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CHAPTER 11: Sexual Orientation
1. ________ refers to the sex of the individuals to whom a person is primarily romantically,
affectionately, and sexually attracted.
a. Gender identity
b. Sexual orientation
c. Gender
d. Self-concept
Answer: B
Rationale:
Sexual orientation is about whom a person is sexually attracted to.
2. Which of these terms is most different in meaning from the others?
a. homosexual
b. lesbian
c. transsexual
d. gay
Answer: C
Rationale:
Sexual orientation is about whom one is attracted to, and is not to be confused with sexual
identity and what sex a person feels they are.
3. Erin is like most people in most cultures in the way she takes heterosexuality for granted.
This is referred to as ________.
a. heterophobic
b. homophiles
c. homoerotic
d. heterocentric
Answer: D
Rationale:
We live in a heterocentric culture where heterosexuality is taken for granted.
4. The presumption of heterosexuality is known as ________.
a. homophobia
b. heterophobia

c. heterocentrism
d. homophilia
Answer: C
Rationale:
Heterocentrism means there is a presumption of heterosexuality.
5. Most historians trace the true beginning of the current, powerful gay rights movement to
the ________.
a. civil rights marches on Washington, DC
b. first Gay Pride parade in Boston
c. Stonewall riot in New York City
d. bath house raids in San Francisco
Answer: C
Rationale:
Stonewall marked the beginning of the gay rights movement.
6. According to the American Psychological Association, sexual orientation is viewed as a(n)
________.
a. continuum
b. bipolar model
c. either/or phenomenon
d. dichotomous model
Answer: A
Rationale:
The APA views sexual orientation on a continuum.
7. A “0” on the Kinsey’s sexual orientation rating scale would mean ________.
a. exclusively homosexual
b. exclusively heterosexual
c. someone who is not sure of their orientation
d. someone who has no sexual experiences
Answer: B
Rationale:

The Kinsey Scale ranges from “0,” which is exclusively heterosexual, to “6,” which is
exclusively homosexual.
8. A bisexual is a person who ________.
a. is really a homosexual who has not yet “come out of the closet”
b. has not formed a clear sexual orientation
c. can enjoy and engage in sexual activity with members of both sexes, or recognizes a desire
to do so, without any clear preference
d. wants to have sex with two people (male and female) at the same time
Answer: C
Rationale:
A person who can enjoy and engage in sexual activity with members of both sexes, or
recognizes a desire to do so, without any clear preference is known as a bisexual.
9. What we know about bisexuality includes all of the following except that bisexuals are
________.
a. not people who are trying to hide that they are actually gay or lesbian
b. subject to the same prejudice and discrimination by the heterosexual majority, but they
encounter it in the gay world, too
c. not more highly sexed than any other group of people
d. confused about their sexual orientation
Answer: D
Rationale:
Despite the stereotypes, bisexuals are not people who are trying to hide that they are actually
gay or lesbian, they are subject to the same prejudice and discrimination as gay people, and
they are not more highly sexed.
10. Which of these men is most clearly demonstrating that he has a homosexual orientation?
a. a man who is sexually attracted only to men, though he has not yet engaged in homosexual
behavior
b. a man who has occasional fantasies about homosexual behaviors while having sexual
intercourse with his female lover
c. a man who has sex with his wife twice a week, and occasionally allows other men to give
him oral sex in public bathrooms
d. a man who has had sex with both men and women, but more times with men
Answer: A
Rationale:

A man can have a homosexual orientation if he is sexually attracted to other men, even if he
has not acted on that attraction.
11. The quote by Malcolm Boyd, a gay man and chaplain, was used to demonstrate that
________.
a. individuals of all sexual orientations experience similar attractions, emotions, and attitudes
about love and relationships
b. gay men have a greater emphasis on the sexual component of their relationships
c. both heterosexuals and homosexuals can learn to be bisexual
d. discrimination has had both a positive and negative effect on gay relationships
Answer: A
Rationale:
Whether we are gay, lesbian, bisexual, or heterosexual, we all experience similar attractions,
emotions, and attitudes about love and relationships.
12. Sam has been given a copy of the Heterosexual Questionnaire. This handout includes all
of the following questions except ________.
a. When did you first decide you were a heterosexual?
b. What do you think caused your heterosexuality?
c. Why do heterosexuals place so much emphasis on sex?
d. Why do gay people feel they need to flaunt it?
Answer: D
Rationale:
The Heterosexual Questionnaire contains a list of questions that are frequently asked of gay
and lesbian individuals, but the orientation has been altered to heterosexual.
13. All of the following is true about the Defense of Marriage Act except that it ________.
a. exists in 39 states
b. defines marriage as a union of a man and a woman
c. allows gay marriages from other states to be recognized on a limited basis
d. allows states not to recognize gay marriages that may have formed in other states.
Answer: C
Rationale:
The Defense of Marriage Act exists in 39 states and defines marriage as the union of a man
and a woman; it allows states not to recognize same-sex marriages.

14. Bethany lives in a state that has legalized marriage for same-sex couples; she lives in
________.
a. Massachusetts
b. Alabama
c. North Dakota
d. Missouri
Answer: A
Rationale:
Currently Massachusetts, Connecticut, California, Iowa, Vermont, New Hampshire, and the
District of Columbia have legalized same-sex marriage.
15. All of the following states have passed laws that allow same-sex civil unions or domestic
partnerships except ________.
a. Oregon
b. Virgina
c. Maine
d. Nevada
Answer: B
Rationale:
Several states - Hawaii, Illinois, New Jersey, California, Oregon, Nevada, Washington,
Maine and Wisconsin - have passed civil unions or domestic partnership laws.
16. All of the following countries have extended gay couples the right to marry with all the
rights bestowed on heterosexual married couples except ________.
a. Mexico
b. Canada
c. Spain
d. The Netherlands
Answer: A
Rationale:
Same-sex marriage exisits in Canada. Argentina, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands,
Portugal, Iceland, and Spain.
17. Children who are raised by gay parents ________.
a. are more likely to be gay themselves

