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CHAPTER 15: The Sexual Marketplace: Prostitution and Pornography
1. Prostitution has often been referred to as ________.
m. the world’s oldest profession
n. the worst occupation in the world
o. a religion
p. a viable employment option for women
Answer: A
Rationale:
Prostitution is considered the world’s oldest profession.
2. Prostitution is also referred to as ________.
a. sex for hire
b. sexual commodity
c. commercial sex trades
d. pimping
Answer: C
Rationale:
Prostitution is also referred to as a commercial sex trade.
3. Prostitution may be one of the oldest professions, as the opening story of the chapter
described ________.
a. paintings depicting prostitution on the wall of cave dwellings
b. the discovery of artifacts from ancient brothels in Greece
c. scrolls discussing prostitution found at the Red Sea
d. photos discovered under a Roman empire
Answer: B
Rationale:
The discovery of artifacts from ancient brothels in Greece suggests prostitution may be one of
the oldest professions.
4. From Susan’s readings for class, she learns that most cultures throughout the world
condemn the profession of prostitution as evidenced by all of the following except ________.
a. language
b. laws

c. punishments
d. the number of churches
Answer: D
Rationale:
Most cultures throughout the world condemn prostitution. This can be seen in language, laws,
and punishments.
5. Kristen learns something interesting in class about prostitution: It is often seen as an
exchange of sexual services for all of the following, except ________.
a. money
b. valued objects
c. sex
d. drugs
Answer: C
Rationale:
Prostitution is seen as an exchange of sexual services for money, drugs, or some valued
object. It is not seen as a sexual service in exchange for sex.
6. Historically, prostitution has been thought of and often legally defined as ________.
a. acts furnished by a female to a male
b. gender neutral
c. involving a woman who works for a pimp
d. a fairly easy way to make lots of money
Answer: A
Rationale; Prostitution has typically been thought of as sex furnished by a female to a male.
7. Why are some prostitutes referred to as “streetwalkers”?
a. They work on the main streets of all major cities.
b. They are managed by pimps who are often seen in the streets soliciting business.
c. They sell their services on the street, typically to customers driving up in cars.
d. They are considered to be the most elite type of prostitutes.
Answer: C
Rationale:
Streetwalkers are those who sell their services on the street, typically to customers driving up
in cars.

8. Brenda works as a prostitute. She is in the category of prostitutes who are at the greatest
risk of violence. She is a ________.
a. streetwalker
b. call girl
c. brothel worker
d. person working legally in Nevada
Answer: A
Rationale:
Streetwalkers are the category of prostitutes at the greatest risk of violence.
9. Tina is a high-priced prostitute who accepts clients by appointment; she is called a
________.
a. streetwalker
b. massage therapist
c. call girl
d. brothel owner
Answer: C
Rationale:
Call girls are high-priced prostitutes who accept clients by appointment.
10. All of the following are characteristics of call girls, except they ________.
a. are much less likely to be drug abusers
b. are at a significantly less risk of violence
c. may be listed in the phone book under “escort services”
d. see more clients than streetwalkers
Answer: D
Rationale:
Compared to other categories of prostitutes, call girls are much less likely to be drug abusers,
are at significantly less risk of violence and may be listed in the phone book under “escort
services.”
11. Bob lives in the one state where, in most areas, prostitution is legal and state-controlled.
Bob lives in ________.
a. Utah
b. Nevada

c. New Jersey
d. New York
Answer: B
Rationale:
Nevada is the one state that has legalized prostitution in some areas of the state.
12. Other names for a house of prostitution include all of the following except ________.
a. brothel
b. bordello
c. massage parlor
d. counseling center
Answer: D
Rationale:
A house of prostitution may also be referred to as a brothel, bordello, or massage parlor.
13. Male prostitutes ________.
a. sell their services primarily to other males
b. enjoy their work more than female prostitutes
c. engage in more forms of sex play than female prostitutes
d. charge less than female prostitutes
Answer: A
Rationale:
Male prostitutes sell their services primarily to other men.
14. Male prostitutes who have female clients are called ________.
a. streetwalkers
b. gigolos
c. hustlers
d. johns
Answer: B
Rationale:
Male prostitutes who have female clients are called gigolos.
15. All of the following have been identified as factors associated with working in the
commercial sex trades except ________.

a. poverty
b. early sexual experiences and abuse
c. high sex drive
d. drug addiction
Answer: C
Rationale:
Poverty, early sexual experience and abuse, and drug addiction have all been identified as
factors associated with working in the commercial sex trade.
16. A late 1990s study about drug use and prostitution by Potterat et al. indicated that
________.
a. women began using drugs prior to their first experience with prostitution
b. women began working as prostitutes and then started using drugs
c. women working as prostitutes started using drugs earlier
d. the drug of choice was alcohol
Answer: A
Rationale:
Research has found that women began using drugs prior to their first experience with
prostitution.
17. Findings from a study in the late 1990s, looking at age of first intercourse and
prostitution, indicated that what was true for those engaged in prostitution included all of the
following except they had ________.
a. earlier first intercourse
b. earlier consensual intercourse
c. earlier start of regular sexual activity
d. later interest in sex
Answer: D
Rationale:
Research has found that the age of first intercourse is younger for those women who are
engaged in prostitution.
18. Reasons given by women who choose to work as prostitutes include all of the following
except that they ________.
a. enjoy the sexual pleasure they receive
b. do not feel they can make as much money in any other profession

