpes infection is ________.
a. clusters or crops of small painful blisters in the genital area
b. tenderness of lymph nodes in the underarm area
c. thick, cloudy discharge from the vagina or penis
d. hard warts in the genital and anal area
Answer: A
Rationale:
The primary symptom of genital herpes is clusters of painful blisters.
18. Which of the following are the prodromal symptoms of genital herpes?
a. painful blisters in the genital area
b. thick, cloudy discharge from the vagina or penis
c. itching, burning, and pain in the initial outbreak area
d. chancre, alopecia, and skin rashes
Answer: C
Rationale:

The prodromal symptoms of herpes include itching, burning, and pain in the initial outbreak
area.
19. What does the current research say about the transmission of herpes simplex virus type 2?
a. Herpes is only transmissible when the sores are visible.
b. Herpes is transmissible whether or not sores are present.
c. Herpes is transmissible only when the sores break open.
d. Since herpes is curable, it is no longer being transmitted at all.
Answer: B
Rationale:
HSV-2 may be transmitted whether or not the sores are present.
20. Which of the following is an accurate statement regarding viral shedding?
a. Viral particles can shed during times when there is no sign of infection.
b. Viral particles can only shed when the sores are open.
c. Viral shedding is a result of the flaking of the scab when the sore is drying.
d. Viral shedding is a result of the immune system curing itself of the virus.
Answer: A
Rationale:
The herpes virus can be spread even when there is no sign of infection.
21. Lois is diagnosed with genital herpes. What would be the recommended treatment?
a. antibiotics
b. antifungals
c. antiherpetics
d. antibuse
Answer: C
Rationale:
While there is no cure, there are medications to help reduce outbreaks.
22. What are antiherpetics?
a. medication used to cure herpes
b. medication used to reduce or prevent herpes breakouts
c. medication used to treat bacterial STIs
d. medication used to treat hepatitis

Answer: B
Rationale:
There are medications to help reduce outbreaks of herpes.
23. Earl has been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection. His symptoms consist of
warts in his genital and anal area. What is Earl’s diagnosis?
a. herpes simplex virus type 2
b. human hapilloma virus
c. hepatitis B
d. HIV
Answer: B
Rationale:
Warts in the genial area are a sign of HPV.
24. Certain types of the human papilloma virus cause ________ cancer.
a. uterine
b. ovarian
c. fallopian
d. cervical
Answer: D
Rationale:
Certain strains of the virus have been linked to cervical cancer.
25. The CDC estimates that ________ million people in the United States alone are currently
infected with genital HPV.
a. 5
b. 10
c. 20
d. 50
Answer: C
Rationale:
Millions of people are infected with genital HPV.
26. If Sam is typical of most sexually active Americans, his chances are 1in ________ that he
will contract HPV in his lifetime.

a. 2
b. 6
c. 10
d. 50
Answer: A
Rationale:
HPV is a very common STI.
27. Most HPV infections will be cleared by the body within ________ and not cause any
serious additional health problems.
a. 1 to 2 months
b. 6 to 12 months
c. 1 to 2 years
d. 6 to 12 years
Answer: C
Rationale:
The body can clear itself of HPV infection in 1 to 2 years.
28. According to the American Cancer Society and the American College of Obstetricians and
Gynecologists, ________.
a. cervical cancer screening should begin at the start of a woman’s first period
b. between 21 and 29, pap tests should be done every two years
c. starting at age 30, pap tests are optional
d. all women over age 70 do not need to undergo cervical cancer screening
Answer: B
Rationale:
The ACS and ACOG guidelines for cervical screenings (pap exams) call for pap tests every
two years for women between 21 and 29.
29. At least how many strains of hepatitis are found in humans?
a. 2
b. 3
c. 7
d. 8

Answer: C
Rationale:
There are many strains of hepatitis.
30. Josie contracted hepatitis by sexual transmission. Most likely, Josie has which of the
following strains of hepatitis?
a. A
b. B
c. D
d. G
Answer: B
Rationale:
Hepatitis B is the strain that is typically sexually transmitted.
31. Which organ does hepatitis B primarily affect?
a. heart
b. lungs
c. pancreas
d. liver
Answer: D
Rationale:
Hepatitis affects the liver.
32. The most noticeable symptom of hepatitis B is ________.
a. fever blisters
b. migraines
c. jaundice
d. discharge
Answer: C
Rationale:
Jaundice is the most noticeable symptom of hepatitis.
33. Jonathon has hepatitis B. As a result of his diagnosis, he developed cirrhosis of the liver.
What is cirrhosis of the liver?
a. an opportunistic infection that destroys the liver

b. a form of diabetes that affects the liver
c. a potentially serious liver disease that may lead to liver cancer
d. liver cancer that will spread to the brain
Answer: C
Rationale:
Hepatitis B can lead to cirrhosis of the liver, which is a serious liver disease.
34. In Erica’s health class, she learned that the incubation period for hepatitis B is ________.
a. 8 to 10 months
b. 1 to 4 months
c. 2 to 10 months
d. 6 to 8 months
Answer: B
Rationale:
Hepatitis B has an incubation period of 1 to 4 months.
35. Which of the following sexually transmitted infections is a pandemic?
a. HSV-1
b. HIV
c. HPV
d. HSV-2
Answer: B
Rationale:
HIV is considered a pandemic.
36. Tommy’s elementary school teacher was pleased to discover that he knew that the virus
that causes AIDS is called ________.
a. HSV-1
b. HIV
c. HPV
d. HSV-2
Answer: B
Rationale:
HIV is the virus causing AIDS.