b. grow up less likely to marry
c. grow up as well-adjusted as those raised by heterosexual couples
d. are less tolerant of differences in relationships
Answer: C
Rationale:
Children raised by gay parents grow up as well-adjusted as those raised by heterosexual
couples.
18. Jen and Laurie are a lesbian couple. If they want to become pregnant they may do all of
the following except ________.
a. have sexual intercourse with a man
b. do-it-yourself artificial techniques carried out at home
c. ART techniques carried out in a medical setting
d. use HCG
Answer: D
Rationale:
Lesbian couples interested in becoming pregnant have a variety of options including having
sexual intercourse with a man, do-it-yourself artificial techniques, or ART techniques carried
out in a medical setting.
19. In ________ states, adoption for nonheterosexual couples is an option.
a. a few
b. a couple of
c. many
d. all
Answer: C
Rationale:
In most states, adoption is an option for gay couples.
20. All of the following are myths and misconceptions about gay and lesbian relationships
except:
a. Most gay and lesbians are unable to form close enduring romantic relationships and prefer
to be promiscuous.
b. Gay and lesbian relationships are more likely to be unhappy and dysfunctional than are
heterosexual relationships.

c. Most lesbians and gays are isolated from society and do not have meaningful social support
networks.
d. The overall relationship satisfaction and quality are about the same for gay and lesbian
relationships as for heterosexual relationships.
Answer: D
Rationale:
Many myths still exist about gay and lesbian relationships.
21. When looking at research comparing the relationships of gay and lesbian couples to
heterosexual couples, which of these statements is FALSE?
a. Gay and lesbian couples use more humor and withdraw affection less.
b. Heterosexual couples tend to be less hostile and controlling toward one another.
c. Gay and lesbian couples establish an equal balance of relationship power.
d. Heterosexual couples are less able to calm down, soothe each other, and move past a
problem as quickly as a gay or lesbian couple.
Answer: B
Rationale:
Research on gay and lesbian relationships have found that these couples use more humor and
withdraw less affection, use fewer controlling or hostile emotional tactics, and there is a more
equal balance of power.
22. Simon LeVay’s research on brain differences of a small group of heterosexual and
homosexual men ________.
a. proves brain differences cause sexual orientation
b. suggests a correlation between brain differences and sexual orientation
c. found no difference in heterosexual and homosexual men’s brains
d. discovered the third interstitial nucleus was larger in men who were homosexual
Answer: B
Rationale:
Simon LeVay’s research suggested a correlation between brain differences and sexual
orientation.
23. Comparing MRI and PET scans of brains of homosexual and heterosexual individuals,
researchers have found the brains of gay men to be ________.
a. similar to straight women
b. similar to lesbian women
c. similar to straight men

d. no different
Answer: A
Rationale:
Through the use of MRI and PET scans, it has been found that the brains of gay men ten to
be similar to straight women.
24. Anthony learns that the suggestion that sexual orientation may have a biological basis can
be seen in studies that show all of the following except ________.
a. differences in the size of the third interstitial nucleus of the brain
b. that lesbians and gays are more likely to be left-handed
c. differences in how sound is processed by heterosexuals and homosexuals
d. differences in shoe size
Answer: D
Rationale:
Sexual orientation may have a biological basis is studies such as those showing differences
in the size of the third interstitial nucleus of the brain, that gay people are more likely to be
left-handed, and that sound is processed differently.
25. Rodney is studying the link between hormones and one’s orientation. The research
suggests that hormones probably affect one’s sexual orientation ________.
a. while the fetus is in the uterus
b. during puberty
c. during adulthood
d. during the phallic stage of psychosexual development
Answer: A
Rationale:
Research suggests that hormones may affect one’s sexual orientation while in utero.
26. The research on the index/ring finger “ratio” has found ________.
a. the difference in index and ring finger length is greater in gay men than women
b. the index/ring finger ratio in lesbian women is more similar to that of men
c. there is no difference for lesbian women and gay men
d. gay men have a longer ring finger than heterosexual men
Answer: B
Rationale:

The index/ring finger ratio in lesbian women is more similar to that of men.
27. Studies cited in the text that were looking at the possible hormonal explanations for gay,
lesbian, and bisexual orientations focused on all of the following except ________.
a. index/ring finger ratio
b. the older brother effect
c. exposure to DES
d. spinal column length
Answer: D
Rationale:
Research on the possible hormonal explanation for sexual orientation has looked at such
things as index/ring finger ratio, older brother effect, and exposure to DES.
28. Researchers have discovered a possible biological basis for sexual orientation that has
become known as “the older brother effect,” meaning ________.
a. as the number of older brothers a man has decreases, his chances of being gay increases
b. as the number of older brothers a woman has increases, so do her chances of being lesbian
c. as the number of older brothers a man has increases, so do his chances of being gay
d. the oldest brother is more likely to be gay
Answer: C
Rationale:
According to the “older brother effect” the number of older brothers a man has increases, so
do his chances of being gay.
29. Irene is excited to learn about the link between sexual orientation and siblings. The
studies she has reviewed have found that, on average, gay men have a greater number of
________.
a. younger brothers
b. younger sisters
c. older brothers
d. older sisters
Answer: C
Rationale:
According to the “older brother effect”, as the number of older brothers a man has increases,
so do his chances of being gay.
30. Research using identical twins indicates that ________.

a. sexual orientation is not genetically determined
b. there is nearly a 100% match – when one twin is gay or lesbian, so is his or her twin
c. when one member of a pair of identical twins is gay or lesbian, the chances are higher that
the other twin will share that same sexual orientation
d. the environment plays an equal role to genetics
Answer: C
Rationale:
Twin research has revealed that when one member of the pair of identical twins is gay, the
chances are higher that the other twin will be gay.
31. According to the text, at this time about ________ of sexual orientation can be explained
by genetic influences.
a. 10%-20%
b. 25%-35%
c. 40%-50%
d. 75%-85%
Answer: C
Rationale:
About 40-50% of sexual orientation can be explained by genetics.
32. Today, widespread scientific support exists about the origins of sexual orientation that
shows ________.
a. how one is raised is the most important role in sexual orientation.
b. genes play an important role in sexual orientation.
c. environment plays the most important role in sexual orientation.
d. being the oldest increases your chances of being gay.
Answer: B
Rationale:
Genes play an important role in sexual orientation.
33. Which of the following is NOT true of the exotic becomes erotic theory of sexual
orientation developed by Daryl Bem?
a. It considers both biological and environmental factors.
b. It is designed to explain both heterosexuality and homosexuality.