c. enjoy the flexible work hours
d. would not be able to have the life they want in any other profession
Answer: A
Rationale:
Reasons given by women who choose to work as prostitutes include that they do not feel they
can make as much money in any other profession, they enjoy the flexible work hours, and
they believe they would not be able to have the life they want in any other profession.
19. Many sex workers are pressured to engage in prostitution for any one of the following
reasons except ________.
a. threats if they do not prostitute themselves to earn money for their husband or boyfriend
b. being coerced into streetwalking by pimps who rescued them from homelessness and who
now maintain total financial control over them
c. severe drug addiction that can only be supported through exchanging sex for money or for
drugs themselves
d. to feed their sexual desire to have many partners
Answer: D
Rationale:
Many women are pressured to engage in prostitution due to threats to earn money for their
husband or boyfriend, being coerced into streetwalking by pimps who rescued them from
homelessness and now control them, and severe drug addiction that can only be supported
through exchanging sex for money or drugs.
20. Monica is like many sex workers. She feels constantly pressured to engage in prostitution
because of all of the following reasons except ________.
a. she’s living in extreme poverty
b. she’s supporting children
c. she lacks the education or training to find other forms of work
d. she wants to run her own business
Answer: D
Rationale:
Many sex workers feel pressured to engage in prostitution because of poverty, the need to
support children, and because they lack the education and training to find other forms of
work.
21. One study of sex workers in Washington, DC found that ________ of prostitutes reported
having been raped.
a. 10%

b. 18%
c. 29%
d. 50%
Answer: D
Rationale:
On research study found that 50% of prostitutes reported being raped.
22. The illegal international trafficking of sex workers has become a major worldwide
tragedy involving as many as ________ victims.
a. 500,000
b. 2 million
c. 4 million
d. 11 million
Answer: C
Rationale:
Illegal international trafficking of sex workers is thought to involve 4 million victims
worldwide.
23. In 2000, the U.S. Congress passed the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Prevention
Act, which did all the following except ________.
a. establish new felony laws designed to combat sex trafficking
b. require victims to return home and testify against their trafficker
c. authorize a wide range of social services and protections for victims of trafficking
d. provide temporary U.S. visas allowing victims to remain in the U.S. for their protection
Answer: B
Rationale:
The Victims of Trafficking and Violence Prevention Act established new felony laws
designed to combat sex trafficking, authorize a wide range of social services and protections
for victims, and provide temporary U.S. visas allowing victims to remain in the U.S. for their
protection.
24. Janice was helped by the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Prevention Act. Most likely
she was a ________.
a. brothel owner who was facing harassment
b. drug user entering prostitution
c. brought from another country to work as a prostitute

d. male who visits prostitutes
Answer: C
Rationale:
The Victims of Trafficking and Violence Prevention Act is designed to assist victims of sex
trafficking.
25. One drug that appears to place those involved in the commercial sex trades at the greatest
risk is ________.
a. alcohol
b. crack
c. marijuana
d. heroin
Answer: B
Rationael: Crack has been found to place those in the commercial sex trade at the greatest
risk.
26. ________ are among the groups with the highest rates of STIs.
a. Streetwalkers
b. Gigolos
c. Call girls
d. Brothel workers
Answer: A
Rationale:
Streetwalkers are among the groups with the highest rates of STIs.
27. “Ophelia” is among the group of sex workers who are especially likely to spread sexually
transmitted infections to the general population. This group of sex workers is ________.
a. female transgender prostitutes
b. bisexual women
c. male transvestite prostitutes
d. women who work in brothels
Answer: C
Rationale:
Male transvestite prostitutes are more likely to spread STIs to the general population.

28. Ronda is a streetwalker. One of the most common services requested by her clients is
________.
a. anal sex
b. oral sex
c. massage
d. mutual masturbation
Answer: B
Rationale:
One of the most common services requested by clients of streetwalkers is oral sex.
29. Prostitutes who work in brothels, especially when they are legal as in Nevada, or in those
countries where sex work has been decriminalized, appear to be at much less risk of STIs
because of all of the following reasons except they ________.
a. are less likely to be drug abusers
b. are more likely to use condoms consistently
c. are less vulnerable than streetwalkers
d. have a better immune system
Answer: D
Rationale:
Prostitutes who work in brothels or in countries where sex work has been decriminalized
appear to be at much less risk of STIs because they are less likely to be drug abusers, less
vulnerable than street walkers, and more likely to use condoms consistently.
30. Evelyn is a prostitute. Her clients are usually called ________.
a. johns
b. gigolos
c. pimps
d. users
Answer: A
Rationale:
Clients of prostitutes are usually called johns.
31. In most places where selling sex is illegal, ________.
a. buying it is not against the law
b. buying it is against the law too

c. there is a stiffer penalty for the person who buys it
d. the client is the target of police
Answer: B
Rationale:
In most places where selling sex is illegal, buying it is illegal too.
32. In terms of the attempts to crack down on prostitution, ________.
a. most attempts have been extremely successful
b. most police arrests involve the male client
c. increased attention is being paid to the clients in an effort to reduce demand
d. prostitutes who are arrested usually are rehabilitated and move on to other work
Answer: C
Rationale:
increased attention is being paid to the clients in an effort to reduce demand for prostitution.
33. Monica works as a prostitute; she has found that most of her customers are ________.
a. young, unmarried teenage boys
b. men over 35
c. black, poor, and unmarried
d. middle- to upper-class, educated, married males
Answer: D
Rationale:
Most clients of prostitutes have been found to be middle- to upper-class, educated, married
males.
34. Approximately what percent of respondents in Monto’s study of clients of prostitutes had
engaged in oral sex with prostitutes?
a. 80%
b. 50%
c. 30%
d. 10%
Answer: B
Rationale:
Research on clients of prostitutes found that 50% had engaged in oral sex.