37. Although HIV and AIDS were not recognized until the early 1980s when the infection
first appeared in the United States, current research suggests they have been present in
humans since the ________.
a. 1970s
b. 1960s
c. 1940s
d. 1900s
Answer: D
Rationale:
HIV is thought to have existed for many decades before it was formally recognized in the
1980s.
38. An opportunistic infection is a disease ________.
a. that is sexually transmitted
b. that normally affects people who are infected with chlamydia
c. caused by a bacteria that invades the body at the same time as HIV
d. that attacks individuals with weakened immune systems
Answer: D
Rationale:
Opportunistic infections are able to attack a weakened immune system.
39. How did scientific awareness of HIV begin in the U.S.?
a. The United Nations notified the world about an epidemic in Africa.
b. Gay men protested about the lack of adequate funding for research on all STIs.
c. A few cases of a rare form of pneumonia had been diagnosed among gay men.
d. The same bacteria that caused other STIs was found to have mutated into HIV.
Answer: C
Rationale:
The first few cases of AIDS were first identified in the U.S. in gay men, and this may explain
why some people think it is a "gay disease."
40. Amanda’s class is studying AIDS. She learns that as of the end of 2009, the prevalence of
AIDS cases in the United States was estimated to be ________.
a. 520,000
b. 750,000

c. 960,000
d. 1,100,000
Answer: D
Rationale:
Over 1 million people have become infected with HIV and this explains why it is considered
a pandemic.
41. Sophia is surprised to learn that a high percentage of new HIV infections are among
people of her race/ethnicity. In fact, nearly 50 percent of new HIV infections are among
________.
a. Caucasians
b. Asians
c. Hispanics
d. African Americans
Answer: D
Rationale:
HIV has had a big impact on the African American community.
42. Researchers attribute the recent rise in new cases of HIV to safe-sex fatigue. What does
this mean?
a. the feeling of being fed up with always practicing safer sex behaviors
b. a belief that HIV is curable and therefore safe-sex practices are no longer needed
c. a sense of invincibility which leads people to abandon safer sex practices
d. lack of knowledge about HIV which causes a naivety about safe sex
Answer: A
Rationale:
HIV is still a concern and yet safe-sex fatigue has led some people to avoid practicing safer
sex.
43. Who is at greater risk of contracting HIV through heterosexual intercourse?
a. women
b. men
c. men and women are at equal risk
d. heterosexual men and women are not at risk
Answer: A

Rationale:
HIV transmission through heterosexual intercourse is a risk for women.
44. Jason had unprotected sex. He was surprised to learn that he had to wait a certain period
of time to be tested for HIV. His health care provider told him a conclusive result from an
HIV antibodies test cannot be obtained until ________ after the time of possible infection.
a. a few hours
b. 3 weeks
c. 6 months
d. 1 year
Answer: C
Rationale:
There is a period of six months between infection and testing positive for HIV.
45. Reza is diagnosed with HIV and is currently taking a combination of several medications
to help delay the onset of AIDS. As a result, his viral load has significantly lowered. Reza is
most likely taking which of the following types of medications?
a. highly active antiretroviral therapy
b. entry inhibitors
c. immune-based therapy
d. antiherpetics
Answer: A
Rationale:
HAART plays an important role in HIV treatment by delaying the onset of AIDS.
46. Patrice has been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection that caused her to have
thick, cloudy discharge secreting from her vagina. She is most likely diagnosed with
________.
a. genital herpes
b. chlamydia
c. syphilis
d. chancroid
Answer: B
Rationale:
A recognizable sign of chlamydia is a thick, cloudy vaginal discharge.

47. Tameeka was infected with chlamydia but did not seek treatment. As a result, she
developed inflammation of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. Tameeka probably has
________.
a. gonorrhea
b. urethritis
c. epididymitis
d. pelvic inflammatory disease
Answer: D
Rationale:
The consequence of untreated chlamydia is pelvic inflammatory disease.
48. What is urethritis?
a. painful inflammation of the urethra
b. painful swelling of the epididymis
c. painful inflammation of the uterus
d. painful swelling of the ovaries
Answer: A
Rationale:
Urethritis is a painful inflammation of the urethra.
49. Which of the following is a condition that can occur only in men as a result of an
untreated chlamydia infection?
a. pelvic inflammatory disease
b. hepatitis B
c. epididymitis
d. jaundice
Answer: C
Rationale:
In men, the consequence of untreated chlamydia is epididymitis.
50. Carlo has gonorrhea. Which of the following might have been the first symptom he
noticed?
a. severe swelling in his groin area
b. burning sensation during urination
c. a small painful blister on his penis

