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CHAPTER 5: Contraception: Planning and Preventing Pregnancy
1. About _____ percent of all pregnancies in the United States are unplanned.
a. 33
b. 25
c. 50
d. 80
Answer: C
Rationale:
Most heterosexual couples want to engage in sexual intercourse and most of the time they do,
they want to prevent pregnancy. However, about half of all pregnancies in the United States
are unplanned, which does not necessarily mean that they are unwanted.
2. What is the name of the process that is used to prevent conception?
a. contraception
b. abortion
c. sexual supplements
d. adoption
Answer: A
3. The Comstock Act was a bill that stated _____.
a. it was illegal to sell or distribute any birth control information or devices
b. sodomy was legal
c. abortion was illegal
d. homosexual marriages was illegal
Answer: A
Rationale:
Anthony Comstock was an “anti-obscenity,” right-wing radical who considered all
contraceptive information and devices obscene and indecent. His act, the Comstock Act,
made it illegal to sell or distribute contraceptive information or devices in any form.
4. Margaret Sanger was a widely recognized leader in the _____ movement in the United
States.
a. Comstock
b. contraceptive
c. abstinence

d. abortion
Answer: B
Rationale:
Margaret Sanger opened the first birth control clinic, located in Brooklyn, New York. She
became a celebrated and widely recognized leader of the contraceptive movement in the
United States, and in many countries throughout the world.
5. Research has shown that _____ percent of unplanned pregnancies occur in couples that are
using contraceptives.
a. 23
b. 40
c. 53
d. 60
Answer: C
Rationale:
Research has shown that 53 percent of unplanned pregnancies occur in couples that are using
contraceptives. Most of these contraceptive failures are due either to incorrect use of the
contraceptive method or to reliance on false information about pregnancy and contraception.
6. Why is douching ineffective in preventing pregnancy?
a. because seminal fluid sticks to the vaginal walls preventing sperm from being killed
b. the water or other solution used to wash out the vagina can actually push the remaining
sperm through the cervix even faster
c. because semen is an acid-like substance which counteracts the effects of douching
d. because douching kills bacteria that helps sperm swim to the fallopian tubes
Answer: B
Rationale:
Many people still believe in certain myths about contraception; one such myth is that
douching is an effective way to prevent pregnancy. The truth is that the stream of water or
other solution used to wash out the vagina can actually push the remaining sperm through the
cervix even faster. Not only is douching not recommended for contraception, but it could
force bacteria higher into a woman’s reproductive system and increase the risk of infections.
7. Danielle would like to use a method of contraception that protects against sexually
transmitted infections and prevents pregnancy. Which of the following would be the best
choice for her?
a. cervical cap
b. birth control pills

c. diaphragm
d. selective abstinence
Answer: D
Rationale:
The only 100-percent effective way to prevent pregnancy and prevent contracting or
transmitting STIs is avoiding all sexual behaviors that can result in pregnancy or spread
infection; this strategy is called selective abstinence.
8. Ethan has chosen celibacy as his method of contraception. What does this mean?
a. Ethan cannot have intercourse but can masturbate.
b. Ethan can engage in deep kissing and mutual masturbation.
c. Ethan must avoid any activity where seminal fluids are secreted.
d. Ethan must avoid all sexual expression and activity.
Answer: D
Rationale:
An individual who is celibate engages in so sexual activity whatsoever, and avoids all sexual
expression and activity.
9. Outercourse is a form of _____.
a. abstinence were a couple avoids risky sexual behaviors such as intercourse
b. contraception where a couple avoids all sexual expression and activity
c. contraception where the man withdraws his penis prior to ejaculation
d. abstinence where a couple only engages in anal intercourse
Answer: A
Rationale:
Outercourse (sometimes called selective abstinence) means engaging only in sexual
behaviors that are “safe” and avoiding those that are risky, such as vaginal or anal intercourse
and oral sex.
10. Behaviors available to a couple practicing outercourse include _____.
a. vaginal intercourse
b. anal intercourse
c. oral sex
d. intimate touching
Answer: D

Rationale:
Behaviors that are available to a couple practicing outercourse include holding hands, kissing,
intimate touching, and exploring each other’s bodies.
11. How do condoms work to prevent pregnancy?
a. They release a chemical that kills sperm.
b. They contain chemicals that combine with a woman’s natural lubrication to stop sperm
from leaving the vagina.
c. They release a chemical that prevents eggs from being fertilized .
d. They provide a barrier to prevent semen from entering the vagina.
Answer: D
Rationale:
Condoms function as contraceptives by providing a barrier to prevent semen from entering
the vagina.
12. Why is it recommended that only polyurethane or latex condoms be used to protect
against pregnancy and STIs?
a. Disease-causing viruses can pass through the pores in lambskin condoms.
b. Lambskin condoms are lubricated with Vaseline which causes them to break.
c. Latex and polyurethane condoms never expire.
d. Latex and polyurethane condoms always have a reservoir tip which limits breakage.
Answer: A
Rationale:
Only latex or polyurethane condoms should be used; natural membrane (lambskin) condoms
have small pores that may allow disease-causing viruses to pass through.
13. Baron and Nettie are about to engage in intercourse together for the first time. They can
best increase their confidence in their use of the male condom by using _____.
a. condoms with nonoxynol-9
b. condoms with a reservoir tip
c. lambskin condoms
d. natural membrane condoms
Answer: B
14. Condoms have a _____ failure rate when used correctly and consistently.
a. 3%

b. 10%
c. 30%
d. 50%
Answer: A
Rationale:
The 3% failure rate means that if 100 couples have intercourse an average of twice each week
for a year and use condoms correctly each time, only three of the couples will become
pregnant. The 3% failure rate is based on the couples using them, not the condom failure
itself.
15. One reason for condom failure is _____.
a. using old condoms
b. manufacturing defects
c. wrong size
d. allergic reactions
Answer: A
Rationale:
Failures are not generally due to product failure, but are usually because of incorrect use. One
of the common mistakes that people make when using condoms is using old or damaged
condoms.
16. When used correctly, the male condom is placed over _____.
a. the penis right before ejaculation
b. the penis prior to erection
c. an erect penis prior to intercourse
d. an erect penis sometime during intercourse
Answer: C
Rationale:
The condom should be placed on the erect penis before any contact between the penis and the
partner’s genital area.
17. Harrison’s sexuality class is learning to use male condoms correctly. His professor
probably told the class to _____.
a. unroll the condom prior to placing it on the penis
b. withdraw the penis when the erection is lost after ejaculation
c. always use water-based lubricants