c. It suggests that gay men and lesbians are more likely to have gender-nonconforming
behaviors in childhood.
d. It suggests that those who have gender-conforming behavior are more likely to develop
erotic feelings for the same sex.
Answer: D
Rationale:
The erotic becomes exotic theory considers both biological and environmental factors in an
attempt to explain heterosexuality and homosexuality, and suggests that gay men and lesbians
are more likely to have gender-nonconforming behaviors in childhood.
34. Some have suggested that the underpinnings of the search for the cause of sexual
orientation are based on negative attitudes about homosexuality, including all of the
following except that it is ________.
a. unnatural
b. chosen
c. immoral and sinful
d. natural
Answer: D
Rationale:
The search for a cause of sexual orientation may be influenced by some people’s negative
attitudes about homosexuality such as it is unnatural, chosen, or immoral and sinful.
35. ________ reflects the fact that in a society which is largely rejecting at best and
dangerously hostile at worst, nonheterosexuals typically spend a portion of their lives hiding
their true sexual orientation from everyone.
a. Coming out
b. Leaving home
c. Accommodation
d. Assimilation
Answer: A
Rationale:
The coming out process reflects that the world is still rejecting and hostile o gay people.
36. When gay people choose to live a life that is honest and open about their sexual
orientation, all of the following have been found to be true except that they are ________.
a. happier and healthier
b. psychologically better adjusted to life in general

c. better able to develop close and mutually satisfying friendships and romantic relationships
d. more likely to increase the number of sexual partners
Answer: D
Rationale:
Being honest and open as a gay person about one’s orientation is linked to being happier and
healthier, psychologically better adjusted, and better able to develop close and mutually
satisfying relationships.
37. Beginning the process of coming out starts in all of the following life stages except
________.
a. in childhood
b. in adolescence
c. in adulthood
d. in utero
Answer: D
The coming out process can start in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood.
38. Two of the more widely accepted models of the coming out process reflect a gradual steplike progression, including ________.
a. identity confusion.
b. identify assumption.
c. identity acceptance.
d. all of the above.
Answer: D
The coming out process includes step-like progression from identity confusion and identity
assumption, to identity acceptance.
39. Aaron, like many gay people, recognizes that one of the dangers of coming out is
________.
a. rejection by friends and/or family
b. eviction or denial of housing
c. loss of job
d. all of the above could be experienced
Answer: D
Rationale:

Some of the dangers of coming out include risking rejection by friends and/or family,
eviction o denial of housing, and loss of job.
40. Compare Jon, who is gay, to his teenage classmate Sid, who is not gay. What we know
from the research is that Jon has a ________ rate of psychological adjustment problems
including depressions, drug abuse, eating disorders, and homelessness as compared to Sid.
a. lower rate
b. similar
c. higher rate
d. unknown
Answer: C
Rationale:
Gay youth have a higher rate of problems including depression, drug use, eating disorders,
and homelessness.
41. One study found that nearly ________ of gay or bisexual male teens had attempted
suicide.
a. 10%
b. 20%
c. 30%
d. 60%
Answer: C
Rationale:
Research found that nearly 30% of gay or bisexual male teens had attempted suicide.
42. Jane identifies as a lesbian. If Jane’s college experience is like that of many other gay,
lesbian, and bisexual students, ________.
a. it remains a difficult challenge
b. it is an easy transition and a big relief
c. gay services and support are universally available on college campuses
d. most universities have many “out” faculty
Answer: A
Rationale:
College can be a difficult challenge for gay, lesbian, and bisexual students.
43. Because the first cases of AIDS in the U.S. were found among young gay men, the
researchers originally referred to the illness as ________.

a. GMHC: gay men’s health crisis
b. GRID: gay-related immune deficiency
c. GUMP: genital-urological medical problem
d. GARC: gay auto-regression crisis
Answer: B
Rationale:
GRID was the name given to AIDS because it was seen in gay men.
44. Worldwide, the vast majority of HIV infections are due to ________.
a. homosexual contact
b. needle exchanges
c. heterosexual contact
d. blood transfusions
Answer: C
Rationale:
Worldwide, the vast majority of HIV infections are due to heterosexual contact.
45. Although HIV is not a “gay disease,” gay people are discriminated against based on
irrational and misinformed beliefs about the illness; this form of discrimination has become
known as ________.
a. gay stigma
b. AIDS blame
c. gay pride
d. AIDS stigma
Answer: D
Rationale:
AIDS stigma is a form of discrimination based on irrational and misinformed beliefs about
the illness.
46. Negative effects of AIDS stigma might include ________.
a. increased discrimination toward nonheterosexual individuals regardless of HIV status
b. fear, delay, and avoidance of HIV testing
c. hiding infection from potential sexual partners
d. all of the above

Answer: D
Rationale:
AIS stigma might lead to increased discrimination of gay people, fear, delay and avoidance
of HIV testing, and hiding infection from a potential partner.
47. At the time of this textbook’s publication, ________ countries worldwide have passed
national legislation forbidding discrimination based on sexual orientation.
a. less than 10%
b. 10%-20%
c. 25%
d. 33%
Answer: A
Rationale:
Less than 10% of countries have passed national legislation forbidding discrimination based
on sexual orientation.
48. One argument for opposing antidiscrimination laws regarding sexual orientation is the
claim that the ________ Amendment of the U.S. Constitution forbids all discrimination
against any group, including, by default, people of any sexual orientation.
a. Sixth
b. Tenth
c. Fourteenth
d. Eighteenth
Answer: C
Rationale:
The 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution forbids all discrimination against any group.
Some would say this is why there is no need for additional protections.
49. Certain state and federal antidiscrimination laws specify characteristics of groups that are
protected under these laws, such as race, religion, sex (male or female), age, or disability.
These are referred to as ________.
a. protected classes
b. specialty groups
c. discriminated groups
d. hate crime groups
Answer: A