d. a painless “sore” on his scrotum
Answer: B
Rationale:
A sign of gonorrhea in men is a burning sensation during urination.
51. Which of the following sexually transmitted infections usually fails to reveal obvious
symptoms in women?
a. gonorrhea
b. syphilis
c. chancroid
d. epididymitis
Answer: A
Rationale:
Some STIs show no signs or symptoms.
52. Nongonococcal urethritis is a sexually transmitted infection that causes ________.
a. small painful blisters on the penis
b. chancres on the labia
c. inflammation of the urethra
d. ovarian pain
Answer: C
Rationale:
Nongonococcal urethritis can cause inflammation of the urethra.
53. This sexually transmitted bacterium is responsible, along with chlamydia, for the largest
percentage of nongonnococcal urethritis.
a. syphilis
b. mycoplasma genitalium
c. chancroid
d. herpes
Answer: B
Rationale:
Mycoplasma genitalium is responsible for a large portion of nongonococcal urethritis.
54. Gino has syphilis. Which of the following might have been the first symptom he noticed?

a. severe swelling in his groin area
b. burning sensation during urination
c. cloudy discharge from his penis
d. a chancre sore on his penis
Answer: D
Rationale:
A chancre sore on the penis is one of the first symptoms of syphilis in males.
55. During which stage of syphilis does the infected person experience symptoms that include
skin rashes, hair loss, fatigue, sore throat, and headache?
a. primary
b. secondary
c. latent
d. tertiary
Answer: B
Rationale:
In the secondary stage, a persona infected with syphilis may experience skin rashes, hair
loss, fatigue, sore throat, and headaches.
56. During the latent stage of syphilis the infected person ________.
a. has a chancre on the site of infection
b. experiences headache, fatigue, and skin rashes
c. has no symptoms
d. may become paralyzed or die
Answer: C
Rationale:
In the latent stage of syphilis, a person has no symptoms.
57. Karen has been diagnosed with pelvic inflammatory disease. Her doctor informs her that
this was caused by a ________.
a. virus
b. bacteria
c. fungi
d. parasites

Answer: B
Rationale:
PID is caused by a bacterial infection.
58. Nearly all bacterial sexually transmitted infections are effectively treated with ________.
a. antibiotics
b. antiretrovirals
c. antiherpetics
d. antifungals
Answer: A
Rationale:
Bacterial infections are treated with an antibiotic.
59. Gina has trichomoniasis. Which of the following are symptoms she may be experiencing?
a. severe swelling in her groin area
b. yellowish-greenish vaginal discharge
c. severe itching in her genital area
d. a chancre sore on her labia
Answer: B
Rationale:
A yellowish-greenish vaginal discharge is a symptom of trichomoniasis.
60. Which of the following is a symptom of pubic lice?
a. severe swelling in the groin area
b. foul-smelling vaginal discharge
c. irritation and extreme itching in the genital area
d. chancre sores on genitals
Answer: C
Rationale:
Pubic lice creates extreme itching in the genital area.
61. If you are sexually active, the only way to know for sure that you are free of STIs is to
________.
a. ask your partner if he/she has ever had an STI
b. be tested

c. look for signs of a rash or discharge
d. notice if you experience flu-like symptoms shortly after sex
Answer: B
Rationale:
Testing is a way to determine for sure if one is infected.
62. Which of the following is an effective communication skill that can be used when
speaking with one’s partner about sexually transmitted infections?
a. wait until you are sexually intimate to start communicating
b. be spontaneous and say whatever comes to mind
c. ask your partner to share his/her thoughts immediately
d. decide in advance what you both feel comfortable doing sexually
Answer: D
Rationale:
When it comes to prevention, it is important to decide in advance (versus in the heat of the
moment) what they are comfortable doing.
63. Sarah is being very smart in terms of her approach to refraining from risky sexual
behaviors. Which of the following was NOT one of the suggestions for Sarah on how to have
sexually intimate relationships while minimizing her risks for STIs?
a. limit her number of sexual partners
b. get to know her potential sexual partner before initiating a sexual relationship
c. ensure both she and her partner are free of STIs
d. abstain from intercourse until she is married
Answer: D
Rationale:
Effective ways to prevent STIs include celibacy, selective abstinence, and effective
communication.
64. Elsa and Tomas have chosen to engage in only noninsertive sexual activities such as
kissing, hugging, mutual touching, and massaging until they both can be tested for STIs. This
couple is engaging in ________.
a. celibacy
b. selective abstinence
c. safe sex
d. asexual behavior

Answer: B
Rationale:
Selective abstinence refers to noninsertive sexual activities such as kissing, hugging mutual
touching, and massaging.
TRUE-FALSE
1. The Tuskegee Study has been hailed as one of the most important studies to date on how
STIs are transmitted.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The Tuskegee Study, also known as the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, was not focused on how
STIs are transmitted. Instead, it was a notorious unethical study conducted by the U.S. Public
Health Service from 1932 to 1972, in which African American men with syphilis were
observed without their consent and denied treatment, even after penicillin became available
as a cure. The study is widely condemned for its ethical violations and has no relevance to
understanding STI transmission.
2. Sherry is learning about STIs in her health class. Her teacher informs her that
approximately half of all people will contract an STI at some point in life.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Approximately half of all sexually active individuals will contract a sexually transmitted
infection (STI) at some point in their lives. This statistic underscores the importance of
comprehensive sexual health education, regular STI testing, and practicing safer sex
behaviors to reduce the risk of transmission.
3. People between the ages of 30 and 50 are at the greatest risk for becoming infected with an
STI.
Answer: False
Rationale:
While individuals of all ages can be at risk for contracting STIs, younger age groups,
particularly adolescents and young adults, are often at higher risk due to factors such as
increased sexual activity, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use. However,
STIs can affect individuals of any age, and risk factors may vary depending on factors such as
sexual behavior, sexual history, and access to healthcare.
4. In the United States alone, over one million people are living with HIV and AIDS.
Answer: True
Rationale:

According to estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), over
one million people in the United States are living with HIV/AIDS. HIV (Human
Immunodeficiency Virus) is a viral infection that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency
syndrome (AIDS) if left untreated. Despite advances in treatment and prevention, HIV/AIDS
remains a significant public health concern globally.
5. All STIs have clear symptoms.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Not all sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have clear or easily recognizable symptoms.
Some STIs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea, may cause symptoms such as genital discharge
or discomfort, but others, like HIV or HPV (Human Papillomavirus), may not cause
noticeable symptoms for a long time. As a result, individuals can unknowingly transmit STIs
to others, highlighting the importance of regular STI testing, even in the absence of
symptoms.
6. One in seven teens report engaging in unprotected intercourse after drinking alcohol or
using other drugs.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Research indicates that the prevalence of unprotected intercourse among adolescents after
drinking alcohol or using other drugs may be higher than reported, with estimates varying
depending on the study population and methodology. However, the statement that one in
seven teens report engaging in unprotected intercourse after substance use may not accurately
reflect the full scope of risky sexual behaviors among adolescents.
7. As long as a man is abstaining from vaginal and anal sex he will be safe from STIs.
Answer: False
Rationale:
While abstaining from vaginal and anal sex can significantly reduce the risk of contracting
sexually transmitted infections (STIs), it does not eliminate the risk entirely. Some STIs, such
as herpes and HPV, can be transmitted through skin-to-skin contact or oral-genital contact,
even without penetrative sex. Additionally, sharing needles or other drug paraphernalia can
also lead to the transmission of blood-borne infections like HIV and hepatitis.
8. Jamie has recently been informed that she has herpes. According to the STI pamphlet
herpes infections are extremely common.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Herpes infections, caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), are indeed extremely common.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), an estimated two-thirds of the global
population under the age of 50 are infected with HSV-1 (commonly associated with oral

herpes), and around 11% of individuals aged 15-49 have HSV-2 (commonly associated with
genital herpes). While herpes infections are widespread, they can still cause significant
physical and emotional distress for affected individuals.
9. Typically, the duration and symptoms of the first episode of a genital herpes outbreak is the
most severe.
Answer: True
Rationale:
The first episode of genital herpes outbreak is often the most severe in terms of duration and
symptoms. Initial symptoms may include painful genital lesions, flu-like symptoms, swollen
lymph nodes, and general malaise. Subsequent outbreaks tend to be milder and shorter in
duration, although they can still cause discomfort and distress for affected individuals.
10. Genital warts are the most common STI in the United States.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Genital warts, caused by certain strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV), are indeed one
of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the United States. HPV is
highly prevalent, and genital warts are a common manifestation of HPV infection. However,
it's worth noting that HPV infection encompasses various strains, some of which can lead to
more serious health consequences such as cervical cancer or other genital cancers.
11. Gardasil is the first vaccine to prevent cancer in humans.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Gardasil is a vaccine developed to prevent certain strains of the human papillomavirus
(HPV), which can lead to cervical cancer, genital warts, and other cancers such as anal,
vaginal, and oropharyngeal cancers. It is indeed the first vaccine designed to prevent cancer
in humans.
12. Jasmine is 12 years old and has just had her first Gardasil shot. According to her doctor,
the public health recommendation is that it be given to children between the ages of 9 and 12.
Answer: True
Rationale:
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends routine HPV
vaccination for children between the ages of 9 and 12, with catch-up vaccination for
individuals up to age 26. Vaccination at a younger age provides the greatest protection against
HPV infection and associated cancers.
13. Jaundice is associated with gonorrhea.
Answer: False

Rationale:
Jaundice is not typically associated with gonorrhea. Jaundice is a yellowing of the skin and
eyes caused by excess bilirubin in the blood and is commonly associated with liver conditions
such as hepatitis or liver failure. Gonorrhea, on the other hand, is a sexually transmitted
infection caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae and does not typically lead to
jaundice.
14. The term safe-sex fatigue refers to the feeling of being fed up with always practicing safer
sex behaviors.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Safe-sex fatigue refers to a phenomenon where individuals may become tired or frustrated
with consistently practicing safer sex behaviors, such as condom use or abstinence. This
feeling of fatigue can lead to decreased motivation to engage in safer sex practices,
potentially increasing the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or unintended
pregnancies.
15. The rate of AIDS is nearly four times higher among men than women.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Historically, the rate of AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) has been higher
among men than women, particularly in the early years of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. This
difference is attributed to various factors, including higher rates of HIV transmission through
male-to-male sexual contact, injection drug use, and other behavioral and societal factors.
However, the gender disparity in AIDS rates has narrowed over time, with increasing rates of
HIV infection among women globally.
16. When Jeff became infected with HIV, he had no symptoms at all. If symptoms had
occurred, they might have resembled those of the common cold or flu.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Many individuals who are newly infected with HIV may experience no symptoms or only
mild, flu-like symptoms shortly after infection. These symptoms, known as acute retroviral
syndrome, can include fever, fatigue, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, and rash. However,
because these symptoms resemble those of other common illnesses, they may not prompt
immediate HIV testing or recognition of HIV infection.
17. Rapid tests use blood or oral fluids to detect antibodies to HIV in about 20 minutes.
Answer: True
Rationale:

Rapid HIV tests are point-of-care tests that use blood obtained from a fingerstick or oral
fluids collected from the gums to detect antibodies to HIV. These tests provide results in
approximately 20 minutes, allowing for quick diagnosis and linkage to care. Rapid HIV
testing is widely used in various settings, including clinics, community organizations, and
outreach programs, to increase access to HIV testing and facilitate early diagnosis.
18. Carey is relieved to know that her STI is caused by a bacteria, which means it is curable.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Many sexually transmitted infections (STIs) caused by bacteria, such as chlamydia,
gonorrhea, and syphilis, are indeed curable with appropriate antibiotic treatment. However, it
is important for individuals diagnosed with an STI to complete the full course of treatment as
prescribed by a healthcare provider and to follow up for retesting as recommended to ensure
that the infection has been successfully cleared.
19. Seventy-five percent of women infected with chlamydia experience noticeable symptoms.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Chlamydia is often asymptomatic, particularly in women. Studies indicate that up to 70-80%
of women infected with chlamydia may not experience noticeable symptoms. As a result,
many individuals may be unaware of their infection and unknowingly transmit the bacteria to
sexual partners. Regular STI testing, especially for sexually active individuals and those at
higher risk, is essential for detecting and treating chlamydia and other STIs.
20. Beth has been diagnosed with pharyngeal gonorrhea. She learns that transmission of
gonorrhea can occur as a result of oral sex.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Gonorrhea, caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae, can indeed be transmitted
through oral-genital contact, leading to pharyngeal gonorrhea (infection of the throat).
Gonorrhea can infect the throat, genitals, and rectum, and transmission can occur through
various sexual activities, including vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Practicing safer sex behaviors,
including the use of condoms and dental dams, can reduce the risk of gonorrhea transmission.
21. Mycoplasma genitalium is an extremely small bacterium-like organism that appears to be
involved in 15% to 25% of diagnosed cases of NGU.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Mycoplasma genitalium is a bacterium that has been identified as a causative agent in a
significant proportion of cases of non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), a common sexually
transmitted infection (STI) characterized by inflammation of the urethra. Research suggests
that Mycoplasma genitalium may be responsible for approximately 15% to 25% of diagnosed

cases of NGU, making it an important consideration in the diagnosis and management of this
condition.
22. Symptoms of syphilis occur in four distinct stages.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Syphilis is a bacterial STI caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. The infection
progresses through four distinct stages: primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary. Each stage is
characterized by different symptoms and clinical manifestations. Without appropriate
treatment, syphilis can lead to serious complications affecting various organ systems.
23. Virtually all bacterial STIs are effectively treated with a single course of antibiotic
medication.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Many bacterial STIs, including chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis, can be effectively treated
with antibiotic medication. A single course of antibiotics is typically sufficient to clear the
infection in most cases. However, it is important for individuals diagnosed with an STI to
complete the full course of treatment as prescribed by a healthcare provider and to follow up
for retesting as recommended to ensure that the infection has been successfully treated.
24. If Jack contracted trichomoniasis most likely he would have no symptoms, but would be
contagious and able to pass it on to his sexual partners.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Trichomoniasis, caused by the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis, is a common STI that can
often be asymptomatic, particularly in men. However, asymptomatic individuals can still
transmit the infection to sexual partners. Symptoms of trichomoniasis in women may include
vaginal discharge, genital itching, and discomfort during urination or intercourse. Prompt
diagnosis and treatment of trichomoniasis are important to prevent transmission and
complications.
25. Public lice is the same thing as head lice, just occurring in different regions of the body.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Public lice (Pthirus pubis), also known as crabs, are parasitic insects that infest the pubic hair
and genital area. While they are similar to head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) in
appearance and behavior, they are distinct species adapted to different environments on the
human body. Public lice infestations are typically transmitted through close personal contact,
such as sexual activity, and can cause itching and irritation in the affected area.