d. fill the condom with water prior to using to test for leakage
Answer: C
If a couple decides to add lubrication, they should not use an oil-based product, as those can
cause latex to break. Only water-based lubricants should be used, such as K-Y Jelly,
spermicidal creams, or other lubricants made especially for sexual activity.
18. The female condom works by _____.
a. releasing a spermicide into the vagina
b. preventing an exchange of sexual fluids
c. changing the chemical balance within the vagina
d. creating a barrier between the cervix and fallopian tubes
Answer: B
Rationale:
The female condom creates a lining on the inside of the vagina to prevent genital contact or
the exchange of sexual fluids.
19.. An advantage of the female condom is it _____.
a. has a significantly higher success rate than the male condom
b. is cheaper than male condoms
c. allows women to be more in control of contraception
d. is not lubricated therefore eliminating allergic reactions
Answer: C
Rationale:
The female condom has the advantage of allowing the woman to be in more control of
contraception and preventing sexually transmitted infections. It also allows for greater
spontaneity than the male condom because the female condom may be inserted up to eight
hours before intercourse.
20. One thing all female hormonal contraceptives have in common is that they _____.
a. alter certain aspects of a woman’s ovulation cycle or reproductive tract
b. form a barrier between egg and sperm
c. prevent entry of the sperm into the fallopian tubes
d. kill and weaken sperm
Answer: A
Rationale:

Female hormonal methods of contraception prevent pregnancy by altering certain
characteristics of a woman’s ovulation cycle or reproductive tract. Hormonal contraception
prevents ovulation, thickens the cervical mucus to create a barrier against sperm, or changes
the lining of the uterus so that even if an egg is fertilized, it will not implant and create a
pregnancy.
21. Oral contraceptives are also referred to as _____.
a. birth control pills
b. barrier methods
c. fertility awareness
d. sterilization
Answer: A
Rationale:
In general, oral contraceptives, also referred to as birth control pills, are among the most
popular reversible contraception methods used by women in the United States.
22. Oral contraceptives_____.
a. offer protection against sexually transmitted infections
b. are an effective method of preventing pregnancy
c. should be used with a spermicide
d. contain the hormone testosterone
Answer: B
Rationale:
When used correctly, oral contraceptives provide a convenient and extremely effective
method of preventing pregnancy, but they provide no protection against STIs.
23. Which two hormones are used in the combination pill?
a. estrogen and testosterone
b. nonoxynol-9 and estrogen
c. progestin and estrogen
d. nonoxynol-9 and progestin
Answer: C
Rationale:
Combination oral contraceptives contain both estrogen and progestin.
24. The minipill is a hormonal method that contains _____.

a. estrogen
b. progestin
c. progesterone
d. testosterone
Answer: B
Rationale:
The progestin-only “minipill” has approximately the same low failure rate as the combination
(progestin and estrogen) pill. The main advantage of the progestin-only oral contraceptive pill
is that it avoids some of the potential negative side effects associated with estrogen in the
combination pill.
25. Arianna is using a new oral contraceptive called Seasonale. How many days does she take
the pills with hormones?
a. 28 days
b. 21 days
c. 78 days
d. 84 days
Answer: D
Rationale:
Instead of the traditional 21-day regimen, Seasonale provides a daily dose or hormones for 84
consecutive days, after which she takes the usual placebo pills for 7 days.
26. Natalia is interested in using extended oral contraception such as Seasonale and
Seasonique. What should she know about this method?
a. It must be taken for 50 consecutive days.
b. She may have bleeding or spotting between menstrual periods.
c. It provides protection from sexually transmitted infections.
d. She may never have a period again.
Answer: B
Rationale:
In studies of extended oral contraceptives, the most serious side effect was an increase in
bleeding or spotting between periods.
27. The most common incorrect use of oral contraceptives is _____.
a. taking them at different times each day
b. taking more than one per day

c. taking the wrong pill
d. forgetting to take them every day
Answer: D
Rationale:
The most common incorrect use of oral contraceptives is forgetting to take them every day.
Women using oral contraceptives must take one pill every day of the 21-day course, and
should try to take a pill at approximately the same time each day.
28. Mary takes her progestin-only contraceptive pill at 8:00 every morning, but today she
didn’t remember to take it until 3:00 in the afternoon. What should she do?
a. throw away the rest of the pack and avoid intercourse for ten days
b. take two pills every morning for the rest of the month
c. take a pill as soon as she remembers, take the next pill at the usual time, and use a backup
method for 48 hours after taking the late pill
d. ask her physician to prescribe a different oral contraceptive
Answer: C
Rationale:
A woman could become pregnant if she forgets to take her progestin-only pill more than three
hours past the regular time. If she does forget, she should take the missed pill as soon as she
remembers. She should take the next one at the usual time.
29. Hormonal implants differ from traditional oral contraceptives (birth control pills) because
hormonal implants _____.
a. have no negative side effects
b. have a much higher effectiveness rate than birth control pills
c. use a different method to release contraceptive hormones into a woman’s body
d. have to be replaced every six months
Answer: C
Rational : The hormonal implant is a small tube containing a progestin-family hormone that
is implanted under the skin of a woman’s upper arm. It releases a hormone similar to that
found in many oral contraceptives. The contraceptive action of a contraceptive implant
involves the slow release of hormones into the woman’s body, so that protection is provided
without any action at all on the woman’s part.
30. An advantages of the hormonal implant is that it _____.
a. has near perfect effectiveness
b. offers protection from STIs

c. may reduce the length of a period
d. has no possible side effects
Answer: A
Rationale:
The advantages of the hormonal implant are its ease of use and near-perfect effectiveness.
31. An advantage of using oral contraception is that it _____.
a. is impossible to miss a dose
b. offers protection from STIs
c. may reduce the length of a period
d. has no possible side effects
Answer: C
Rationale:
An advantage of using oral contraceptives is that they may reduce the length of menstrual
periods; they may also reduce the amount of menstrual bleeding.
32. A disadvantage of using oral contraceptives is that they _____.
a. increase the length and severity of menstrual periods
b. are not very effective in preventing pregnancy
c. offer no protection against sexually transmitted infections
d. cause the growth of facial hair
Answer: C
Rationale:
Oral contraceptives provide no protection against sexually transmitted infections.
33. Depo-Provera is a(n) _____.
a. injectable hormonal contraceptive
b. hormonal implant
c. contraceptive patch
d. emergency contraceptive pill
Answer: A
Rationale:

Depo-Provera is a hormonal contraceptive that is administered through an injection in the
arm or in the hip. Each injection gives a minimum of three months of highly effective
contraception.
34. How is Depo-Provera administered?
a. It is injected every three months.
b. It is taken in pill form every day.
c. It is implanted under the arm.
d. It is inserted into a woman’s vagina.
Answer: A
Rationale:
Depo-Provera is a hormonal contraceptive that is administered through an injection (given by
a physician or a nurse) in the arm or in the hip.
35. Victoria was told that a common side effect of Depo-Provera is amenorrhea. Which of the
following would you use to explain the term amenorrhea to Victoria?
a. cessation of a woman’s period
b. very heavy and long periods
c. a type of depression
d. spotting between periods
Answer: A
Rationale:
A side effect common to Depo-Provera is amenorrhea, the cessation of a woman’s periods.
36. Yolanda is using a form of birth control called Ortho Evra. What type of contraception is
Yolanda using?
a. IUD
b. implants
c. injection
d. patch
Answer: D
Rationale:
The contraceptive patch was introduced into the U.S. market in 2002, under the name Ortho
Evra.
37. Arielle is going to use the contraceptive patch. Her physician probably told her that each
patch is worn for _____ consecutive weeks, then the _____ week is patch-free.

a. four; fifth
b. three; fourth
c. two; third
d. five; sixth
Answer: B
Rationale:
Each patch is worn for one week, for three consecutive weeks, and then the fourth week is
patch-free.
38.How does the contraceptive ring work?
a. It is inserted into the vagina and is left there for three weeks.
b. It is injected every three months and delivers one hormone.
c. It is attached to the abdomen and delivers two hormones.
d. It is implanted in the underarm and is left for three years.
Answer: A
Rationale:
The woman inserts the ring into her vagina and leaves it there for three weeks. At the end of
the three weeks, she removes it for a week, when she will typically have her period.
39.What are emergency contraceptive pills?
a. pills used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse has occurred
b. pills taken when one birth control pill is missed
c. pills taken prior to sexual intercourse to prevent pregnancy
d. pills used to terminate an unplanned pregnancy
Answer: A
Rationale:
ECPs use various combinations of drugs to interrupt a woman’s normal hormonal pattern and
prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse has already occurred.
40.Which of the following is a barrier method of contraception?
a. calendar
b. sterilization
c. diaphragm
d. ring

Answer: C
Rationale:
The diaphragm is a thin latex membrane that is attached to a flexible ring, forming a shallow
cup. Following ejaculation, sperm are blocked from reaching the cervix by the diaphragm.
41. Ed and Louisa would like to use the diaphragm as their method of contraception. What
should they know about effective diaphragm use?
a. There is no need to use a spermicide with the diaphragm.
b. It may be inserted up to 24 hours prior to intercourse.
c. It must be left in place for at least 6 hours after intercourse.
d. Additional spermicide is not needed if intercourse is repeated within 6 hours.
Answer: C
Rationale:
The diaphragm must always be used with a spermicide, and may be inserted up to six hours
before intercourse. Following intercourse, it must be left in place for at least six hours, but
not longer than 24 hours.
42. The cervical cap provides protection for up to _____ without the necessity of additional
spermicide.
a. 6 hours
b. 8 hours
c. 24 hours
d. 48 hours
Answer: D
Rationale:
The cervical cap provides continuous protection for up to 48 hours without the necessity of
additional spermicide, so it can be placed in the vagina up to two days before intercourse.
43. Jessica is using a new type of contraceptive that is used like a diaphragm but does not
need to be fitted by a health professional. What is the name of this contraceptive?
a. IUD
b. cervical cap
c. contraceptive ring
d. Lea’s Shield
Answer: D
Rationale:

Lea’s Shield is used in much the same way as a traditional diaphragm, but due to its design, it
does not need to be fitted by a health professional.
44. How does the contraceptive sponge work?
a. It releases spermicide when inserted into the vagina.
b. It blocks sperm from reaching the cervix.
c. It prevents the passage of the zygote into the uterus.
d. It prevents ovulation by secreting hormones.
Answer: A
Rationale:
When the sponge is moistened with water and inserted into the vagina, it releases spermicide
and sets up a barrier between the vagina and the cervix.
45. A disadvantage of the contraceptive sponge is it _____.
a. typically prevents ovulation
b. is less effective in preventing pregnancy than some other methods
c. reduces the length of a period
d. interferes with future fertility
Answer: B
Rationale:
A main disadvantage is that the contraceptive sponges are not quite as effective in preventing
pregnancy as some other methods.
46. Spermicides should be applied within _____ before intercourse.
a. 1 hour
b. 3 hours
c. 4 hours
d. 8 hours
Answer: A
Rationale:
A spermicide should be applied to the inside of the vagina within an hour before intercourse
and must be deep enough in the vagina to reach the cervix.
47. Josh and Rashida are considering using spermicides as their form of contraception. What
should they know about spermicides prior to using them?
a. They offer protection from sexually transmitted infections.

