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CHAPTER 3:
The Physiology of Human Sexual Responding
1. According to the textbook, Kinsey’s research _________.
a. provided information about what people say they do sexually
b. focused on human sexual physiology and response
c. identified the three stages of desire, excitement, and orgasm
d. explained the cognitive stages of seduction, sensations, and surrender
Answer: A
Rationale:
Kinsey and his associates surveyed thousands of people about their sexual behaviors and
attitudes; his research provided information about what people say they do sexually, but a gap
remained about how the human body functions anatomically when we engage in sexual
behavior.
2. According to the textbook, Masters and Johnson’s research _________.
a. provided information about what people say they do sexually
b. focused on human sexual physiology and response
c. identified the three stages of desire, excitement, and orgasm
d. explained the cognitive stages of seduction, sensations, and surrender
Answer: B
Rationale:
Masters and Johnson’s research into human sexual physiology and response is largely
credited with revealing a great deal of our knowledge about how our bodies function during
sexual activity.
3. To study the physiological responses that occurs during sexual activity, Masters and
Johnson _________.
a. measured their participants’ feelings on a scale from 1 to 10
b. only used the survey method to gather data
c. measured the pulse, blood pressure, and rate of respiration of their participants
d. only observed participants while masturbating
Answer: C
Rationale:

In order to study physiological responses during sexual activity and stimulation, Masters and
Johnson developed methods of measurement and observation that included measures of
physiological response, such as pulse, blood pressure, and respiration rate.
4. Human Sexual Response was written by _________.
a. Kinsey
b. Kaplan
c. Reed
d. Masters and Johnson
Answer: D
Rationale:
Masters and Johnson continued to study human sexual responding for nearly 30 years after
the publication of their book, Human Sexual Response.
5. The willingness of humans to engage in mating behavior is _________.
a. not clearly linked to the female’s fertility cycle to ensure reproduction
b. linked with the female’s estrus cycle
c. based on females responding to the male’s readiness to mate
d. far simpler than nonhuman species
Answer: A
Rationale:
The sexual behaviors of many non-human mammals are governed primarily or exclusively by
the biological forces of mating and reproduction, such as the fertility cycle of the female of
the species. Unlike some members of the animal kingdom, human beings’ willingness or
desire to engage in mating behavior is not clearly linked to a female’s fertility cycle in order
to ensure reproduction.
6. In contrast with nonhuman animals, the reasons for humans to engage in sexual behavior
are _________.
a. linked with the female’s estrus cycle
b, based on females responding to the male’s readiness to mate
c. more complex because they are based on psychological and biological processes
d. linked with the male’s desire to mate
Answer: C
Rationale:
While most nonhuman animals engage in sexual behavior for biological reasons, such as the
instincts to mate and reproduce, the reasons that humans engage in sexual behavior are far

more complex because psychological processes play a role as great, if not greater, than
biological factors.
7. Which of the following is the correct order in which the phases of Masters and Johnson’s
model of sexual response occur?
a. plateau, orgasm, excitement, resolution
b. excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution
c. desire, excitement, orgasm, resolution
d. orgasm, plateau, excitement, resolution
Answer: B
Rationale:
To facilitate explanations of how our bodies change during sexual stimulation, Masters and
Johnson divided the process into four phases of sexual response: excitement, plateau, orgasm,
and resolution.
8. Masters and Johnson’s model of sexual response made sense for many people because
_________.
a. Masters and Johnson had gained the public’s trust
b. Masters and Johnson’s style of writing was well organized
c. it converted the complex experience of sexual responding into a more clearly defined
phenomenon
d. their research dealt with a popular topic
Answer: C
Rationale:
Masters and Johnson acknowledged that the four stages of their model were not intended to
be conceptualized as four separate and distinct events, and noted that it was fundamentally
impossible to identify exactly where each stage began or ended. The EPOR model took the
complex experience of sexual responding and translated it into a more clearly defined process
that was easy for most people to understand.
9. Certain foods, chemicals, and fragrances believed to produce feelings of sexual desire and
arousal in humans are called _________.
a. aphrodisiacs
b. pheromones
c. chakras
d. viagras
Answer: A

Rationale:
Humans throughout history have believed in the magical powers of certain foods and
substances to enhance sexual arousal and desire. Science has yet to provide any evidence that
true aphrodisiacs exist.
10. Throughout history, many people have believed that certain foods or substances had the
magical power to enhance human sexual arousal or desire. The problem with such beliefs is
that _________.
a. such items are too expensive for most people to afford
b. such items are difficult to obtain in the United States
c. most of those items taste terrible
d. they’re false; no food, drink, or natural substance of any kind has ever been scientifically
proven to have such effects on people
Answer: D
Rationale:
No food, drunk, drug, chemical, or any natural substance has ever been demonstrated
scientifically to produce the purported effects on human sexual desire and arousal.
11. According to Masters and Johnson, when a man and a woman are in the excitement phase,
and their erectile structures expand because of increased blood flow, this process is called
_________.
a. sex flush
b. vasocongestion
c. orgasm
d. emission
Answer: B
Rationale:
During the excitement stage for both sexes, blood beings to circulate into erectile structures
throughout the body, causing them to expand and enlarge; this process is called
vasocongestion.
12. Curtis and Dinora are making love. As a result the skin on their chests and abdomens is
becoming redder. What is this phenomenon called?
a. sex flush
b. the erectile phase
c. pre-orgasm response
d. sexual discoloration

Answer: A
Rationale:
During the excitement stage for both sexes, blood begins to circulate into erectile structures
throughout the body, causing them to expand and enlarge. During this stage some people
experience a reddening of the skin of the chest and abdomen; this is called a sex flush.
13. Adnan is beginning to make love with his partner. According to Masters and Johnson
what will be the first sign that Adnan is in the excitement phase?
a. scrotal skin is tight
b. contraction of anis
c. erection of the penis
d. ejaculation
Answer: C
Rationale:
For men, the first and most obvious sign that sexual excitement has started is the erection of
the penis.
14. Bertha is beginning to make love with her partner. According to Masters and Johnson
what will be the most perceptible sign that Bertha is in the excitement phase?
a. vaginal lubrication
b. contraction of the anus
c. tenting of the vagina
d. ejaculation
Answer: A
Rationale:
For women, the most perceptible sign that sexual excitement has begun is vaginal lubrication.
15. Earl practices a type of sex where the goal is to open up the chakras and unite his sexual
energy with his partner’s energy channel, which creates a sensation of oneness and ecstasy.
This is an example of _________ sex.
a. orgasmic
b. erotic
c. Tantric
d. kundakini
Answer: C
Rationale:

In Tantric beliefs, the energy that is believed to flow through the body joins together seven
main energy centers, called chakras, throughout the body, from the base of the spine to the
scalp. The goal of Tantric sex is to open up the chakras and move the sexual energy from the
chakras nearest the genitals up to the heart, which is the “feeling chakra.” From there the
sexual energy unites with the partner’s energy channel before flowing to the crown chakra at
the top of the heart, creating a sensation of oneness and ecstasy.
16. During the second phase of the EPOR model, _________.
a. the penis becomes erect and vagina becomes lubricated
b. sexual arousal levels off and remains at an elevated level of excitement
c. sexual excitement and pleasure reaches a climax
d. sexual structures return to their unaroused states
Answer: B
Rationale:
Masters and Johnson observed that for many individuals and couples, a leveling off of
arousal seemed to occur at some point in the excitement phase, during which both men and
women continued to be very aroused, but did not appear to be experiencing much additional
elevation in their level of arousal. They called this the plateau phase.
17. During the _________ phase of Masters and Johnson’s sexual response cycle, both sexes
experience full engorgement of all erectile tissues and high levels of respiration, heart rate,
blood pressure, and muscle tension.
a. excitement
b. resolution
c. desire
d. plateau
Answer: D
Rationale:
Masters and Johnson said that for both sexes during the plateau phase, erectile tissues
throughout the sexual anatomy are now fully engorged with blood. Respiration, heart rate,
blood pressure, and muscle tension are all at high levels as orgasm approaches.
18. During lovemaking with her partner, Francesca’s areolas become larger and her clitoris
straightens, causing the glans of the clitoris to retract closer to her body. According to
Masters and Johnson, Francesca is in the _________ phase.
a. excitement
b. resolution
c. desire

d. plateau
Answer: D
Rationale:
Masters and Johnson said that during the plateau phase, women’s nipples maintain their erect
state, but the areolas continue to become larger, which may cause the nipple to appear less
erect in comparison. As the clitoris continues to engorge with blood, it straightens out along
its length, which causes the glans of the clitoris in most women to retract closer to her body
and under the clitoral hood.
19. During the _________ phase of Masters and Johnson’s sexual response cycle, the inner
two-thirds of the vagina continues to expand in a process called _________.
a. excitement; vasocongestion
b. plateau; tenting
c. orgasm; expulsion
d. resolution; refraction
Answer: B
Rationale:
Masters and Johnson said that during the plateau phase, the inner two-thirds of the vagina
continue to expand in a process called tenting.
20. During the second phase of Masters and Johnson’s model of sexual response, a woman’s
clitoral glans _________.
a. becomes less sensitive
b. becomes lighter in color
c. doesn’t undergo any changes
d. undergoes changes that cause it to become less available for stimulation
Answer: D
Rationale:
During the plateau phase, the clitoris continues to engorge with blood and straightens out
along its length. This causes the glans of the clitoris in most women to retract closer to her
body and under the clitoral hood, thereby making the clitoral glans less available for
stimulation.
21. During lovemaking with his partner, Harry’s penis becomes fully erect, his corona further
enlarges, and testicles are pulled up closely against his body. According to Masters and
Johnson, Harry is in the _________ phase.
a. excitement
b. resolution

c. desire
d. plateau
Answer: D
Rationale:
Masters and Johnson said that during the plateau stage the man’s penis is fully erect, the
corona enlarges further, and the erection is unlikely to be lost due to anything short of a major
distracting event. The scrotal skin has tightened, and the testicles are pulled up very closely
against the body at the underside of the penis.
22. While having sex with his wife, Roberto’s penis becomes fully erect, the skin of his
scrotum tightens, and his testicles pull up very closely against his body at the underside of his
penis. These physical changes indicate that Roberto _________.
a. is getting tired
b. is about to have an orgasm
c. has received too much sexual stimulation
d. will still have to wait a while before he has an orgasm
Answer; B
Rationale:
During the plateau phase, the penis is fully erect, the corona enlarges further, the scrotal skin
has tightened, and the testicles are pulled up very closely against the body, indicating that
orgasm is approaching.
23. It is believed that pre-ejaculate fluid _________.
a. neutralizes urethral acidity before semen is ejaculated
b. only exists to provide a sign that an orgasm is approaching
c. can irritate the sensitive skin of the genitals
d. can almost never be seen or felt on a man’s penis
Answer; A
Rationale:
It is believed that pre-ejaculate has two possible purposes – to produce additional lubrication
for intercourse, and/or to neutralize urethral acidity prior to the ejaculation of semen.
24. If a man has a viral or bacterial infection, pre-ejaculate fluid _________.
a. will not contain any virus or bacteria
b. contains so many sperm cells that there is no room for any infection-causing microbes
c. can contain enough virus or bacteria to transmit an infection to his sexual partner

d. can only transmit a bacterial infection, but not a viral infection
Answer: C
Rationale:
If a man is positive for infection-causing microbes, such as HIV, Cowper’s gland secretions
likely contain these viruses or bacteria, which are capable of transmitting the infection to his
partner.
25. The climax of sexual arousal occurs during the _________ phase of Masters and
Johnson’s sexual response cycle.
a. excitement
b. orgasmic
c. desire
d. plateau
Answer: B
Topic Masters and Johnson: The Excitement-Plateau-Orgasm-Resolution (EPOR) Model
Rationale:
Masters and Johnson stated that the climax of sexual arousal is the orgasmic phase.
26. In order to achieve an orgasm, many women require _________.
a. a shorter period of stimulation than men
b. manual or oral stimulation to the clitoral area
c. intercourse only
d. penile penetration of the anus
Answer: B
Rationale:
Penile penetration does not generally produce orgasm for most heterosexual women; most
women require additional manual or oral stimulation of the clitoral area either before, during,
or after intercourse. For many women, orgasm is the result of direct or indirect stimulation of
the clitoris or the clitoral area.
27. Which of the following is a factor that influences the intensity and duration of an orgasm?
a. size of the vagina
b. size of the penis
c. length of arousal prior to orgasm
d. imbalance of certain hormones

Answer: C
Rationale:
Among the factors influencing the intensity and duration of orgasm are the length of arousal
prior to orgasm, the length of time since the previous orgasm, alcohol or other drug use, and
feelings of comfort and intimacy with a partner.
28. For men, ejaculation occurs in two stages referred to as _________ and _________.
a. emission; expulsion
b. plateau; resolution
c. plateau; expulsion
d. expulsion; resolution
Answer: A
Rationale:
Ejaculation occurs in two stages; the first stage is emission, when semen builds up in the
urethral bulb. The second stage is expulsion, when semen is pushed through the urethra and
out of the penis.
29. Lionel is experiencing the sensation of ejaculatory inevitability. This means that
_________.
a. semen has built up in his urethral bulb and ejaculation is imminent
b. his erection has reached its optimal level for controlling orgasm
c. he has already ejaculated, perhaps without even knowing it
d. his pelvic muscles are contracting and forcing semen through his penis
Answer: A
Rationale:
The sensation of having reached the point of no return is called the moment of ejaculatory
inevitability because once the semen has collected in the urethral bulb, the rest of the
ejaculatory process is reflexive and cannot be controlled voluntarily.
30. Stephan is making love with his partner. He has a buildup of sperm and semen in his
urethral bulb, but has not yet ejaculated. Stephan is experiencing _________.
a. expulsion
b. emission
c. seminal delay
d. resolution
Answer: B