35. All of the following reasons were given for why men go to prostitutes, except ________.
a. to improve their sex skills
b. loneliness
c. curiosity about sex with various women
d. satisfy an overly strong sex drive
Answer: A
Rationale:
Reasons given by men for why they go to prostitutes include loneliness, curiousity about sex
with various women, and to satisfy an overly strong sex drive.
36. The decriminalization of prostitution would mean ________.
a. removing all criminal laws relating to prostitution
b. prostitution would increase
c. prostitution would not be taxed by the government
d. prostitution would not be regulated by any licensing board
Answer: A
Rationale:
Decriminalization of prostitution means removing all criminal laws relating to prostitution.
37. The main arguments for legalizing or decriminalizing sex work are that the illegality of
prostitution causes all of the following EXCEPT ________.
a. drug abuse
b. violence
c. STI problems
d. more people want to work as prostitutes
Answer: D
Rationale:
Arguments for legalizing or decriminalizing prostitution are that illegality leads to problems
such as drug abuse, violence and STIs.
38. “Pornography” literally means ________.
a. writing about prostitutes
b. photographing nudity
c. to undress

d. obscenity
Answer: A
Rationale:
“Pornography” literally means writing about prostitutes.
39. The “moral standard” as it relates to pornography, was developed by ________.
a. sex researchers
b. psychologists
c. judges
d. ministers
Answer: C
Rationale:
The “moral standard” was developed by judges.
40. Exceptions to our first amendment on freedom of speech include all of the following
except ________.
a. defamation of another’s character
b. speech that causes panic, such as shouting “fire” in a crowded building
c. obscenity, meaning sexually explicit works
d. speech that describes our beliefs
Answer: D
Rationale:
Exceptions to the First Amendment include defamation of another’s character, speech that
causes panic (such as shouting “fire” in a crowded building), and obscenity.
41. In describing the personal definitions of obscenity by the three justices in 1973, who was
famous for saying “I know it when I see it”?
a. Justice Brennen
b. Justice Burger
c. Justice Stewart
d. Justice White
Answer: C
Rationale:
Justice Stewart was famous for saying, “I know it when I see it.”

42. The Miller test provides that all of the following be met for a work to be deemed obscene
and legally banned except ________.
a. by applicable state law, it depicts patently offensive sexual conduct
b. it lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value
c. it appeals to the prurient interest
d. it shows behaviors of an unusual or unconventional nature
Answer: D
Rationale:
The Miller test identified three criteria that must be met before a work is deemed to be
obscene and legally banned: 1) by applicable state law, it depicts patently offensive sexual
conduct, 2) it lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value, and 3) it appeals to
the prurient interest.
43. Rae-Ann is learning about legal issues in her law class. She learns that the 1973 Supreme
Court decision related to defining obscene sexually explicit materials largely put the decision
in the hands of ________.
a. local governments
b. state governments
c. federal government
d. international courts
Answer: A
Rationale:
the 1973 Supreme Court decision related to defining obscene sexually explicit materials
largely put the decision in the hands of local governments.
44. One approach for dealing with the legality of sexually explicit materials is to consider the
extent to which these works victimize women. This is called the ________.
a. gender standard
b. discrimination standard
c. moral standard
d. victim standard
Answer: B
Rationale:
The discrimination standard is an approach for dealing with the legality of sexually explicit
materials that considers the extent to which these works victimize women.

45. The leading proponent of the discrimination standard, citing that pornography, by its very
nature, is discrimination against women, was ________.
a. Justice Sandra Day O’Connor
b. N.O.W.
c. Catherine MacKinnon
d. Gloria Steinem
Answer: C
Rationale:
A leading proponent of the discrimination standard is Catherine MacKinnon.
46. The term ________ is applied to sexually explicit works expressing physical desire,
passion, and attraction among people who freely choose to engage in sexual activities
together.
a. pornography
b. erotica
c. obscenity
d. illegal sex
Answer: B
Rationale:
Erotica refers to sexually explicit works expressing physical desire, passion, and attraction
among people who freely choose to engage in sexual activities together.
47. ________ is about sexual sharing, whereas ________ is about sexual using.
a. Pornography; erotica
b. Obscenity; erotica
c. Erotica; pornography
d. Erotica; obscenity
Answer: C
Rationale:
Erotica is about sexual sharing; whereas pornography is about sexual using.
48. The person referenced in the text who is credited with drawing a clear distinction between
erotica and pornography was ________.
a. Justice Sandra day O’Connor
b. President Clinton

c. Catherine Mackinnon
d. Gloria Steinem
Answer: D
Rationale:
Gloria Steinem is credited with drawing a clear distinction between erotica and pornography.
49. In a study comparing pornographic videos made by men for men (pure explicit sex) with
videos designed by women for women (explicit sex with more plot and partner interaction), it
was found that ________.
a. men rated all the videos more positively than did the women
b. women rated all the videos more positively than did the men
c. men rated only the videos made by men higher
d. there was no difference in women’s and men’s ratings
Answer: A
Rationale:
In a study comparing pornographic videos made by men for men (pure explicit sex) with
videos designed by women for women (explicit sex with more plot and partner interaction), it
was found that men rated all the videos more positively than did the women.
50. When shown highly explicit movies with romantic themes, results for the study of college
men and women indicated ________.
a. only women found these to be arousing
b. both men and women rated these as significantly more arousing
c. men rated the romantic movies low
d. women were not aroused due to the sexual explicitness
Answer: B
Rationale:
When shown highly explicit movies with romantic themes, both men and women rated these
as significantly more arousing.
51. One of the central arguments to censor all pornography is based on that idea that these
materials ________.
a. lead to more sexual activity
b. portray a double standard from the 1950s
c. lead to great crime in major cities
d. play a significant role in discrimination against and victimization of women