b. They have a very low failure rate.
c. They should be applied inside the vagina within two hours of intercourse.
d. A new application of spermicide must be used for each act of intercourse.
Answer: D
Rationale:
A new application of spermicide must be used for each act of intercourse, and following
intercourse it must be left in place for at least six hours.
48. Lloyd and Luna are using a method of birth control that is based on ovulation prediction.
This couple is using a(n) _____ method.
a. barrier
b. hormonal
c. intrauterine
d. fertility awareness
Answer: D
Rationale:
Fertility awareness methods of contraception are based on the knowledge that a couple’s
ability to become pregnant varies during the woman’s menstrual cycle. If a woman knows
exactly when she ovulates, and she and her partner abstain from intercourse for about seven
days prior and one day after ovulation, she would be at a low risk of pregnancy.
49. Caresa has a somewhat irregular menstrual cycle ranging from 21 to 35 days. Are Caresa
and her partner good candidates for the Standard Days method of birth control?
a. No, because it is very difficult to accurately predict when she ovulates and therefore which
days are “safe” from pregnancy.
b. No, because she may end up having intercourse near the beginning of her period, thereby
increasing the likelihood of conception.
c. Yes, because not having to use any artificial means of birth control will greatly enhance
their sexual satisfaction.
d. Yes, because an irregular menstrual cycle indicates that she is probably not fertile anyway.
Answer: A
Rationale:
This method of ovulation prediction is based on the fact that most (80 percent) of women’s
fertility cycles are between 26 and 32 days long; this means that 80 percent of women ovulate
between days 11 and 18 of their fertility cycles. To be safe, a woman should assume that her
window of fertility is from five days before ovulation to a day after. Caresa’s cycle is too
irregular to use this method with any degree of reliability.

50. Max and Mimi are using a method of birth control that requires Mimi to carefully observe
changes in the secretions from her cervix to predict ovulation. This couple is using the _____
method.
a. standard days
b. Two-Day
c. symptothermal
d. basal body temperature
Answer: B
Rationale:
The Two-Day Method of fertility awareness allows a woman to tell when she is ovulating by
carefully observing changes in the mucus that is secreted from the cervix into the vagina.
51. According to the Two-Day method of birth control _____.
a. a woman should check for changes in her vaginal walls every week
b. it is okay to use hormonal contraceptives while learning to use this method
c. it is safe to have unprotected sex during a woman’s period
d. unprotected intercourse should be avoided when mucus is present for two days
Answer: D
Rationale:
If a woman notices the presence of clear, slick mucus for two days, she should abstain from
unprotected intercourse because she is likely to be ovulating, or will soon.
52. Rena is using the basal body temperature method. She needs to check her temperature
_____.
a. every day
b. every other day
c. only when she thinks she is ovulating
d. the week after ovulation has ended
Answer: A
Rationale:
Basal body temperature refers to the internal temperature immediately upon awakening the
morning. If a woman takes her temperature every morning, she will usually notice a slight
drop the day before she ovulates.
53.For increased accuracy when using fertility awareness, it is recommended to _____.
a. also use an IUD

b. only check cervical mucus
c. monitor changes in cervical mucus and changes in basal body temperature
d. also take birth control pills
Answer: C
Rationale:
The combination of these two methods, called the symptothermal method of fertility
awareness, is best used to determine when ovulation has ended, at which time unprotected
intercourse will most likely be free of the risk of pregnancy.
54. An advantage of fertility awareness is that these methods_____.
a. protect against sexually transmitted infections
b. do not require cooperation from both partners
c. have a low failure rate if used incorrectly
d. have no negative side effects
Answer: D
Rationale:
Fertility awareness methods involve no hormones, chemicals, or devices, so there are not
negative side effects to worry about.
55.The intrauterine device is inserted into the _____.
a. fallopian tubes
b. ovaries
c. uterus
d. labia
Answer: C
Rationale:
The IUD is a small plastic device in the shape of a T that a doctor inserts into the uterus
through the cervix via the vagina.
56. What is one way in which the IUD works?
a. It releases spermicide when inserted into the vagina.
b. It prevents the ovum from reaching the fallopian tube.
c. It prevents the passage of the zygote into the uterus.
d. It contains a progesterone-like hormone that thickens the cervical mucus so sperm cannot
pass through.

Answer: D
Rationale:
One type of IUD, Mirena, contains a small amount of progesterone-like hormone
(levonorgestrel) that is released into the uterus and contributes to pregnancy prevention by
thickening the cervical mucus so that sperm cells cannot pass through from the vagina.
57. Lena is interested in using the intrauterine device (IUD) as her form of contraception.
What should she know about it?
a. Spermicides must be used with an IUD
b. There are many negative side effects
c. It has a low effectiveness rate
d. It is an effective method of contraception that does not require the user to remember to take
a pill every day.
Answer: D
Rationale:
A main advantage of the IUD is that it is a hassle-free, effective method of contraception that
does not require the user to remember to take a daily pill or have a method of contraception
readily available prior to intercourse.
58. Sterilization procedures for both men and women involve _____.
a. surgery
b. abstaining
c. oral contraception
d. insertion of a vaginal ring
Answer: A
Rationale:
Sterilization is defined as any surgical alteration that prevents the emission of sperm or eggs;
it is also referred to as voluntary surgical contraception.
59. Laparoscopy is a form of female sterilization that involves _____ incisions.
a. two
b. three
c. four
d. five
Answer: A
Rationale:

Surgical sterilization is typically done by means of labaroscopy or minilaparascopy; both of
these procedures require two very small incisions in the abdomen, through which a viewing
scope and a surgical instrument are inserted.
60. A _____ involves cutting and tying off the vas deferens so that sperm produced by the
testicles can no longer mix with semen in the ejaculate.
a. vasectomy
b. tubal ligation
c. Essure PBC
d. laparoscopy
Answer: A
Rationale:
A vasectomy involves making a small incision with a scalpel on each side of the scrotum to
remove a small section of the vas deferens and closing the ends either by tying or cauterizing
them. This makes it impossible for sperm to travel into the man’s body from the testicles.
61. After a vasectomy, a man is not considered to be infertile until he has submitted two
semen samples after three months. This is to make sure that _____.
a. no sperm cells are left over in his reproductive tract following surgery
b. his scars have healed
c. he is ejaculating properly
d. a sufficient cut was made in his urethra
Answer: A
Rationale:
The small failure rate of vasectomies could be due to several factors, one of which is because
sperm cells are left over in the male reproductive tract following surgery. To avoid this, a man
is not considered to be infertile until he has submitted two semen samples after three months.
62. Abortion is _____.
a. a method used to prevent pregnancy
b. the termination of a pregnancy
c. an easy decision for most people
d. a fertility awareness method
Answer: B
Rationale:
Abortion is the termination of a pregnancy, not the prevention of fertilization of an ovum by a
sperm.