Rationale:
State and federal antidiscrimination laws specify certain protected classes, or characteristics
of groups, that are protected such as race, religion, sex, country of origin, age and disability.
50. Seth is an out gay male. Depending on the state he works in, he could be ________ based
solely because he is gay.
a. denied housing
b. denied a job
c. fired from a job
d. all of the above
Answer: D
Rationale:
If a state does not offer legal protections against discrimination based on sexual orientation, a
person could possibly be denied house, a job, or fired from a job just for being gay.
51. In the past, all states in the U.S. enacted ________ laws which prohibited people from
engaging in certain sexual acts that were considered strange, deviant, or immoral.
a. antisex
b. sodomy
c. antigay
d. censorship
Answer: B
Rationale:
All states had sodomy laws that prohibited people from engaging in certain sexual acts that
were deemed strange, deviant, or immoral.
52. The 2003 U.S. Supreme Court decision which in effect negated all sodomy laws in the
remaining 14 states was ________.
a. Harold v. Houston
b. Baird v. Connecticut
c. Lawrence v. Texas
d. ACLU v. Alabama
Answer: C
Rationale:
Lawrence v. Texas was the U.S. Supreme Court decision that negated all sodomy laws in the
remaining 14 states.

53. Tim suffers from an extreme fear, discomfort, or hatred of gay and lesbian people. This is
defined as ________.
a. hetercentrism
b. homophila
c. homophobia
d. heterosexism
Answer: C
Rationale:
Homophobia has been defined as an extreme fear, discomfort, or hatred of gay and lesbian
people.
54. The brutal abduction, beating, and killing of Wyoming college student ________ in 1998
brought the issue of violence directed at gays to a higher level of public awareness. a.
Matthew Shepard
b. Billy Jack Gathier
c. Charlie Howard
d. Sam Stoner
Answer: A
Rationale:
The murder of Matthew Shepard brought the issue of violence against gays to a higher level
of public awareness.
55. ________ laws have allowed for more stringent penalties for violent crimes that can be
shown to have been motivated by bias or prejudice toward a protected class of people.
a. Discrimination
b. Hate crime
c. Gay-bashing
d. Anti-crime
Answer: B
Rationale:
Hate crime laws have allowed for more stringent penalties for violent crimes motivated by
bias or prejudice toward a protected class of people.
56. Nancy is surprised to learn that hate crimes against gay and lesbian individuals are
________.
a. about the same as a decade ago

b. on the increase
c. rare
d. always reported
Answer: B
Rationale:
Hate crimes against gay and lesbians are on the increase.
57. Violent crimes against gay and lesbian individuals are the ________ most common
category of hate crimes.
a. third
b. fifth
c. ninth
d. tenth
Answer: A
Rationale:
Violent crimes against gay and lesbians are the third most common category of hate crimes.
58. Gary suffers from irrational anti-gay attitudes and behaviors. One motivation proposed to
explain this is a psychological defense mechanism called a(n) ________.
a. extreme homophobic
b. excessive fear of gayness
c. reaction formation
d. reaction disease
Answer: C
Rationale:
Reaction formation may be one of the motivations for irrational antigay attitudes, in which a
person engages in extreme and exaggerated behaviors in the opposite direction of the
person’s unacceptable internal urges.
59. Terrence is a “gay basher.” Reaction formation suggests that people like this may
themselves be ________.
a. in deep denial that they themselves are closeted homosexuals
b. turned on by the thought of hurting a gay person
c. unable to control their sexual urges
d. fearing for their own safety

Answer: A
Rationale:
Reaction formation suggests people with strong anti-homosexual attitudes are in deep denial
that they themselves are closeted homosexuals.
60. One study described in the text to support reaction formation theory found that those men
who scored highest on homophobia became ________.
a. turned off by viewing a gay male video
b. sexually aroused in response to a gay male video
c. unable to stop thinking about gay men
d. irritable and hostile
Answer: B
Rationale:
Support for reaction formation theory has been found in research showing that those scoring
highest on homophobia became sexually aroused in response to a gay male video.
TRUE-FALSE
1. The story told at the beginning of the chapter was about one student’s journey as he
discovered and accepted his sexual orientation.
Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement reflects the typical narrative structure of many chapters or sections discussing
sexual orientation, where personal stories are often used to illustrate broader themes or
concepts.
2. Bisexual refers to someone who wants to have sex with a man and a woman at the same
time.
Answer: False
Rationale:
This definition is inaccurate. Bisexuality refers to the potential for attraction to both men and
women, but it doesn't necessarily imply a simultaneous desire for sexual activity with both
genders.
3. Clearly, prejudice and discrimination based on nonheterosexual orientation still exist, but
now the discriminators are the ones more likely to be breaking the law.
Answer: True
Rationale:

This statement acknowledges the persistence of discrimination against nonheterosexual
individuals while highlighting a shift in societal attitudes where discriminatory behavior is
increasingly recognized as illegal or socially unacceptable.
4. Homosexual refers to anyone who has had sex with a same-sex person.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Homosexuality refers to a sexual orientation characterized by attraction to individuals of the
same gender. It's not solely defined by engaging in sexual activity with a same-sex person.
5. Sexual orientation is different from sexual behavior because it refers to feelings and selfconcept.
Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement accurately distinguishes between sexual orientation, which pertains to one's
enduring patterns of attraction, and sexual behavior, which involves specific actions or
activities.
6. Kinsey’s sexual orientation rating system offers a dichotomous choice: heterosexual or
homosexual.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Kinsey's sexual orientation scale is not dichotomous; it's a continuum ranging from
exclusively heterosexual to exclusively homosexual, with various degrees of bisexuality in
between.
7. Most bisexuals are actually homosexuals who can’t make up their minds.
Answer: False
Rationale:
This statement is a common misconception. Bisexuality is a valid sexual orientation in its
own right, distinct from homosexuality or heterosexuality, and it does not imply indecision or
uncertainty about one's attractions.
8. Bisexuals are not more highly sexed or promiscuous than any other group of people.
Answer: True
Rationale:
There is no evidence to suggest that bisexuality correlates with higher levels of sexual
activity or promiscuity compared to other sexual orientations. Such stereotypes are
unfounded and harmful.