Rationale:
The first stage of ejaculation is emission, when the semen builds up in the urethral bulb,
creating the subjective sensation that ejaculation has begun and nothing can stop it.
31. In males, the contraction of pelvic muscles that force semen through the urethra and out
of the body through the penis is referred to as _________.
a. seminal push
b. emission
c. expulsion
d. resolution
Answer: C
Rationale:
The second stage of ejaculation is expulsion, when the semen is pushed through the urethra
and out of the penis.
32. Which of the following are results from a study conducted by Mah and Binik (2002) that
asked men and women to rate various factors of the experience of orgasm?
a. Most rating scores on average were similar for both male and female participants.
b. Men rated flushing and flooding sensations higher than women.
c. Shooting sensations were rated far higher by women than by men.
d. Overall, all rating scores were significantly lower for women than for men.
Answer: A
Rationale:
Mah and Binik (2002) asked men and women to rate various factors of the experience of
orgasm, including satisfaction, emotional intimacy, relaxation, ecstasy, and various bodily
sensations. Most rating scores were similar for the male and female participants.
33. Ben and Joe take an orgasm-as-the-goal approach to sexual intimacy. As a result they may
experience _________.
a. deeper levels of closeness and intimacy
b. increased physical ailments
c. repetitive, mechanical sexual interactions
d. new levels of love and affection
Answer: C
Rationale:

Most sex educators and sex therapists stress that although orgasm is a natural part of human
sexual response, it should not be the goal of sexual interactions. Focusing on orgasm as the
main objective of lovemaking may detract from the intimate experience, and can lead to
repetitive, mechanical sexual interactions that are targeted at that goal, but may fail to
produce the expressions of love and intimacy couples seek.
34. According to research, orgasms _________.
a. may be biologically unhealthy
b. have been linked to a number of health benefits
c. should be the goal of sexual interactions
d. always lead to intimacy
Answer: B
Rationale Research has revealed a number of health benefits associated with orgasm. For
example, research has shown that an orgasm at least once or twice per week appears to
strengthen the immune system’s ability to resist flu and other viruses.
35. Research has shown that men in their 20s who have more than five ejaculations per week
_________.
a. experience difficulty in falling asleep at night
b. increase their risk of heart disease
c. have lower rates of prostate cancer in later life
d. will develop problems with high blood pressure
Answer: C
Rationale:
Recent research has revealed a number of health benefits associated with orgasm. One such
finding is that men who have more than five ejaculations per week during their 20s have a
significantly lower rate of prostate cancer later in life.
36. Recent research on the health benefits of orgasm revealed that _________.
a. orgasms decrease estrogen and endorphins, thereby causing depression in women
b. men who have at least 3 orgasms per week are 50 percent more likely to die of heart
disease
c. men who have two or more orgasms per week live significantly longer than men who have
fewer
d. orgasms once or twice per week weaken the immune system’s ability to resist viruses
Answer: C
Rationale:

Recent research has revealed a number of health benefits associated with orgasm, one of
which involves life expectancy. Men who have two or more orgasms per week live
significantly longer than men who have fewer.
37. Researchers believe that female ejaculate is made up mostly by fluid secreted by the
_________.
a. cervix
b. adrenal glands
c. Skene’s glands
d. G-spot
Answer: C
Rationale:
Some research indicates that female ejaculate may be comprised mostly of a fluid secreted by
two paraurethral glands that lie on either side of the female urethra, known as Skene’s glands.
38. The fluid that is released by some women at the moment of orgasm _________.
a. provides lubrication for intercourse
b. is expelled through the urethral opening
c. enhances the likelihood of conception
d. is known to cause urinary tract infections
Answer: B
Rationale:
Recent research findings indicate that the glands that lie on either side of the female urethra,
known as Skene’s glands, are quite active in some women. These glands may secrete fluid
into the urethra at the moment of orgasm, which has led researchers to conclude that this fluid
is expelled through the urethral opening, not through the vagina.
39. Studies indicate that approximately _________ percent of women report being aware of
ejaculation during orgasm.
a. 40-50
b. 60-70
c. 80-90
d. 10-20
Answer: A
Rationale:
Cartwright, Elvy & Cardozo (2007) reported that about 40-50 percent of women report being
aware of ejaculating fluid during orgasm.

40. Zora does not ejaculate during any type of sexual activity. According to research studies,
_________.
a. Zora must be unsatisfied with her love
b. this is not an indication that Zora is deficient in her sexual responses
c. this is an indication that Zora is deficient in her sexual responses
d. Zora probably does not have a G-spot
Answer: B
Difficulty:
Rationale:
Lack of ejaculation is not a sign that a woman is somehow deficient in her sexual responses,
and female ejaculation should not be seen by women or by their partners as something to
strive for in sexual interactions.
41. While making love, Yolanda’s partner stimulated an area of tissue on the anterior wall of
her vagina, which caused her to feel more sexually aroused and ejaculate. Yolanda’s partner
stimulated her _________.
a. urethra
b. cervix
c. labia minora
d. G-spot
Answer: D
Rationale:
The G-spot, or Grafenberg spot, is reported as an area of tissue located on the anterior wall of
the vagina; some women report that when this area is stimulated during sexual activity,
arousal and orgasm are enhanced and intensified.
42. Ron is learning how to explore his lover’s G-spot. He was told the easiest way to explore
the G-spot is to _________.
a. place one to two fingers inside the vagina and press firmly against the upper wall in a
massaging motion
b. place one to two fingers outside the vagina and press firmly against the outer wall in a
massaging motion
c. place one to two fingers on the cervix and press firmly in a massaging motion
d. place one to two fingers on the clitoris and press firmly in a massaging motion
Answer: A
Rationale:

The easiest way a woman or her partner may explore the G-spot is to place one or two fingers
inside the vagina and press firmly but gently against the upper wall in a massaging motion.
43. Some women report that when their G-spot is stimulated during sexual activity
_________.
a. arousal and orgasm are intensified
b. intense pain and cramping occurs
c. they experience decreased sexual desire
d. they feel a tightness in their urethra and cervix
Answer: A
Rationale:
The G-spot is a structure that is allegedly linked to the intensity of female orgasm; some
women report that when the area known as the G-spot is stimulated during sexual activity,
arousal and orgasm are enhanced and intensified.
44. Veronica had an orgasm and now her body is returning to its non-aroused state. Veronica
is in the _________ phase of Masters and Johnson’s sexual response cycle.
a. plateau
b. refractory
c. emission
d. resolution
Answer: D
Rationale:
Masters and Johnson said that the resolution phase is the completion of the cycle when the
body returns to its sexually non-aroused state. This process usually happens fairly rapidly
following orgasm, but takes somewhat longer if orgasm has not occurred.
45. Masters and Johnson found that if a woman receives additional stimulation following
orgasm, she may be capable of returning to the _________ phase and have multiple orgasms
without ever entering the _________ phase.
a. resolution; plateau
b. excitement; plateau
c. plateau; resolution
d. excitement; resolution
Answer: C
Rationale:

Masters and Johnson found that if a woman receives additional stimulation following orgasm,
she may be capable of returning to the plateau stage and have one or more additional orgasms
(multiple orgasms) without entering a resolution phase or refractory period between them.
46. Lucas had an orgasm and now his nipples lost their erection, his penile glans lightened in
color, and his penis returned to its non-aroused state. Lucas is in the _________ phase of
Masters and Johnson’s sexual response cycle.
a. plateau
b. resolution
c. emission
d. refractory
Answer: B
Rationale:
After men have an orgasm, their nipples lose their erection, the penile glans lightens in color,
and the penis becomes softer and smaller, returning to its unaroused, flaccid state. The scrotal
skin relaxes, and the testicles drop down, away from the body.
47. Which of the following is a criticism of Masters and Johnson’s EPOR model?
a. It neglects the physical components of sexuality.
b. It fails to acknowledge fundamental differences in male sexuality.
c. It neglects the emotional and psychological components of sexuality.
d. It relies too heavily on female sexual response.
Answer: C
Rationale:
Masters and John’s EPOR model has not been without its critics and competing
conceptualizations. Criticisms have included the contention that Masters and Johnson
neglected emotional and psychological components of sexuality, especially desire.
48. Helen Singer Kaplan, among others, criticized Masters and Johnson’s model of sexual
response because it failed to include consideration of _________.
a. relationship factors
b. the quality of sexual interaction
c. hormonal levels
d. sexual desire
Answer: D
Rationale:

In reconceptualizing masters and Johnson’s EPOR model, some sexuality researchers have
argued that they included too many stages, too few stages, or some incorrect stages. Various
researchers, including Kaplan, claimed that Masters and Johnson left out a crucial stage in
sexual responding: sexual desire. Some critics have suggested that a sexual response cycle
wouldn’t occur at all if desire were omitted from the theory.
49. In regard to gender, some critics have charged that Masters and Johnson’s model of
sexual response _________.
a. focuses too much on women’s sexual responses
b. doesn’t take into account that female sexual response is significantly more complex than
men’s sexual response
c. ignores the fact that women usually respond to sexual stimulation more emotionally than
do men
d. ignores the fact that most men have a higher sex drive than most women
Answer: B
Rationale:
Some critics of the EPOR model have claimed that it doesn’t adequately describe the sexual
responding of both men and women. While the model might explain the male response cycle,
female sexual response is believed to be significantly more complex, involving far more than
genital responding.
50. In contrast to what Masters and Johnson claimed, current research suggests that
_________.
a. men are incapable of having multiple orgasms.
b. there is no such thing as a female refractory period
c. there is no such thing as female ejaculation.
d. some women have a refractory period that is similar to a man’s refractory period.
Answer: D
Rationale:
Research has suggested that some women may have a refractory period that is quite similar to
a man’s; that is, some women require a waiting period after orgasm before they are physically
capable of becoming aroused to orgasm again. The female refractory period may be shorter
and less pronounced than men’s, but the categorical male-female difference found by Masters
and Johnson has been questioned.
51. The three stages of Kaplan’s Three-Stage Model are _________.
a. desire, excitement, resolution
b. excitement, orgasm, resolution
c. desire, excitement, orgasm

d. orgasm, plateau, resolution
Answer; C
Rationale:
Helen Singer Kaplan’s approach to sexual response was similar to that of Masters and
Johnson, but she felt that they had left out one key factor in their model. Kaplan proposed a
three-stage model of sexual responding consisting of desire, excitement, and orgasm.
52. According to sex therapist Helen Singer Kaplan, sexual responding _________.
a. is unlikely unless someone wants to be sexual
b. occurs in four phases
c. is a result of purely physical reactions
d. can occur even if desire is not present
Answer: A
Rationale:
Kaplan believed that the omission of desire from the Masters and Johnson model was a key
flaw in their theory, as she believed that there probably wouldn’t even be sexual responding
unless there is the desire to be sexual.
53. Abe has lost his sexual desire. According to his sex therapist, he has _________.
a. hyperactive sexual desire
b. hypoactive sexual desire
c. male orgasmic disorder
d. male erectile disorder
Answer: B
Rationale:
Difficulties with sexual desire, called inhibited or hypoactive sexual desire, are extremely
common. Kaplan claimed that hypoactive sexual desire can be caused by such factors as
stress, fatigue, depression, pain, fear, prescribed medication, and negative past sexual
experiences, among others.
54. Which of the following is a factor that may interfere with sexual desire?
a. inability to achieve orgasm
b. inability to maintain an erection
c. prescribed medication
d. lack of vaginal lubrication
Answer: C

Rationale:
According to Kaplan, there are many factors that can inhibit sexual desire, only one of which
is prescribed medication.
55. Which of the following is a criticism of Kaplan’s Three-Stage Model?
a. It neglects the physical components of sexuality.
b. It is overly simplified.
c. It neglects the emotional components of sexuality.
d. It relies too heavily on male sexual response.
Answer: B
Rationale:
Some critics of Kaplan’s model have claimed that her notions about human sexual response
are overly simplified, and that such notions assume that desire must always be present for
sexual responding to occur.
56. The stages of David Reed’s Erotic Stimulus Pathway Theory are _________.
a. seduction, sensations, surrender, reflection
b. excitement, sensations, surrender, resolution
c. desire, excitement, orgasm, surrender
d. excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution
Answer: A
Rationale:
Psychiatrist David Reed took the popular theories of Masters and Johnson and Kaplan and
reinterpreted them from a more psychological and interpersonal perspective in a theory he
called the Erotic Stimulus Pathway. His theory consisted of four stages: seduction, sensations,
surrender, and reflection.
57. Josh sent his lover flowers and a love note as a way of signaling his desire for sex.
According to the Erotic Stimulus Pathway Theory, Josh is in which stage?
a. reflection
b. surrender
c. sensations
d. seduction
Answer: D
Rationale:

According to Reed’s four-stage model, people in the seduction stage engage in behaviors that
they believe will attract another person and make themselves sexually attractive to others.
Buying flowers for a lover is an example of this type of behavior.
58. The sensation stage of the Erotic Stimulus Pathway Theory is similar to the _________
and _________ phases of the EPOR model.
a. excitement; orgasm
b. orgasm; resolution
c. plateau; excitement
d. plateau; resolution
Answer: C
Rationale:
According to Reed’s model, sexual behavior and sexual arousal begin in the sensation phase,
which is similar to the excitement and plateau phases in Masters and Johnson’s EPOR model.
59. Elsa is having an orgasm. She is in the _________ stage of the Erotic Stimulus Pathway
Theory.
a. reflection
b. surrender
c. sensations
d. seduction
Answer: B
Rationale:
According to Reed, the peak of sexual arousal, orgasm, is giving over of oneself; a surrender
to the culmination of sexual intimacy.
60. Kalib and Zinnia finished making love and are now thinking about their sexual encounter
in order to bring meaning to it. According to Erotic Stimulus Pathway Theory, they are in the
_________ stage.
a. reflection
b. surrender
c. sensations
d. seduction
Answer: A
Rationale:
The last phase of Reed’s model is the reflection phase, and it is during this time when both
partners reflect on the experience and bring meaning to it. It’s an opportunity for partners to

interpret the sexual encounter in positive or negative terms, and this can help us to make
choices about whether or not to engage in the activity again, under the same circumstances,
or with the same partner.
61. Reed’s Erotic Stimulus Pathway Theory is different than Masters and Johnson’s and
Kaplan’s stages in that it focuses on the _________ aspects of sexual responding.
a. physical and psychological
b. cognitive and psychological
c. spiritual and physical
d. cognitive and spiritual
Answer: B
Rationale:
Reed’s Erotic Stimulus Pathway model was similar to some of the points in both Masters and
Johnson’s model and Kaplan’s model, but he placed more emphasis on the cognitive and
psychological, rather than on, or in addition to, the physical.
62. According to the “new view of women’s sexual problems,” _________.
a. it is correct to assume that male and female sexuality is the same
b. there is not enough focus on the physiology of sexual response
c. women vary more than men do in their sexual responses
d. sexual response can be understood without consideration of interpersonal relationships
Answer: C
Rationale:
Proponents of the “new view of women’s sexual problems” claimed that Masters and
Johnson’s EPOR model could not be appropriately applied to women. They claimed that male
and female sexuality are fundamentally different, and that women vary more than men do in
their sexual responses and therefore, do not fit neatly in the four-stage EPOR model.
TRUE-FALSE
1. Kinsey and his associates surveyed thousands of men and women about their sexual
behavior and attitudes.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Alfred Kinsey and his team conducted extensive surveys on human sexual behavior, which
formed the basis of the groundbreaking Kinsey Reports published in the 1940s and 1950s.
These reports were pivotal in shaping understanding and discourse around human sexuality.
2. Masters and Johnson wrote a book entitled Human Sexual Response.

Answer: True
Rationale:
Masters and Johnson did indeed write a book titled "Human Sexual Response," which was
published in 1966. This book detailed their research on the physiological responses of men
and women during sexual activity, making significant contributions to the field of sexology.
3. Masters and Johnson studied sexual responding and applied their findings to help people
achieve sexual fulfillment.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Masters and Johnson's research focused on understanding the physiological and
psychological aspects of sexual response. They not only studied these responses but also
developed therapeutic techniques, such as sex therapy, to help individuals overcome sexual
difficulties and enhance their sexual experiences.
4. When the female of most nonhuman species is fertile and ready to mate, she sends out very
strong signals to the males of the species.
Answer: True
Rationale:
In many nonhuman species, females exhibit clear signals of fertility to attract males for
mating. These signals can include changes in behavior, scent, or physical appearance, all
aimed at increasing reproductive success.
5. Biological processes are the only processes that play a role in human sexual behavior.
Answer: False
Rationale:
While biological processes play a significant role in human sexual behavior, psychological,
social, cultural, and environmental factors also influence sexual attitudes, preferences, and
behaviors. Human sexuality is a complex interplay of various factors beyond just biology.
6. Aphrodisiacs are substances that are thought to diminish sexual desire.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Aphrodisiacs are substances believed to enhance sexual desire or arousal, not diminish it.
They can include foods, herbs, drugs, or other substances that are believed to have stimulant
effects on sexual function or libido.
7. During the excitement phase of the EPOR model, blood begins to circulate into all erectile
structures throughout the body.
Answer: True

Rationale:
According to the EPOR (Excitement, Plateau, Orgasm, Resolution) model proposed by
Masters and Johnson, during the excitement phase, there is increased blood flow to erectile
tissues in both males and females, leading to physiological changes associated with sexual
arousal.
8. Sex flush occurs in some people during sexual arousal.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Sex flush, also known as sexual flushing, is a reddening of the skin that can occur during
sexual arousal due to increased blood flow to the skin's surface. It is a common physiological
response and can vary in intensity among individuals.
9. The goal of Tantric sex is to open up the chakras and move sexual energy from the genitals
to the heart.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Tantric sex, a practice rooted in Hindu and Buddhist traditions, aims to expand consciousness
and spiritual connection through sexual activity. One aspect involves channeling sexual
energy (often referred to as Kundalini energy) from the genitals upward through the body's
energy centers (chakras) to achieve spiritual enlightenment and emotional intimacy.
10. The plateau phase of Masters and Johnson’s EPOR model is when sexual arousal
decreases dramatically in both men and women.
Answer: False
Rationale:
In Masters and Johnson's EPOR model, the plateau phase is characterized by sustained sexual
arousal at a high level just before orgasm. It is a period of heightened arousal and excitement,
not a decrease in arousal.
11. When a woman is sexually aroused, the outer one-third of her vagina becomes engorged
with blood, which decreases the size of her vaginal opening.
Answer: True
Rationale:
This statement accurately describes the process of vasocongestion in the outer third of the
vagina during sexual arousal. Increased blood flow to the genital area causes the vaginal
tissues to swell, leading to a decrease in the size of the vaginal opening.
12. Pre-ejaculate fluid never contains live sperm cells.
Answer: False
Rationale:

Pre-ejaculate fluid, also known as pre-cum, may contain live sperm cells. While the
concentration of sperm in pre-ejaculate is typically lower than in semen, there is still a
possibility of sperm presence, which can potentially lead to pregnancy.
13. Most women routinely achieve orgasm through sexual intercourse alone.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Research indicates that the majority of women do not consistently achieve orgasm through
penetrative intercourse alone. Many women require additional clitoral stimulation to reach
orgasm, as the clitoris plays a significant role in female sexual pleasure.
14. For both sexes, ejaculation occurs in two stages.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Ejaculation in males typically occurs in three stages: emission, expulsion, and resolution. The
emission phase involves the gathering of sperm and seminal fluid in the urethral bulb,
followed by the expulsion phase where semen is forcefully expelled from the penis during
orgasm. The resolution phase refers to the period of physiological recovery after ejaculation.
15. During the emission phase of ejaculation in males, the moment of ejaculatory inevitability
is also referred to as the “point of no return.”
Answer: True
Rationale:
The term "point of no return" refers to the moment during the emission phase of ejaculation
when ejaculation becomes inevitable and cannot be stopped voluntarily. It marks the onset of
orgasm and the imminent release of semen.
16. The expulsion stage of ejaculation is when semen is pushed through the urethra and out of
the penis.
Answer: True
Rationale:
The expulsion phase of ejaculation involves the forceful expulsion of semen from the urethra
and out of the penis during orgasm. This stage follows the emission phase where semen is
deposited into the urethral bulb.
17. According to research, men and women’s descriptions of their orgasms are quite different.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Research suggests that men and women's descriptions of orgasms share many similarities,
with both reporting sensations of pleasure and release. While there may be some individual

variation, studies have found commonalities in the subjective experiences of orgasm across
genders.
18. Focusing on orgasm as the main objective of lovemaking may detract from the intimacy
of this experience.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Placing too much emphasis on achieving orgasm during sexual activity can detract from the
intimacy, connection, and pleasure that can be derived from the entire sexual experience.
Overemphasis on orgasm may create performance pressure and hinder relaxation and
enjoyment.
19. Regular orgasms increase levels of estrogen and endorphins in men, which can help
prevent depression.
Answer: False
Rationale:
While orgasms may lead to the release of endorphins, there is no conclusive evidence to
suggest that they increase estrogen levels in men. Additionally, while orgasms may contribute
to overall well-being and mood improvement for some individuals, they are not a guaranteed
prevention or treatment for depression.
20. The fluid expelled by women during orgasm is urine.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The fluid expelled by some women during orgasm, often referred to as female ejaculation or
squirting, is not urine. Research suggests that it may be a combination of substances produced
by the Skene's glands, located near the urethra, and may contain small amounts of urine, but
it is distinct from urine itself.
21. Women who claim to ejaculate also say that they are much more satisfied with their
sexual lives than women who don’t claim to ejaculate.
Answer: False
Rationale:
While some women who experience ejaculation may report higher levels of sexual
satisfaction, it is not accurate to generalize this to all women who ejaculate. Sexual
satisfaction is influenced by a variety of factors beyond ejaculation, including emotional
connection, communication, and individual preferences.
22. Many women report that stimulation of the G-spot produces less intense orgasms.
Answer: False
Rationale:

Many women report that stimulation of the G-spot, an erogenous zone located on the anterior
wall of the vagina, can lead to intense and pleasurable orgasms. However, individual
experiences vary, and not all women may find G-spot stimulation to be intensely orgasmic.
23. The G-spot is often described as a slightly raised area about the size of a dime.
Answer: True
Rationale:
The G-spot is often described as a slightly raised or textured area on the anterior wall of the
vagina, typically located about 1-2 inches inside the vaginal canal. Its size and exact location
can vary among individuals, but it is commonly described as being similar in size to a dime.
24. Women can have multiple orgasms without entering the resolution phase.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Unlike men, women do not typically experience a refractory period following orgasm,
allowing them to potentially have multiple orgasms in quick succession without entering the
resolution phase. This capability varies among individuals and may depend on factors such as
arousal levels and stimulation.
25. A criticism of the EPOR model is that it does not adequately explain the male sexual
response cycle.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The EPOR (Excitement, Plateau, Orgasm, Resolution) model proposed by Masters and
Johnson is primarily focused on describing the physiological and psychological processes of
sexual response in both men and women. While there may be ongoing discussions and
refinements of the model, it does provide a framework for understanding male sexual
response alongside female sexual response.
26. The second stage of Kaplan’s Three-Stage Model is excitement.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Kaplan's Three-Stage Model of sexual response consists of desire, excitement, and orgasm. In
this model, excitement is indeed the second stage, following desire, and preceding orgasm.
27. The first stage of the Erotic Stimulus Pathway Theory is called excitement.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The Erotic Stimulus Pathway Theory, proposed by Helen Singer Kaplan, outlines three stages
of sexual response: desire, arousal, and orgasm. In this theory, excitement is not explicitly
identified as a separate stage; instead, it is encompassed within the broader arousal phase.

28. Orgasm occurs during the surrender stage of the Erotic Stimulus Pathway Theory.
Answer: True
Rationale:
According to Kaplan's Erotic Stimulus Pathway Theory, orgasm occurs during the surrender
phase, which corresponds to the final stage of sexual response. This stage involves the release
of sexual tension and the peak of pleasurable sensations culminating in orgasm.
29. The “new view of women’s sexual problems” posits that the majority of women’s sexual
problems can be cured with the right medication.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The "new view of women's sexual problems" challenges traditional medical approaches to
female sexual dysfunction by emphasizing the multifaceted nature of sexual difficulties,
including psychological, relational, and cultural factors. It advocates for a holistic approach
to treatment that may include psychotherapy, education, and lifestyle changes, rather than
relying solely on medication.
30. According to the “new view of women’s sexual problems,” there is an incorrect
assumption that male and female sexuality are fundamentally the same.
Answer: True
Rationale:
The "new view of women’s sexual problems" challenges the notion that male and female
sexuality can be understood and treated using the same framework. It argues that men and
women may experience and express their sexuality differently due to biological,
psychological, and sociocultural factors. This perspective emphasizes the importance of
recognizing and addressing the unique aspects of female sexuality in understanding and
treating women's sexual concerns, rather than applying a one-size-fits-all approach based on
assumptions of similarity with male sexuality.
SHORT ANSWER
1. Prior to the 1960s, the definitive published work on human sexual behavior consisted of
large-scale surveys, most notably by ________.
Answer: Alfred Kinsey
Rationale:
Alfred Kinsey and his team conducted extensive surveys on human sexual behavior,
culminating in the publication of the Kinsey Reports in the 1940s and 1950s. These reports
provided groundbreaking insights into various aspects of human sexuality, challenging
prevailing societal attitudes and norms.
2. Masters and Johnson divided the process of human sexual response into ________ phases.
Answer: four