63. How many types of contraceptive methods are available for men?
a. one
b. three
c. five
d. seven
Answer: B
Rationale:
For men, there are three methods of contraception: abstinence, condoms, and vasectomy.
64. Larry is a participant in a research study that is exploring a male hormonal contraceptive.
How does this type of contraception work?
a. It changes the electrical charge of sperm cells, making them incapable of fertilization.
b. It plugs the vasa deferenita.
c. It deforms the heads of the sperm, making it difficult to penetrate the ovum.
d. It alters male hormones so that sperm production decreases to the point of infertility.
Answer: D
Rationale:
In 2008, a pharmaceutical company in China developed at type of injectable testosterone that
suppresses the production of sperm to infertile levels within 6 months.
65. Chuck is a participant in a research study that is exploring a contraceptive technique for
men called RISUG. How does RISUG work?
a. It changes the acidity and electrical charge of sperm cells, making them incapable of
fertilization.
b. It plugs the vasa deferenita.
c. It interferes with the calcium in the heads of sperm, making it difficult to dissolve the
outside of the ovum.
d. It alters male hormones so that sperm production decreases to the point of infertility.
Answer: A
Rationale:
In the technique called RISUG, a plastic-like compound is injected into each vas deferens
using a very tiny needle and a local anesthetic. As sperm pass through the material, it changes
the acidity and electrical charge of the sperm cells, rendering them incapable of fertilization.
66. What are immunocontraceptives?
a. a hormonal contraceptive for men

b. a gel that kills sperm cells
c. a method to plug the vas deferentia
d. a injection that vaccinates men against fertility
Answer: D
Rationale:
Immunocontraceptives are vaccines that may cause a man’s immune system to develop
antibodies against specific hormones necessary for sperm cells to mature, or to effect genetic
changes in sperm to render them unable to fertilize an ovum.
67. Antimicrobial and spermicidal gels that are applied vaginally, like BufferGel, are
designed to kill _____.
a. sperm cells and increase sexual pleasure
b. only viruses, but not bacteria
c bacteria and prevent a fertilized egg from reaching the uterus
d. sperm cells and block most of the pathogens that cause many STIs
Answer: D
Rationale:
Antimicrobial, spermicidal gels applied vaginally are designed to stop sperm dead in their
tracks and block most of the pathogens that cause sexually-transmitted infections such as
HIV, genital herpes, genital warts, gonorrhea, and syphilis. The leading candidates in this line
of research are known by the brand names BufferGel and Pro 2000.
TRUE-FALSE
1. Research shows that college students who are using contraception tend to use it
inconsistently.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Studies have indeed indicated that among college students who use contraception, there tends
to be a pattern of inconsistent use. Factors such as forgetfulness, misinformation, or lack of
access to contraceptives can contribute to this inconsistency.
2. Research shows that most male and female college students are using reliable
contraception.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Research suggests that a significant portion of college students may not be using reliable
contraception consistently. Inconsistencies in contraceptive use, lack of access, or

misinformation about contraceptive methods can contribute to unintended pregnancies among
college students.
3. In the late 1800s, the only form of birth control available to most people was the rhythm
method.
Answer: True
Rationale:
In the late 1800s, the rhythm method, also known as periodic abstinence or natural family
planning, was one of the few methods available for birth control. This method relies on
tracking a woman's menstrual cycle to predict fertile days and avoid intercourse during those
times to prevent pregnancy.
4. Margaret Sanger’s later work for contraceptive research funding resulted in the
development of the first hormonal birth control pill.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Margaret Sanger, a pioneer in the birth control movement, advocated for increased access to
contraceptives and supported research on contraception. Her efforts contributed to the
development of the first oral contraceptive pill, commonly known as "the pill," which
revolutionized birth control in the 20th century.
5. Couples who are able to communicate effectively about contraception are more likely to
use it consistently.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Effective communication between partners regarding contraception is associated with
increased likelihood of consistent and correct contraceptive use. Open discussions about
contraceptive preferences, methods, and concerns can help couples make informed decisions
and address any barriers to consistent use.
6. Douching is an effective means of contraception.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Douching, or the rinsing of the vagina with water or other fluids, is not an effective method
of contraception. In fact, douching can disrupt the natural balance of vaginal flora, increase
the risk of infections, and may even push sperm further into the reproductive tract, potentially
increasing the risk of pregnancy.
7. Having sexual intercourse standing up will prevent conception.
Answer: False
Rationale:

The position in which sexual intercourse occurs does not affect the likelihood of conception.
Pregnancy can occur regardless of the sexual position, as long as viable sperm are able to
reach and fertilize an egg.
8. The only 100-percent effective way to prevent pregnancy and contracting STIs is selective
abstinence.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Selective abstinence, or abstaining from sexual activity, is the only method that provides
100% protection against both pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). While
other contraceptive methods can significantly reduce the risk of pregnancy and STIs, they are
not foolproof.
9. Recent research reveals that the use of condoms lubricated with nonoxynol-9 may decrease
the possibility of HIV transmission.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Research has shown that condoms lubricated with nonoxynol-9, a spermicide, may actually
increase the risk of HIV transmission by causing irritation or small tears in the vaginal or
rectal lining, which can facilitate the entry of HIV into the body.
10. Inadequate lubrication during intercourse may cause a condom to break.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Inadequate lubrication during intercourse can increase friction between the condom and the
skin, potentially causing the condom to tear or break. Using additional water-based or
silicone-based lubricants can help reduce friction and prevent condom breakage.
11. Removal of male condoms should occur after the loss of erection.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Male condoms should be removed immediately after ejaculation, while the penis is still erect.
Waiting for the loss of erection increases the risk of semen spillage or slippage, potentially
leading to unintended pregnancy or transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
12. The female condom should be used at the same time as a male condom.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The female condom is designed to be used as an alternative to the male condom, not in
conjunction with it. Using both simultaneously can lead to increased friction, potential
breakage, and reduced effectiveness of both methods.