26. Jodi and Jeff both have pubic lice. This can be treated with shampoos, creams, and
ointments.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Pubic lice infestations can be effectively treated with over-the-counter or prescription
shampoos, creams, or ointments containing insecticides such as permethrin or pyrethrins.
These products are applied to the affected area and left on for a specified period before being
rinsed off. In addition to topical treatments, washing bedding, clothing, and personal items in
hot water can help eliminate lice and prevent reinfestation.
27. Research shows that people who are effectively educated and informed about the causes,
symptoms, routes of transmission, and treatment options for all STIs are far more likely to
make healthy sexual decisions and avoid infection.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Comprehensive sexual health education plays a crucial role in promoting healthy sexual
behaviors, reducing the risk of STI transmission, and improving overall sexual health
outcomes. Research has consistently shown that individuals who are educated and informed
about STIs, including their causes, symptoms, routes of transmission, and prevention
strategies, are more likely to engage in safer sex practices, seek STI testing and treatment,
and communicate openly with sexual partners about sexual health issues.
28. Sexual communication is an important safe sex behavior.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Effective sexual communication, including discussing sexual history, STI testing, condom
use, and other safer sex practices, is a critical component of maintaining sexual health and
preventing STI transmission. Open and honest communication between sexual partners
promotes mutual understanding, trust, and cooperation in practicing safer sex behaviors. It
also allows individuals to express their needs, concerns, and boundaries regarding sexual
activity, fostering healthier and more satisfying sexual relationships.
29. The more sexual partners a person has, the greater the chances of contracting an STI.
Answer: True
Rationale:
The number of sexual partners a person has is a significant risk factor for STI transmission.
Having multiple sexual partners increases the likelihood of exposure to STIs and can
contribute to higher rates of infection. Each new sexual partner represents a potential source
of STI transmission, especially if safer sex practices such as condom use are not consistently
followed. Limiting the number of sexual partners and practicing safer sex behaviors can help
reduce the risk of STI acquisition.

30. Selective abstinence refers to choosing to engage in or avoid certain sexual behaviors on
the basis of their risks of STIs or pregnancy.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Selective abstinence involves making informed decisions about sexual behavior based on
individual preferences, values, and risk factors. It may involve choosing to abstain from
certain sexual activities or behaviors that carry a higher risk of STI transmission or
unintended pregnancy while still engaging in other low-risk sexual activities. Selective
abstinence can be a practical approach for individuals seeking to protect their sexual health
while still enjoying intimate relationships and experiences.
SHORT ANSWER
1. Over ________ people are living with HIV and AIDS in the United States.
Answer: one million
Rationale:
According to estimates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), over
one million people are living with HIV/AIDS in the United States. HIV (Human
Immunodeficiency Virus) is a virus that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
(AIDS) if left untreated. Despite advances in treatment and prevention, HIV/AIDS remains a
significant public health concern globally.
2. Although representing only 25% of the sexually active population, those ________ of age
acquire nearly half of all new STDs.
Answer: 15 to 24 years
Rationale:
Individuals aged 15 to 24 years, while representing only a quarter of the sexually active
population, account for nearly half of all new sexually transmitted disease (STD) infections.
This age group is disproportionately affected by STDs due to factors such as increased sexual
activity, inconsistent condom use, multiple sexual partners, and limited access to
comprehensive sexual health education and healthcare services.
3. Many STIs are ________, meaning they may have no noticeable symptoms despite the
presence of an infectious agent.
Answer: asymptomatic
Rationale:
Many sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can be asymptomatic, meaning infected
individuals may not experience noticeable symptoms despite harboring the infectious agent.
Asymptomatic infections can contribute to the spread of STIs, as infected individuals may
unknowingly transmit the infection to sexual partners. Regular STI testing is essential for
detecting asymptomatic infections and preventing transmission.

4. The ________ suggests that under the influence of alcohol, people are more likely to focus
on immediate feel-good behaviors and ignore future negative consequences.
Answer: alcohol myopia theory
Rationale:
The alcohol myopia theory proposes that alcohol consumption can impair cognitive
processing and decision-making, leading individuals to focus more on immediate, short-term
rewards or stimuli while neglecting long-term consequences or considerations. This cognitive
narrowing effect of alcohol can increase risk-taking behaviors, including engaging in unsafe
sex or other risky activities.
5. ________ is the release of infectious virus particles when no symptoms of infection are
present.
Answer: Asymptomatic shedding
Rationale:
Asymptomatic shedding refers to the release of infectious virus particles from an infected
individual when no symptoms of infection are present. This phenomenon is common in viral
infections, including sexually transmitted viruses such as herpes simplex virus (HSV) and
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Asymptomatic shedding can contribute to the spread
of infection, even in the absence of visible symptoms.
6. The time between infection and the appearance of physical symptoms of an illness is called
an ________.
Answer: incubation period
Rationale:
The incubation period refers to the time interval between the initial infection with a pathogen
(such as a virus or bacterium) and the onset of symptoms of the resulting illness or disease.
The duration of the incubation period can vary depending on the specific infectious agent,
host factors, and other variables. Understanding the incubation period is important for
diagnosing and controlling infectious diseases.
7. A ________ is a widespread epidemic.
Answer: pandemic
Rationale:
A pandemic is an outbreak of a disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects
an exceptionally high proportion of the population. Pandemics often involve the rapid spread
of infectious diseases, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Examples of
pandemics include the global spread of diseases such as influenza, HIV/AIDS, and COVID19.
8. ________ is one of the most commonly diagnosed and reported STI in the United States.
Answer: Chlamydia