9. One of the most common mistakes many heterosexuals make about nonheterosexuals is
assuming that what defines someone as gay or lesbian is simply their sexual behavior.
Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement highlights a common misconception where sexual behavior is equated with
sexual orientation, ignoring the complexity of identity and attraction that characterize
individuals' experiences.
10. The Heterosexual Questionnaire is used to help guide you in your understanding of your
sexual orientation.
Answer: False
Rationale:
There is no widely recognized "Heterosexual Questionnaire" for understanding sexual
orientation. Typically, such self-assessments or questionnaires are designed to explore a range
of sexual orientations, not just heterosexuality.
11. Many states have passed “defense of marriage” acts which specifically limit marriage to
opposite-sex couples and forbid same-sex marriages.
Answer: True
Rationale:
"Defense of marriage" acts have been enacted in several U.S. states, explicitly defining
marriage as between one man and one woman, thereby prohibiting same-sex marriage.
12. What Nora learns from reading her human sexuality textbook is that civil unions provide
the same benefits as legal marriage.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Civil unions typically do not provide all the legal benefits and protections afforded by legal
marriage. Marriage equality advocates argue that civil unions are not equivalent to marriage
in terms of legal recognition and benefits.
13. Compared to other countries such as Canada, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, and
Spain, the United States has moved swiftly to accept gay marriage.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The United States has been relatively slow in accepting gay marriage compared to several
other countries, including those listed. As of recent years, while progress has been made,
acceptance has not been as swift as in some other nations.
14. Relationship satisfaction and quality are about the same regardless of the sexes of the
couple.

Answer: True
Rationale:
Research generally indicates that relationship satisfaction and quality are not significantly
influenced by the sexes of the individuals involved. Factors such as communication, mutual
respect, and shared values tend to be more predictive of relationship satisfaction.
15. What we know from Simon LeVay’s research on brain differences in heterosexual and
homosexual men is that it opened the scientific door on the possibility that sexual orientation
might be rooted in biological, rather than environmental causes.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Simon LeVay's research on brain differences in heterosexual and homosexual men suggested
that there are biological differences in brain structure related to sexual orientation. This
finding supported the notion that sexual orientation might have biological underpinnings.
16. Research suggests that the index-to-ring finger ratio in lesbian women is more similar to
that of men.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Studies have found that the digit ratio (index finger length relative to ring finger length)
tends to be more masculinized in lesbian women, resembling the pattern typically observed in
men, which suggests a potential hormonal influence on sexual orientation.
17. The “older brother effect” suggests that as the number of older brothers a man has
increases, so do his chances of being gay.
Answer: True
Rationale:
The "older brother effect" is a phenomenon observed in some studies, indicating that the
likelihood of a man being gay increases with the number of older biological brothers he has.
This effect has been linked to prenatal factors such as maternal immune responses.
18. Researchers have been placing an increased focus on genes as a potential source of
human behaviors and personality traits, including sexual orientation.
Answer: True
Rationale:
There has been growing interest among researchers in exploring the genetic underpinnings of
various human traits and behaviors, including sexual orientation. Studies investigating the
heritability of sexual orientation have been conducted to understand the genetic contributions
to this complex trait.

19. If John is gay, the chances that his identical twin brother is also gay is higher than if his
brother was a fraternal twin.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Research suggests that identical twins (who share 100% of their genes) are more likely to
both be gay compared to fraternal twins (who share approximately 50% of their genes),
indicating a genetic component to sexual orientation.
20. Homosexual men are more likely to have had domineering or overly protective mothers
and weak, distant fathers.
Answer: False
Rationale:
This statement reflects outdated and unsupported psychoanalytic theories about the origins of
homosexuality. There is no scientific evidence to suggest that specific parenting styles or
family dynamics cause homosexuality.
21. The reason Gary is gay is most likely because he was molested during his childhood by
an adult male.
Answer: False
Rationale:
There is no evidence to support the notion that childhood sexual abuse causes someone to be
gay. Sexual orientation is a complex aspect of identity influenced by a combination of
genetic, hormonal, environmental, and social factors.
22. Most self-aware gay and lesbian individuals are quite clear that they always knew they
were “different” from other kids in some fundamental ways for as long as they can remember.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Many gay and lesbian individuals report feeling different or having a sense of their sexual
orientation from a young age, often before they have the language or understanding to
articulate it clearly.
23. Sara’s coming out process was like most. She started out feeling unsure of her sexual
orientation, then acknowledged being a lesbian to herself, and finally became comfortable
with her sexuality and became openly gay.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Sara's coming out process reflects a common trajectory for many individuals who are
questioning or exploring their sexual orientation. It often involves a period of uncertainty,
self-discovery, and eventually, acceptance and openness about one's identity.