13. Withdrawal prior to ejaculation provides protection from sexually-transmitted infections.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Withdrawal, also known as the pull-out method, does not provide adequate protection against
sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Pre-ejaculate (pre-cum) can contain viable sperm and
may also carry STIs, putting partners at risk of pregnancy and infection.
14. Oral contraceptives should be taken at approximately the same time each day.
Answer: True
Rationale:
To maintain optimal effectiveness, oral contraceptives (birth control pills) should be taken at
the same time every day. Consistency in timing helps ensure stable hormone levels and
maximizes contraceptive efficacy.
15. Amenorrhea is a common side effect of Depo-Provera.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Depo-Provera, a hormonal contraceptive injection, commonly causes menstrual changes,
including irregular bleeding or amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), as a side effect. This
occurs due to the suppression of ovarian function by the synthetic progestin hormone in the
injection.
16. The contraceptive patch may expose women to much lower levels of hormones than are
found in most oral contraceptives.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The contraceptive patch releases hormones (estrogen and progestin) into the bloodstream at
levels comparable to those found in most oral contraceptives. In fact, some studies suggest
that the patch may expose women to higher levels of hormones than oral contraceptives due
to differences in absorption rates.
17. The vaginal ring is left in the vagina for three weeks.
Answer: True
Rationale:
The vaginal ring is a hormonal contraceptive method that is inserted into the vagina and left
in place for three weeks (21 days). After three weeks, the ring is removed, and a new ring is
inserted one week later to maintain contraceptive effectiveness.
18. Emergency contraception should be taken as soon as possible after unprotected
intercourse.

Answer: True
Rationale:
Emergency contraception (commonly known as the morning-after pill) is most effective when
taken as soon as possible after unprotected intercourse, ideally within 24 hours. Delaying its
use reduces its effectiveness in preventing pregnancy.
19. The diaphragm can be placed in the vagina up to two days before intercourse.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The diaphragm should be inserted into the vagina shortly before intercourse, typically no
more than two hours before sexual activity. Leaving it in place for an extended period, such
as two days, increases the risk of vaginal irritation or discomfort and may affect its
contraceptive effectiveness.
20. With proper care and storage, barrier devices like the diaphragm and the cervical cap can
last from six months to two years.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Barrier devices such as the diaphragm and the cervical cap can last for an extended period
with proper care and storage. They should be cleaned, dried, and stored in a cool, dry place
between uses to maintain their integrity and effectiveness.
21. The contraceptive sponge cannot be used with male or female condoms.
Answer: False
Rationale:
The contraceptive sponge can be used in conjunction with male or female condoms for added
protection against pregnancy. However, using multiple contraceptive methods simultaneously
may increase the risk of breakage or reduced effectiveness, so it's essential to use them
correctly and according to instructions.
22. Fertility awareness provides protection from sexually-transmitted infections.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Fertility awareness methods, such as tracking menstrual cycles and monitoring fertility signs,
are primarily used for contraception and family planning. While these methods can help
prevent pregnancy when used correctly, they do not offer protection against sexually
transmitted infections (STIs).
23. The Standard Days Method requires a woman to predict the time period in which she
ovulates.
Answer: True

Rationale:
The Standard Days Method is a fertility awareness-based method of contraception that
requires a woman to track her menstrual cycle and identify the fertile window when ovulation
is likely to occur. By avoiding unprotected intercourse during this period, couples can reduce
the risk of pregnancy.
24. One of the main advantages of the IUD is that it does not require the user to remember to
take a pill each day.
Answer: True
Rationale:
One of the key benefits of the intrauterine device (IUD) is its long-acting nature, which
eliminates the need for daily adherence like oral contraceptives. Once inserted, the IUD
provides continuous contraceptive protection for several years, depending on the type.
25. A vasectomy is a sterilization procedure in which a section of a man’s urethra is removed.
Answer: True
Rationale:
A vasectomy is a permanent form of male sterilization in which the vas deferens, the tubes
that carry sperm from the testicles, are surgically cut, tied, or sealed to prevent the release of
sperm during ejaculation. It does not involve the removal of any part of the urethra.
26. Abortion is the prevention of fertilization of an ovum by a sperm.
Answer: False
Rationale:
Abortion is the termination of a pregnancy by removing or expelling the embryo or fetus
from the uterus before it can survive outside the womb. It does not prevent fertilization but
rather ends an existing pregnancy.
27. Research on immunocontraceptives for men focuses on developing vaccines that may
cause a man’s immune system to develop antibodies against specific hormones necessary for
sperm cells to mature.
Answer: True
Rationale:
Immunocontraceptives for men involve research into vaccines or antibodies that target
specific proteins or hormones necessary for sperm production or maturation. By stimulating
the immune system to produce antibodies against these targets, researchers aim to disrupt
sperm function and provide a reversible form of male contraception.
SHORT ANSWER
1. _____ is any process or means of preventing sperm cells from fertilizing an ovum.
Answer: Contraception

Rationale:
Contraception refers to methods or techniques used to prevent pregnancy by inhibiting the
fertilization of an egg by sperm cells. These methods can include barrier methods, hormonal
methods, fertility awareness methods, sterilization, and others.
2. _____ opened the first birth control clinic in Brooklyn, New York.
Answer: Margaret Sanger
Rationale:
Margaret Sanger, a pioneering advocate for women's reproductive rights, established the first
birth control clinic in the United States in Brooklyn, New York, in 1916. Sanger's work was
instrumental in promoting access to contraception and family planning services.
3. Couples practicing _____ avoid all sexual expression and activity.
Answer: celibacy
Rationale:
Celibacy refers to the voluntary abstention from sexual activity or the choice to remain
unmarried. Couples practicing celibacy refrain from engaging in any form of sexual
expression, including intercourse.
4. The _____ is a thin sheath of latex or polyurethane that is placed over an erect penis prior
to intercourse.
Answer: male condom
Rationale:
The male condom is a barrier contraceptive device made of latex or polyurethane, which is
rolled onto an erect penis before sexual intercourse to prevent sperm from entering the vagina
and reaching the egg.
5. The female condom is made of _____.
Answer: polyurethane
Rationale:
The female condom is a barrier contraceptive device made of polyurethane. It is inserted into
the vagina before sexual intercourse to provide a barrier that prevents sperm from entering
the cervix and reaching the egg.
6. The female condom may be inserted up to _____ hours before intercourse.
Answer: eight
Rationale:
The female condom can be inserted into the vagina up to eight hours before sexual
intercourse, providing flexibility and convenience for users. This allows individuals to
prepare for intercourse in advance without interrupting the sexual encounter.