Answer: D
Rationale:
One of the central arguments to censor all pornography is based on that idea that these
materials play a significant role in discrimination against and victimization of women.
52. One researcher has suggested that the basic themes of most pornography are all of the
following except ________.
a. all women at all times want sex from all men.
b. men really like to be dominated and taken care of
c. women enjoy all the sexual acts that men perform or demand.
d. any woman can be easily turned on with a little force
Answer: B
Rationale:
The basic themes of most pornography include all women at all times want sex from all men,
women enjoy all the sexual acts that men perform or demand, and any women can be easily
turned on with a little force.
53. Sasha is working on a summary report on the connection between violence and
pornography. She is likely to conclude that ________.
a. it is very clear that a connection exists
b. there is no clear, universal evidence that pornography leads to greater violence
c. no good studies have been conducted thus far
d. pornography causes violence against women
Answer: B
Rationale:
There is no clear, universal evidence that pornography leads to greater violence.
54. Studies examining the link between violence and pornography are often ________.
a. correlational
b. longitudinal
c. causal
d. real-life
Answer: A
Rationale:
Studies examining the link between violence and pornography are often correlational.

55. Carol is doing a presentation for class and pornography and the law. She presents on a
study that looked at four states where pornography laws had at one time been strictly
enforced, but then enforcement of those laws had been suspended. This study found the rates
of sex crimes ________.
a. were not affected
b. went up after nonenforcement
c. went down after nonenforcement
d. were directly related to enforcement
Answer: A
Rationale:
Research has found that in states where pornography laws had been strictly enforced
suspended those laws, there was no significant effect on sex crimes.
56. Joyce is researching the impact of access to sexually explicit materials. The studies
suggest that greater access to sexually explicit material may ________.
a. increase sex crimes
b. increase internet stalking
c. decrease sales
d. decrease sex crimes
Answer: D
Rationale:
Research has found that greater access to sexually explicit material may decrease sex crimes.
57. Child pornography is a huge business, estimated at over ________ dollars per year in the
U.S.
a. 10 million
b. 300 million
c. 1 billion
d. 3 billion
Answer: D
Rationale:
Child pornography is a huge business estimated at over $3 billion per year in the U.S.
58. The availability and industry of child pornography has exploded since the introduction of
the ________.
a. Internet

b. printing press
c. magazine industry
d. cable television network
Answer: A
Rationale:
The availability and industry of child pornography has exploded since the introduction of the
Internet.
59. According to Professor Jenkins, the problem with fighting child pornography is that
________.
a. we already know all there is to know about child pornography
b. it is such a small problem, there is no need to be concerned
c. the legal crackdown prevents serious research to study and uncover how it functions
d. it is not a legitimate topic for research
Answer: C
Rationale:
According to Professor Jenkins, the problem with fighting child pornography is that the legal
crackdown prevents serious research to study and uncover how it functions.
60. A study in 2002 found that ________ of all college students had used the Internet for
sexual purposes of one kind or another.
a. 10%
b. almost one-third
c. about half
d. 75%
Answer: C
Rationale:
A study in 2002 found that about half of all college students had used the Internet for sexual
purposes of one kind or another.
TRUE-FALSE
1. Most cultures throughout the world condemn the profession of prostitution as evidenced by
language, laws, and punishments.
Answer: True
Rationale:

Across various cultures, prostitution is often stigmatized, and laws and punishments are in
place to deter individuals from engaging in or soliciting prostitution. Many societies view
prostitution as morally and socially unacceptable, leading to legal frameworks that
criminalize or regulate the practice.
2. Most people would say prostitution means “sex for money.”
Answer: True
Rationale:
The common understanding of prostitution is the exchange of sexual services for financial
compensation. This definition aligns with societal perceptions and legal definitions of
prostitution, which typically revolve around the commercial exchange of sexual acts for
money or other forms of payment.
3. The only exchange that would likely never be defined as prostitution is sex for sex.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Prostitution involves the exchange of sexual services for some form of payment, which
distinguishes it from consensual sexual encounters where no transaction or compensation is
involved. Sex for sex, without any monetary or material exchange, would not meet the
criteria for prostitution.
4. The streetwalker tends to make the most money the fastest, as compared to call girls and
those working in brothels.
Answer: False
Rationale:
While streetwalkers may have a higher volume of clients due to their visibility and
accessibility, they often charge lower rates and face higher risks of violence, arrest, and
exploitation. Call girls and individuals working in brothels may charge higher rates and have
safer working conditions, leading to potentially higher earnings over time.
5. Call girls will typically see far fewer clients than streetwalkers, often no more than one or
two per day, but will charge far more per client.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Call girls, who typically work independently or through agencies, often cater to a wealthier
clientele and offer personalized services. As a result, they may see fewer clients but charge
higher rates for their services compared to streetwalkers. This approach allows them to earn
more per client while maintaining a lower volume of engagements.
6. In Nevada, where brothels are legal and state-controlled, prostitutes typically work under
the safest conditions of all sex trade workers.
Answer: True