24. Gay and lesbian teens attempt and complete suicide in significantly greater proportions
than straight teens.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Research has consistently shown that LGBTQ+ youth are at a higher risk of suicidal
ideation, attempts, and completions compared to their heterosexual peers. This heightened
risk is often attributed to factors such as discrimination, rejection, and lack of social support.
25. As a gay male, Craig finds that one advantage of going to college is that he will not
experience a hostile campus environment.
Answer: False
Rationale:
LGBTQ+ individuals, including gay males like Craig, may still face discrimination,
harassment, or hostility on college campuses, although the degree of acceptance and support
can vary depending on the institution and its culture.
26. When AIDS first appeared in the U.S. in the early 1980s, the illness and deaths associated
with this terrible virus were primarily found in the gay male communities in large cities,
mainly New York and San Francisco.
Answer: True
Rationale:
The initial outbreak of AIDS in the United States disproportionately affected gay male
communities, particularly in urban areas like New York and San Francisco. This early
association contributed to stigma and discrimination against LGBTQ+ individuals.
27. One argument made by some “pro-family” groups is that giving gays the same rights as
heterosexual really means giving them “special rights.”
Answer: True
Rationale:
Some "pro-family" groups argue that granting equal rights and protections to LGBTQ+
individuals is tantamount to giving them special privileges, despite the fact that these rights
are essential for ensuring equality and fairness under the law.
28. No federal law prevents a person from being fired or refused a job on the basis of sexual
orientation.
Answer: True
Rationale:
As of the time of this statement, there is no federal law explicitly prohibiting discrimination
in employment on the basis of sexual orientation. While some states and localities have
enacted such protections, federal law does not offer comprehensive coverage.

29. In 2003, the Supreme Court decision Lawrence v. Texas in effect negated all sodomy laws
in the remaining 14 states.
Answer: True
Rationale:
The Supreme Court ruling in Lawrence v. Texas declared sodomy laws unconstitutional,
effectively invalidating similar laws in the remaining states where they were still in effect.
30. Ironically, “gay bashers” who clearly hold the strongest anti-gay feelings, may actually be
resisting the strongest gay tendencies of all within themselves.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Some psychologists and researchers have suggested that individuals who express extreme
hostility or violence towards LGBTQ+ individuals may be projecting or displacing their own
repressed or denied same-sex attractions. This phenomenon is sometimes referred to as
reaction formation.
SHORT ANSWER
1. ________, or ________ and ________, are terms used to apply to those whose primary
romantic attraction is to members of their own sex.
Answer: Homosexual; gay; lesbian
Rationale:
These terms are commonly used to describe individuals whose primary romantic or sexual
attraction is toward people of the same sex. "Homosexual" is a clinical term, while "gay" and
"lesbian" are more colloquial terms.
2. The ________ in New York City was the site of the riots that began the current gay rights
movement in the U.S.
Answer: Stonewall Inn
Rationale:
The Stonewall Inn, a gay bar in New York City's Greenwich Village, was the site of the
Stonewall riots in 1969. These riots are widely regarded as the catalyst for the modern
LGBTQ+ rights movement in the United States.
3. ________ developed the Heterosexual-Homosexual Rating Scale that places each person
on a scale of 0 to 6.
Answer: Alfred Kinsey
Rationale:
Alfred Kinsey, an American biologist and sexologist, developed the HeterosexualHomosexual Rating Scale (commonly known as the Kinsey Scale) to assess individuals'

sexual orientation. It ranges from 0 (exclusively heterosexual) to 6 (exclusively homosexual),
with various degrees of bisexuality in between.
4. ________ is a clearly defined sexual orientation, in which a person may be emotionally,
psychologically, and physically attracted to members of either sex.
Answer: Bisexuality
Rationale:
Bisexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by attraction to individuals of both sexes.
This attraction can encompass emotional, psychological, and physical aspects, and
individuals who identify as bisexual may experience attractions to both men and women.
5. Thirty-nine states have passed “________” acts that specifically limit marriage to oppositesex couples and forbid same-sex marriages, define marriage as the union of a man and a
woman, and allow states not to recognize same-sex marriages performed in other states.
Answer: defense of marriage
Rationale:
"Defense of marriage" acts are legislative measures enacted by states to restrict marriage to
opposite-sex couples, effectively prohibiting same-sex marriages and often refusing to
recognize such marriages performed in other states.
6. ________ or ________between members of the same sex carry with them all or many of
the legal benefits of marriage, but are not legally or religiously identical to heterosexual
marriage.
Answer: Domestic partnerships; civil unions
Rationale:
Domestic partnerships and civil unions are legal arrangements that provide same-sex couples
with many of the legal benefits and protections of marriage, such as inheritance rights,
healthcare decision-making, and joint tax filing, without the full legal or religious recognition
of marriage.
7. ________ are all examples of states that have legalized gay marriage.
Answer: Massachusetts, Connecticut, California, Iowa, New Hampshire, and Vermont
Rationale:
These states are among the first in the United States to legalize same-sex marriage, either
through legislative action or court rulings.
8. Simon LeVay’s research findings suggested brain differences in heterosexual and
homosexual men ________ sexual orientation.
Answer: correlated with
Rationale:

Simon LeVay's research on brain differences between heterosexual and homosexual men
suggested that certain structural differences in the brain may be correlated with sexual
orientation, providing evidence for a biological basis of sexual orientation.
9. The biological model looks at such things as ________, ________, and ________.
Answer: brain structure; hormones; genetics
Rationale:
The biological model of sexual orientation considers factors such as brain structure,
hormonal influences, and genetic predispositions in understanding the development of sexual
orientation.
10. The ________ theory considers both biological and environmental factors in the
development of sexual orientation.
Answer: exotic becomes erotic
Rationale:
The "exotic becomes erotic" theory posits that individuals may develop a sexual attraction to
traits or characteristics that are different or unfamiliar to them. This theory incorporates both
biological predispositions and environmental influences in shaping sexual orientation.
11. ________ is not typically a single moment, a single decision, or a single act; it usually is a
process that takes place gradually, over time, in a step-by-step fashion.
Answer: Coming out
Rationale:
Coming out, the process of disclosing one's sexual orientation or gender identity to others, is
often a gradual and ongoing process that unfolds over time. It involves various stages of selfacceptance, disclosure to others, and navigating social reactions.
12. Gay and lesbian teens attempt and complete suicide in ________ proportions than straight
teens.
Answer: greater
Rationale:
Research consistently shows that gay and lesbian teens are at a higher risk of suicidal
ideation, attempts, and completions compared to their heterosexual peers, indicating a
significantly greater proportion within this population.
13. When researchers from the CDC first began working to identify and isolate the cause of
AIDS, they originally called the illness ________, because that is the population they first
saw it appear in.
Answer: GRID (gay-related immune deficiency)
Rationale:

The initial identification of AIDS was associated primarily with the gay community, leading
researchers to initially term it Gay-Related Immune Deficiency (GRID) before its broader
epidemiology became apparent.
14. State and federal anti-discrimination laws specify certain characteristics of groups that are
protected under these laws such as race, religion, sex (male-female), country of origin, age, or
disability. These are referred to as ________.
Answer: protected classes
Rationale:
Protected classes are groups of people who are legally safeguarded from discrimination or
harassment based on certain characteristics such as race, religion, sex, national origin, age,
disability, or other protected statuses under anti-discrimination laws.
15. ________ referred to nonreproductive, noncommercial, consensual sexual acts between
adults in private, and included oral and anal sex at a minimum, and in some extreme cases,
virtually any sexual behavior other than intercourse between a married man and woman in the
“missionary position.”
Answer: Sodomy laws
Rationale:
Sodomy laws historically criminalized certain sexual acts deemed deviant or immoral,
including oral and anal sex, particularly between individuals of the same sex. These laws
were often used to discriminate against LGBTQ+ individuals and regulate private sexual
behavior.
16. The three largest categories of hate crimes are: 1) ________, 2) ________, and 3)
________.
Answer: race; religion; sexual orientation
Rationale:
Hate crimes are criminal acts motivated by bias or prejudice against a particular group or
characteristic. The three most common categories of hate crimes are based on race, religion,
and sexual orientation, reflecting the most frequent targets of hate-motivated violence and
discrimination.
ESSAY
1. What was the Stonewall riot and why is it seen as important in the history of the gay rights
movement?
• In 1969, homosexuality was against the law in the United States and most other countries.
The prohibitions went so far as to include a ban on serving alcohol to homosexuals. At that
time, the Stonewall Inn in New York City was one of the few night spots where gay people
could meet each other, flirt, hang out together, order drinks, dance, and just be uninhibited or
romantic. Once a month or so, the police would raid the bar, rough up and ridicule the
patrons, make numerous arrests, and cart large numbers of patrons away to jail in police vans.

• June 27, 1969, was just another evening at the Stonewall Inn. No one knows why, but when
the police once again raided Stonewall in the early morning hours of June 28, the patrons
fought back. They were fed up with being harassed, beaten, and arrested for simply being
who they were. They began yelling at the police to get out and leave them alone. As the
police punched, dragged, and otherwise forced the patrons out into the street toward the
paddy wagons, the yelling turned into fist fighting, and then beer bottles and garbage cans
were hurled at the police. Crowds began to gather outside the bar, and more people, seeing
the patrons being victimized, joined the fight against the police. Astonished that “these kinds
of people” would actually fight back, the police drew their guns and called in SWAT teams in
full riot gear. Remarkably, by the time the dust cleared, no one had been killed or seriously
injured, but the course of gay history had been changed forever. As word of the Stonewall riot
spread, gays and lesbians across the country were emboldened to resist and even fight the
prejudice and discrimination they had endured for so long. Four months after the riot, both
Time and Newsweek ran cover stories on homosexuality in America, gay “be-ins” began to
be held in New York’s Central Park, and the gay rights movement had been born.
• Today, the Stonewall Inn still stands, although now as a men’s clothing store. Most
historians trace the true beginning of the now powerful gay rights movement to the Stonewall
riot of 1969. Each year, parades and other celebrations are held around the end of June in
nearly every large city in the United States commemorating the Stonewall Inn riot and the
antidiscrimination campaign it started.
2. Discuss what is known about bisexuality.
• It may seem as if gay, lesbian, and bisexual all fit neatly into a single category of
“nonheterosexual orientations.” However, in some ways, bisexuality is a unique sexual
orientation, different from being gay, lesbian, or heterosexual. Kinsey’s efforts to place sexual
orientation on a continuum; notwithstanding, most people continue to see people as either
straight or gay. It appears, however, that bisexuality is a clearly defined sexual orientation in
which a person may be emotionally, psychologically, and physically attracted to members of
either sex.
• Historically, many people and even some researchers believed that individuals who selfidentified as bisexual were in reality trying to hide the fact that they were actually gay or
lesbian or were simply on their way to coming out as gay or lesbian. Consequently, they have
been given little attention in the scientific research and have often been brushed aside or even
outright rejected by both straight and gay groups. Many people assume that when bisexual
individuals are in a relationship with someone of the other sex, they must be straight, but
when they are involved with someone of their own sex, they are gay or lesbian. Selfproclaimed bisexual individuals are subject to prejudice and discrimination by the
heterosexual majority but they encounter it in the gay world, too, with derisive phrases such
as “Pick a lane” or “Choose a team.”
• Bisexual people are not more highly sexed or promiscuous than any other group of people
(or in less delicate language, they are not out to “sleep with just anyone”). Their sexual
orientation is not about being indiscriminate about their sexual or relationship partners. Some
bisexuals might define themselves as more attracted to women than to men or vice versa,
while others feel an equal romantic and sexual attraction to both sexes. Regardless, most
bisexual individuals will tell you that they feel open to relationships with a potential partner