7. Another name for the withdrawal method is _____.
Answer: coitus interruptus
Rationale:
Coitus interruptus, commonly known as the withdrawal method, involves the man
withdrawing his penis from the vagina before ejaculation to prevent sperm from entering the
woman's reproductive tract. It is a non-hormonal and non-barrier method of contraception.
8. The _____ is an oral contraceptive containing only progestin.
Answer: minipill
Rationale:
The minipill, also known as the progestin-only pill, is an oral contraceptive containing only
progestin hormone. Unlike combination oral contraceptives, which contain both estrogen and
progestin, the minipill does not contain estrogen.
9. A pad that delivers a precise dose of two hormones into a woman’s body through the skin
is called the _____.
Answer: contraceptive patch
Rationale:
The contraceptive patch is a small, adhesive pad that delivers a precise dose of two hormones
(estrogen and progestin) through the skin into the bloodstream. It is worn on the skin and
replaced weekly to prevent pregnancy.
10. A birth control method in which unprotected sexual intercourse is avoided on the days a
woman is assumed to be ovulating is called the _____.
Answer: Standard Days Method
Rationale:
The Standard Days Method is a fertility awareness-based contraceptive method in which
unprotected sexual intercourse is avoided during the days of a woman's menstrual cycle when
she is most likely to be fertile, typically days 8 to 19 of her cycle.
11. The _____ is a small plastic device in the shape of a T that a doctor inserts into the uterus.
Answer: intrauterine device
Rationale:
An intrauterine device (IUD) is a small, T-shaped contraceptive device that is inserted into
the uterus by a healthcare provider. It works by preventing sperm from fertilizing the egg and
may also affect the uterine lining to prevent implantation.
12. Another name for voluntary surgical contraception is _____.
Answer: sterilization
Rationale:

Sterilization refers to the permanent surgical procedure that prevents an individual from
reproducing. It is a form of contraception that involves the surgical blocking, cutting, or
sealing of the reproductive organs to prevent the release or passage of eggs or sperm.
13. _____ change the acidity and electrical charge of sperm cells, rendering them incapable
of fertilization.
Answer: Vas injection techniques
Rationale:
Vas injection techniques involve the injection of substances into the vas deferens, the tubes
that carry sperm from the testes to the urethra. These substances alter the acidity and
electrical charge of sperm cells, making them unable to fertilize an egg.
14. Researchers are looking into injectable _____ for men, which could cause a man’s
immune system to develop antibodies against specific hormones necessary for sperm cells to
mature.
Answer: immunocontraceptives
Rationale:
Immunocontraceptives are substances or vaccines that stimulate the immune system to
produce antibodies against specific proteins or hormones involved in sperm production or
maturation. Injecting immunocontraceptives into men may disrupt sperm function and
provide a reversible form of contraception.
15. One effect of _____ that are applied vaginally is to block most of the pathogens that cause
sexually transmitted infections.
Answer: antimicrobial gels
Rationale:
Antimicrobial gels applied vaginally can help block pathogens, including bacteria and
viruses, that cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs). These gels may provide an
additional protective barrier during sexual intercourse, reducing the risk of STI transmission.
ESSAY
1. Discuss the politics of contraception during the early twentieth century. Explain the
Comstock Act. What was Margaret Sanger’s contribution?
Responses should consider:
• Prior to 1930, federal laws prohibited nearly everything related to contraception, including
providing information about it.
• These laws were contained in a bill referred to as the Comstock Act, named after its primary
supporter, Anthony Comstock.
• The act made it illegal to sell or distribute contraceptive information or devices in any form.
• It made it a crime for any mention of sexually transmitted diseases to appear in print.

• Doctors and nurses were prohibited from discussing these issues with their patients.
• The only method available at the time was the rhythm method.
• Margaret was a nurse and mother of three children, and the one given credit for overcoming
the Comstock Act and making contraception widely available.
• In 1912, she began to write and publish articles on female sexuality and on a woman’s right
to control her own reproductive body.
• After visiting a birth control clinic in the Netherlands where women were given the
diaphragm, she returned to the U.S. and opened the first birth control clinic in Brooklyn, N.Y.
• The clinic was raided by the police, and she spent 30 days in jail.
• She became a celebrity, and by 1916, 100,000 copies of her booklet Family Limitation had
been distributed, and birth control clinics had begun to operate. Her later work for
contraceptive research funding resulted in the development of the first hormonal
contraceptive pill in the late 1950s.
• She is considered one of the founders of Planned Parenthood.
2. Discuss some of the lifestyle issues that need to be taken into consideration when choosing
a method of contraception.
Responses should consider:
• Contraception refers to preventing conception, which occurs at the moment the ovum and
sperm cell join in the fallopian tube.
• Contraception is also about choice, allowing individuals to plan, when, or if, to conceive
and bear children.
• Not all contraception methods are equally appropriate for all sexual lifestyles and life
stages.
• Individuals should ask themselves some of the following questions:
- Am I engaging in sexual activities that involve any risk of pregnancy or the transmission of
STIs?
- Am I confident that I am in a one-on-one, exclusive relationship in which both of us are free
of diseases that may be sexually transmitted?
- How often do I engage in potentially risky sexual activities?
Do I have (or am I likely to have) more than one concurrent sexual partner?
- How seriously would an accidental pregnancy disrupt my life?
- Will the method I choose conflict with my religious beliefs?
- Do I need to be in charge of contraception, or can I trust my partner to take care of it?
- Do I feel comfortable with using this method of contraception?

• Answering the above questions will help an individual to determine exactly what features
he/she needs in a method of contraception.
3. What are male and female condoms? Discuss how both types of condoms work, how to use
them, and their advantages and disadvantages.
Responses should consider:
• A male condom is a think sheath of latex (rubber) or polyurethane (plastic) that is placed
over an erect penis prior to intercourse.
• Male condoms offer protection against pregnancy and STIs.
• They work by acting as a barrier to prevent semen from entering the vagina.
• They also prevent contact of skin with mucous membranes and the exchange of genital
fluids that can transmit STIs.
• There are four rules for their use:
1. Use latex or polyurethane condoms only.
2. Use lubricated condoms.
3. Use condoms with a reservoir tip (or nipple).
4. Don’t use condoms that have expired.
• To use a male condom correctly:
- Open the package carefully.
- Don’t test the condom by filling it with air or water.
- The condom should be placed on the erect penis before any contact between the penis the
partner’s genital area.
- To be sure which way the condom unrolls, place it over a finger and unroll it slightly.
- Pinch the end of the condom as you unroll it to leave a small amount of empty space at the
tip.
- Unroll the condom all the way to the base of the penis.
- Be sure there is adequate lubrication.
- If you are adding lubrication, do not use oil-based products; use only water-based products.
- If it feels as if the condom has broken off or slipped during intercourse, stop and check.
• Advantages of male condoms include:
- They are highly effective way of preventing conception and reducing STIs.
- They are widely available.
- They come with and without lubrication, with and without spermicide.