Rationale:
Nevada is the only U.S. state where certain forms of prostitution are legal and regulated in
licensed brothels. Prostitutes working in these establishments are subject to regular health
screenings, security measures, and legal protections, providing a safer working environment
compared to illegal street-based prostitution.
7. Prostitution is legal in Las Vegas, NV.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Despite common misconceptions, prostitution is illegal in most of Las Vegas, including the
famous Las Vegas Strip. While certain forms of prostitution are legal in some rural counties
of Nevada where licensed brothels operate, the city of Las Vegas itself prohibits prostitution
under state and local laws.
8. Male prostitutes sell their service equally to males and females.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Male prostitutes may cater to clients of various genders, but research suggests that the
majority of male sex workers primarily serve male clients. While some male prostitutes may
offer services to both males and females, the demand from male clients tends to be higher,
particularly in certain segments of the sex industry.
9. Most male prostitutes are selling sex to other males and self-identify as gay.
Answer: False
Rationale:
While some male prostitutes may identify as gay and predominantly serve male clients, the
male sex industry is diverse, and individuals may have a range of sexual orientations and
gender identities. Research indicates that male sex workers may serve clients of various
genders and sexual orientations, and their identities and client preferences can vary widely.
10. Both male and female prostitutes are significantly more likely to have been victims of
childhood abuse.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Studies have shown a correlation between childhood abuse and involvement in prostitution,
regardless of gender. Many individuals in the sex industry have experienced trauma,
including physical, sexual, or emotional abuse during childhood, which can contribute to
vulnerabilities and risk factors associated with entering the sex trade.
11. Most prostitutes are forced into and trapped in a lifestyle they hate, and from which they
can see no escape.

Answer: True
Rationale:
Many individuals in the sex trade, particularly those who are economically disadvantaged or
marginalized, may feel trapped in prostitution due to various factors such as financial
dependence, coercion, trafficking, or limited opportunities for alternative employment. The
lifestyle of prostitution can often be characterized by exploitation, violence, and lack of
autonomy, leading to feelings of hopelessness and inability to escape.
12. Prostitution may begin as a way to finance a drug habit, but as one becomes trapped in a
life of prostitution, drug use may become a coping mechanism.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Some individuals may turn to prostitution as a means to support drug habits or addiction due
to financial struggles or desperation. However, as they become entrenched in the sex trade
and face the challenges and stresses associated with prostitution, drug use may escalate and
serve as a coping mechanism to numb emotional pain, alleviate stress, or cope with trauma.
13. Many prostitutes are lured into the sex trade and trapped through addiction to drugs such
as crack.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Drug addiction can be a vulnerability exploited by traffickers or pimps to coerce individuals
into prostitution. The promise of drugs or the need to finance a drug habit may lead
vulnerable individuals into the sex trade, where they become further ensnared due to their
dependency on drugs and the control exerted by traffickers or pimps.
14. Prostitutes overall have significantly higher rates of sexually transmitted disease than the
population in general.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Prostitutes are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) due to factors such
as inconsistent condom use, multiple sexual partners, lack of access to healthcare, and
heightened exposure to high-risk sexual behaviors among clients. As a result, prostitutes often
have higher rates of STIs compared to the general population.
15. The reason some of the earlier approaches to slow the spread of HIV among prostitutes
did not work is because they generally took a “blame the prostitute” position.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Earlier approaches to HIV prevention among prostitutes often focused on blaming and
stigmatizing sex workers rather than addressing the systemic factors contributing to HIV

transmission. This approach undermined trust, hindered access to healthcare and prevention
services, and failed to effectively engage with sex workers in HIV prevention efforts.
16. It is extremely common that a male customer of a prostitute spends at least one night in
jail.
Answer: False
Rationale:
While arrests of clients of prostitutes do occur, it is not necessarily extremely common for
every male customer of a prostitute to spend at least one night in jail. Arrest rates may vary
depending on law enforcement practices, legal frameworks, and local attitudes towards
prostitution.
17. Clients of prostitutes are usually dissatisfied with their sexual life with their partner.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Clients of prostitutes come from diverse backgrounds and may seek the services of sex
workers for various reasons unrelated to dissatisfaction with their sexual life with their
partner. While some clients may have issues with their sexual relationships, others may
engage in prostitution for reasons such as curiosity, exploration, novelty, or desire for specific
sexual experiences.
18. Throughout the history of the U.S., a tension has existed between the First Amendment to
the Constitution and citizens’ rights to sell, distribute, read, look at, or otherwise participate in
sexually explicit materials.
Answer: True
Rationale:
The First Amendment guarantees freedom of speech and expression, including the right to
access and distribute sexually explicit materials. However, throughout U.S. history, there has
been a tension between protecting free speech rights and regulating or restricting the
production, distribution, and consumption of sexually explicit materials due to concerns
about obscenity, morality, and community standards.
19. Erotica and obscenity mean the same thing.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Erotica refers to sexually suggestive or sexually themed material intended to arouse or
stimulate sexual desire in a positive and consensual manner. Obscenity, on the other hand,
refers to material that is considered offensive, indecent, or morally repugnant by prevailing
community standards, often lacking artistic or literary merit. The distinction between erotica
and obscenity is subjective and varies depending on cultural norms and legal definitions.