regardless of his or her biological sex, rather than wanting to have loving relationships with
both sexes simultaneously.
3. Discuss what is known about the “older brother effect” on sexual orientation.
• Researchers have also discovered a new, possible biological basis of sexual orientation that
has become known as the “older brother effect”. A statistically significant association has
been found demonstrating that as the number of older biological brothers a man has
increases, so do his chances of being gay (regardless of the brothers’ sexual orientations).
This does not appear to be true of boys with older step or adopted brothers. Each additional
biological older brother increases the odds of a gay sexual orientation by as much as onethird.
• Various scientific studies across cultures have confirmed this finding. No such relationship
has been found for lesbians regardless of how many older sisters or brothers they may have.
What might be the reason for the “big brother effect”? Obviously, the male fetus in the womb
hasn’t the slightest idea how many brothers he has. But the child’s mother’s body does.
Although the correlation between male birth order and sexual orientation is real, the reasons
for it are more difficult to ascertain.
• The theory most often suggested by researchers relates to immune system in women. A few
fetal cells can sometimes pass from the womb into the mother’s bloodstream during
pregnancy or the birthing process. Some researchers speculate that these cells interact with
the mother’s immune system and begin to develop antibodies against male fetal cells. The
more male babies the mother has had, the stronger the immune response against them. Her
body, then, at least in some cases, may react by changing something (probably the hormonal
balance) in the uterine environment for later-born males that, in turn, leads to a tendency
toward a gay sexual orientation.
4. Discuss the process known as “coming out,” including the dangers, pitfalls, and joys
associated with it.
• Various theories have been proposed to explain the process nonheterosexuals go through as
they “come out of the closet” to themselves and to others. This typically occurs during
adolescence through early adulthood but may happen at any age during a person’s sexual life
(and some individuals choose never to reveal their true sexual identity). Also, the various
stages may occur at significantly differing ages. Nearly all of the theories share certain
common characteristics in that they assume a gradual, developmental process that involves
various stages of thoughts, realizations, and behaviors that lead to a person’s recognition of
his or her nonheterosexual orientation and the decision to live openly as a gay person.
• Two of the more widely accepted models of the coming-out process—one proposed by
Vivienne Cass and another by Richard Troiden—reflect this concept of a gradual step-like
progression. Both models share certain basic stages and challenges that many gay individuals
must confront on the path to coming out such as “identity confusion” (feeling unsure about
one’s sexual orientation), “identity assumption” (acknowledging being gay to oneself),
“identity acceptance” (becoming comfortable with one’s sexuality), and “identity synthesis
and commitment” (becoming openly gay and incorporating a gay sexual orientation into
one’s routine life with pride and without shame). Both models end with the person’s

acceptance and integration of his or her sexual orientation into an overall self-identity and
healthy life adjustment.
• Nonheterosexuals who come out live happier, better-adjusted lives. However, this does not
imply that coming out is easy. On the contrary, many gay and lesbian individuals approach
each step in the coming-out process with apprehension and even fear. It is no secret that being
gay in a heterocentric society (one in which heterosexuality is the “norm”) carries with it the
potential for very real emotional, psychological, and physical harm. Just some of the
potentially negative consequences faced by individuals grappling with coming out include
harassment and ridicule from peers, fellow students, or coworkers; rejection by friends,
parents, and other family members, and even one’s church; eviction from and denial of
housing; loss of current job, denial of access to military service, and other forms of prejudice
and discrimination; and intimidation or physical violence that may result in destruction of
property, serious injury, or even death.
• Although few gay or lesbian individuals will experience all of these adversities, it’s safe to
say that most will encounter some of them as they move through the coming-out process. The
reality or merely the expectation of these negative outcomes of choosing to live an openly
gay life often takes a serious emotional toll. For example, teens who are struggling with the
realization that they may be gay and the prospect of coming out to themselves and others
have a significantly higher rate of psychological and adjustment problems, including
depression, drug abuse, eating disorders, and homelessness. The psychological effect of
greatest concern is a significantly increased risk of suicide among gay and lesbian teens as
they realize their true sexuality and face the prospect of how their sexuality will “play” in a
largely intolerant world.
• That said, if you ask any openly gay or lesbian person about the time in their life when they
made the choice to “come out,” they will, almost to a person, tell you it was a relief, a weight
had been lifted, they could finally be themselves, they felt “liberated” and many other like
descriptions. These emotions virtually always feel stronger than the fear and problems they
may face or are yet to face.
5. Discuss what is known about homophobia and hate crimes toward gay people.
• Homophobia (sometimes referred to as homonegativism) refers to an extreme fear,
discomfort, or hatred of gay and lesbian people. In its most extreme forms, homophobia may
lead to verbal abuse and even physical violence toward nonheterosexual individuals. In
October 1998, Matthew Shepard, a gay college student at the University of Wyoming, was
kidnapped by two men he had met in a bar, driven to a deserted field, brutally beaten, tied to
a fence in freezing temperatures, and left to die. Four months later, Billy Jack Gaither, a 39year-old gay man who worked at a clothing company in Alabama, was brutally beaten to
death. His throat was cut and his body was beaten with an ax handle before he was thrown on
top of a pile of automobile tires and set on fire. These horrible, ruthless murders focused
renewed national attention on violence against gays and lesbians. However, many murders
motivated by antigay attitudes occur every year in the United States and around the world.
Since 1997, there have been nearly 200 known antigay killings in the United States, and the
incidence increased from 10 murders in 2006 to 21 in 2007.

• Extreme and violent forms of prejudice and discrimination targeting people of
nonheterosexual orientations often referred to as gay bashing, did not by any means begin or
end with those high-profile stories from over ten years ago. During the 1990s and early
2000s, violent crimes in many states, especially homicides that targeted specific groups of
individuals began to receive special legal consideration. These crimes came to be called hate
crimes. These violent crimes are motivated by strong feelings of fear and hate toward
members of a certain protected class of people. Typically, the perpetrators of these crimes are
weak individuals who feel threatened by the mere existence of the group at which their
violence is targeted. Hate crimes laws have allowed for more stringent penalties for violent
crimes that can be shown to have been motivated by bias or prejudice toward a protected
class of people, such as a racial or religious minority.
• More than half of all hate crimes in 2004 were motivated by racial bias, and another 17.9
percent by religious bias. Crimes against gay and lesbian individuals are the third most
common category of hate crimes, comprising over 15 percent of such crimes in 2004, up
from just under 9 percent in 1991. Thirty-two states have enacted hate crimes laws covering
crimes motivated by antigay prejudice.

Test Bank for Human Sexuality
Roger R. Hock
ISBN's: 9780205989409, 9780133971385, 9780134224961

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