Rationale:
Masters and Johnson delineated the human sexual response cycle into four distinct phases:
excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution. This division allowed for a systematic
understanding of the physiological and psychological changes that occur during sexual
arousal and activity.
3. During the ________ phase of Masters and Johnson’s sexual response cycle, the skin of the
scrotum tightens, and the testicles begin to rise up close to the underside of the penis.
Answer: excitement
Rationale:
In the excitement phase, physiological changes such as increased blood flow to the genital
area lead to the tightening of the scrotum and elevation of the testicles. These changes
prepare the body for sexual activity and arousal.
4. During the ________ phase of Masters and Johnson’s sexual response cycle, respiration,
heart rate, and muscle tension are all at high levels as orgasm approaches.
Answer: plateau
Rationale:
The plateau phase is characterized by sustained high levels of sexual arousal just before
orgasm. During this phase, physiological responses such as increased heart rate, respiration
rate, and muscle tension reach their peak as the body prepares for climax.
5. Most researchers agree that ________ serves to create a place for semen to pool directly
under the cervix.
Answer: tenting
Rationale:
Tenting refers to the elongation and lifting of the uterus and cervix during sexual arousal.
This process creates a space in the vaginal canal where semen can pool, facilitating the
passage of sperm closer to the cervix and increasing the likelihood of fertilization.
6. Pre-ejaculate fluid is secreted by the ________ as ejaculation approaches.
Answer: Cowper’s glands
Rationale:
Pre-ejaculate fluid, also known as pre-cum, is produced by the Cowper's glands (also called
bulbourethral glands) located near the base of the penis. This fluid serves to lubricate the
urethra and neutralize any residual acidity, preparing the urethra for the passage of sperm
during ejaculation.
7. In Masters and Johnson’s sexual response cycle, the climax of sexual arousal is the
________ phase.
Answer: orgasmic

Rationale:
The orgasmic phase is the culmination of sexual arousal, characterized by intense physical
and psychological sensations. It involves rhythmic contractions of the genital muscles and a
release of accumulated sexual tension.
8. In males, the contraction of the pelvic muscles that force semen through the urethra and out
of the body is referred to as ________.
Answer: expulsion
Rationale:
Expulsion refers to the phase of ejaculation in males where rhythmic contractions of the
pelvic muscles force semen through the urethra and out of the penis. This process facilitates
the release of semen from the body during orgasm.
9. A fluid that is expelled during female orgasm is theorized to come from the ________.
Answer: Skene’s glands
Rationale:
The fluid expelled during female orgasm, commonly referred to as female ejaculation or
squirting, is theorized to originate from the Skene's glands (also known as the paraurethral
glands). These glands are located near the urethra and may release fluid during sexual arousal
and orgasm.
10. When stimulated, the ________ causes some women to experience enhanced sexual
arousal.
Answer: G-spot
Rationale:
The G-spot, located on the anterior wall of the vagina, is believed by some to be an
erogenous zone that, when stimulated, can lead to heightened sexual arousal and intense
orgasms in some women. While its existence and role in sexual pleasure are debated, many
individuals report positive experiences with G-spot stimulation.
11. During the ________ phase of Masters and Johnson’s sexual response cycle, sexual
structures return to their non-aroused state.
Answer: resolution
Rationale:
The resolution phase marks the conclusion of the sexual response cycle, during which sexual
structures and physiological processes return to their pre-arousal state. Heart rate, blood
pressure, and muscle tension decrease as the body relaxes following orgasm.
12. According to Masters and Johnson, after achieving orgasm men must enter a ________
prior to becoming aroused again and reaching another orgasm.
Answer: refractory period

Rationale:
The refractory period is a phase following male orgasm during which it is physiologically
difficult or impossible to achieve another erection and orgasm. Masters and Johnson
identified this phase as a characteristic feature of the male sexual response cycle.
13. The first stage of Kaplan’s Three-Stage Model is ________.
Answer: desire
Rationale:
Kaplan's Three-Stage Model of sexual response begins with the desire stage, which involves
feelings of sexual interest, attraction, and motivation. This stage precedes the physiological
arousal and orgasmic stages in Kaplan's model.
14. ________ is a term used to describe difficulties with sexual desire.
Answer: Hypoactive sexual desire
Rationale:
Hypoactive sexual desire refers to a lack or absence of sexual interest or desire, which can
lead to distress or impairment in sexual functioning. It is characterized by a persistent or
recurrent deficiency in sexual fantasies or desires, often resulting in reduced sexual activity.
15. ________ is based on the psychological and cognitive stages of seduction, sensations,
surrender, and reflection.
Answer: Erotic Stimulus Pathway Theory
Rationale:
The Erotic Stimulus Pathway Theory, proposed by Helen Singer Kaplan, outlines stages of
sexual response based on psychological and cognitive processes. These stages include
seduction (desire), sensations (arousal), surrender (orgasm), and reflection (post-orgasmic
response), emphasizing the subjective experience of sexual arousal and satisfaction.
16. The ________ is a model of female sexual response that considers psychological,
cultural, and relationship factors in addition to physiological factors.
Answer: “new view of women’s sexual problems”
Rationale:
The "new view of women's sexual problems" challenges traditional medical models of female
sexual dysfunction by considering a broader range of factors that influence women's sexual
experiences. This model acknowledges the importance of psychological, cultural, and
relational factors alongside physiological factors in understanding and addressing women's
sexual concerns.
ESSAY
1. Identify and define the four phases of Masters and Johnson’s sexual response cycle.
First stage: excitement

• For both sexes, blood begins to circulate into erectile structures throughout the body.
• This causes them to expand and enlarge in a process called vasocongestion.
• A sex flush, or reddening of the skin of the chest and abdomen, may occur in some people.
• The nipples become erect.
• Breathing becomes heavier and faster.
• Heart rate increases.
• Voluntary muscles tense.
• For men, the first and most obvious sign of sexual excitement is the erection of the penis.
• For women, the first physical change is the erection of the clitoris.
• For women, the most perceptible sign that sexual excitement has begun is vaginal
lubrication.
Second stage: plateau
• At some point in the excitement phase there is a leveling off of arousal for both sexes.
• During this stage men and women continue to be very aroused but do not appear to be
experiencing much additional elevation in their levels of arousal.
• During the plateau phase, erectile tissues throughout the sexual anatomy are fully engorged
with blood.
• Respiration, heart rate, blood pressure, and muscle tension are all at high levels.
• The sexual flush on the skin in some people spreads and darkens.
Third stage: orgasm
• The climax of sexual arousal, and the shortest of the four stages.
• Women require a somewhat longer period of stimulation than men do to achieve orgasm
with a partner.
• Most women require additional manual or oral stimulation of the clitoral area either before,
during, or after intercourse.
• Factors influencing the intensity and duration of orgasm are the length of arousal prior to
orgasm, the length of time since the previous orgasm, alcohol or other drug use, and feelings
of intimacy and comfort with a partner.
• For both sexes, as orgasm approaches, respiration increases dramatically, and pulse rate and
blood pressure continue to rise.
• There is usually a loss of control over some voluntary muscles, which results in muscle
contractions and spasms, especially in the hands and feet.
• Muscles in the pelvic region begin to contract rhythmically at the rate of every 0.8 seconds.