20. Research has found that even when people are offended by sexual images, some sexual
arousal may occur.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Research in psychology has demonstrated that individuals may experience physiological
arousal in response to sexual stimuli even if they find the content morally or personally
offensive. This phenomenon, known as "arousal non-concordance," highlights the complex
relationship between subjective responses to sexual content and physiological arousal
processes.
21. Heterosexual men and women tend to be aroused only by male-female sex scenes.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Research on sexual arousal patterns indicates that individuals may respond to a variety of
sexual stimuli, including depictions of same-sex and heterosexual activity, regardless of their
sexual orientation. While individual preferences may vary, heterosexual men and women can
experience arousal in response to a wide range of sexual content, including diverse gender
pairings.
22. No solid evidence exists that proves a cause-and-effect relationship between viewing
pornography and actual violence, sexual assault, or rape of women.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Despite concerns and debates about the effects of pornography on attitudes and behavior,
empirical research has not conclusively demonstrated a direct cause-and-effect relationship
between viewing pornography and committing acts of violence, sexual assault, or rape
against women. The relationship between pornography consumption and behavior is complex
and influenced by multiple factors, including individual differences, social contexts, and preexisting attitudes.
23. During the 1980s, child pornography was a dying menace, but then along came the
Internet and the world of child pornography changed.
Answer: True
Rationale:
The advent of the internet revolutionized the production, distribution, and consumption of
child pornography, providing a platform for anonymous and widespread dissemination of
illegal material. The internet facilitated access to child pornography, enabling offenders to
connect and exchange illicit content globally, leading to an increase in the prevalence and
accessibility of child sexual exploitation material.
24. Any use of child pornography, whether it involves producing it, looking at it, selling it, or
distributing it, is illegal throughout the world.

Answer: True
Rationale:
Child pornography is universally condemned as a form of child sexual exploitation and
abuse. Laws and international conventions criminalize any involvement in the production,
distribution, possession, or consumption of child pornography, regardless of jurisdiction. The
exploitation of children for sexual purposes is considered a serious criminal offense, and
individuals involved in child pornography face legal consequences and prosecution.
25. Jim works for a company that investigates strategies used by child sexual predators on the
Internet. Some examples of strategies Jim is investigating include the use of Web pages, Web
cams, email, newsgroups, and chat rooms.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Child sexual predators may use various online platforms and technologies, including
websites, webcams, email, newsgroups, and chat rooms, to target and groom potential
victims, exchange illegal material, or facilitate offline meetings for sexual exploitation.
Investigating these strategies is essential for developing effective prevention and intervention
measures to protect children from online predators.
26. Tim is searching for sexual health information for his high school paper. He is frustrated
to find that filtering software blocks one out of three sexual health sites.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Internet filtering software and content restrictions may inadvertently block access to
legitimate sexual health information and resources, including educational websites, support
forums, and reproductive
27. Half of all college students have accessed the Internet for sexual reasons (e.g., viewed
sexually explicit material, sought sexual information or advice, etc.).
Answer: True
Rationale:
Research indicates that a significant proportion of college students have utilized the internet
for sexual purposes, including accessing sexually explicit material, seeking sexual
information or advice, engaging in online discussions about sexuality, or connecting with
others for sexual purposes. The accessibility and anonymity afforded by the internet make it a
common resource for exploring sexual topics and satisfying sexual curiosity among collegeaged individuals.
SHORT ANSWER
1. ________is defined in the text as providing or receiving sexual acts by specific agreement
between a prostitute, the client, and sometimes the prostitute’s employer (“pimp”), in
exchange for money or other form of remuneration.

Answer: Prostitution
Rationale:
Prostitution involves the exchange of sexual services for compensation, typically arranged
through a specific agreement between the prostitute, the client, and potentially a third party
such as a pimp. This transactional nature distinguishes prostitution from other forms of sexual
activity and is a defining characteristic of the practice.
2. The women who work as ________ tend to be less educated and are very commonly
involved with illegal drug abuse.
Answer: streetwalkers
Rationale:
Streetwalkers are prostitutes who solicit clients in public spaces, such as streets, parks, or
other outdoor locations. They often come from disadvantaged backgrounds and may have
lower levels of education compared to other types of prostitutes. Streetwalkers are also more
likely to be involved in illegal drug abuse, as they face higher risks and vulnerabilities due to
the nature of their work environment.
3. Typically, ________ maintain a list of clients whom they see on a regular basis.
Answer: call girls
Rationale:
Call girls are prostitutes who typically work independently or through escort agencies,
catering to a wealthier clientele and providing personalized services. They often maintain a
list of regular clients whom they see on a recurring basis, offering companionship, intimacy,
and sexual services in exchange for payment.
4. Prostitutes are significantly more likely to have been victims of ________.
Answer: childhood sexual abuse
Rationale:
Research has shown that individuals involved in prostitution, both male and female, are more
likely to have experienced childhood sexual abuse compared to the general population.
Childhood trauma and adverse experiences can contribute to vulnerabilities that increase the
risk of entering the sex trade and perpetuating cycles of exploitation and victimization.
5. ________ place less emphasis on sexual acts and often hire their men out as escorts.
Answer: Male escort services
Rationale:
Male escort services provide companionship and escort services to clients, with less emphasis
on sexual acts compared to traditional forms of prostitution. Male escorts may accompany
clients to social events, provide emotional support, and offer companionship, with sexual
services being negotiated separately and not always being the primary focus of the
transaction.