Rationale:
Chlamydia is one of the most commonly diagnosed and reported sexually transmitted
infections (STIs) in the United States. Caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis,
chlamydia infection can affect both men and women and may lead to serious complications if
left untreated. Regular STI testing, prompt diagnosis, and treatment are essential for
preventing the spread of chlamydia and its associated health consequences.
9. Bonnie has been told she has syphilis. In fact, a ________ sore has appeared at the site of
infection.
Answer: chancre
Rationale:
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum.
One of the primary symptoms of syphilis is the development of a painless, firm, and round
sore called a chancre at the site of infection, typically on the genitals, anus, or mouth.
Chancres can appear several weeks after initial infection and serve as a primary manifestation
of syphilis.
10. Aside from AIDS, the most common and most serious complication of sexually
transmitted infections among women is ________.
Answer: pelvic inflammatory disease
Rationale:
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a serious complication of untreated or inadequately
treated sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia and gonorrhea. PID involves
inflammation of the female reproductive organs, including the uterus, fallopian tubes, and
ovaries, and can lead to chronic pelvic pain, infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and other serious
health complications. Early detection and treatment of STIs are crucial for preventing PID
and its associated sequelae.
11. A(n) ________ is a strain of bacteria that has mutated and is no longer treatable with the
standard antibiotic therapy.
Answer: antibiotic-resistant strain
Rationale:
Antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria have developed mutations that make them impervious
to standard antibiotic treatments. These strains pose significant challenges in healthcare
settings as they can cause infections that are difficult or impossible to treat with conventional
antibiotics, leading to prolonged illness, increased healthcare costs, and higher mortality
rates.
12. ________ is caused by a protozoan parasite and is one of the most common nonbacterial,
nonviral STIs.
Answer: Trichomoniasis
Rationale:

Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the protozoan parasite
Trichomonas vaginalis. It is one of the most common nonbacterial, nonviral STIs worldwide.
Trichomoniasis can affect both men and women and is transmitted through sexual contact.
Symptoms may include genital itching, burning, discharge, and discomfort during urination
or intercourse.
13. Pubic lice are tiny, bug-like parasites often referred to as ________.
Answer: crabs
Rationale:
Pubic lice, also known as "crabs," are small, wingless insects that infest the pubic hair and
genital area. They are typically transmitted through close personal contact, including sexual
activity, and can cause itching and irritation in the affected area. Pubic lice infestations can be
treated with topical medications such as shampoos, creams, or lotions containing insecticides.
14. The amount of risk one is willing to accept when making behavioral choices about one’s
health is referred to as ________.
Answer: acceptable level of risk
Rationale:
The acceptable level of risk refers to the degree of risk that an individual considers tolerable
or acceptable when making decisions about their health or engaging in certain behaviors. This
concept is subjective and may vary depending on individual beliefs, values, preferences, and
circumstances. In healthcare, understanding individuals' acceptable levels of risk is important
for providing appropriate counseling, guidance, and interventions.
15. Engaging in no sexual activities is referred to as ________.
Answer: celibacy
Rationale:
Celibacy is the practice of abstaining from sexual activity, typically for religious, moral,
personal, or health reasons. Celibacy may be practiced temporarily or as a lifelong
commitment, and individuals who choose celibacy may refrain from all forms of sexual
activity, including intercourse, masturbation, and other sexual behaviors. Celibacy can be a
deliberate choice to avoid the risks associated with sexual activity, including sexually
transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy.
ESSAY
1. List four common myths and four facts about sexually transmitted infections.
See Table 8.1. Examples of responses include:
Myth
• Only people who have sex with many partners get STIs.
• Condoms don’t prevent STIs.

• A lack of any symptoms of an STI probably means no infection.
• I don’t know anyone who has an STI; it must not be a problem in my town.
• You can get an STI only from vaginal or anal sex.
• I’m on the pill, so I’m pretty well protected from STIs.
Truth
• A single sexual encounter can transmit an STI; someone’s only partner may have other
partners.
• Condoms, used correctly, greatly reduce the chances of STI transmission.
• Many STIs “hide” in the body and not show any obvious or visible symptoms.
• Unfortunately, STIs are everywhere and, often an infected person is unaware of the
infection or avoids telling anyone.
• Vaginal and anal intercourse are common routes of transmission, but other activities such as
oral sex, intravenous drug use, and do-it-yourself tattooing may transmit STIs as well.
2. List the symptoms, mode of transmission, and treatment options for herpes simplex virus
type 2 (HSV-2).
See Table 8.3.
Typical Symptoms:
Often asymptomatic. Clusters of small, painful blisters in genital and anal areas or around
mouth. General flu-like symptoms: mild fever, fatigue, and tenderness in lymph nodes,
perhaps urinary pain.
Mode of Transmission:
Oral, vaginal, or anal sexual activities; kissing.
Treatment:
No cure. Treated with antiherpetic drugs (acyclovir, famciclovir, valacyclovir).
3. Discuss the controversy surrounding the genital HPV vaccine. Include at least four
anti-vaccine arguments and four pro-vaccine arguments.
Anti-Vaccine Arguments:
• Gives children “permission” to have unprotected sexual intercourse. Children may think
protection from one STI creates immunity to all STIs.
• Sends “mixed messages” to children. Children hear the message to wait to become sexually
active and yet they are receiving a vaccine against an STI.
• Mandatory vaccination infringes on parental rights in deciding health matters for their
children.