• For women, the anus, uterus, muscles of the pelvic floor, and walls of the outer third of the
vagina all contract at intervals of 0.8 seconds during orgasm.
• For men, orgasm also involves pelvic contractions and usually includes ejaculation.
• Ejaculation occurs in two stages.
• The first stage is emission, when semen builds up in the urethral bulb, creating the
subjective sensation that ejaculation has begun and nothing can stop it.
• The second stage is expulsion, when semen is pushed through the urethra and out of the
penis.
Fourth stage: resolution
• Also called detumescence.
• The body returns to its sexually non-aroused state; this happens fairly rapidly following
orgasm, but takes somewhat longer if orgasm has not occurred.
• For both sexes heart rate, blood pressure, and muscle tension drop quickly.
• If there was a sex flush, it fades.
• Both sexes usually feel relaxed, warm, content, and sleepy.
• If a woman receives additional stimulation following orgasm, she may be capable of
returning to the plateau phase and have one or more additional orgasms without entering a
resolution phase or refractory period between them.
• For women, blood flows back out of erectile tissues throughout the genitals and breasts.
• The breasts, nipples, and areolas diminish in size.
• The clitoris resumes its pre-arousal position and shrinks slightly.
• The labia minora return to their normal size and position.
• The walls of the vagina relax and fold in on one another.
• The uterus drops back down to just above the cervix.
• For men, nipples lose their erection.
• The penile glans lightens in color.
• The penis becomes softer and smaller, returning to its unaroused, flaccid state.
• The scrotal skin relaxes and the testicles drop down, away from the body.
2. Explain the concept of Tantra. Discuss the practice of Tantric sex. Include an explanation
of the goals of this practice and technique.
• Tantra is a spiritual practice that originated in India thousands of years ago.
• Practitioners of Tantra work to achieve enlightenment, the totality of the development of
their potential as human beings.

• Trantric sex refers to a set of sexual exercises and activities that are said to transform
pleasurable sex acts into spiritual experiences.
• In Tantric beliefs, the energy that is believed to flow throughout the body joins together
seven main energy centers, called chakras, throughout the body, from the base of the spine to
the scalp.
• In Tantric sex, the goal is to open up the chakras and move the sexual energy, or kundalini,
from the chakras nearest the genitals up to the heart, which is the “feeling chakra.”
• From there the sexual energy unites with the partner’s energy channel before flowing to the
crown chakra at the top of the head, creating a sensation of oneness and ecstasy.
• The joining of two people is considered a spiritual rite and leads to a unity between them
that is a stronger force than the sum of their individual spiritual energy.
3. Discuss three criticisms of Masters and Johnson’s EPOR model.
Masters and Johnson neglected emotional and psychological components of sexuality,
especially desire.
• Kaplan and others have posed the question, “would a sexual response cycle occur at all if
desire is missing from the theory?”
• One researcher, Roy Levin, proposed that two types of desire should be added: one type of
desire that occurs spontaneously and then leads to sexual excitement, and another that stems
from sexual stimulation, leading to sexual excitement.
A single, four-stage model cannot adequately describe the sexual responding of both men and
women.
• These arguments have centered on the notion that the EPOR model is too linear, that is
assumes that the stages predictably follow one another in a prescribed sequence.
• This progression might explain the male response cycle, but doesn’t adequately explain the
female response cycle, because the latter is significantly more complex.
Masters and Johnson’s generalizations do not apply to all men and all women.
• They claimed that men ejaculate, but women do not.
• There is evidence that female ejaculation does exist.
• They claimed that men have a refractory period, but women do not.
• Research has suggested that some women may have a refractory period that is similar to a
man’s.
• They claimed that women can have multiple orgasms, but men cannot.
• More women than men report multiple orgasms, but some men appear to be capable of
multiple orgasms, as well.
4. Explain Kaplan’s Three-Stage Model of Sexual Response. Compare and contrast this
model to Masters and Johnson’s EPOR model.

• Kaplan believed that Masters and Johnson’s model had too many rigid, sequential stages.
• Kaplan believed that sexual responding was unlikely unless someone wanted to be sexual;
the first stage of her model was desire.
• Kaplan’s Three-Stage Model consisted of desire, excitement, and orgasm.
• She rejected Masters and Johnson’s notions of plateau and resolution.
• Kaplan believed that their plateau stage was a part of excitement.
• Kaplan believed that resolution rarely posed any sexual problems, and was therefore of little
clinical interest.
• Kaplan believed that difficulties with sexual desire are common.
• She believed that many factors could interfere with sexual desire.
• Kaplan’s model added desire at the beginning of the stages, and streamlined the sexual
response cycle.
• Her model became a popular alternative approach to Masters and Johnson’s EPOR model
for understanding, evaluating, and treating problems with sexual responding.
5. Identify and define the stages of Reed’s Erotic Stimulus Pathway Theory. Provide
examples of each stage.
First stage: seduction
• This corresponds to Kaplan’s desire stage.
• In Reed’s model, desire is created by the behaviors people engage in that they believe will
attract another person and make themselves sexually attractive to others.
• Examples include: wearing cologne and perfumes, using makeup, dressing in alluring ways,
flirting, and making eye contact, among others.
Second stage: sensation
• This is when sexual behavior and sexual arousal begin, similar to the excitement and plateau
phases in the EPOR model.
• Reed said during this stage our heightened senses, fantasy, and imagination combine to feed
the arousal and motivate us to make it continue.
Third stage: surrender
• Reed believed that the peak of sexual arousal was orgasm, which he conceived of as a
giving over of oneself; a surrender, as he called it.
• He saw orgasm as the culmination of sexual intimacy.
Fourth stage: reflection
• This is the after-orgasm phase.
• It’s a time when both partners reflect on the experience and bring meaning to it.

• The importance of the reflection phase is that it provides an opportunity for partners to
interpret the sexual encounter in positive or negative terms.
• This helps us make choices about whether or not to engage in the activity again, under the
same circumstances, or with the same partner.
Test Bank for Human Sexuality
Roger R. Hock
ISBN's: 9780205989409, 9780133971385, 9780134224961

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