6. One of the central problems associated with prostitution around the world is ________.
Answer: drug abuse
Rationale:
Drug abuse is a prevalent issue among individuals involved in prostitution, with many
prostitutes struggling with substance addiction or dependency. Drug abuse can be both a
cause and a consequence of prostitution, as individuals may turn to drug use as a coping
mechanism for the stresses and traumas associated with the sex trade, while also facing
increased risks of exploitation and harm due to their substance dependency.
7. Prostitutes who work in brothels, especially when they are legal as in Nevada, or in those
countries where sex work has been decriminalized, appear to be at ________ of STIs.
Answer: much less risk
Rationale:
In regulated environments such as legal brothels in Nevada or in countries where sex work
has been decriminalized or regulated, prostitutes are often subject to regular health
screenings, mandatory condom use, and other safety measures. This can significantly reduce
the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) compared to street-based prostitution, where
such regulations and protections may be lacking.
8. ________ are the names given to the clients of prostitutes.
Answer: Johns or tricks
Rationale:
"Johns" or "tricks" are terms commonly used to refer to clients of prostitutes. These terms are
often used in informal or colloquial contexts and may vary depending on regional or cultural
norms. "Johns" specifically refers to male clients, while "tricks" can be a more general term
used for clients of any gender.
9. Most johns could be described as ________.
Answer: “normal,” average, mainstream men
Rationale:
Research suggests that clients of prostitutes come from diverse backgrounds and
demographics, with many being described as "normal," average, or mainstream men.
Contrary to stereotypes, clients of prostitutes may include individuals from various
socioeconomic statuses, professions, and relationship statuses, reflecting the diversity of
motivations and circumstances that lead individuals to engage in commercial sex.
10. ________ refers to a system of criminal regulation and government control of prostitutes,
while ________ refers to removal of laws against prostitution.
Answer: Legalization; decriminalization
Rationale:

Legalization of prostitution involves the implementation of a regulatory framework by the
government to control and oversee the sex industry. This may include licensing of brothels,
mandatory health screenings, and taxation of sex work. Decriminalization, on the other hand,
involves removing criminal penalties and laws against prostitution, allowing individuals to
engage in consensual adult sex work without fear of prosecution. Decriminalization focuses
on treating prostitution as a social and public health issue rather than a criminal offense.
11. All three prongs of the ________ must be found for a ruling of obscenity.
Answer: Miller test
Rationale:
The Miller test, established by the Supreme Court in the case of Miller v. California, outlines
three criteria that must be met for material to be deemed obscene and therefore unprotected
by the First Amendment. These criteria include whether the average person, applying
contemporary community standards, would find that the work appeals to prurient interests,
whether the work depicts or describes sexual conduct in a patently offensive way, and
whether the work lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.
12. ________ suggests that pornography is a weapon that discriminates against women and
justifies a culture of rape.
Answer: The discrimination standard
Rationale:
The discrimination standard is a perspective that views pornography as a form of
discrimination against women, perpetuating harmful stereotypes, objectification, and violence
against them. Advocates of this perspective argue that pornography contributes to the
normalization of sexual violence and exploitation, fostering a culture that condones and
justifies acts of rape and sexual assault.
13. ________ is the term often applied to sexually explicit works expressing physical desire,
passion, and attraction among people who freely choose to engage in sexual activities
together.
Answer: Erotica
Rationale:
Erotica refers to sexually explicit material, such as literature, art, or films, that is intended to
evoke feelings of arousal, desire, and passion among consenting adults who engage in sexual
activities together. Unlike pornography, which may focus solely on graphic sexual acts,
erotica often emphasizes sensuality, romance, and mutual consent in sexual encounters.
14. Pornography and erotica exist primarily for the purpose of ________.
Answer: sexually arousing people
Rationale:
Both pornography and erotica are forms of sexually explicit material designed to elicit
arousal, excitement, or sexual stimulation in individuals who consume or engage with them.

While they may differ in their content, themes, or artistic merit, the primary function of
pornography and erotica is to appeal to the viewer's or reader's sexual interests and desires.
15. According to research, ________, no matter how explicit they are, do not appear to
produce negative effects on men’s attitudes or behaviors toward women.
Answer: nonviolent sexually explicit materials
Rationale:
Research findings suggest that exposure to nonviolent sexually explicit materials, such as
erotica or consensual sexual content, does not necessarily lead to negative attitudes or
behaviors toward women. Unlike violent or degrading pornography, which has been
associated with harmful effects on attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors related to gender and
sexuality, nonviolent sexually explicit materials may have less pronounced or adverse
impacts on individuals' perceptions and behaviors.
ESSAY
1. Discuss the difference between prostitutes who work as streetwalkers, call girls, and
brothel workers.
• Streetwalkers sell their services on the street, typically to customers driving up in cars. The
women in this category typically make the least money overall and per customer, and for
most, a large percentage of their earnings go to their pimp. The streetwalkers’ income usually
averages under $20,000 per year. In addition, streetwalkers are in the greatest danger of
arrest, violence, and contracting STIs. They tend to be less educated and are very commonly
involved with illegal drug abuse. The sexual services provided by streetwalkers are typically
less varied and of shorter duration than those provided by other prostitutes. The most
common services are manual masturbation, oral sex, or quick vaginal intercourse.
• The call girl, as the name implies, is usually contacted by a client when her services are
desired. Typically, call girls maintain a list of clients whom they see on a regular basis,
ranging from once or twice a week to once a year or less. Some call girls work for a
“madam,” who introduces them to clients and schedules dates for a percentage of the fee.
Call girls will typically see far fewer clients than streetwalkers, often no more than one or
two per day, but will charge more per client. High-priced call girls can earn from several
hundred dollars for a date of an hour or two to several thousand or more for an entire night
with one client. Many call girls earn hundreds of thousands of dollars per year. Once a call
girl has a consistent list of regular clients, she typically no longer needs to “hustle” to find
customers. Call girls are much less likely to be drug abusers and are at significantly less risk
of violence, especially once they get to know their regular customers. Some call girls are
listed in the phone book or place ads in magazines, under the heading “Escort Services.”
• Brothel workers or house prostitutes are women who work in “houses” that receive paying
customers. These houses of prostitution are referred to by many names and euphemisms,
including brothels, bordellos, and massage parlors. In Nevada, where brothels are legal and
state-controlled, prostitutes typically work under the safest conditions of all sex trade
workers. These brothels are closely monitored for any signs of danger to the workers, and
clients are screened before the outside gate to the entrance is opened. House prostitutes, who
share fees with the house manager or madam, typically earn more money than streetwalkers