• Not the same as other vaccines. Because genital HPV is only transmitted through sexual
activity, it does not pose the same risk as, say, measles, chicken pox, and polio, which are
highly contagious airborne viruses.
• Will “medicalize” the problems of risky behaviors and impede the ability to instill positive
morals and values in children.
• Would be discriminatory in that access to the vaccine will be more difficult for certain lowincome, difficult-to-reach, and uninsured girls and women.
• May undermine current efforts at abstinence-only sex education programs.
• Has not yet been adequately tested for safety, side effects, and duration of effectiveness.
Pro-Vaccine Arguments
• This is one of the most important vaccines in history in that it is, essentially, an anticancer
vaccine. Research demonstrates that this vaccine will not alter sexual behavior in children in
any direction; STIs are an uncommon reason that children avoid sexual activity.
• It is 100 percent effective in preventing the four most common and dangerous strains of
genital HPV.
• School-aged children are the appropriate group for vaccination against diseases. All 50
states allow parents to opt out of childhood vaccinations. In addition, the vaccine will
motivate parents to be more active in the children’s sexual health.
• As for many vaccines, the risk of infection is not large at the time of the vaccine, but the
protection is aimed at later, potential exposure. If all children were immunized against genital
HPV, over 1,300 deaths from cancer would be avoided.
• It will significantly reduce health costs nationally by preventing both HPV and the
associated cancers. Currently, the cost of genital HPV and its associated illnesses is estimated
at $5 billion per year.
• Making the HPV vaccine mandatory for school children is the best way to ensure it reaches
the largest percentage of the population. Current school health programs will defray the cost
as is currently the case for other vaccines.
• Research indicates that parental attitudes and communication are the most powerful
influence on children’s sexual behavior and that a genital HPV vaccine will not alter this.
Abstinence-only programs are failing nationwide.
• As of 2009, the vaccine had been shown to be safe and side-effect free in studies of over
11,000 girls and women and 4,000 boys and men worldwide.
4. Define HIV and AIDS. List and describe the symptoms. Explain the three types of
therapies used to treat HIV.
Define HIV and AIDS:
HIV is the human immunodeficiency virus, and AIDS is the acquired immune deficiency
syndrome that is caused by HIV.

List and describe the symptoms:
Most people who become infected with HIV at first experience no symptoms at all. If
symptoms do occur, they may resemble those of the common cold or flu, including fever,
headache, fatigue, and rash—all the usual signs that the immune system is responding to a
foreign microorganism. These signs of infection typically occur within a few days to several
weeks after exposure and usually resolve within one to three weeks; however, these
symptoms are too general to serve as reliable indicators of HIV infection.
Over time, HIV microbes continue to multiply in the body, attacking and killing immune
system cells, especially CD4+ T-cells, the body’s first line of defense against most infections.
As the immune system weakens, new and more severe symptoms begin to appear. These
include loss of energy; unexplained weight loss; frequent fevers and night sweats; frequent
yeast infections; enlarged lymph glands; persistent skin rashes or flaky skin; short-term
memory loss; mouth, genital, or anal sores; and blurred vision.
Explain the three types of therapies used to treat HIV:
Treatment consists of a three-pronged approach: attacking the virus itself, strengthening the
immune system, and preventing and controlling opportunistic infections and diseases.
5. List and describe the symptoms of chlamydia in both men and women.
When signs are present, the most common symptom of chlamydia infection is a thick, cloudy
discharge from the vagina or penis occurring one to three weeks after exposure to the
bacterium. This discharge is typically less noticeable in women than in men. Most women
experience some normal fluid discharge from the vagina associated with hormonal changes of
the menstrual cycle. However, the fluid associated with chlamydia is typically greater in
quantity and cloudier in appearance. Other symptoms women may experience include pelvic
pain, irregular periods, increased pain during menstrual periods, discomfort during urination,
or irritation of the vaginal or anal area. Men who become infected usually experience a
discharge from the penis and a burning sensation when urinating. Men may also notice
irritation or inflammation at the opening to the urethra, and in the morning the urethral
opening may be red and sealed together with dried secretions.
6. Identify and explain the four stages of syphilis.
The primary stage is characterized by a sore called a chancre that appears at the point of
infection within ten days to three months (with an average of three weeks) after exposure to
the virus
The secondary stage of syphilis occurs within a few weeks to up to six months of the initial
infection. Secondary symptoms include low-grade fever, sore throat, fatigue, headache,
alopecia (hair loss), and skin rashes, typically on the hands or feet
The latent stage has no symptoms, but blood testing would indicate the presence of T.
pallidum. This stage can last for years or even decades.
The tertiary stage or late stage of syphilis is ten to 20 years after initial infection. In this stage,
extensive damage has occurred, often leading to organ failure and neurological injury
resulting in paralysis, mental illness, and death.

Test Bank for Human Sexuality
Roger R. Hock
ISBN's: 9780205989409, 9780133971385, 9780134224961

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