- They come in sizes, colors, textures.
• Disadvantages include:
- The Catholic Church doesn’t approve of their use, except in the case specific circumstances
for the prevention of HIV.
- Failure rates are typically due to incorrect use.
- Some say they interrupt or interfere with the flow and romance of making love.
- Some men claim that condoms significantly reduce sensitivity during intercourse or
interfere with erection.
• The female condom consists of a tube of thin polyurethane with a flexible ring at each end.
• During intercourse, the female condom stays inside the vagina and the penis moves within
it.
• After ejaculation, the condom must be removed by twisting the outside ring to trap semen
inside and gently pulling the condom out of the vagina.
• This should be done before the woman stands up to be sure none of the semen spills out of
the condom into or around the vaginal area.
• Each female condom should be used only once.
• Advantages include:
- Female condoms allow the woman to be in more control of contraception and preventing
STIs.
- They allow for greater spontaneity than male condoms because the female condom may be
inserted up to eight hours before intercourse.
- If used correctly, it may provide slightly greater protection from STIs than male condoms.
This is because the polyurethane material does not degrade with the use of oil-based
lubricants, and the shape of the external ring of the condom protects a wider area of skin
between the base of the penis and the vulva or anus during intercourse.
- If used correctly and consistently, female condoms are nearly as effective as male condoms.
• Disadvantages include:
- Female condoms cost somewhat more than male condoms, approximately $1 to $2 each.
- The typical-use conception failure rate is slighter higher for female condoms than for male
condoms. Errors in use include removing the condom incorrectly, allowing semen to spill out
in or near the vagina, or the penis may sometimes be inserted by mistake next to rather than
inside of the condom.
4. What are oral contraceptives? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this method of
contraception. Describe two types of oral contraceptives, how they work, and their
effectiveness.
Responses should consider:

• Oral contraceptives are also called birth control pills.
• Combination oral contraceptives contain both estrogen and progestin.
• The contraceptive effect on a woman taking these hormones is that her body’s normal
hormonal cycle is altered, and ovulation is prevented.
• Advantages include:
- They are very effective.
- There is no interruption of lovemaking.
- They are generally very safe.
- They often make menstrual cycles more regular and reduce or relieve symptoms of PMS
and menstrual cramps.
- They may reduce the length of the menstrual period, and the amount of bleeding.
• Disadvantages include:
- They do not protect against STIs.
- It’s easy to miss doses.
- Depending on where they are purchased, they can be relatively expensive.
- There is the possibility of spotting.
- There is the possibility of nausea.
- There are possible side effects; if experiencing any of the following, call a physician
immediately: ACHES
A – abdominal pain
C – chest pain (severe) with a cough or shortness of breath
H – headache (severe), dizziness, weakness, numbness
E – eye problems, vision, loss, blurring, slurred speech
S – severe leg pain
• One type is the minipill.
- It is a progestin-only pill, and has approximately the same low failure rate as the
combination (progestin and estrogen) pill.
- The main advantage is that it avoids some of the potentially negative side effects associated
with estrogen.
- A disadvantage is that many of the health benefits associated with the estrogen in the
combined pill are not present in the progestin-only pill.
- It interferes with ovulation.

- It also causes a thickening of the mucus secreted by the cervix, which sets up a barrier that
is very difficult for sperm to penetrate.
- If some sperm do get through, the lining of the uterus that develops to support a fertilized
egg is thinner in a woman taking the minipill, and is therefore less receptive to implantation
and pregnancy.
• Another type is the extended-dosage contraceptive pill, such as Seasonale.
- These pills provide a daily dose or hormones for 84 consecutive days, during which a
woman is protected against pregnancy and does not menstruate.
- After the 84 pills are taken, a woman then takes a placebo for 7 days, during which she will
typically have her period.
- A woman will only have four menstrual periods a year.
- Research has shown no dangers from menstrual suppression.
- Advantages include:
- These can be recommended by doctors for women with menstruation-related health
problems, and have been used by women themselves to delay or skip a period.
- Women who have especially painful period, heavy bleeding, cycle-related migraine
headaches, or other serious menstruation-related conditions may benefit from reducing the
annual number of periods.
- Disadvantages include:
- The most serious side effect was an increase in bleeding or spotting between periods.
- These extended-dosage contraceptive pills carry the same health risks as other combination
pills with similar formulations.
5. Discuss one future method of birth control for men and one future method of birth control
for women. Explain how these methods could work to prevent pregnancy.
Responses should consider:
• A future method of birth control for men is:
- A male hormonal contraceptive.
- This is under investigation in many countries worldwide.
- If it’s brought to the marketplace, it will probably be in the form of an injection, an implant,
or a patch.
- In 2008, a pharmaceutical company in China developed a type of injectable testosterone that
was 99% effective in preventing pregnancy by suppressing the production of sperm to
infertile levels within six months.
- Upon discontinuation of the treatment, nearly all the men’s sperm levels returned to normal
fertility levels within four months.

- Some researchers say that a male hormonal method of contraception could become widely
available by 2020.
• A future method of birth control for women is:
- Antimicrobial, spermicidal gels that are applied vaginally.
- They are designed to stop sperm dead in their tracks and block most of the pathogens that
cause STIs such as HIV, genital herpes, genital warts, gonorrhea, and syphilis.
- One brand name is BufferGel, which did not offer significant protection from HIV
- BufferGel has been shown to be an effective spermicide for use with the diaphragm.

Test Bank for Human Sexuality
Roger R. Hock
ISBN's: 9780205989409, 9780133971385, 9780134224961

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