but considerably less, on average, than call girls. Owing to the requirements of the state, in
the case of Nevada, or of the brothel itself, house prostitutes are far more likely than
streetwalkers to receive regular medical exams and use condoms consistently. Therefore, they
are less likely to contract STIs, even though they may see as many as or more clients than the
typical streetwalker.
2. Discuss what we know about the clients of prostitutes based on research by Monto (2001,
2009).
• A study of more than 1,200 men arrested while attempting to buy the services of prostitutes
(who, to the men’s distress, turned out to be police decoys) in three major U.S. cities (San
Francisco; Portland, Oregon; and Las Vegas) shed a great deal of light on the johns’
characteristics. The myth that prostitutes’ customers are depraved, deviant, drug-addicted
men who are social outcasts with no other sexual outlets was soundly rejected. In fact, most
johns are employed, middle- to upper-class, educated, heterosexual, married males. In other
words, these are “normal,” average, mainstream men.
• Twenty percent of these men claimed that this was the first time they had ever attempted to
hire a prostitute, 59 percent reported having sex with a prostitute at least once over the past
year, and 10 percent admitted to buying sex from prostitutes at least once a month during the
past 12 months.
• Many people believe that men seek out prostitutes for experiences that are strange, vastly
different from the mainstream, or unlikely to be shared with their partner or wife. However,
this does not appear to be the case. By far the most commonly purchased activity is fellatio.
In Monto’s study, 50 percent of the respondents had engaged in oral sex with prostitutes,
compared to vaginal intercourse (14 percent), both oral and vaginal sex (10 percent), and
manual masturbation (6 percent).
• Another common belief is that clients of prostitutes are dissatisfied with their sexual life
with their partner or prefer the sex that they have with prostitutes over partner sex. This also
appears to be a myth. Only 18 percent of the men studied said they strongly or somewhat
preferred sex with a prostitute over sex in a conventional relationship.
3. Discuss the debate over legalization and decriminalization of prostitution.
In simple terms, the result of legalization of prostitution would be similar to the current
system of brothels in Nevada, where prostitution is limited and controlled by the state and
violation of state limits and controls, such as health, safety, and financial statutes, may be
criminal offenses. Decriminalization of prostitution would remove all criminal laws relating
to prostitution and equate the sex trade with any other commerce that a person chooses to
pursue, as long as it adheres to the same laws governing all legal business practices.
Those in favor of the decriminalization or legalization of prostitution contend that doing so
would:
• Reduce or eliminate the rampant victimization of prostitutes by pimps, johns, and the other
criminal elements now associated with prostitution.
• Help control STIs (among prostitutes and the general public) by requiring sex workers to
obtain regular checkups and health certificates.

• Remove many prostitutes from street work and allow them to work in a safe, controlled
environment.
• Redirect more of our limited law enforcement resources into fighting other, more serious
crimes.
• Eliminate the profit motive in human trafficking and much of the motivation for pimps to
addict young women (and men) to drugs in order to force them into prostitution.
• Eradicate a significant source of income for criminal networks.
• Allow governments to receive tax benefits from the regulation of sex trade businesses.
The other side of the debate contends that legal prostitution:
• Has increased trafficking and victimization of children because illegal sex trade activities
can be concealed behind the legal ones.
• Is predominantly violent, not truly consensual, and invariably victimizes, exploits, and
injures girls and women in countless ways.
• Forces women to prostitute themselves as a last resort for economic survival.
• Leads to physical illness (such as multiple STIs and drug addiction) as well as
psychological harm (especially posttraumatic stress disorder).
• Is, in reality, a form of “paid rape.”
• Is fundamentally immoral and removing it from our criminal laws would be a move in the
wrong direction for society and could lead to a rampant sex industry in the United States,
victimizing even more girls and women.
4. Discuss the basic criteria of the Miller test.
1. Whether the work depicts or describes, in a patently offensive way, sexual conduct
specifically defined by the applicable state law.
2. Whether the work, taken as whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific
value.
3. Whether an average person, applying contemporary community standards, would find that
the work, taken as a whole, appeals to a prurient interest in sex.
5. Discuss what we know about the violence-not-sex hypothesis.
• Many studies have demonstrated a link between violent pornography and callousness or
violent tendencies toward women, but some studies have found the same link for violent
materials without the sexually explicit content.
• The distinction between violent materials and violent pornography is becoming increasingly
important as both violence and sex become more prevalent and more easily accessible on TV,
DVDs, the Internet, and in video and computer games.

• Clearly, violence, whether or not in a sexual context, has the ability to influence men’s
attitudes toward women and may translate into greater violence toward, victimization of, and
discrimination against women.

Test Bank for Human Sexuality
Roger R. Hock
ISBN's: 9780205989409, 9780133971385, 9780134224961

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